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Correlation

Scatterplots & Correlation

Deviation & Computational


Equations

Testing Significance

Intercorrelation Matrix
2

Partial Correlations

Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,


Sam Houston State University
3

KEY CONCEPTS
*****
Correlation

Correlation coefficient
Interpretation of the concepts of magnitude and direction
Use of a scatterplot to diagnose correlation
Deviation score formula for the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient
Karl Pearson (1857-1936)
Concepts of:
Sum of cross products
Sums of squares of X & Y
Computational formula for the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient
t-test for determining the significance of r and df
Null hypothesis in determining the significance of r
Coefficient of determination
Coefficient of nondetermination
Assumptions for the Pearson r
Linear relationship
X & Y are metric variables
Randomly drawn sample
X & Y are normally distributed in the population
The concept of a nonlinear relationship
Intercorrelation matrix
Caveats in interpreting an intercorrelation matrix
Interpretation of a partial correlation
Zero-order correlation
1st , 2nd, etc. order correlations

Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,


Sam Houston State University
4

Lecture Outline

 The concept of correlation

 Using a scatterplot to identify a correlation

 Pearson Product-Moment Correlation


Coefficient

 Coefficients of correlation, determination &


nondetermination

 Intercorrelation matrix

 Partial correlation coefficient

Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,


Sam Houston State University
5

The Problem of Determining


Relationships

Science attempts to find the "causes" of


phenomena.

Q Why do some prisoners attempt to escape


from prison and others do not?

Q Why do some judges have a constant


backlogs of cases while others run an efficient
docket?

Q What factors account for the fact that some


countries have a higher rate of violent crime
than others?

Q Is violence in the media related to violent


behavior in society?

Q Why do some police officers become "rogue


cops"?

Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,


Sam Houston State University
6

The Problem in Determining Causality

How can one determined if one variable is the


“cause” of another?

Example

Do liberal laws on the purchase and


possession of firearms cause increases in
the incidence of violent crimes involving
weapons?

Principles of causality

1st Are the two variables in question related


( X & Y)? Is there a covariance between
them?

2nd Is there a replicable time sequence


between the two variables, the variable
thought to be causal (X) always

Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,


Sam Houston State University
7

preceding the variable thought to be the


effect (Y)?

Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,


Sam Houston State University
8

The Problem Determining Causality (cont.)

3rd Having eliminated or controlled for all


other extraneous variables, can it be
demonstrated that when X occurs Y
always follows?

Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,


Sam Houston State University
9

Correlation and Causality

The first step in determining whether one


variable (X) is correlated with another variable
(Y) involves …

Determining if the two variables covary

The concept of covariance

Is it true that as X increases …


Y also increases, and to what extent?

Or, is it true that as X increases …


Y decreases, and to what extent?

Caveat

The mere fact that two variables covary (i.e.


correlate) is no proof that one is the cause of
the other.

Correlation does not necessarily prove


causation.
Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,
Sam Houston State University
10

A Correlation Coefficient

A correlation coefficient is an index number that


measures …
 The magnitude and
 The direction of the relationship
between two variables

It is designed to range in value between


0.0 and 1.0

-1.0 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0.0 +0.2 +0.4 +0.6 +0.8 +1.0

Negative Positive
Relationship Relationship
X Y X Y
X Y X Y

No relationship

Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,


Sam Houston State University
11

Varieties of Correlational Statistics

Statisticians have developed many techniques


for determining the correlation between two
or more variables.

The primary difference among these techniques


is a function of the types of variables being
correlated (i.e. nonmetric: nominal, ordinal, or
metric: interval or ratio)

 Metric with metric

 Metric with nonmetric

 Nonmetric with nonmetric

A partial list of correlational techniques

Pearson product-moment correlation


coefficient (metric with metric)

Spearman's rank-difference coefficient (rho)


(ordinal with ordinal)

Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,


Sam Houston State University
12

Varieties of Correlational Statistics (cont.)

Biserial coefficient (a metric variable with a


metric variable that has been artificially
reduced to categories)

Point biserial coefficient (a metric variable


with a truly dichotomous variable)

Tetrachoric correlation coefficient (two


metric variables that have been artificially
reduced to dichotomous categories)

Phi Coefficient (two truly dichotomous


variables)

Partial correlation (two metric variables with


the intercorrelation with a third variable
removed from both of them)

Kendall coefficient of concordance (three or


more ordinal variables

Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,


Sam Houston State University
13

Multiple correlation (one metric variable with


two or more metric and/or nonmetric
variables)

Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,


Sam Houston State University
14

The Scatterplot
A useful tool for visually identifying the presence
of a possible relationship between two metric
variables.

