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GENERIC NAME: To treat complicated Penetrates cell (1g + 90 cc Hypersensitivity to CNS: seizures =Monitor patient
MERREM I.V. infections caused by walls of most gram PNSS) meropenem, other GI:constipation, closely for diarrhoea,
Staphylococcus negative and gram- carbapenem drugs, diarrhoea, nausea, which may indicate
CHEMICAL CLASS: aureus, positive bacteria, beta lactams, or their vomiting pseudomembranous
CARBAPENEM Streptococcus inactivating components GU: Elevated BUN Colitis caused by
agalactiae, Penicillin-binding and serum Clostridium difficile. If
THERAPEUTIC Streptococcus proteins. This creatinine levels, diarrhoea occurs,
CLASS: pyogenes, viridans action inhibits haematuria, renal notify prescriber and
ANTIBIOTIC group streptococci, bacterial cell wall failure expect to withhold
Enterococcus synthesis and HEME: meropenem and treat
PREGNANCY faecalis (excluding causes cell death. Agranulocytosis, with fluids,
CATEGORY: B vancomycin-resistant haemolytic , electrolytes, protein,
isolates), leukopenia, and an antibiotic
Pseudomonas neutropenia, effective against C.
aeruginosa, positive Coombs’ difficile.
Escherichia coli, test =Monitor patient with
Proteus mirabilis, RESP: Apnea, creatinine clearance
Bacteroides fragilis, dyspnea of 10 to 26 ml/ min/
and SKIN: erythema 1.73 m2 for signs and
Peptostreptococcus multiform, pruritus, symptoms of
species rash, seizures, heart
toxic epidermal failure, renal failure,
necrolysis or shock.


GENERIC NAME: To treat infection in Inhibits the 750mg/tab Don’t administer CNS: cerebral =Monitor patient
CIPROFLOXACIN respiratory tract, enzyme DNA q12° parenteral thrombosis, closely for diarrhoea.
middle ear, sinuses, gyrase, which is ciprofloxacin peripheral neuropathy, If it occurs, notify and
CHEMICAL CLASS: eyes, kidneys &/or responsible for the with aminophylline, restlessness, seizures, Expect to withhold
UTI, genital organs unwinding and amoxicillin, cefepime, CV: Angina, atrial drug and treat
FLUOROQUINOLONE (including supercoiling of clindamycin, flutter,cardiopulmonary diarrhoea.
DERIVATIVE gonorrhoea), bacterial DNA dexamethasone, arrest, cardiovascular =Assess patient for
abdominal cavity before it floxacillin, collapse,hypertension, evidence of
THERAPEUTIC ( bacterial infection replicates. Furosemide, heparin, MI, palpitations, peripheral
CLASS: ANTIBIOTIC of the GIT, biliary By inhibiting this or phenytoin. tachycardia, Neuropathy.
tract, peritonitis), enzyme, EENT: Oral candidiasis =Advise patient to
PREGNANCY skin & soft tissues, ciprofloxacin GI: constipation, take ciprofloxacin
CATEGORY: C bones & joints, Causes bacterial diarrhoea, nausea, 2 hours before or 6
septicaemia, cells to die. vomiting hours after antacids,
infections in GU: haematuria, iron supplements, or
patients with increased serum multivitamins that
reduced host creatinine level, renal contain iron or zinc.
defences, selective failure, urine retention, =Advise patient to
gut HEME: Agranulocytosis, notify prescriber
decontamination. bone marrow depression, about
hemolytic anemia, changes in limb
lymphadenopathy, sensation or
pancytopenia movement
SKIN: Erythema and about
photosensitivity, rash, inflammation, pain, or
urticaria swelling
RESP: Bronchospasm, over a joint.
respiratory arrest
GENERIC NAME: To treat serious Inhibits protein 300mg/cap q8° don’t administer with CV: Hypotension, =Assess patient’s
CLINDAMYCIN respiratory tract synthesis in aminophylline, EENT: stomatitis bowel pattern daily;
infections caused by susceptible ampicillin, GI: Abdominal severe diarrhoea
CLASS AND anaerobes such as bacteria by binding barbiturates, pain, diarrhoea, Caused by Clostridium
CATEGORY occur with to the 50S subunits Calcium gluconate, nausea, , difficile.
anaerobic of bacterial magnesium sulfate, or vomiting. =Tell patient to
CHEMICAL CLASS: pneumonitis, ribosomes and phenytoin. HEME: complete the
LINCOSAMIDE empyema, and lung preventing peptide Agranulocytosis, prescribed Course of
THERAPEUTIC abscess and those bond formation, eosinophilia, therapy, even if he
caused by which causes leukopenia, feels better before it’s
CLASS: pneumococci, bacterial cells to neutropenia, finished.
ANTIBACTERIAL staphylococci, and die. thrombocytopenic =Instruct patient to take
AND streptococci; purpura oral clindamycin
ANTIPROTOZOAL serious skin and SKIN: Pruritus, with at least 8 oz. of
ANTIBIOTIC soft-tissue infections rash, urticaria water to prevent
caused by Esophageal irritation.
PREGNANCY anaerobes, =Advise patient to take
CATEGORY: B staphylococci, and oral drug with food, if
streptococci; needed, to reduce GI
septicaemia caused distress.
by anaerobes; bone =If patient will use
and joint infections topical foam, tell him to
caused by wash affected area
Staphylococcus with mild soap, let it dry
aureus; as adjunct fully, and then apply
therapy in chronic foam to entire area.
bone and joint Caution against
infections dispensing foam
directly onto hands or
face because foam will
melt when it contacts
warm skin.
GENERIC: Alone or with Binds to dihydropyridine 10mg/Tab Hypersensitivity to CNS: Anxiety, Monitor blood
AMLODIPINE agents in the and non dihydropyridine TABLETS amlodipine or its dizziness, fatigue, pressure while
management of cell membrane receptor Adults. Initial: 5 components headache, adjusting
CHEMICAL CLASS: hypertension, sites on mg daily, lethargy, light- dosage, especially
DIHYDROPYRIDINE angina pectoris, myocardial and vascular increased headedness, in patients with heart
and vasospastis smooth-muscle cells and gradually over paraesthesia, failure or severe
THERAPEUTIC (Prinzmetal’s) inhibits influx of 10 to 14 days, as somnolence, aortic stenosis.
CLASS: angina extracellular calcium needed. syncope, tremor • Tell patient to take
ANTIANGINAL, Ions across slow calcium Maximum: 10 CV: Arrhythmias, missed dose as
ANTIHYPERTENSIVE channels. mg daily. hypotension, soon as
This decreases DOSAGE palpitations, remembered and
PREGNANCY intracellular calcium level, ADJUSTMENT peripheral Edema next dose in 24
CATEGORY: C inhibiting smooth-muscle Initially 2.5 mg EENT: Dry mouth, hours.
cell contractions and daily for elderly pharyngitis •Tell patient to
relaxing coronary and patients or ENDO: Hot flashes immediately notify
vascular smooth muscles, patients with GI: Abdominal prescriber of
decreasing peripheral Impaired hepatic cramps, abdominal dizziness, arm or leg
vascular function. pain, constipation, swelling, difficulty
resistance, and reducing Increased diarrhea, breathing, hives, or
systolic and diastolic gradually over 7 esophagitis, rash.
Blood pressure. to 14 days based indigestion, nausea •Suggest taking
Decreased peripheral on response. GU: Decreased amlodipine with food
vascular resistance also libido, impotence, to reduce GI upset.
decreases myocardial urinary frequency •Advise patient to
workload, oxygen MS:Myalgia routinely have blood
demand, and possibly RESP: Dyspnea pressure checked
angina. Also, by inhibiting SKIN: Dermatitis, for possible
coronary artery muscle flushing, rash hypotension.
cell contractions and Other:Weight loss
restoring blood flow, drug
may relieve
Prinzmetal’s angina.


