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THEMES

Charity Is the Mark of a True Christian


A major theme of Joseph Andrews is that charity is the mark of a true Christian. Time and again,
Joseph Andrews is the victim of people's lack of charity and even downright maliciousness. For
example, he is fired from his job by Lady Booby for refusing to sleep with her, and then he is
beaten within an inch of his life by robbers on the road. He is saved by some people in a
stagecoach only because they fear getting sued. The people who are kind to Joseph outside his
circle of acquaintances are members of the lower classes, since the upper classes are painted
fairly broadly in the novel as lacking charity and compassion. Parson Adams and Joseph
Andrews are the moral center of the novel, and both make speeches about charity. Joseph says
that he doesn't understand why there is so little charity among people or why people don't at least
practice charity so that other people will honor or admire them. In Joseph's view, being honored
for charity is far superior to being admired for being rich or accomplished. He finds it strange
that "all men should consent in commending goodness" but "no man endeavor[s] to deserve that
commendation." Similarly, all rail against wickedness yet seem eager to carry out wicked deeds.
Parson Adams continually preaches charity, and his life is a testament to his own charitableness.
He is the father to his parishioners and is open handed with everyone, even though he himself is
quite poor. He scolds the hypocritical parson Mr. Trulliber for his lack of charity, saying any
man "void of charity, I make no scruple of pronouncing that he is no Christian." The parson is
surprised by people's inability to lend a helping hand to him, even when it doesn't cost that much.
Yet when he is helped, it is almost always by people who have very little themselves. One
exception is Mr. Wilson, but when the parson learns his story, he realizes that he has been saved
by the charity of a woman—first she gives him material help, and then she accepts his love and
offers him her own.

Affectation Makes a Person Ridiculous


The narrator/author announces in the preface that he is writing a comic romance or epic poem in
prose in which he will focus on the ridiculous rather than the sublime. He explains that the
ridiculous, which is the cause for amusement and laughter, arises from affectation, and
affectation itself arises either from vanity or hypocrisy. "Vanity puts us on affecting false
characters, in order to purchase applause," says the narrator, "so hypocrisy sets us on an
endeavor to avoid censure, by concealing our vices under an appearance of their opposite
virtues." Although it is possible for a person to be vain or hypocritical without affectation, these
human failings usually lead to affectation, which leads to making oneself a laughing stock. The
narrator considers hypocrisy to be a much worse vice than vanity.

The immoral characters of the novel continually make themselves ridiculous because of their
hypocrisy, but they also cause a lot of damage. For example, Lady Booby and Mrs. Slipslop
pretend to be chaste while pursuing Joseph Andrews, and both create a lot of misery for him. On
the other hand, Parson Adams is sometimes ridiculous because of his vanity about his learning.
He believes his learning makes him wiser than all others, and when this view is challenged, he
pretends to be infallible. Nonetheless, his vanity is fairly harmless when compared to the
hypocrisy of characters like Lady Booby, Mr. Trulliber, the hypocritical parson who has
terrorized the people in his parish, and Peter Pounce, who is like a loan shark preying on the poor
people of Parson Adams's parish.

Corruption Increases Along Class Lines


In the novel the upper classes—called the high people or fashionable people—are consistently
portrayed as immoral, while the low people, or people with no fashion, are mostly portrayed as
moral. One exception to this rule is Mr. Wilson, who was born a gentleman and has some
property. Nonetheless, he has a moderate income and is not rich. He once was a rake, but he has
reformed himself with the help of a woman who loves him. This approach to characterization is
radical for the 18th century, since literary stories were pitched at the middle and upper classes
and most people thought "bad people" came primarily from the lower classes. While rakes and
ravishers were portrayed as aristocrats in other novels, for the most part the high people were
portrayed in a positive light. But in Joseph Andrews, the villains of the upper class rob and take
advantage of the poor and violate their rights, which is shown time and again in the novel. For
example, Lady Booby uses her clout as an aristocrat to have Fanny Goodwill and Joseph
Andrews falsely arrested, and the corrupt judge sentences them to stripping and whipping and
one month in Bridewell for stealing a twig. They are saved at the 11th hour by Squire Booby, an
aristocrat who is also decent now that he has taken the servant woman Pamela Andrews (now
Booby) as his wife. Another corrupt magistrate (the judges were always from the upper classes)
almost throws Fanny and Parson Adams in jail on false charges. An evil squire of the upper
classes and Beau Didapper, a patrician dandy, attempt to rape Fanny Goodwill and assume they
can do so with impunity.