30

20

10

0
10 20 30 40

AGE

Correlation r = +0.8257 (p< 0.001)

Correlation r = -0.4174 (p< 0.001)


The Scatterplot (cont.)

30

30

20

20

10

10

0
20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,
0 Sam Houston State University
12 14 TIME TO16DISPOSITION 18 IN DAYS 20 22 24

AGE AT FIRST ARREST


15

Correlation r = -0.0841 (P = 0.489)

Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,


Sam Houston State University
16

An Example
Is There a Correlation Between
Homicide & Rape?

The incidence of homicide and rape per


100,000 population in a sample of seven
medium size cities

City Homicide Rape


(X) (Y)

A 4 16

B 6 29

C 10 43

D 5 20

E 1 3

F 2 4

G 3 6

Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,


Sam Houston State University
17

Totals 31 121

Scatterplot of the Homicide v Rape

12

11

10

1
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

RAPE

Do the two variables appear to be related?

What is the magnitude of the relationship on a


scale of 0.0 to 1.0?

Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,


Sam Houston State University
18

What is the direction of the relationship, positive


or negative?

Pearson Product-Moment Correlation


Coefficient
Karl Pearson (1857-1936) British mathematician and statistician who also
developed the Chi-Square Test

r= Σ (X – X) (Y – Y)

Σ (X – X)2 Σ (Y – Y)2

Incidence of Homicide (X) and Rape (Y)

City X Y (X – X) 2 (Y - Y) 2 (X – X) (Y - Y)
A 4 16 0.1849 1.6641 0.5547
B 6 29 2.4649 137.124 18.4789
C 10 43 31.0249 661.004 143.2047
D 5 20 0.3249 5.7100 1.5447
E 1 3 11.7649 204.204 49.0147
F 2 4 5.9049 176.624 32.2947
G 3 6 2.0449 127.464 16.1447

Totals 31 121 53.7143 1310.794 261.2371

Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,


Sam Houston State University
19

Mean number of homicides & rapes


X = 4.43 and Y = 17.29

Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient (cont.)

Sum of squared deviations in homicides = 53.71


Sum of squared deviations in rapes = 1310.79
Sum of cross products (SP) = 261.24

Calculation of the Pearson r

r= 261.24 = 261.24

(53.71) (1310.79) 70402.53

r = (261.24) / (265.33) = +0.985

Interpretation

Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,


Sam Houston State University
20

The magnitude of the correlation between


homicide and rape = 0.985.

The direction of the relationship is positive.


As the incidence of homicide increases so
does the incidence of rape.
An Alternative Way to Calculate a
Pearson Correlation

The previous equation is called a deviation


score equation since the mean of each variable
is subtracted from each respective case.

An alternative computational equation is given


below. It will yield the same result within
rounding error.

r= N(Σ XY) – (Σ X) (Σ Y)
[N Σ X2 – (Σ X)2] [NΣ Y2 – (Σ Y)2]

Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,


Sam Houston State University
21

An Alternative Way to Calculate a Pearson Correlation (cont.)

City X Y (X) 2 (Y) 2 (XY)


A 4 16 16 256 64
B 6 29 36 841 174
C 10 43 100 1849 430
D 5 20 25 400 100
E 1 3 1 9 3
F 2 4 4 16 8
G 3 6 9 36 18

Totals 31 121 191 3407 797

r= 7 (797) – (31) (121)


[7 (191)– (31)2] [7 (3407) – (121)2]

r = 0.985

This is the same value computed with the


deviation score equation.

Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,


Sam Houston State University
22

Determining the Significance of a


Correlation Coefficient

The problem

Imagine a population in which X and Y are


not related, the correlation ρ = 0.0. (ρ =
rho)

Is it possible to draw a random sample from


that population and find that the correlation
between X & Y in the sample is not 0.0?

Of course this is possible, but what is the


probability of that happening?

A t-test

A t-test can be used to answer this question.

Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,


Sam Houston State University
23

A t-Testfor the Significance of a


Correlation Coefficient

t=[r N – 2) ] / 1 – r2
df = (N – 2)

The null hypothesis H0

In the population, the correlation between X


& Y is ρ = 0.0

What is the probability, therefore that the


correlation obtained in the sample came from a
population where the parameter ρ = 0.0?

Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,


Sam Houston State University
24

A t-Test for the Significance of a Correlation Coefficient (cont.)

For the correlation between homicide and rape

r = 0.985

t = [ 0.985 7 – 2) ] / 1 – (0.985)2

t = (2.203) / (0.1726) = 12.767

df = (N - 2) = (7 cities - 2) = 5

The critical value of t for df = 5 and α = 0.05


is t = 2.571

Interpretation

Since 12.767 > 2.571, r is significant


at p < 0.05

Decision Reject the null hypothesis and


affirm that the two variables are positively
related in the population.

Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,


Sam Houston State University
25

Coefficients of Determination
& Non-determination

r = the correlation between X and Y

e.g. r = 0.985

r2 = the coefficient of determination

r2 = (0.985)2 = 0.97

This is the proportion of variance in Y that


can be explained by X, in percentage terms
97%

1 - r2 = the coefficient of nondetermination

1 - r2 = (1 - 0.9852)= 0.03

This is the proportion of variance in Y that


can not be explained by X, in percentage
terms 3%

Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,


Sam Houston State University
26

Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,


Sam Houston State University
27

Some Examples of SPSS


Correlational Output

Given a random sample of 70 felony cases.

Q Is there a correlation between the age of the


offender and the length of sentence?

30

20

10

0
10 20 30 40

AGE

Correlation r = 0.826, p < 0.001

Correlations

AGE SENTENCE
AGE Pearson Correlation 1.000 .826**
Sig. (2-tailed) . .000
N 70 70
SENTENCE Pearson Correlation .826** 1.000
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .
N 70 70
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,


Sam Houston State University
28

Some Examples of SPSS Correlational Output (cont.)

Q Is there a correlation between the age of first


arrest and the length of sentence?

30

20

10

0
12 14 16 18 20 22 24

AGE AT FIRST ARREST

Correlation r = -0.417, p < 0.001

Correlations

AGE_FIRS SENTENCE
AGE_FIRS Pearson Correlation 1.000 -.417**
Sig. (2-tailed) . .000
N 70 70
SENTENCE Pearson Correlation -.417** 1.000
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .
N 70 70
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,


Sam Houston State University
29

Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,


Sam Houston State University
30

Some Examples of SPSS Correlational Output (cont.)

Q Is there a correlation between the time to


case disposition and the length of sentence?

30

20

10

0
20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160

TIME TO DISPOSITION IN DAYS

Correlation r = -0.084, p < 0.489

Correlations

TM_DISP SENTENCE
TM_DISP Pearson Correlation 1.000 -.084
Sig. (2-tailed) . .489
N 70 70
SENTENCE Pearson Correlation -.084 1.000
Sig. (2-tailed) .489 .
N 70 70

Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,


Sam Houston State University
31

Pearson Correlation Assumptions

 That the relationship between X and Y can be


represented by a straight line, i.e. it is linear.

 That X and Y are metric variables, measured


on an interval or ratio scale of measurement.