GENERIC: Prophylaxis of Blocks the activity of Adults and Allergy to tartrazine CNS: Confusion, • Don’t crush timed-
ASPIRIN thromboembolic cyclooxygenase, the adolescents. 5 dye, asthma, bleeding CNS depression release or controlled
(ACETYLSALICYLIC disorders in Enzyme needed for to 8 g daily in problems (such as EENT: Hearing release aspirin tablets
ACID, preventing MI & prostaglandin synthesis. divided doses. haemophilia), loss, tinnitus unless directed.
ASA) transient Prostaglandins, important hypersensitivity to GI: Diarrhea, GI • Ask about tinnitus.
ischemic attacks. mediators in the aspirin or its bleeding,heartburn, This reaction usually
CLASS AND Quick relief of inflammatory response, components, peptic hepatotoxicity, occurs when blood
CATEGORY headaches, cause local vasodilation ulcer disease. nausea, stomach aspirin level reaches
toothache, With swelling and pain. With pain, vomiting or exceeds maximum
CHEMICAL CLASS: neuralgia, blocking of cyclooxygenase HEME: Decreased for therapeutic effect.
SALICYLATE rheumatism, and inhibition of blood iron level, • Advise adult patient
THERAPEUTIC muscular pains, Prostaglandins, leukopenia, taking low-dose
periodic pains, & inflammatory symptoms prolonged bleeding aspirin not to also
CLASS: ANTI- reduce fever and Subside. Pain is also time, shortened take ibuprofen
INFLAMMATORY, discomfort in relieved because life span of RBCs, because it may
ANTIPLATELET, colds and flu. prostaglandins play a role in thrombocytopenia reduce the cardio
ANTIPYRETIC, pain transmission From the SKIN: Ecchymosis, protective and
NONOPIOID periphery to the spinal cord. rash, urticaria Stroke preventive
ANALGESIC Aspirin inhibits platelet CNS: depression, effects of aspirin.
aggregation by interfering diaphoresis, • Instruct patient to
PREGNANCY with production of headache, take aspirin with food
CATEGORY: D thromboxane A2, a hyperventilation, or after meals
substance that stimulates and lassitude) with because it may cause
platelet Aggregation. Aspirin regular use of large GI upset if taken on
acts on the heat regulating doses an empty stomach.
centre in the hypothalamus • Advise patient with
and causes peripheral tartrazine allergy not
vasodilation, diaphoresis, To take aspirin..
and heat loss.

GENERIC: To control Reduces cardiac 6.25mg/Tab Asthma or related CNS: Asthenia, Monitor patient’s blood
CARVEDILOL hypertension, output and bronchospastic depression, dizziness, glucose level, as
CHF (ischemic tachycardia, TABLETS conditions; fatigue, fever, headache, ordered, during carvedilol
Class and or causes Adults. 6.25 cardiogenic shock; hypesthesia, hypotonia, therapy because drug may
Category cardiomyopathic vasodilation, and mg b.i.d. for 7 decompensated heart insomnia, light- alter blood glucose level.
Chemical class: ) with digoxin, decreases to 14 days, if failure that requires headedness, malaise, • If patient has heart failure,
Nonselective diuretics, and peripheral tolerated. Then I.V. inotropics; history paresthesia, somnolence, expect to also give digoxin,
beta-adrenergic ACE inhibitors, vascular dosage of serious stroke, syncope, vertigo a diuretic, and an ACE
blocker with Left ventricular resistance, which increased to hypersensitivity CV: Angina, AV block, inhibitor.
alpha1-adrenergic dysfunction after reduces blood 12.5 mg b.i.d. reactions, such as bradycardia, edema, • Instruct patient prescribed
blocking myocardial pressure and for 7 to 14 anaphylaxis, heart failure, extended release capsules
activity infarction. cardiac workload. days, and up angioedema, or hypertension, to swallow them whole. If
When given for to 25 mg, if Stevens-Johnson hypertriglyceridemia, swallowing capsules is
Therapeutic class: at least 4 weeks, tolerated and syndrome; orthostatic hypotension, difficult, tell patient he may
Antihypertensive, carvedilol needed. hypersensitivity palpitations, open capsule and sprinkle
heart reduces plasma Maximum: 50 to carvedilol or its peripheral vascular beads on a spoonful of cold
failure treatment renin activity. mg daily. components; second- disorder applesauce and then eat
adjunct or third-degree AV EENT: Blurred vision, dry the applesauce
block, severe eyes, periodontitis, immediately without
Pregnancy bradycardia or hepatic pharyngitis, rhinitis chewing.
category: C impairment, or sick ENDO: Hyperglycemia, •Warn patient that drug
sinus syndrome hypoglycemia may cause orthostatic
unless pacemaker is GI: Abdominal pain, hypotension, light-
in place diarrhea, elevated liver headedness, and dizziness;
function test results, advise him to take
melena, nausea, vomiting precautions.
GU: Albuminuria, • Tell patient with heart
hematuria, elevated failure to notify prescriber if
BUN and creatinine he gains 5 lb or more in
levels, impotence, renal 2 days or if shortness of
insufficiency, UTI breath increases, which
HEME: Aplastic anemia, may signal worsening heart
decreased PT, failure.
thrombocytopenia, • Alert patient with diabetes
unusual bleeding or to monitor his glycemic
bruising control closely because
MS: Arthralgia, arthritis, drug may increase blood
back pain, muscle glucose level or mask
cramps symptoms of hypoglycemia.
RESP: Dyspnea, • Stress the need to seek
increased cough emergency care if patient
SKIN: Jaundice, pruritus, develops hives or swelling
purpura, urticaria of the face, lips, tongue, or
Other: Anaphylaxis, throat that causes trouble
angioedema, fluid swallowing or breathing.
overload, gout,
hypovolemia, viral
infection, weight gain or
GENERIC: To treat  A broad-spectrum 15 mL swished and Do not use skin rash, generalized • Discuss specific
CHLORHEXIDINE gingivitis, biocide effective gargled or applied chlorhexidine if you swelling, breathing use of drug and side
SWAB redness and against Gram-positive to intubated have a known to be difficulties, light effects with patient
swelling of bacteria, Gram- patients by hypersensitive to headedness, rapid heart as it relates to
CLASSIFICATION: gums, and to negative bacteria and swabbing the oral chlorhexidine rate, upset stomach, treatment.
Anti-infective and control gum fungi. inactivates cavity (buccal, gluconate or other diarrhoea •Have patient report
antiseptics for bleeding. It is microorganisms with a pharyngeal, formula ingredients. Gastrointestinal: immediately to
local oral also used to broader spectrum gingival, tongue, Toothache prescriber severe
treatment help treat than other and tooth surfaces) Respiratory: Upper gingival pain or
peridontitis, or antimicrobials (e.g. for 30 seconds respiratory tract edema or burning or
PREGNANCY: gum disease. antibiotics) and has a twice daily. Initiate infection, sinusitis tingling in the mouth
category B quicker kill rate than preoperatively and Gastrointestinal: (HCAHPS).
other antimicrobials continue Gingival hyperplasia, • Educate patient
(e.g. povidone- postoperatively for aphthous stomatitis about signs of a
iodine).1 It has both 10 days or until Neuromuscular & significant reaction
bacteriostatic (inhibits extubation.  skeletal: Arthritis, (eg, wheezing; chest
bacterial growth) and tendonitis Respiratory: tightness; fever;
bactericidal (kills Bronchitis, pharyngitis itching; bad cough;
bacteria) mechanisms Dermatologic: Cellulitis blue skin color;
of action, depending Gastrointestinal: seizures; or swelling
on its concentration. Dental discoloration of face, lips, tongue,
kills by disrupting the (with oral rinse), dental or throat). Note: This
cell discomfort, increased is not a
membrane.22 Upon tartar formation, mouth comprehensive list
application in vitro, discoloration of all side effects.
chlorhexidine can kill
nearly 100% of Gram-
positive and Gram-
negative bacteria
within 30 seconds.