Religion Is the Antithesis of the Good


Also radical in Joseph Andrews is the portrayal of bad clergymen. Two such men are Mr.
Barnabas, the parson who comes to see Joseph on his hypothetical deathbed, and Mr. Trulliber,
the prosperous pig farmer who is a parson only on Sunday. While Mr. Barnabas is not actively
evil, he is a poor specimen of a Christian. He tells Joseph Andrews it is okay for him to hate the
men who robbed him and even to kill them if he had the chance, because that is allowable by
law, but he says Joseph must forgive the robbers as a Christian. Joseph, who is still justifiably
harboring a lot of resentment against his attackers, asks in all sincerity what forgiveness is—
what it would look like in such a situation. The parson, whose spiritual understanding is about as
deep as the water in a shallow pan, answers, "Forgive them as—as—it is to forgive them as—in
short, it is to forgive them as a Christian."
Mr. Trulliber is the richest man in his parish, yet he refuses to loan Parson Adams 14 shillings
for his debt with the innkeeper. Trulliber accuses Adams of trying to rob him and throws him out
of his house after Parson Adams says he is no Christian. Trulliber has completely intimidated his
wife, who calls him "her master," as well as all his parishioners, who are afraid of his wrath. The
narrator says, "Mr. Trulliber had, by his professions of piety, by his gravity, austerity, reserve,
and the opinion of his great wealth, so great an authority in his parish, that they all lived in the
utmost fear and apprehension of him." As a rich man he has the ability to bring them
considerable misery, so he rules his parishioners 
CONCEPT OF MORALITY
Henry Fielding undoubtedly holds moral views far-ahead of his times. Morality is an approval
or adherence to principles that govern ethical and virtuous conduct. Fielding was accused of
being immoral in his novels. Dr. Johnson called his novels “vicious and corrupting

Behind the truthful portrait of life, lies his broad moral vision. His aim was to correct
mankind by pointing out their blunders.“I have endeavored to laugh at mankind, out
to their follies and vices.”Virtue cannot and should not be to chastity alone. Mere
external respectability is not morality. For Fielding:“Chastity without goodness of heart
is without value.” Fielding aims to show human beings in various shades of vanity and hypocrisy
and it is done ruthlessly and wittily in “Joseph Andrews”. Hypocrisy is worse than vanity. Morality is
concerned with inner truth according to Fielding. A person of affected behaviour is immoral than an
unchaste woman. Fielding exposes the follies, hypocrisy, corruption, affectation and the vices of his
so-called society.

The stage-coach passengers, the coachman, the lawyer, the lady, all are models of hypocrisy. Each
refuses to place Joseph in the coach on various excuses exposing their inner lack of worth. “O
Jesus”, cry’d the lady, “A naked man! Dear coachman, drive on”. A man motivated
by selfishness rather than social duty “makes all haste possible”. Only the poor postilion favours
Joseph and gives him his warm coat. The journey undertaken by Joseph and Parson Adams reveals
vanity or hypocrisy at every stage.
Theme of chastity

For Fielding:

“Chastity without goodness of heart is without value.”


Fielding’s novels are full of clergymen, many of whom are less than exemplary; in the contrast
between the benevolent Adams and his more self-interested brethren, Fielding draws the distinction
between the mere formal profession of Christian doctrines and that active charity which he considers
true Christianity. Fielding advocated the expression of religious duty in everyday human interactions:
universal, disinterested compassion arises from the social affections and manifests itself in general
kindness to other people, relieving the afflictions and advancing the welfare of mankind. One might
say that Fielding’s religion focuses on morality and ethics rather than on theology or forms of
worship; as Adams says to the greedy and uncharitable Parson Trulliber,

