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IEEE Transactions 011 Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-94, no.

3 , May/Jlme 1 9 7 5



I.M. Canay
Brown,Boveri & Company Ltd.
Baden, Switzerland

ABSTRACT Since the positive-sequence resistance r1 is

much less compared to r2, the negative-se-
The negative-sequence losses and their quence losses in practice are mainly depen-
calculation areofgreat significance for lar- dent on r2. Hence a persistent interest to
ge turbogenerators having high utilization keep themagnitude of r2 under a certain rea-
factors. A generalized method for the deter- sonable limit.
mination of negative-sequence losses and ne-
gative-sequence resistance is given. With the In the case of a transient unbalanced
help of equivalent circuits, accounting for loading, higher values of negative-sequence
all the given constructional particularities current could be conceded. As criterion for
of the rotor, the influences ofthe construc- this, 2 i2tvalues are prescribed in the stand-
tion of damper winding, wedges and massive ards2r3 .
Provided the permissible steady state
rotor are thoroughly investigated and expli- unbalanced currentiatogetherwiththe thermal
cated.Thesestudiesyieldindications on time constants of the rotor are known, one
the mode of participation of the damper win- can ascertain, for the same value of rotor
ding during steady state as well as transient temperature at critical spots, the allowable
unbalanced loading. i$t duty.For short time but highvalues ofthe
negative-sequence current,not only lossesare
INTRODUCTION caused in the rotor, but according to its
structural particularity,local concentrations
In an unsymmetrically loaded synchronous of high current additionally result, which
machine, the negative-sequence component i2 could lead to detrimental burning or pitting
of the stator current causes additional los- at those spots. On the aforesaid ground, the
ses inthe rotor. The unbalanced loading could permissible transient unbalanced load is not
be called forth either bya system disturban- only dependent on r2, but essentially on the
ce, or by the specific type of duty. Follw- nature of rotor constructioni.e. on the con-
ing are two cases from practice: figuration of the damper winding, slotwedges
- A 300 MVA-turbogenerator was switched
o f f under normal operating conditions. Owing The foregoing elucidations elicit, that
to anerror in the switch gear, only one phasein order to beable to estimate the stress in
was isolated, so that the generator ran fur- rotor in the event of a continuous or tran-
ther for 22 minutes with a negative-sequence sientunbalancedloading, the negative-se-
current of approximately 32%. It will be re- quence resistance r plays a cardinal role
ported once more on this case in the chapter directly or indirectfy For the modern mach- .
"Influence of the rotor slot wedges". ines having higher utilization factors, the
significance of r2 is progressively gaining
- The phase currents of generators sup- in importance. can either be measured4 or
plying arc furnaces, exhibit a considerable can be calculatedr$ rom the physical dimensions
unsymmetry, especially duringthemelting pro- (geometry) of the machine. The theme of this
cess. Thereby, the average ratio of negative- treatise is the calculation of r2 and as an-
to positive-sequence currentcanassume values nex, a discussion of the diverse influences
up to 3m1. on r2.
In mostofthestandards, the permissible METHOD OF CALCULATION
continuous unbalanced currenti2 of a machine
is restricted. But a certain unbalanced load The structure ofaturborotor taking mas-
does not imply the same stress on machines sive ironinto consideration isexceedingly in-
having different negative-sequence resistan- tricate. The rotor currents caused by the ne-
ces r2. For agiven negative-sequence current, gative-sequence current not only flow in the
the rotor losses are proportional to r2 - r l . actual damper bars D, but also circulate in
the massive rotor surface of the pole zone,
in the rotor teeth El and in the slot walls
E2 and €E, as well as in the field winding f
(Fig. 1). Since few years, the iron parts in
rotor have been approximately simulated with-
out difficulty, however, they could be ac-
counted for in the mathematically exact equi-
valent circuits5 with a sufficient degree of
accuracy. These equivalent circuits have been
Paper T 74 304-2,recommended and approved by the IEEE Rotating Machinery used towards calculating asynchronous start-
Committee of the IEEE Power Engioeeriag Society for presentation at the IEEE
PES Summer Meeting & Energy Resources C o d , Anaheim, Cal.,July 1419,1974. ing6 or characteristic quantities of numer-
ManuscriptsubmittedSeptembn18,1973;madea~bleforprintingAp~3,1974. ous machines with success.
El xrc xfc
.0037.191 .068 .092 .0011/s