GENERIC: To treat impetigo Mupirocin is Apply to affected areas Hypersensitivity to DERM: burning, Assess lesions
MUPIROCIN To treat bacteriostatic at low t.i.d. for 1 to 2 wk. mupirocin or itching, pain, before and daily
secondary concentrations and Apply thin film and cover polyethylene glycol. stinging. during therapy.
CLASSIFICATION: infections of bactericidal at high with an occlusive Instruct patient on
Antibacterials, traumatic skin concentrations. Bacterial dressing t.i.d. for 10 the correct
Topical lesions due to protein and RNA days. application of
Anti-infective Staphylococcus synthesis are inhibited Apply half of the contents mupirocin.
aureus and when mupirocin of a unit-dose tube to Advise patient to
Pregnancy Streptococcus reversibly binds to each nostril apply medication
Category: B pyogenes. To bacterial isoleucyl-tRNA b.i.d. for 5 days. exactly as
synthetase. This enzyme directedfor the full
eradicate nasal
normally promotes the Topical dosage course of therapy.
colonization of
conversion of isoleucine (ointment) Adults, If a dose is
methicillin- and tRNA to isoleucyl- Children, and Infants 2 missed, apply as
resistant tRNA. The epoxide side months and older soon as possible
S. aureus chain of mupirocin is unless almost time
Apply a small amount to
similar to isoleucine and the affected area(s) 3 for next dose,
competes with it for Avoid contact with
times daily. The area(s)
binding sites on the eyes.
synthetase enzyme. The may be covered with a Teach patient and
cellular concentration of sterile gauze dressing. family appropriate
isoleucyl-tRNA becomes Therapy is usually hygiene measures
depleted, subsequently continued for 1 to 2 to prevent spread
inhibiting bacterial of impetigo.
weeks. If a response is
protein and RNA Patienty should
synthesis. Unlike many not evident within 3 to 5 consult health care
other antibiotics, days, the infection professional if
mupirocin has little effect should be reevaluated. symptoms have
on bacterial DNA not improved in 3-
synthesis and cell wall 5 days.
peptidoglycan formation.

Name of Drug Indication Mechanism of Dosage and Contraindication Nursing Consideration Adverse Reactions
Action Route
Generic To manage type Insulin glargine -contraindicated during =Alert: Don’t give I.V. Metabolic:
Name: 1 (insulin- lowers glucose hypoglycemic episodes Because of prolonged duration, hypoglycemia.
INSULIN dependent) level by stimulating and in patients this isn’t the insulin of choice for Skin: lipodystrophy,
GLARGINE diabetes in peripheral glucose hypersensitive to drug diabetic ketoacidosis. pruritus, rash.
patients who uptake, especially or its components. =The rate of absorption, onset, Other: allergic
Pharmacologi need basal (long- by skeletal muscle -use cautiously in and duration of action may be reactions, pain at
c Class: acting) insulin to and fat, and by patients with renal or affected by exercise and other injection site.
Antidiabetics, control inhibiting hepatic hepatic impairment. variables, such as illness and
Insulins hyperglycemia glucose production. emotional stress.
To manage type =Alert: Insulin glargine must not
Pregnancy: C 2 (non-insulin- be diluted or mixed with any
dependent) other insulin or solution.
diabetes in =As with any insulin therapy,
patients who lipodystrophy may occur at the
need basal (long- injection site and delay insulin
acting) insulin to absorption. Reduce this risk by
control rotating the injection site with
hyperglycemia each injection.
=Hypoglycemia is the most
common adverse effect of
insulin. Early symptoms may be
different or less pronounced in
patients with long duration of
diabetes, diabetic nerve
disease, or intensified diabetes
control. =Monitor glucose level
closely in these patients
because severe hypoglycemia
may result before the patient
develops symptoms.
Name of Drug Indication Mechanism Dosage Contraindication Nursing Consideration Adverse Reactions
of Action and Route
Generic Name: -Acute A potent drug Initial =Contraindicated =To prevent nocturia, give CNS: vertigo, headache, dizziness,
Furosemide pulmonary that inhibits Dosage: in patients P.O. and I.M. preparations paresthesia, weakness, restlessness,
edema sodium and 40mg hypersensitivity to in the morning. Give second fever.
Pharmacologic -edema chloride Route: IV drug and in those dose in early afternoon. CV: orthostatic hypotension,
Class: loop diuretic -hypertension reabsorption with anuria. =Alert: monitor weigh, blood thrombophlebitis with I.V.
at the =Use cautiously pressure, and pulse rate administration.
Pregnancy: C proximal and in patients with routinely with long term use EENT: transient deafness, blurred or
distal tubules hepatic cirrhosis and during rapid diuresis. yellowed vision, tinnitus.
and the and in those Use can lead to profound GI: abdominal discomfort and pain,
ascending allergic to water and electrolyte diarrhea, anorexia, nausea, vomiting,
loop of henle. sulfonamides. depletion. constipation, pancreatitis.
Use during =If oliguria or azotemia GU: nocturia, polyuria, frequent
pregnancy only if develops or increases, drug urination, oliguria.
potential benefits may need to be stopped. Hematologic: agranulocytosis, aplastic
to mother clearly =Monitor fluid intake and anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia,
outweigh risk to output and electrolyte, BUN, azotemia, anemia.
fetus. and carbon dioxide levels Hepatic: hepatic dysfunction, jaundice.
frequently. Metabolic: volume depletion and
=Watch for signs of dehydration, asymptomatic
hypokalemia, such as hyperuricemia, impaired glucose
muscle weakness, and tolerance, hypokalemia, hypochloremic
cramps. alkalosis, hyperglycemia, dilutional
=Monitor glucose level in hyponatremia, hypocalcemia,
diabetic patients. hypomagnesemia.
=Monitor uric acid level, Musculoskeletal: muscle spasm.
especially in patients with a Skin: dermatitis, purpura,
history of gout. photosensitivity to reactions, transient
pain at I.M. injection site.
Drug Name Indication Mechanism of Dosage and Contraindication Adverse Reactions Nursing Considerations
Action Route
Generic Name: =To prevent or reduce Stimulates 10mg IV Contraindicated to CNS: anxiety, =Monitor bowel sounds.
Metoclopramide nausea and vomiting motility of upper in patients drowsiness, dystonic =Safety and effectiveness
from emetogenic cancer GI tract, hypersensitive to reactions, fatigue, of drug haven’t been
Pharmacologic chemotherapy increases lower drug and in those lassitude, restlessness, established foe therapy
class: =To prevent or reduce esophageal with neuroleptic malignant lasting longer than 12
dopamine postoperative nausea sphincter tone, pheochromocytoma syndrome, seizures, weeks.
antagonist and vomiting. and blocks or seizure disorder. suicide ideation, =Alert: use 25 mg
=Delayed gastric dopamine Contraindicated to akathisia, confusion, diphenhydramine I.V. to
Pregnancy: B emptying secondary to receptors at the patients for whom depression, dizziness, counteract extrapyramidal
diabetic gastroparesis. chemoreceptore stimulation of GI extrapyramidal adverse effects from high
=Gastroesophageal trigger zone. motility might be symptoms, fever, doses.
reflux disease. dangerous (those hallucinations,
=Emesis during with hemorrhage, headache, insomnia,
pregnancy obstruction or tardive dyskinesia.
perforation). CV: bradycardia,
Use cautiously in supraventricular
patients with history tachycardia,
of depression, hypotension, transient
Parkinson disease, hypertension.
or hypertension. GI: bowel disorders,
diarrhea, nausea.