“Whoever therefore is void of Charity, I make no scruple of


pronouncing that he is no Christian.”
SOCIAL SATIRE
We have Joseph Andrews as the roguish hero who belongs to a low social class as we see he is
presented as Lady Booby’s footman as the novel opens. When Joseph leaves Booby house and sets on
his journey to find his Fanny, the reader finds Joseph at the mercy of corrupt society of 18th century
England. A detailed face of this corrupt society is revealed to the reader within the twelfth chapter of
the first book, where Joseph is maltreated by different people including coachman, lady, old gentleman,
and a lawyer (Fielding 40). It is also one of the characteristics of a picaresque novel that it talks of people
from lower class and from different professions. In Joseph Andrews, this characteristic can be quite
vividly seen as we see a coachman who, after seeing Joseph lying lifeless, says: “Go on, sirrah, we are
confounded late, and have no time to look after dead men” (40). The comments of a noble lady follow
those of the coachman as she discovers that Joseph is naked: “O J – sus! A naked man! Dear coachman,
drive on and leave him” (40). An old gentleman, on finding that Joseph was robbed, adds: “Robbed! Let
us make all the haste imaginable, or we shall be robbed too” (40). And the lawyer, no less in his
meanness, suggested that they must help Joseph since they all “might be proved to have been last in his
company; if he should die, they might be called to some account for his murder” (40). Furthermore, we
meet clergies including Parson Adams, Parson Barnabas and Parson Trulliber who depict no religious
inspiration rather serve as a satire on the clergymen. Nearly all the afore-mentioned characters are
from varying professions as well as from the lower class.

In this novel, the vices of the society have been presented in a real setting rather than a superficial one.
It can easily be discerned that Fielding intends to present 18th century England, and this fact is evident
from the choice of places, names, costumes, designations and religion. Furthermore, the characters
themselves show a real picture of the age Fielding intends to satire on. Some critics are of the view that
Joseph Andrews doesn’t become a picaresque novel till Joseph leaves Booby House which is a good
chunk of eleven chapters of the first book.

One of the major themes employed by Fielding in Joseph Andrews is satire on religion. Through different
religious figures he points out the religious conditions of that time and all the incidents show the corrupt
religious institution and author’s dissatisfaction with the present religious conditions of the time. As in
the preface it is said that the novel is going to be comic epic in prose and it will teach manners to the
people reading it. Religion gives us a code of ethics so focus on manners readily involves religion in the
discussion. Comic epic suggests that though a theme which in this case religion will be discussed but it
will be discussed in a satirical and humorous way. Parson Adams has been mentioned in preface which
directly implies the fact that the major area of focus of writer will be religion. Parson Adams is presented
as person who has a high moral personality. He follows all the moral values of Christianity and practically
implies them in his life. The writer fulfills his half purpose by his introduction. Full purpose is
accomplished when Adam’s innocent and foolish nature is revealed. Adam though is a preacher but he is
unaware of worldly affairs and worldly vices due to which people easily make a fool of him. He “was at
the same time as entirely ignorant of the ways of this world as the infant just entered into it could
possibly be” (Fielding 5). But the writer does not only end up here rather to give a complete picture of
religious corruption of his time he introduces other clergyman representative of church’s moral
degradation. Mr. Barnabas who comes for Joseph’s salvation after being robbed is more interested in
food rather than the needy person. “Mr. Barnabas was again sent for and with much difficulty prevailed
onto make another visit” (Fielding 36). Barnabas puts all Christian values aside and gives importance to
worldly desires. Parson Trulliber is parson just on Sundays and for the rest of week days he is a pig
dealer. His harsh attitude with Adam and refusal to do any sort of help reflects his shallow character
which is very unworthy on part of parson. By using different examples Fielding satirically presents
religious trends of his time.
 Fielding also provides some glimpses of the chaotic, greedy, opportunistic and insincere
sides of the 18th century society. The chaotic side is exposed by the robbery incident. It is
also revealed by the incident in which a villain attempts to rape Fanny. Human greed is
exposed by the characters of the surgeons and the clergymen. The surgeon refused to treat
Joseph because was unable to pay fees. The clergymen of the time were the most selfish
and materialistic. Parson Barnabas and Parson Trulliber are the true embodiments of corrupt
clergy. Then there is a squire who is fond of hunting hares, tries to satisfy his lustful desire
for Fanny taking advantages of her poor condition. The insincerity of the society is also
revealed by the depiction of the justices, who were as dishonest as the clergymen and the
squires. Justice Frolick, for instance, goes out of his way to send Joseph and Fanny to
prison, without any trial, only to satisfy a whim of Lady Booby.
Fielding makes upper class a constant victim of criticism in his novels. Through certain characters he
expresses the hypocritical nature of aristocrats. Lady booby though is a respectable upper-class lady but
she tries to seduce a much younger boy just seven days after her husband’s death. When her servant
overhears the conversation between her and the boy whom she tempted she gets afraid that her
character will be blemished. “She had the utmost tenderness of her reputation, as she knew on that
depended many of the most valuable blessings of life” (Fielding 23). This shows the hypocrisy of higher
class that they want to commit all immoral acts behind the scenes while preserving their purity in front
of their class.