rotor D+W
I ! I
pole field-
statorsurface wedges core winding

Fig. 1. Rotor slot and current paths

D winding
.OW7 .191 1 1 .204 I .17

E2 Upper part of the slot walls in
the proximityof damper bar
€E Lower part of the slot walls
f Field
Fig. 2 . Equivalent circuitsof a large72OWA-
As an instance, Fig. 2 shows the equiv-
alent circuits, ascertained from the geometry
of the machine of a large turbogenerator of
7 2 0 MVA. The values of eddy-current resistan-

ces therein are valid for the rated linear
current densityonthe rotor. For other values
of the linear current density, those values
must be recomputed to suit the mean relative 1.5 M S h
permeability valid for the existing magnitude
of the linear current density on the rotors.
This is accomplished by iteration with the
aid of a computer program, as a function of
the rotor linear current density and magneti- YD = 5 0 M S h
zation curve of the rotor body material.
In the treatise for ascertaining the Fig. 3 . Division of the damper current in
equivalent circuits5. it is assumed that the wedge and damper bar
rotor slot wedges are nonconducting and con-
sequently, these have been neglected. These The approximate qualitative division of
wedges exhibit a very low electrical conduct- the total damper-bar current iD+w in iD and
ivity of 1.5 MS/m approximately and in addi- iw is illustrated in Fig. 3 . In the case of
tion to that, are composed of multiple short nonmagnetic steel having an electrical con-
pieces. If the rotor wedges are to be consid- ductivity of 1.5 MS/m, the depth of penetra-
ered in order to appraise their influence on tion corresponding to 120 Hz is approximately
p2 and r2, these couldbe, to beginwith, as- 3 . 7 cm. Since the height of the wedge is les-
sumed to be continuous.Consequently,the ser, the relatively smaller depth of penetra-
nonlinearcontactresistancesbetweenthe tion may be neglected and a homogeneousdis-
wedges in a slot are neglected. The wedges tribution of the currents could be stipulated
now form a second damper cage W, parallel to (dotted lines in Fig. 3 ) . Consequently, the
the actual damper cage D. Both the cages arewedges and the damper bars could benow simu-
longitudinally also galvanically coupled to- lated in the equivalent circuits asone single
gether over the entire length of the rotor integrated damper cage. By doing so,the quan-
body. Consequently, the wedges together with tities xrc, xDC, xfc, rD and the analogous
the damper bar beneath, form one single com-quantities of the quadrature axisonlywill
posite damper bar. Thereby, the dc resistance change. Thereby, the value of xrc + xfc,
of the assumed continuous wedges of nonmag- i.e. the total leakage reactance of field the
netic steel is nearly 7 to 10 times-higher winding will remain unchanged.In contrary to
than the actual damper bar beneath. In reali- that, the total leakage reactance x + xDA
ty, this ratio is much higher because of theof the damper winding is reduced, %ce t e
nonlinearcontactresistancesbetweenthe wedges nearer to the rotor surface have a
wedges in a slot. lesser leakage.
For machines without explicit damper
winding, besides the wedges,alsotheinfluence
of the upper parts of the slot walls is to
be taken into account (see E2 in Fig. 1 and
2). This brings forth an improvement in the
calculating procedure. In the case of an ef-
or approximately

p2 = --i2" &[mI
+ 4
= r2 2i2

fective damper winding (rD <( rDE2, see Fig.

2), those parts must not necessarily be con- constant negative-sequence supply current i
sidered. This is quite obvious, because the
current does not flow in the bad conducting Since in this case i2 remains constant,
iron, when in its proximity a good conducting the terminalvoltage u, owingtothe anisotro-
damper bar having nearly the same value of py of the rotor, now oscillates with 4 times
inductance exists. the rated frequency, havingamean valueofu2.
The following expression stands for the los-
Now that the equivalent circuits of both ses absorbed thereby7
the axes are known, a slip value of s = 2 is
substituted therein. This yields the negati-
ve-sequence characteristics of the machine,

. .
neg -seq resistance The difference between both the cases as
given by Eq. (4) and Eq. (5) is rather insig-
neg -seq. reactance nificant. In general, the re'sults of Eq. ('5)
yield higher values than that with Eq. (4).
P2 =
. .
neg -seq losses However, for a hand calculation towards the
determination of p2 or r2 only, Eq. (5) is
= 2 (p2 - 2
r i neg.-seq. rotor losses
1 2
better suited than Eq. (4). To the contrary,
for computer programs used to calculate the
asynchronous starting procedure, Eq. (4) is
Thereby, two cases must be differentiated as often normally at disposal.
1. Constant neg.-seq. voltage u 2
2. Constant neg.-seq. current i2 COMPARISON WITH MEASUREMENTS