Drug Name Indication Mechanism of Dosage and Contraindication Adverse Reactions Nursing Consideration
Action Route
Generic Name: =Secondary Promotes renal Initial dose: =Contraindicated in CNS: seizures, =Cross-sensitivity between
Acetazolamide glaucoma; excretion of 25mg/tab patients drowsiness, bacterial sulfonamides and
preoperative sodium, hypersensitive to paresthesia, confusion, sulfonamide-derivative
Pharmacologic treatment of acute potassium, drug and in those depression, weakness, diuretics such as
class: carbonic angle-closure bicarbonate, with hyponatremia ataxia. acetazolamide has been
anhydrase glaucoma. and water. As and hypokalemia, EENT: transient reported.
inhibitor =Chronic open- anticonvulsant, renal or hepatic myopia, hearing =If patient can’t swallow oral
angle glaucoma. drug normalizes disease or dysfunction, tinnitus. form, pharmacist may make a
Pregnancy: C =To prevent or treat neuronal dysfunction, renal GI: nausea, vomiting, suspension using crushed
acute mountain discharge. In calculi, adrenal gland anorexia, metallic taste, tablets in a highly flavored
sickness. mountain failure, diarrhea, black tarry syrup such as cherry,
=Adjunct for sickness, drug hyperchloremic stools, constipation. raspberry, or chocolate.
epilepsy and stimulates acidosis. GU: polyuria, =I.M. injection is painful
myoclonic, ventilation and =Contraindicated in hematuria, crystalluria, because of the highly alkaline
refractory, increases those receiving long glycosuria, ph. Don’t use I.M.
generalized tonic- cerebral blood term treatment for phosphaturia, renal =Monitor fluid intake and
clonic, absence, or flow; also chronic non- calculus. output, glucose and
mixed seizures. reduces IOP. congestive angle- Hematologic: aplastic electrolytes, especially
closure glaucoma. anemia, leukopenia, potassium, bicarbonate and
=Use cautiously in hemolytic anemia. chloride.
patients receiving Metabolic: =When drug is used in
other diuretics and in hypokalemia, diuretics therapy, consult
those with respiratory asymptomatic prescriber and dietitian about
acidosis or COPD. hyperuricemia, providing a high-potassium
hyperchloremic diet.
acidosis. =Monitor elderly patients
Skin: pain at injection closely because they are
site, Stevens-Johnson especially susceptible to
syndrome, rash, excessive diuresis.
urticarial. =Weigh patient daily. Rapid or
Other: sterile excessive loss may cause
abcesses. weight loss and hypotension.
Drug Name Indication Mechanism of Dosage and Contraindications Adverse Reactions Nursing Considerations
Action Route
Generic Name: =Intra-abdominal, Inhibits cell-wall Initial dose: 3g =Contraindicated in CV: =Before giving drug, ask patient
Ampicillin- gynecologic, and synthesis during Route: IV patients hypersensitive thrombophlebitis, about allergic reactions to
Sulbactam skin structure bacterial to drug or other vein irritation. penicillin although a negative
infections caused multiplication. penicillins. GI: diarrhea, history of penicillin allergy is no
Pharmacologic by susceptible =Use cautiously in nausea, guarantee against future allergic
class: strains. patients with other pseudomembranou reaction. Also, obtain specimen
aminopenicillin drug allergies s colitis, vomiting, for culture and sensitivity tests.
and beta- (especially to glossitis, stomatitis, Therapy may begin pending
lactamase cephalosporins) gastritis, black hairy results.
inhibitor because of possible tongue, =Dosage is expressed as total
sensitivity, and in enterocolitis. drug. Each 1.5g vial contains 1g
Pregnancy: B those with Hematologic: ampicillin sodium and 0.5g
mononucleosis agranuulocytiosis, sulbactam sodium.
because of high risk of leukopenia, =In patients with impaired renal
maculopapular rash. thrombocytopenia, function, decrease dosage.
thrombocytopenic =In children, don’t use I.M. route.
purpura, anemia, =Monitor liver function test
eosinophilia. results during therapy, especially
Skin: pain at in patients with impaired liver
injection site. functions.
overgrowth of non-