Fielding also intends to reform the society from the vices of hypocrisy and vanity. If one seeks to have
such pleasure in these novels that he/she gets from popular fiction, they shall find them monotonous
and too descriptive.

Wuthering Heights: Sadism, Cruelty and Violence.

The confronting images of brutality and inhumanity in Wuthering Heights initially shocked
many of its readers in 1847. Persistently disturbed by vivid descriptions of hanging puppies,
physical torment, and emotional agony , the reader is yet willingly enticed into a microcosm that
encompasses the wild moors. Critic Clifton Snider claims that "...the reader is shocked,
disgusted, almost sickened by details of cruelty, inhumanity, and the most diabolical hate and
vengeance," displayed in Hindley's raging hatred against Heathcliff, and subsequently in
Heathcliff's torment of Isabella, Linton and young Cathy. Taunting, vivid and wild, the reader is
even further drawn in to the novel. Sadism, cruelty and violence are distinctly the dominating
elements in Wuthering Heights.

The first, and perhaps most disturbing image of cruelty we are presented with, presides with
Lockwood's dream in chapter 3. A ghost-waif tapping at his bedside window confronts
Lockwood. It is apparent that the owner of this lost soul is the first Catherine Earnshaw. The
image startles Lockwood, who cowardly scrapes and scratches the nymph's wrist on the broken
windowpane.

"Terror made me cruel...I pulled its wrist on to the broken pane, and rubbed it to and fro till the
blood ran down and soaked the bed-clothes." chapter 3

Dorothy Van Ghent maintains that "The cruelty of the dream is the gratuitousness of the violence
wrought on a child by an emotionally unmotivated vacationer from the city, dreaming in a
strange bed...The coffin-like bed shuts off any interference with the wild deterioration of the
psyche." Lockwood's reaction indeed seems extreme, the foreigner to the Heights has committed
a remarkable act of cowardice. This image remains one of the most haunting and violent
projections of the novel. "It confronts us with the potential brutality that lurks in the unconscious
of even the most innocuous character and, indeed, in one whose position as an outsider and an
auditor links him most closely with the reader." (Nestor 1995)

Wuthering Heights and its early inhabitant's posses the sadistic drive for strength and dominance.
In the beginning chapters when Mr Earnshaw endeavors to Liverpool, he asks the children what
they would like. Hindley requests a fiddle, while Catherine desires a whip. Catherine's longing
for a whip mirrors the girl's yearning for power and control. Upon her father's return Catherine
does not receive her whip, instead her father brings home a motherless "gypsy", Heathcliff. In
place of the whip, or perhaps figuratively as the whip, Catherine's sadistic nature is presented
with the opportunity to manifest itself with her dominance over him. In time Catherine's
puppeteering of Heathcliff surpasses even old Mr Earnshaw's parental control of the boy.
Catherine thrived in this situation and took pleasure in her domination. "...doing just what her
father hated most, showing how her pretended insolence, which he thought real, had more power
over Heathcliff than his kindness." chapter 5

During childhood and early adulthood the domination of Heathcliff continues with Hindley. Who
constantly physically and mentally batters Heathcliff. This provides the ammunition for later
vengeance on Hareton, Linton, Cathy and Isabella. Guilty of usurping old Earnshaw's affection
for his biological children, Heathcliff results as the victim of merciless degradation from Hindley
until his disappearance in chapter 9. "...the young master had learnt to regard his father as an
oppressor rather than a friend, and Heathcliff as a usurper of his parent's affections, and his
privileges, and he grew bitter with brooding over these injuries." Hindley's jealousy extends to
violence along with the practice of psychologically demoralizing Heathcliff. He frequently refers
to Heathcliff as an "imp of Satan", "dog" and "devil", though Heathcliff's stoic nature
reciprocates no action. He insidiously waits for the hour upon which he will revive the conflict
and crush his enemies.