Fig. 4 illustrates graphically the re-

Constant negative-sequence supply voltage u2 sults of the calculations and measurements
carried out on 4 turbogenerators of different
capacities. The computations were done with
Similar to the calculation of quasi- the help ofaprogram for asynchronous start-
steady asynchronous starting on the basis of ing6, the negative-sequence voltage u2 re-
equivalent circuits in Fig. 2, taking stator maining constant thereby.The basic equivalent
positive-sequence resistance r1 into account, circuits used thereinwere ascertained fromthe
the current vector components & and j& of given geometry of the machine5, allowing pro-
both the axes could be ascertained. They are7 perly for the solid iron in rotor and the
configurationofthe damper winding. A l l these
4 machines have short rotor slot wedges with
the very low conductivity of 1.5 MS/m. These
were considered to be nonconducting on the
grounds elucidated in the preceding chgpter.
To obtain the value of the inductive part of
the eddy-current resistances, x= 0.6 was sub-
whereby ,
The measurements were carried out during
applied negative-sequence current test and
single-phase line-to-line sustained short
circuit test. In the case of L-to-L short
circuit test, the negative-sequence power p2
was ascertained by subtracting the friction
and windage losses from the driving
With a negative-sequence supply voltage
u = u2, at s = 2, the stator current will not power input p" 4 'F+W
remain constant, but will oscillate with a
frequency of 4 times the rated frequency and
having a mean value of 1 ( b 2 + ji ) . Thg P2 =
(PM - PF+w) 8 i2 =
amplitude of this oscillatTon I.
h 2 z 2 ji 2
The negative-sequence losses p 2 absorb3 is
given by On comparing the illustrations in Fig.4,
one can conclude that the calculated results
tally perfectly with the measured values.


p 2 0.001-
/ F] 720 YVA
0.002 1

60 Hz
I I I I I I i
0 0.02
0.06 0.04 0.08 0 0.02 0.04
:i ‘2

0.002 0.0024



I 15.75 kV

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0 0.02 0.04

.2 .2
‘2 ‘2

Fig. 4 . Comparison between the measured and the

calculated values of the negative-sequence losses

INFLUENCE OF THE ROTOR SLOT WEDGES sponding to a negative-sequence current of

i2 = loo%.
For a 2 9 0 MVA-turbogenerator, the equiv-
alent circuits were ascertained for the fol- The opinion, thatnearlynocurrent flows
lowing 6 versions: in the damper winding lying below the depth
of penetration of iron of the rotor surface,
Ver. 1: Wedges nonconducting is often expressed.In pursuance of this, the
ver. 2: Wedges conducting version 3 should tally best with the reality.
As a matter of fact, computation carried out
Ver. 3 : No damper winding, only wedges on the basis. of this conception, does not
are conducting. give any devious result for r2. But because
Ver. 4: No damper windingandwedges are of such an excellant conformity of results
nonconducting between the calculations and measurements of
r only, one should not conclude immediately
Ver. 5 : A slotted rotor without winding &at in all machines, independent of the na-
Ver. 6: A cylindrical massiveironrotor ture of rotor construction, the damper wind-
ing is nearly currentless, since the other
stipulations (versions 1 and 2 ) also yield
Then, the losses and their distribution, the same result. One can even go a step fur-
as well as the field current were computed - ther, neglect the wedges and consider the
for the sake of simplicity - corresponding to eddy-current resistancesof the slotted rotor
aconstantnegative-sequence current i2=1W. only (versions 4 and 5 ) . This yields values
The results are summarized in Table I. of r2 which are only 15% higher.

A very interesting and informative con- If one now draws a comparison between
clusion couldbeeduced from the comparison of calculations and measurements not only r2, of
the results in Tab.I, namely that the dif- but also of other quantities as e.g. of re-
ferent stipulations which were made for the actances xa, x~ etc. and especially of the
versions 1 , 2 and 3 yield approximately the field current if, it could be confirmed, that
same valueofr2 andmoreover, that these agree the computations which account for the damper
closely with the measured value of negative- winding (versions 1,2) conform better to the
sequence resistance r2 = 0.0255 P.u., corre- reality than if the damper winding would have
Table I. Negative-sequence losses, their distribution and
field current for different postulations
Turbogenerator: 2 9 0 MVA having a damper winding
in the slotted zone only
Negative-sequence current: 100%, s = 2

I Postulations for different types of rotor construction * )