Drug Name Indications Mechanism Dosage and Contraindications Adverse Reactions Nursing Considerations
of Actions Route
Generic name: =Complicated Inhibits 75mg/tab =Contraindicated in CNS: seizures, confusion, =Obtain specimen for culture
Ciprofloxacin intra-abdominal bacterial patients sensitive depression, dizziness, and sensitivity tests before
infection DNA to drowsiness, fatigue, giving first dose. Begin
Pharmacologic =Severe or synthesis, fluoroquinolones. hallucinations, headache, therapy, awaiting results.
class: complicated bone mainly by =Use cautiously in insomnia, light headedness, =Some drugs require waiting
fluoroquinolone or join infection, blocking DNA patients with CNS paresthesia, restlessness, tremor. up to 6 hours after giving this
severe respiratory gyrase, disorders, such as CV: chest pain, edema, drug to avoid decreasing its
Pregnancy: C tract infection, bactericidal. severe cerebral thrombophlebitis. effects. Food doesn’t affect
severe skin or skin arteriosclerosis or GI: pseudomembranous colitis, absorption but may delay
structure infection. seizures disorders, diarrhea, nausea, abdominal pain peak level.
=Severe or and in those at risk and discomfort, constipation, =Monitor patient’s intake and
complicated UTI: for seizures. Drug dyspepsia, flatulence, oral output and observe patient
mild to moderate may cause CNS candidiasis, vomiting. for signs of crystalluria.
bone or joint stimulation. GU: crystalluria, interstitial =Tendon rupture may occur
infection; mild to =Drug is nephritis. in patients receiving
moderate associated with Hematologic: leukopenia, quinolones. If pain or
respiratory increased risk of neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, inflammation occurs or if
infection; mild to adverse reactions eosinophilia. patient ruptures a tendon,
moderate skin or involving joints, Musculoskeletal: aching, stop drug.
skin structure tendons, and arthralgia, arthropathy, joint =Additional antimicrobials for
infection; infectious surrounding tissues inflammation, joint or back pain, anthrax multidrug regimens
diarrhea; typhoid in children younger joint stiffness, neck pain, tendon can include rifampin,
fever. than age 18. rupture. vancomycin, penicillin,
=Complicated UTI Skin: rash, Stevens-Johnson ampicillin, chloramphenicol,
or pyelonephritis. syndrome, toxic epidermal imipenem, clindamycin, and
necrolysis, burning erythema, clarithromycin.
exfoliative dermatitis, =Steroids may be used as
photosensitivity, pruritus. adjunctive therapy for anthrax
Other: hypersensitivity reactions. patients with severe edema
and for meningitis.

Drug Name Indication Mechanism of Dosage and Contraindication Adverse Reactions Nursing
Action Route Considerations
Generic Name: =Simple and Unknown. Initial dose: =Contraindicated CNS: asthenia, dizziness, =Obtain liver function
Valproic acid complex Probably 500mg/tab patients headache, insomnia, test results, platelet
absence facilitates the hypersensitive to nervousness, somnolence, count, and PT and INR
Pharmacologic seizures, mixed effects of the drug and in those tremor, abnormal thinking, before starting therapy,
class: seizure types inhibitory with hepatic disease amnesia, ataxia, depression, and monitor these values
carboxylic acid (including neurotransmitter or significant hepatic emotional upset, fever. periodically.
derivative absence seizure) GABA. dysfunction, and in CV: chest pain, edema, =Don’t give syrup to
=Complex partial patients with a urea hypertension, hypotension, patients who need
Pregnancy: D seizure cycle disorder (UCD). tachycardia. sodium restriction. Check
=Mania =Safety and efficacy EENT: blurred vision, diplopia, with prescriber.
=To prevent of Depakote ER in nystagmus, pharyngitis, rhinitis, =Adverse reaction may
migraine children younger tinnitus. not be caused by
headache than age 10 haven’t GI: abdominal pain, anorexia, valproic acid alone
been established. diarrhea, dyspepsia, nausea, because it’s usually used
vomiting, pancreatitis, with other anticonvulsant.
constipation, increased appetite. =Alert: fatal hepatoxicity
Hematologic: bone marrow may follow nonspecific
suppression, hemorrhage, symptoms, such as
thrombocytopenia, bruising, malaise, fever and
petechiae. lethargy. If these
Hepatic: hepatotoxicity. symptoms occur during
Metabolic: hyperammonemia, therapy, notify prescriber
weight gain or loss. at once because patient
Musculoskeletal: back and who might be developing
neck pain. hepatic dysfunction must
Respiratory: bronchitis, stop taking drug.
dyspnea. =Notify prescriber if
Skin: alopecia, flu syndrome, tremors occur; a dosage
infection, erythema multiforme, reduction may be
hypersensitivity reactions, needed.
Stevens-Johnson syndrome,
rash, photosensitivity, pruritus.
Drug Name Indication Mechanism of Dosage and Contraindication Adverse Nursing Considerations
Action Route Reactions
Generic Name: =To prevent pulmonary A low Initial dose: =Contraindicated in CNS: fever, =The vascular access sheath
Enoxaparin embolism and deep vein molecular 0.6ml Route: patients hypersensitive to pain. for instrumentation should
thrombosis (DVT) after hip weight heparin IV now then drug, heparin or pork CV: edema, remain in place for 6 to 8
Pharmacologic or knee replacement derivative that 0.6ml SQ in 5 products; in those with peripheral hours after a dose; give next
class: surgery. accelerates dose, active major bleeding; and edema. dose no sooner than 6 to 8
anticoagulant, =To prevent pulmonary formation of Frequency: in those with GI: nausea. hours after sheath removal.
low-molecular embolism and DVT after anti-thrombin OD thrombocytopenia and Hematologic: Monitor vital signs.
weight heparin abdominal surgery. III- thrombin anti-platelet antibodies in thrombocytopeni =Monitor pregnant women
=To prevent pulmonary complex and presence of drug. a, hemorrhage, closely. Warn pregnant
Pregnancy: B embolism and DVT in deactivates =Use cautiously in ecchymoses, women and women of
patients with acute illness thrombin, patients with history of bleeding childbearing age about the
who are at increased risk preventing heparin-induced complications, potential risk of therapy to her
because of decrease conversion of thrombocytopenia, hypochromic and the fetus.
mobility. fibrinogen, to aneurysms, anemia. =Alert: patients who receive
=To prevent ischemic fibrin. Has a cerebrovascular Skin: irritation, epidural or spinal anesthesia
complications of unstable higher hemorrhage, spinal or pain, during therapy are at
angina and non-ST- antifactor-Xa- epidural punctures ( as hematoma, and increased risk for developing
elevation MI with oral to-antifactor-IIa with anesthesia), erythema at an epidural or spinal
aspirin therapy. activity ratio uncontrolled hypertension, injection site, hematoma, which may result
=Inpatient treatment of than heparin. or threaten abortion. rash, urticarial. in long term or permanent
acute DVT with and =Use cautiously in Other: paralysis. Monitor for these
without pulmonary patients with prosthetic angioedema, patients closely for neurologic
embolism when given with heart valves, with regional anaphylaxis. impairment.
warfarin sodium. or lumbar block =Never give drug I.M.
=Outpatient treatment of anesthesia, blood =With patient lying down,
acute DVT without dyscrasias, recent give by deep subcutaneous
pulmonary embolism when childbirth, pericarditis or injection, alternating between
given with warfarin pericardial effusion, renal left and right anterolateral
sodium. insufficiency, or severe and posterolateral abdominal
CNS trauma. walls.
Drug Name Indications Mechanism of Dosage and Contraindication Adverse Reactions Nursing Considerations
Action Route
Generic Name: =Management of Acts as a Initial dose: =Known CNS: Headache, =Assess for nausea,
Domperidone symptoms associated gastrointestinal 10mg hypersensitivity/intoleran insomnia. vomiting, abdominal
with GI motility emptying ce. GI: dry mouth. distention, and bowel
Pharmacologic disorders including (delayed) =Concurrent use of GU: amenorrhea, sounds before and after
class: Anti- subacute/chronic adjunct and ketoconazole; impotence. administration.
Emetic gastritis and diabetic peristaltic =Prolactinoma; Derm: hot flushes, =Monitor BP (sitting,
gastroparesis. stimulant. The =Conditions where GI rash. standing, lying down) and
=Treatment of gastroprokinetic stimulation is dangerous Endo: galactorrhea, pulse before and
nausea/vomiting properties of including GI gynecomastia, periodically during therapy.
associated with domperidone hemorrhage/mechanical hyperprolactinemia. May cause prolonged QT
dopamine agonist anti- are related to its obstruction/perforation; interval, tachycardia, and
parkinson therapy. peripheral =Lactation: breast orthostatic hypotension,
dopamine feeding is not especially in patients older
receptor recommended unless than 60 years or taking >30
blocking potential benefits mg/day.
properties. outweigh potential risks.
Drug Name Indications Mechanism of Dosage and Contraindications Adverse Nursing Considerations
Actions Route Reactions
Generic Name: =Expansion of =Provides =Contraindicated in CNS: headache. =Monitor vital signs, CVP, and intake and
Human Albumin plasma volume colloidal oncotic allergic reactions to CV: pulmonary output before and frequently throughout
and pressure, which albumin; severe edema, fluid therapy. If ever, tachycardia, or hypotension
Pharmacologic maintenance of serves to anemia; CHF; overload, occurs, stop infusion and notify physician
class: blood cardiac output in mobilize fluid normal or hypertension, immediately. Antihistamines may be
products, situations from increased hypotension, required to suppress this hypersensitivity
colloids associated with extravascular intravascular tachycardia. response. Hypotension may also result from
fluid volume tissues back volume. GI: increase infusing to rapidly. May be given without
Pregnancy deficit, including into the =Use cautiously in salivation, regard to patient’s blood group.
Category: C shock, intravascular severe hepatic or nausea, vomiting. =Assess for signs of vascular overload
hemorrhage and space. Requires renal disease; Derm: rash, (elevated CVP, rales/crackles, dyspnea,
burns. concurrent dehydration urticaria. hypertension, jugular venous distention)
Temporary administrations (additional fluids MS: back pain during and after administration.
replacement of of appropriate may be required), Misc: chills, =Surgical Patients: Assess for increased
albumin in crystalloid patients requiring fever, flushing. bleeding after administration caused by
diseases sodium restriction; increased blood pressure and circulating
associated with preterm neonates blood volume. Albumin does not contain
low levels of (infuse slowly due clotting factors.
plasma proteins, to increased risk of =Lab Test Considerations: Serum albumin
such as intravascular level should increase with albumin therapy.
nephrotic hemorrhage). =Monitor serum sodium levels; may cause
syndrome or increase concentrations.
end-stage liver =Infusions of normal serum albumin may
disease, cause false increase of alkaline
resulting in relief phosphatase levels.
or reduction of =Hemorrhage: Monitor hemoglobin and
associated hematocrit levels. These values may
edema. decrease because of hemodilution.