"...he [Heathcliff[ would stand Hindley's blows without winking or shedding a tear...I was
surpassed to witness how coolly the child gathered himself up and, went on with his
intention." chapter 4.
"I'm trying to settle how I shall pay Hindley back. I don't care how long I wait, if I can only do it,
at last. I hope he will not die before I do!" chapter 7.

The death of old Earnshaw provides the opportunity for Hindley to take full advantage of his
masterdom over Heathcliff. The psycho-sadistic nature of Heathcliff's torment pleasures Hindley.
He degrades Heathcliff in front of the Linton's upon Cathy's return from Thrushcross
Grange, "..Mr Hindley, enjoying his [Heathcliff's] discomfiture and gratified to see what a
forbidding young blackguard he would be compelled to present himself. 'You may come and
wish Miss Catherine welcome, like the other servants.'" chapter 7.

Emily Bronte skillfully sketches a diminutive line between pleasure and pain through Hindley's
torture, Catherine's sadism and Heathcliff's revenge. It is further magnified in Heathcliff's
marriage to Isabella, who displayed a fascination with Heathcliff's brutality, a false perception of
strength. Catherine persistently tries to divert Isabella's attention elsewhere, by calling
Heathcliff "an unreclaimed creature, without refinement-without cultivation; an arid wilderness
of furze and whinestone...a fierce, pitiless, wolfish man."chapter 10

Catherine's account of Heathcliff only further allures Isabella, for it is these qualities to which
she is attracted. Isabella, though a victim, partakes in Heathcliff's violence by her attraction to it.
Not even the hanging of puppies redirected her attraction: "The first thing she saw me do...was to
hang up her little dog, and when she pleaded for it, the first words I uttered were a wish that I
had the hanging of every being belonging to her, except one: possible, she took that exception for
herself- But no brutality disgusted her- I suppose she has an innate admiration of it, if only her
precious person were secure from injury!" chapter 14.

Isabella's sadomasochistic inclination is demonstrated when she proclaims that she wishes to "be
killed by him [Heathcliff]" it is her "first desire" in the dejected marriage. The word 'killed'
contains not only the literary meaning, but encompasses a sexual connotation. In proclaiming
that she wishes to be killed by Heathcliff, Isabella embraces the Elizabethan pun for an orgasm.
The combination of the two interpretations proves a brilliant device for Bronte, and magnifies
the sadistic nature in which Isabella lives. Isabella is increasingly infatuated when Hindley
produces the gun he intends to murder Heathcliff with. Intimidated, yet attracted to such a
powerful vice, Isabella is inclined towards violence, but is never capable of it:
"I surveyed the weapon inquisitively, a hideous notion struck me. How powerful I should be
possessing such an instrument! I took it from his hand and touched the blade. He looked
astonished at the expression on my face assumed during a brief second. It was not horror, it was
covetousness." chapter 13.

Perhaps the pinnacle of sadistic sensations lies with the death of Catherine Earnshaw-Linton.
Since her youth Catherine drew pleasure from the suffering of others, and her death only begins
of her torture of Edgar and Heathcliff. In her marriage to Edgar, Catherine has not only betrayed
Heathcliff, but she has betrayed her own world. She acknowledged what was right and chose
wrong, it is a moral failure upon which Catherine holds others guilty. In turn Catherine blames
Heathcliff and Edgar 'forcing' a necessary choice upon her. At the same, time, however,
Catherine received pleasure over their torment. It remained sexually charging to have two men
physically fighting over her. Even in youth Catherine's narcissism lead her to the belief that she
was universally loved. "How strange! I thought, though everybody hated and despised each
other, they could not avoid loving me.' chapter 12.

Catherine's desire to generate Heathcliff and Edgar's suffering manifests itself in death. She
claims to Nelly: "I want to frighten him [Edgar]...I'll try to break their hearts by breaking my
own." chapter 11.

Seeing suicide as a form of revenge, Catherine is driven to anorexia and madness in the days
prior to her death, Martin Turnell analyses the characteristics of this condition: "...self
starvation...masochism, and suicide form a complex of psychoneurotic symptoms that is almost
classically associated with female feelings of powerlessness and rage."

Catherine's last encounter with Heathcliff on her deathbed reveals a frenzy of wild and raw
passion. In a violent, animalistic excess of passion, Catherine and Heathcliff partake in a parody
of a sexual union filled with death and destruction.