2 3 4
I 6
Stator 14 14 14 14 14
Rotor surface 167.5 167 152 185 318 184.5

in %
II Slot walls and
field winding
Damper winding
II 0.5




Wedges - 0.5 19 - -

l r2 i22 E r2 I 0 . 0 2 4 4 p.u.=1w
99.5 103 114.5

Field current in % - loo

= 86 131 206 - I -
* ) Version 1: Wedges neglected Version 4: Without damper winding and wedges
2: Wedges taken into consideration 5: Slotted rotor only, no winding
3: Only wedges, treated as damper 6: Massive iron cylinder

been neglected. This signifies, that in real- ria1,thetotal damper current rather flows in
ity high currents flow in the damper bars and the good conducting damper bars. In such ro-
that the bad conducting rotor slot wedges of tors, even this type of arduous duties do not
nonmagnetic steel are relatively idle. How- practically cause any severe burning or pit-
ever, this state changes if the rotor wedges ting. The 300WA-turbogenerator having an ef-
are made of good conducting material. fective damper winding and having wedges of
nonmagnetic steel, as has already been re-
F o r a 7 0 0 MVA-turbogenerator, the effects ported in the introducing chapter, stands for
of rotor wedges of good conducting material an irrefutable proof of the foregoing con-
were thoroughly investigated.This turbogener- clusion. Even after the exceptionally extreme
ator in contrary to the 2 9 0 MVA-machine in case of unbalanced current of i2 = 32% and
Table I, has a complete damper winding. i.e. t = 22 min., practically no worthmentioning
this exists in the pole zone too and all the detrimental traces of the incident could be
wedges are nonmagnetic. The influence of this noted.
completeness of the damper winding w i l l b e d i a
cussed in the next chapter.
The currents iDand in the actual
damper bar and in.the wedges respectively are
cmputed on the basis of the equivalent cir-
cuits for two different values ofthe conduct-
ivity of wedge material viz. 1 . 5 and 2 0 MS/m
and are represented graphically as a function
of the negative-sequence current i2 in Fig. 5.
A comparison between these two cases elicits
that as the conductivityofthe wedge material
progressively increases the damper current iD
decreases, and instead of that the wedge cur-
rent iw rises. This becomes even greater than
iD. Thus, if the wedges are made of good con-
ducting material, one shouldnomore assume that
these are rather currentless.
Fig. 5. Damper and wedge currentsina 7OOMVA-
In the events of transient unbalanced turbogenerator
loading with high values of negative-sequence
current and for rotors having damper wind- a) Wedge material = 1 . 5 MS/m
ing and having wedges of bad conducting mate- b) Wedge material = 20 MS/m
If the rotor has no damper winding at divided between the pole and slotted zones.
all, or if the rotor wedges are of good con- This division has been carrLed out (Tab. 11)
ducting material, then current in the wedge for the version 1 (with damper winding) and
will tend to be very high (Fig. 5). In the version 4 (without damper winding) with the
events ofhigh but transient negative-sequence .help of the results of version 6. The summa-
currents, the danger exists that thehigh cur- rized results in Tab. I1 reveal that in real-
rents in the wedges could lead to intensive ity, the rotor losses in the slotted zone by
burning or pitting at the junctions. virtue of the damper winding and slots, have
been reduced from 232% to 82%. Since thedamp-
In the case of machines to be opqated er winding is electrically effective in the
under severe unbalanced loadingconditions, slotted zone only, the rotor from the view-
e.g. short-circuit generators, single-.phase point of losses is anisotropic.
machines, as well as generators feeding,power
to arc furnaces, it is advisable to make the
wedges out of good conducting materihl8 in If this generator would have a complete
order to reduce the value of r2 to a,minimum. damper winding with nonmagnetic wedges in the
But then it is indispensable, that specific pole zone too, then the losees would amount
constructive contrivances ensureperfectelec- to about 112.5% only instead of 168%. Conse-
trical connections at the current-carrying quently, the value of the negative-sequence
contact areas of the wedges. resistance, which is 173% for the iron cylin-
der and 100% inthe case of version 1 having
a damper winding in the pole zone only, is
INFLUENCE OF THE DAMPER WINDING reduced to 72% approximately. Moreover, the
complete damper winding makes a rotor s y u d t -
From the comparison between version 6, rical with regard to the 1osses.B~ utilizing
representing a massive iron cylinder and ver- good conducting material for wedges, r2 could
sions 4 and 5 (see Tab. I), it is evident, be reduced even below 50%. These data are val-
that only by virtue of rotor slots the losses id for a highly saturated condition corre-
in the surface of a massive iron,cylinder sponding to i2 = 100%. For lower valuesofne-
couldbereduced from 318% to 201%. The reason gative-phase-sequence current, the percentage
for such a gain is that the slot walls of ro- reductioniseven higher. All these statements
tor slots of favourable breadth bring about are in unison with the measurements .4
an aggrandizement of the effective rotor sur-
face. Thereby, the eddy-current resistances
of the rotor are reduced. The damper winding
brings forth an additional reduction, so However, in the event of a short time
that the losses yet go down from 201% to 172% unbalanced loading i=t, a complete damper
= (168+4)%. winding does not bring about ' m y improvement.
Apart from that, a complete damper winding is
To have a better cognizanceofthe.degree a drawback for the magnetizing characteristic
of reduction of losses brought about by damp- because the pole zoneofthe rotor is weakened
er winding, one must envisage that the damper by the nonmagnetic wedges required for accom-
windingofthisgenerator(Tab.I)iselectrically plishing a complete ,dampercage. On this
effective in the slotted zone only. Thereby, ground, such a damper winding is justified
the slotted zone is about 73% of the pole only for machines to be operated under severe
pitch. Therefore, the total losses must be steady state unbalanced loading conditions.