Drug Name Indications Mechanism of Dosage and Contraindication Adverse Reaction Nursing Considerations
Actions Route
Generic Name: Patients with Acetylcysteine 600mg/tab Patients who CNS: Dizziness, drowsiness.  =During IV infusion, carefully
N-acetylcysteine asthma, older probably acts by have had a GI: Nausea, vomiting, stomatitis, monitor for fluid overload and
Pharmacologic adults, severe disrupting previous hepatotoxicity (urticaria). signs of hyponatremia (i.e.,
Class: hepatic disease, disulfide anaphylactoid Respiratory: Bronchospasm, changes in mental status).
Mucolytic esophageal linkages of reaction to rhinorrhea, burning sensation in =Monitor for S&S of aspiration
varices, peptic mucoproteins in acetylcysteine, upper respiratory passages, of excess secretions, and for
ulcer disease; purulent and and epistaxis. bronchospasm (unpredictable);
debilitated nonpurulent acetylcysteine withhold drug and notify
patients with secretions. solution for oral physician immediately if either
severe use or inhalation occurs.
respiratory is contraindicated =Lab tests: Monitor ABGs,
insufficiency, in patients who pulmonary functions and pulse
pregnancy have had any oximetry as indicated.
(category B), type of =Have suction apparatus
lactation. hypersensitivity immediately available.
reaction to the Increased volume of
drug. respiratory tract fluid may be
liberated; suction or
endotracheal aspiration may
be necessary to establish and
maintain an open airway. Older
adults and debilitated patients
are particularly at risk.
=Nausea and vomiting may
occur, particularly when face
mask is used, due to
unpleasant odor of drug and
excess volume of liquefied
bronchial secretions.

Name of Drug Indication Mechanism of Dosage Contraindicatio Adverse Nursing Interventions

Action And Route ns Reaction
Generic Name: To manage Mechanism of Initial Hypersensitivity CNS:Anxiety, •If patient has known or suspected
Irbesartan hypertension, Action Dosage: to irbesartan or dizziness, fatigue, hypovolemia,provide treatment,such as
alone or with Selectively 150 mg/tab its components headache, I.V.normal saline solution,as prescribed,to
Classification: other blocks binding nervousness correct this condition before beginning
antihypertensiv of the potent Route: oral CV:Chest pain, irbesartan therapy.Or expect to begin therapy
Therapeutic: es. vasoconstrictor hypotension, with a lower dosage.
Antihypertensive angiotensin Frequency peripheral edema, •Check blood pressure often to evaluate
(AT) II to AT1 : OD in PM tachycardia drug’s effectiveness. •If blood pressure isn’t
Pharmacology: receptor sites in EENT:Pharyngitis controlled with irbesartan alone, expect to also
Nonpeptide many tissues, , rhinitis give a diuretic, such as hydrochlorothiazide, as
angiotensin II including GI:Abdominal prescribed. WARNING: If patient receives a
antagonist vascular pain, diarrhea, diuretic or another antihypertensive during
smooth muscle heartburn, irbesartan therapy, frequently monitor blood
Pregnancy and adrenal hepatitis, pressure because he’s at risk for hypotension.
category: D glands. This indigestion, •If patient experiences symptomatic
inhibits the nausea, vomiting hypotension, expect to stop drug temporarily.
vasoconstrictiv GU: UTI Immediately place him in supine position and
e and MS: prepare to give I.V. normal saline solution, as
aldosterone- Musculoskeletal prescribed. Expect to resume drug therapy
secreting pain after blood pressure stabilizes.
effects of AT II, RESP:Upper •If patient receives a diuretic, provide
which reduces respiratory tract adequate hydration, as appropriate, to help
blood pressure. infection prevent hypovolemia. Also monitor patient for
SKIN: Rash signs and symptoms of hypovolemia, such as
hypotension, dizziness, and fainting.
WARNING: Monitor patient for increased BUN
and serum creatinine levels if he has heart
failure or impaired renal function because drug
may cause acute renal failure. If increases are
significant or persistent, notify prescriber