"Her present countenance had a wild vindictiveness in its white cheek, and a bloodless lip, and
scintillating eye; and she retained, in her closed fingers, a portion of the locks she had been
grasping. As to her companion, while raising himself with one hand, had taken her arm with the
other; and so inadequate was his stock of gentleness to the requirements of her condition, that on
his letting go, I saw four distinct impressions left blue in the colourless skin."
This paroxysmal exchange of affection equates the height of the novel. Bronte's construction of
the passage releases the animal in Heathcliff. Who's eyes "flashed fiercely", and his
breast "heaved convulsively". The lovers' carnivorous transposition climaxes in a violent
eruption of retention. "...he...foamed like a mad dog, and gathered her into him with greedy
jealousy. I did not feel as if I were in the company of a creature of my own species." chapter 15 .

Heathcliff and Catherine are driven by their violent impulses through life. However, "the former
is outwardly directed and sadistic, while the latter is inward-turning and masochistic" (Nestor,
1995) Heathcliff's display of ragged emotion and barbaric infuriations afterwards appalls Nelly.
She takes the news of Catherine's death to Heathcliff, and is faced with a haunted spirit in an
attempt of emancipation: "He dashed his head against the knotted trunk; and lifting up his eyes,
howled, not like a man, but like a savage beast getting goaded to death with knives and
spears." chapter 16.

In death, Catherine's power over Heathcliff and Edgar remains more influential than in life. Her
memory haunts Heathcliff unremittingly until his death, and he never ceases to torture others
until this moment. Catherine's torment transcends the physical, it is a power which unearths "no
channel in the social world" and therefore dominates the book greater in death (the spiritual
world), than in life.

The second volume of the novel concentrates on the youngest generations of Lintons, Earnshaws
and Heathcliffs. The images of violence and brutality are not as conspicuous as with the elder
Catherine, Hindley and Heathcliff. They are however, just as harrowing. Heathcliff continues to
inflict suffering upon others, namely Hareton, Linton, young Cathy and Edgar, while the children
also partake in the torment of each other. Isabella's offspring, Linton arrives at Thrushcross
Grange after his mother's death. Being also the child of Heathcliff, he possesses qualities of both
the 'calm and storm', which David Cecil claims are "the cowardice and weakness of calm, the
cruelty and ruthlessness of the storm...a child of hate".

In his teenage years, Linton grows distant from Cathy, though he has inherited from his father
the wanting for domination. Linton's desire for such power never eventuates, he is too weak
physically and emotionally to hold such a strength. Heathcliff enacts revenge on Edgar when he
'kidnaps' Cathy. He emotionally tortures her by prohibiting her from seeing her father in his
dying weeks. It batters both Cathy and Edgar, who manages to wait on the threshold of death
until his daughter's return.

Heathcliff manages to psychologically scathe Hareton, Hindley's son. Hareton is symbolically


the incarnation of the younger Heathcliff. He endures the same degradation and humiliation,
though Hareton and Heathcliff reserve no perminatley ill feelings for each other. Hareton's nature
never found fulfillment in destruction, only in rejuvenation. Although Heathcliff proclaims "now
would be the precise time to revenge myself", he can't deny the changing attitude towards
Hareton "I felt to him in such a variety of ways, that it would have been impossible to have
accosted him rationally." Eventually, even Heathcliff's desire for violence and cruelty fades. "I
have lost the faculty of enjoying their destruction..."chapter 28.

In the final stages of the novel, Cathy torments Hareton by establishing a superiority over him
via books and reading. Just as her mother did, Cathy show's Heathcliff that she has more power
and influence over Hareton than he does. Cathy "is the stimulus for Hareton's cultural ambition"
(Pykett 1989), her cultivation of Hareton is portrayed as a form of sexual control. Her sadistic
nature reveals itself not in a destructive manner, but in a positive love, as her strive for
domination does not encourage violence or cruelty, but compassion and knowledge. The
confronting brutality and sadism that lurks beyond the surface encompasses all who enter
Wuthering Heights, both character and reader alike. Emily Bronte shocks the reader with violent
eruptions of passion and physical torment, yet the reader is uncontrollably caught in a web of
intrigue, lust and passion. Within the novel "difference can exist without opposition,
contradictory elements can exist side by side without disturbance or interaction... Wuthering
Heights aquires a transgressive power that offers a potent blend of the satisfaction of fantasy and
the fascination of horror."