Table 11. Influence of the ccmplete damper winding on the

negative-sequence losses and their distribution.
Machine: As in Table I
(i2 = loo%, p2 I r2)

Ver. 6 Ver. 4
Massive iron Without damper
cylinder winding and
~~ ~

Pole zone (0.27 ?r) 86 86 86 30.5

Slotted zone (0.73 Tr ) 232 115 82 82
in % Rotor iron 318 201 168 112.5
Damper winding - - 4 4.5

173 114.5 -
100 72.5

CONCLUSION rD Resistance of the damper p.u.
winding in the equivalent
1) The negative-sequence losses and the circuit (see Fig. 2)
negative-sequence resistance of synchronous
machines could be calculated with adequate Re Real part p.u.
accuracy on the basis of the equivalent cir- 8 Slip 1
cuits, taking account of all the given con-
structional particularitiesoftherotorstruc- U# u2 Voltage, negative-sequence P.U.
ture. voltage
2 Negative-sequence p.u.
2) The cardinal function of-the damper reactance
winding lies in providing a defined good path
for the circulation of rotor currents. As a xDc'xrc'xfc Reactances in the p.u.
result, also the magnitudes of the negative- equivalent circuit
sequence losses and resistance normally re- x (js),x (js, Reactance operators of p.u.
main below reasonable limits. Onthecontrary, d
the axes
in the absence of a damper winding, a certain
part of the rotor currents would be compelled h the of
Ratio imaginary 1
to assume the tendency of flowing in the to the real part of the
wedges. Consequently, these could lead to lo- eddy-current resistances
cal current concentrations at critical spots, Rotor pole-pitch m
eventually causing detrimental burningorpit- 'b
ting .
3) The negative-sequence resistance can
cogentlybereduced by utilizing good conduct- (1) G. MBrz,bieBlindleistungsschwankun-
ing material for the rotor wedges. In this gen bei Lichtbogenbfen und ihre Kompensation:
case, it is absolutely necessary to contrive Elektrowlrme International, vol. 30, pp.40-44
specific constructional measures in order to 1972.
establish perfect electrical connections at
the contact areas of the wedges. Without such (2) American Standards Association ,
measures, the generator,despite its extremely C 50.1 - 1965, Synchronous Generators.
low negative-sequence resistance, would not
be able to withstand any severe iit duty. ( 3 ) American Standards Association, A
Standard for Generator Continuous Unbalanced
LIST OF SYMBOLS Current Capability. T 73 128-6.
Components of stator p.u. (4) G.J. Neidhofer, B.N. Bose,'Negative-
current vector Sequence Losses in Solid Rotors of Turbine-
Negative-sequence p.u. Generators and Equivalent Wave Resistance'JEEE
current and its vectorial Winter Power Meeting, 1974.
(5) I.M. Canay, 'Equivalent Circuits of
i Line current during single- p.u. Synchronous Machines for Calculating Quanti-
I1 phase line-to-line su- ties of the Rotor During Transient Processes
stained short circuit test and Asynchronous Starting: Part I: Brown
4=i Boveri Review, vol. 56, pp.60-71, Feb. 1969,
Part 11: vol. 57, pp.134-143, 1970.
Imaginary part
Power, negative-sequence p.u.
losses (6) I.M. Canay, 'Asynchronous starting of
synchronous machines with or without rectifi-
Driving power input p.u. ers in the field circuip. Proc.IEE, v o l . 119,
Friction and windage p.u. pp. 1701-1708, Dec. 1972.
losses (7) Th. Laible, Die TheoriederSynchron-
Negative-sequence losses p.u. maschine. Springer-Verlag 1952.
in rotor
(8) I.M. Canay, 'Optimizing the Design