Name of Drug Indication Mechanism of Action Dosage And Contraindications Adverse Reaction Nursing Interventions
Generic Name: To manage Stimulates peripheral Initial Anticoagulant CNS: Agitation, delusional •Use clonidine cautiously in
Clonidine hypertension alpha-adrenergic Dosage: therapy (epidural perception, elderly patients, who may
receptors in the CNS to 75mcg/tab infusion); bleeding depression, dizziness, be more sensitive to its
Classification: produce transient diathesis; drowsiness, fatigue, hypotensive effect. •Monitor
vasoconstriction and Route: oral hypersensitivity to headache, malaise, blood pressure and heart
Therapeutic: then stimulates central clonidine or its nervousness, paresthesia, rate often during clonidine
Analgesic, alpha-adrenergic Frequency: components, sedation, syncope, weakness therapy. •Expect
antihypertensive receptors in the brain OD for BP including adhesive CV: Arrhythmias, chest pain, transdermal clonidine to
stem to reduce >160/100 used in congestive heart failure, high- take 2 to 3 days to lower
Pharmacology: peripheral vascular transdermal patch; degree AV block, orthostatic blood pressure. •Remove
Imidazoline resistance, heart rate, injection site hypotension, Raynaud’s patch before patient has an
derivative and systolic and infection (epidural phenomenon MRI to avoid possible burns
diastolic blood infusion) EENT: Accommodation at the patch site.
Pregnancy pressure. May produce disorder, blurred vision, •Be aware that stopping
category: C analgesia by preventing burning eyes, decreased drug abruptly can elevate
transmission of pain lacrimation, dry eyes and serum catecholamine levels
signals to the brain at mouth, salivary gland pain and cause such withdrawal
presynaptic and GI: Constipation, hepatitis, symptoms as nervousness,
postjunctional alpha2- mildly elevated liver function agitation, headache,
adrenoreceptors in the test results, nausea, vomiting confusion, tremor, and
spinal cord. With GU: Decreased libido, rebound hypertension.
epidural administration, erectile dysfunction, nocturia •Expect hypertension to
clonidine produces HEME: Thrombocytopenia return within 48 hours after
analgesia in body areas SKIN: Angioneurotic edema, drug is discontinued.
innervated by the spinal pruritus, rash, urticaria Other:
cord segments in which Weight gain, withdrawal
the drug concentrates symptoms

Name of Drug Indication Mechanism of Action Dosage And Contraindications Adverse Reaction Nursing Interventions
Generic Name: To treat Omeprazole interferes Initial Hypersensitivity to CNS: Agitation, asthenia, •Give omeprazole
Omeprazole gastroesoph with gastric acid secretion Dosage: omeprazole, other dizziness, drowsiness, fatigue, before meals,
ageal reflux by inhibiting the 40mg/cap proton pump headache, psychic preferably
Classification: disease hydrogenpotassium- inhibitors, or their disturbance, somnolence in the morning for once-
(GERD) adenosine triphosphatase Route: Oral components CV: Chest pain, hypertension, daily dosing. If needed,
Therapeutic: without (H+K+-ATPase) enzyme peripheral edema also give an antacid, as
Antiulcer esophageal system, or proton pump, Frequency: EENT: Anterior ischemic optic prescribed.
lesions, to in gastric parietal cells. OD neuropathy, optic atrophy or •If needed, open
Pharmacology: prevent Normally, the proton neuritis, stomatitis ENDO: capsule and sprinkle
Substituted erosive pump uses energy from Hypoglycemia enteric-coated granules
benzimidazole esophagitis hydrolysis of adenosine GI: Abdominal pain, on applesauce or
triphosphate to drive constipation, diarrhea, yogurt or mix with water
Pregnancy hydrogen (H+) and dyspepsia, elevated liver or acidic fruit juice,
category: C chloride (Cl-) out of function tests, flatulence, such as apple or
parietal cells and into the hepatic dysfunction or failure, cranberry juice. Give
stomach lumen in indigestion, nausea, immediately. •To give
exchange for potassium pancreatitis, vomiting drug via NG tube, mix
(K+), which leaves the GU: Interstitial nephritis granules in acidic juice
stomach lumen and HEME: Agranulocytosis, because enteric coating
enters parietal cells.After anemia, hemolytic anemia, dissolves in alkaline
this exchange, H+ and Cl- leukopenia, leukocytosis, pH. •Because drug can
combine in the stomach to neutropenia, pancytopenia, interfere with
form hydrochloric acid thrombocytopenia absorption of vitamin
(HCl), as shown below MS: Back pain B12, monitor patient for
left. Omeprazole RESP: Cough SKIN: macrocytic anemia.
irreversibly blocks the Erythema multiforme, •Be aware that long-
exchange of intracellular photosensitivity, pruritus, rash, term use of omeprazole
H+ and extracellular K+, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, may increase the risk of
as shown below right. toxic epidermal necrolysis, gastric carcinoma.

Name of Drug Indication Mechanism Dosage And Contraindications Adverse Reaction Nursing Interventions
of Action Route
Generic Name: To manage Inhibits Initial Hypersensitivity to CNS: Amnesia, asthenia, Assess patient who switches from a
Budesonide symptoms of inflammatory Dosage: budesonide or its benign intracranial systemic corticosteroid to inhaled
nebule seasonal or cells and components, hypertension, dizziness, budesonide for adrenal insufficiency
perennial mediators, Route: recent septal ulcers fatigue, fever, headache (fatigue, hypotension, lassitude, nausea,
Classification: allergic possibly by Nebulized or nasal surgery or EENT: Bad taste, vomiting, weakness), which may be life-
rhinitis decreasing trauma (nasal cataracts, dry mouth, threatening. Hypothalamic-pituitary-
Therapeutic: influx into Frequency: spray); status epistaxis, glaucoma, nasal adrenal axis function may take several
Antiasthmatic, nasal Every 12 asthmaticus or irritation, oral or months to recover after stopping systemic
antiinflammatory passages or hours other acute asthma pharyngeal candidiasis, corticosteroids. Stopping budesonide
bronchial episodes (oral pharyngitis, rhinitis, abruptly may cause adrenal insufficiency.
Pharmacology: walls.As a inhalation sinusitis •Administer Respules by jet nebulizer
Glucocorticoid result, nasal ENDO: Growth connected to an air compressor. •Patient
or airway suppression in children exposed to chickenpox may receive
Pregnancy inflammation GI: Abdominal pain, varicella zoster immune globulin or pooled
category: B decreases. diarrhea, dyspepsia, I.V. immunoglobulin. If chickenpox
Oral flatulence, indigestion, develops, give antiviral as ordered. A
inhalation nausea, vomiting patient exposed to measles may need
form also GU: UTI pooled I.M. immunoglobulin. •Assess
inhibits MS: Arthralgia, back pain patient for effectiveness of budesonide
mucus RESP: Bronchospasm, therapy, especially if being weaned from a
secretion in increased cough, systemic corticosteroid. If patient has
airways, respiratory tract infection increased asthma or an immunologic
decreasing SKIN: Contact dermatitis, condition previously suppressed by
the amount purpura, rash, urticaria systemic corticosteroid—such as rhinitis,
and viscosity Other: Anaphylaxis, conjunctivitis, an eosinophilic condition,
of sputum. angioedema eczema, or arthritis—notify prescriber. •
•Monitor patient for evidence of
hypersensitivity, such as contact
dermatitis, rash, urticaria, angioedema,
bronchospasm, or anaphylaxis.

Name of Drug Indication Mechanism of Dosage Contraindications Adverse Reaction Nursing Interventions
Action And Route
Generic Name: To manage Depresses brain Initial Comatose states; CNS: Drowsiness, •Chlorpromazine shouldn’t be used to treat
Chlorpromazine symptoms areas that control Dosage: hypersensitivity to dystonia, fever, motor dementia-related psychosis in the elderly
maleate of psychotic activity and 1amp chlorpromazine, restlessness, because of an increased risk of death.
disorders or aggression, phenothiazines, or neuroleptic malignant •Use chlorpromazine cautiously in patients
Classification control including the Route: their components; syndrome, seizures CV: (especially children) with chronic
Therapeutic: manic cerebral cortex, IV use of large ECG changes, such as respiratory disorders (such as severe
Antiemetic, manifestatio hypothalamus, amounts of CNS nonspecific, usually asthma or emphysema) or acute
antipsychotic, ns of manic- and limbic Frequency: depressants reversible Q- and T-wave respiratory tract infections because drug
tranquilizer depression system, by an for BT changes; orthostatic has CNS depressant effect.Also use
in unknown hypotension; tachycardia cautiously in patients with cardiovascular,
Pharmacology: outpatients mechanism. EENT: Blurred vision, hepatic, or renal disease because of
Propylamine Prevents nausea dry mouth, nasal increased risk of developing hypotension,
derivative of and vomiting by congestion, heart failure, and arrhythmias. •Because of
phenothiazine inhibiting or ENDO:hyperglycemia, chlorpromazine’s anticholinergic effects,
blocking hypoglycemia, use it cautiously in patients with glaucoma.
Pregnancy dopamine GI: Constipation, ileus, •Protect concentrate from light.
category: Not receptors in the nausea Refrigeration isn’t required. •Dilute
rated medullary GU: Amenorrhea, concentrate in at least 60 ml of diluent just
chemoreceptor ejaculation disorders, before administering it. Use tomato or fruit
trigger zone and impotence, urine juice, milk, simple syrup, orange syrup, a
peripherally by retention carbonated beverage, coffee, tea, water,
blocking the HEME:Agranulocytosis, or semisolid food, such as pudding and
vagus nerve in aplastic anemia, soup. •Protect parenteral solution from
the GI tract. May eosinophilia, hemolytic light. Solution should be clear and
relieve anxiety by anemia, leukopenia, colorless to pale yellow. Discard markedly
indirect reduction pancytopenia, discolored solution. •Don’t inject drug by
in arousal and thrombocytopenic subcutaneous route because it can cause
increased filtering purpura severe tissue necrosis. •Wear gloves
of internal stimuli SKIN: Exfoliative when working with liquid or injectable form
to the reticular dermatitis, jaundice, because parenteral solution may cause
activating system photosensitivity, tissue contact dermatitis.
in the brain stem. necrosis, urticaria
Name of Drug Indication Mechanism of Action Dosage Contraindications Adverse Reaction Nursing Interventions
And Route
Generic Name: To treat Inhibits calcium Initial Cardiogenic shock, CNS:confusion, •Administer I.V. verapamil with
Verapamil chronic movement into Dosage: concomitant use of disequilibrium, dizziness, compatible solutions, including
angina coronary and vascular 2.5mg beta blockers (with extrapyramidal reactions, Ringer’s injection, D5W, or
Classification: pectoris smooth-muscle cells by I.V. verapamil), fatigue, headache, normal saline solution. •Maintain
blocking slow calcium Route: IV hypersensitivity to insomnia, paresthesia, continuous ECG monitoring and
Therapeutic: channels in cell verapamil or its psychosis, shakiness, keep emergency resuscitative
Antianginal, membranes. The Frequency: components, stroke equipment and drugs readily
antiarrhythmic, resulting decrease in hypotension, CV: Abnormal ECG, available during I.V. therapy.
antihypertensive intracellular calcium severe heart failure angina, AV conduction •Assess patient with
level has the following unless secondary disorders, bradycardia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or
Pharmacology: effects: •inhibits to supraventricular claudication, heart failure, idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic
Phenylalkylamine smooth-muscle cell tachycardia that hypertension, hypotension, stenosis for early development
derivative contractions responds to MI, palpitations, peripheral of hypotension and pulmonary
•decreases myocardial verapamil, severe edema, tachycardia edema because second-degree
Pregnancy oxygen demand by left ventricular EENT: Blurred vision, dry AV block and sinus arrest can
category: C relaxing coronary and dysfunction, sick mouth, tinnitus result.
vascular smooth sinus syndrome or ENDO: hyperprolactinemia •Assess for bradycardia and
muscle, reducing second- or third- GI: Constipation, diarrhea, hypotension, and notify
peripheral vascular degree heart block elevated liver function test prescriber if heart rate or blood
resistance, and unless artificial results, GI distress, nausea pressure declines significantly.
decreasing systolic and pacemaker is in GU: Galactorrhea, •Disopyramide or flecainide
diastolic pressures place, ventricular increased urination, shouldn’t be given within 48
•slows AV conduction tachycardia (with MS: Arthralgia, muscle hours before or 24 hours after
time and prolongs AV I.V. verapamil spasms verapamil because additive
nodal refractoriness RESP: Dyspnea, pulmonary negative inotropic effects can
•interrupts re-entry edema, result. •Institute measures to
circuit in AV nodal re- SKIN: Alopecia, prevent constipation, including a
entrant tachycardias. diaphroesis, erythema high-fiber diet and a stool
flushing, rash, urticaria softener, as prescribed