Positive- and negative- p.u. of Short-circuit Generators? Brown Boveri
sequence resistances Review, vol. 56, pp.386-393, Aug. 1969.
Eddy-current resistances p.u.
'DE1 ' 'DE2 of the slot walls
rDE (l+jA ) / $
see F i g . 2

7 70
Dkadon S u r d C. Vad (Electric Machinery Mfg. Co., Minneapolis, Minn.): The
author is to be commended for this excellent paper where he has now
given awell-proven method for the calculation of negative-sequence
R L. Stdl (University of Southampton, England): This paper is a wel- losses andnegative-sequmce nsistpnce of turbine-generators. This
marks a significant advance in the analysis of turbine-generators for
come contribution to the difficult subject of the eddy-t losses in their negative sequence current capability design as well. The agree
the solid rotor of a turbogenerator, and, in particular, demonstrates the
importance both of the copper damper bars and the material and con- ment between measured and calculated valuesofnegative sequence
struction of the slot wedges. I would like to ask the author one question losses in Fig. 4 of the paper is simply remarkable. It would be interest-
that arises directly from the text and plso seck his comments on another ing to1.know how the author has treated the following in his analysis:
Croeslots in pole faces
related topic. First, it is shown in Table 1 of the paper that the rotor 2. Grooving of rotor surface, if any
body loss in a solidunslotted rotor is greater than in the slotted version. 3. Harmonics of armature mmf
This therefore implies that the induced current in the rotor remains 4. Curvature of rotor
approximately constant, or at least does not rise appreciably. How- 5. Different saturation levels of pole face and rotor teeth.
ever, if the negative-sequence flux in the air gap is approximately inde 6. Contact resistance at junctions for short rotor wedges, especially
pendent of the slotting, the rotor current will increase becausethe sui- in case of high electrical conductivity rotor wedges.
face current density will remain roughly the same and yet covera 7. Damper end ring resistance and reactance including contact
greater effective rotor periphery. For a small slotted configuration resistance at the interface between damper bars and rotor re-
solved by a numerical finitedifference method we have found that the
loss increases with slotting. Secondly, the author mentions local effects tainingring.
when stating that the electrical contact between wedges should be im- It would be very helpful if the author could give rotor surface
proved in order to avoid burning under severe unbalanced conditions. loss values, as given in Table I1 of the paper, for negativesequence
currents of 10% and 20096 with rotor wedges of electrical conductivity
There is also a danger that hot spots may o w locally in the rotor
iron, for example at the root of the teeth or at the ends of peripheral of 1.5 MS/m and 20 MS/m. Will there be appreciable difference in the
balancing slits in the pole faces if they are used.How would the author negative-sequence rotor surface loss under conditions of rated load and
attempt to study these local phenomena, as this is an obvious limitation single-phase
lineteline sustained short circuit tests due to difference in
of the equivalent circuit approach?
M a n M p t received July 8, 1974. Manuscript receivedJuly 29,1974.

James A. Olives (National Electric Coil, Columbus, Ohio): Dr. Canay

has presented a clear analysis of the subject of rotor losses caused by
B. Adkins (Imperial College, London, England): Dr. Canay has made in negative sequence currents andvoltages in turbine generators. The
this paper another valuable contribution to the study of generator per- IEEE is indebted to Dr. h a y for this timely presentation that soma
formance. The results given for four different machines suggest that the whatcoincides with the issuing of the new standard, ANSI C50.13,
datively simple equivalent circuits of Fig. 2 are adequate for calculating ‘Cylindrical Rotor Synchronous Generators’, which is now in its f i
the effective negative sequence impedance. The many uncertain features draft stage and carries for the first time limits for continuous negative
like the wedge contact resistance, the end effect, and the changhg sequence loading of turbine generators. The new standard will be of in-
temperature which affects the resistivity, probably mean that there terest to both operators and application engineers who have questions
would be no benefit in using a more detailed representation. Table I regarding such limits. Dr. Canay’s paper provides an understanding of
shows how at the high frequency associated with a slip of 2 the rotor the physical phenomena involved.
iron surface is much the most important region, and also that calcula- He is also to be commended for presenting actual machine quanti-
tions based on a massive unslotted cylinder are not applicable. ties which makethe paper of much more value to users and to interested
For obvious reasons the tests are carried out either when the nega- engineers and universities who may want to pursue the subject.
tive sequence current is the only current flowing or when it is associated The two questions that are explored by Dr. Canay are:
with a positive sequence component current of the same order, as in 1. The use of conducting or nomnducting wedges.
the h a t d i n e short circuit When it is associated with a much larger 2. The question of whether or not to installa full damper winding.
positive sequence component the condition would be very different. The full damper winding, as explained by Dr. Canay, allows the
The losses would be a good deal less if the flux densities due to the designer to control the loss distribution in the rotor which is produced
negative sequence currents are incremental to the positive sequence by a continuous unbalance load.
flux densities, particularly when there are local regions or high satura- . H e indicates that the complete damper w i n d y does not help to
tion. How does the author allow, for this in his calculations for the improve the capability of a stator for short time I2 t. Would he please
condition of 32%negative sequence current? elaborate on the question of why the damper winding does not improve.
An allied problem which raises similar questions is that of a gen- this condition.
erator supplying large time harmonic components of current, for ex-
ample, when supplying d.c. motors through rectifiers. The effective Manuscript receivedJuly 29, 1974.
damper resistance would be different for each harmonic and the error
in superimposing the components wouldagain be considerable. How
far cwld a similar method be applied to this problem?
It is stated that for maximum damping effect it is necessary to
have a good contact between the low resistance wedges and the iron. I. M. Canay: I heartily thank the discussion contributors for their com-
What are the practical measures that can ensure low contact resistance? ments and compliments. After receiving such nice compliments, I sin-
It is clear that the method is essentially an empirical one which cerely hope not to disappoint you in attempting to answer the inter-
depends very much on experimental results on a range of machines. esting questions.However, I shall try to give a brief reply to these
The two companion papers by Neidhofer and Bose connect the losses highly involvedquestions
due to negative sequence currents with a stxalled “wave resistance” Dr. Ad- and Mr. Vad enquire about how the saturation influ-
deduced from measurements made on a single-phase short circuit test or ence should be considered. Fig. A (above) shows a schematic ilhwtra-
a standstill single-phase impedance test at standstill. It would have been tion of rotor iron. If only the negative-sequence current i2 flows m
useful to have shown on their curves the range of values obtained from the rotor, then I operate with equations based on the linear theory i.e. a
Dr. Canay’s equivalent circuits. For machines in which the damping mean permeability pm, which yields the same losses as the nonlinear
depends mainly onthe eddy currents inthe massive iron, it is not theory. Now pm will be varied as a function of i2. This means that the
surprising that the range is narrow because the iron c o n f i i t i o n can- eddy-current resistance of therotor-uon surface (current path E,
not vary greatly. However,when an effective cage damper system is represented by 0,062@) willbevariedaccording to the valueof
provided there is much more scope for variation and the range of values i2. Since the influence of the other eddy-current resistances (E1 and
is much greater. The spread of values for machines of type C is so wide E) of the slot walls is not large, I would prefer to calculate the other
that the y thqd .isnot very useful. The equivalent circuit method can, eddy-current resistances also with the same value of pm. If the rotor
however, dwnnunate between different designs. Thus a sound design iron is already saturated in the direct axis primarily by the main field
procedure could be based on a combination of Dr.M y ’ s circuits and and in the quadrature axis by the tangential Ssay fields (Fig. A below),
the concept of wave impedance. The equivalent circuit method is shown then, as Dr. Adkins says, an influence of premagnetisation can be
to be sound by the curves for four individual machinesin Fig. 4. expected. Unfortunately, I cannot give an exact solution of this
Manuscript receivedJuly 9, 1974. Manuscript r&d Nwember 7, 1974.
7 71
Figure B

matically in Fig. B (above). These pieces form good pressure contacts

between adjacent wedges by virtue of centrifugal force. As a result, the
high current remains in wedge and at the abuttedareas (discontinuities)
does not flow through iron (tooth). As an alternative measure, the
number of wedges per slot can also be reduced considerably. Depending
on the type of construction, it is sometimes possible to use two or even
one wedge per slot.
Table C
Influence of saturation and wedgematerials
Ver. 2 Ver. 2a Ver. 2b
Ver. 2c
Damper winding only in the slotted zone complete
Figure A xw W / m I 1.3 1.3 20 20
iZ 10096 10% 100% 10096
problem. Just like all other saturation problems this effect also is of a Lossesinz
highly complicated nature. However, it can be approximately accounted
for in the following manner. Rotor iron
For each operating,condition the main fields in the d- and q-axes Damperwinding and wedges
196 10-
10 lo-'
and the leakagefield inthe fieldwinding zone (q-axis) 14 are known.
14 Stator *14
lo* 14
Consequently, the premagnetisation H,, corresponding to il and if is
also known. The mean permeability forthe same negativquence r2 (100% = 0,0244) 100 117 lo* 62 93
current iz is much smaller as can be seen in Fig. A. Our calculations
show that for normal c~sesthis influence is not of importance and there *MS/m: Megasiemens per metre
is rather a reduction in losses. The calculations are somewhat on the
pessimistic side if the influence of the positivesequence system is neg- Mr. Vad would like to know the influence of the electrical conduc-
lected. Therefore, in my opinion this effect must not be considered at tivity of the wedge material and the effect of saturation. We have calcu-
the present for practical purposes lated the losses and their distribution for two new versions and have
The calculation with the aid of equivalent circuits is based on the compared the results in Table C with that of version 2.Computed results
fundamental waveof electromagnetic fields. The harmonics and the in version 2a demonstrate the influence of saturation. When iz reduces
curvature of the rotor as Mr. Vad mentions are not considered therein. to 1096, the losses do not reduce quadratically to 1%. In other words,
I hardly believe that these influences could be of significance in turbo- the negative-squence resistance increases by about 17%.If one con-
generators. siders the contact resistances in damper cage and between the wedges,
Dr. Adkinswouldlike to know, whether one can calculate the then this would lead to a further increase of 15%in rz .This effect how-
losses due to thestator current time harmonics.Insuch a casewe ever will be less pronounced at higher values of negative-sequence cu-
would apply the superposition principle. Then for each frequency all rent, because then the increase in contact resistance is rather smaller.
the reactances of the equivalent circuits must be increased accordingly If one wouldincrease the electrical conductivity of the wedge
and the corresponding slipvaluedecreased. As an example, for the material to 20 MS/m (ver. 2b), then the total losses of this machine
fifth positive-sequence harmonic all the reactances should be multiplied will be reduced by about 7%. In the case of a complete damper wind-
by five and are to be regarded as corresponding to a slip of 4/5 at the ing, one would expect a reduction of nearly 40% for this machine. Then
rated speed of the machine. Thus the losses for each slip value can be however the wedges must be effectively connected together electrically
calculated. I admit however that this procedure is an approximation, (Fig. B), as I have mentioned earlier. If this were not the case, then
because the system is somewhat nonlinear. the very high currents could flow from wedge to wedge through tooth
Dr. Adkins and Mr. Stoll enquire about contact resistances which iron causing detrimental burning at these spots. This signifies that a low
is a very delicate theme. This is so because the contact resistances are rz does not represent a criterion for the local stresses.
not only dependent on the nature of the surface and on the force acting in t% connection Mr. Oliver asks an important question: why
on it but also from the magnitude of the current. In order to consider should a complete damper winding not bring about a significant im-
the influence of contact resistances, I tentatively increase the equivalent provement in short time negativwquence capability t? A complete
circuit ohmic resistance of the relevant current loop appropriately. damper cage reduces the total negative-sequence losses as is explained
Here I assume a voltage drop of about 0,5 to 1 V at the contact areas. in my paper as well as in the companion papers of Neidhoefer and Bose.
We are of the opinion that the wedges are there only on mechanical A complete damper winding reduces the losses principally in the un-
grounds and they should be made of poorly conducting nonmagnetic wound zone of the rotor to a great extent. The permissible t value of
steeL As illustrated in Fig. B below, the major fraction of the current a machine however is limited primarily by the local temperature rise of
w li flow through the damper bars in this case. Only for special ma- the damper bars in the vicinity of field winding insulation. This was
chines, where a very low value of rz is desired, one can use wedges of ascertained from tests which we carried out with Electricitk de France
good conducting material. In this case, the wedges must be electrically (EdF) on a 290 MVA turbogenerator [AI. The critical spots are there-
interconnected e.g.by meansof additional pieces as illustrated sche- fore in the field winding zone of the rotor. However, these spots w l
not be influenced effectively bya complete damper winding. Con mensions. If one would have many slots with very thin teeth, then the
sequently, the permissible i: t value of a machine cannot be improved losses would increase.
signiftcantly by completing the damper winding.
On the basis of the numerical computations made with the aid of
f~tedifferencemethod Mr. Stoll expects, that the losses in a slotted REFERENCES
cylinder should increase. In this case, if diameter and linear current
density in the rotor remains constant, then in reality, the cmss-section [AI G. Neidhoefer, “The si&lcance of a Damper in Turbogenerator
of the current carrying layer should increase (Fig. 1). This leads to a Rotors”. Brown BoveriReview,vol. 61, pp. 192-198, May 1974.
reduction of the eddy-current resistance of therotor. Consequently, [Bl C. Schenfer, “Der Rotor des Asynchronmotors in Form des m e
the losses will be smaller. This has been codied not only through newsivenEisenzylinders”.Arch. fur Elektrotechn., vol. 16, pp.168-
but alsoby old tests [B]. This is obviously dependent on the slot di- 173,1926.

7 73