 In using a t distribution to test the significance


of the correlation coefficient …

That the sample was randomly drawn


from the population, and

That X and Y are normally distributed in


the population. This assumption is less
important as the sample size increases

Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,


Sam Houston State University
32

An Intercorrelation Matrix

Multiple correlations and their significance can


be computed simultaneously and reported in an
intercorrelation matrix

Example

Intercorrelation of age, age at first arrest,


number of prior arrests and convictions, and
length of sentence

SPSS Intercorrelation Results


C o rre la tio n s

AG E A G E _ F IR S PR _ AR R S T P R _ C O N V S EN T E N C E
AG E P e a rso n C o rr e la tio n 1 .0 0 0 - .3 1 2** .1 7 9 .3 0 2* .8 2 6**
S ig . (2 - ta ile d ) . .0 0 9 .1 3 8 .0 1 1 .0 0 0
N 70 70 70 70 70
AG E _ F IR S P e a rso n C o rr e la tio n -.3 1 2** 1 .0 0 0 -.3 1 5** -.3 5 8** -.4 1 7**
S ig . (2 - ta ile d ) .0 0 9 . .0 0 8 .0 0 2 .0 0 0
N 70 70 70 70 70
PR _ AR R S T P e a rso n C o rr e la tio n .1 7 9 - .3 1 5** 1 .0 0 0 .7 9 5** .2 4 6*
S ig . (2 - ta ile d ) .1 3 8 .0 0 8 . .0 0 0 .0 4 0
N 70 70 70 70 70
PR _ C O N V P e a rso n C o rr e la tio n .3 0 2* - .3 5 8** .7 9 5** 1 .0 0 0 .4 0 0**
S ig . (2 - ta ile d ) .0 1 1 .0 0 2 .0 0 0 . .0 0 1
N 70 70 70 70 70
SEN T E N C E P e a rso n C o rr e la tio n .8 2 6** - .4 1 7** .2 4 6* .4 0 0** 1 .0 0 0
S ig . (2 - ta ile d ) .0 0 0 .0 0 0 .0 4 0 .0 0 1 .
N 70 70 70 70 70
**. C o r re la tio n is sig n ifica n t a t th e 0 .0 1 le ve l ( 2 -ta ile d ) .
*. C o r re la tio n is sig n ifica n t a t th e 0 .0 5 le ve l ( 2 -ta ile d ).

Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,


Sam Houston State University
33

Caveats in Interpreting an
Intercorrelation Matrix

 Are all the relationships linear?

 Has each variable been checked for outliers


that might lead to a Type I or II error?

 Has each pair of variables (X & Y) been


checked for bivariate outliers that might lead
to a Type I or II error?

 Can it be assumed that each variable is


normally distributed in the population?

 Can it be assumed that each pair of variables


is a random sample from the population?

Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,


Sam Houston State University
34

What Is the Meaning of a


Linear Relationship?

The Pearson correlation assumes that the two


variables are linearly related. What does this
mean?

Example

Age and length of sentence

30

20

10

0
10 20 30 40

AGE

Notice that the straight line is a "fair"


representation of the relationship.

The cases are about evenly distributed above


and below the line.

Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,


Sam Houston State University
35

This is called homogeneity of the variance of


Y over levels of X.
What Is the Meaning of a Linear Relationship? (cont.)

Example

Age at first arrest and length of sentence

30

20

10

0
12 14 16 18 20 22 24

AGE AT FIRST ARREST

Notice that the straight line is not a "fair"


representation of the relationship.

The cases are not evenly distributed above and


below the line.

This is called heterogeneity of the variance


of Y over levels of X.

Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,


Sam Houston State University
36

The Problem of Multiple Intercorrelation

Imagine three variables that are interrelated with


each other.

How can the correlation between two of them be


computed …

Eliminating the intercorrelation that both


have with the third variable?

Example
Age
Age at first arrest
Length of sentence

Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,


Sam Houston State University
37

Correlations

AGE AGE_FIRS SENTENCE


AGE Pearson Correlation 1.000 -.312** .826**
Sig. (2-tailed) . .009 .000
N 70 70 70
AGE_FIRS Pearson Correlation -.312** 1.000 -.417**
Sig. (2-tailed) .009 . .000
N 70 70 70
SENTENCE Pearson Correlation .826** -.417** 1.000
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .
N 70 70 70
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

The Problem of Multiple Intercorrelation (cont.)

Q What is the correlation between age and


sentence …

Eliminating the intercorrelation of both


variables with age at first arrest?

A This problem can be solved by computing


the partial correlation between age and
sentence, controlling for age at first arrest.

Q How is a partial correlation computed?

Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,


Sam Houston State University
38

Partial Correlation Coefficient

rXY.Z = [ rXY – (rXZ) (rYZ) ] / [ 1 - r2XZ 1 - r2YZ ]

What is the correlation of X and Y taking out the


intercorrelation of both variables with Z?

X Y

rXY.Z = the partial correlation between X and Y,


partialling out the inter-relationship between X
and Z, and Y and Z

Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,


Sam Houston State University
39

Partial Correlation Coefficient (cont.)

Example

What is the correlation between age (X) and


length of sentence (Y), partialling out or
controlling for age at first arrest (Z)?

Correlations

AGE AGE_FIRS SENTENCE


AGE Pearson Correlation 1.000 -.312** .826**
Sig. (2-tailed) . .009 .000
N 70 70 70
AGE_FIRS Pearson Correlation -.312** 1.000 -.417**
Sig. (2-tailed) .009 . .000
N 70 70 70
SENTENCE Pearson Correlation .826** -.417** 1.000
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .
N 70 70 70
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

rXY.Z = [ .826 - (-.312) (-.417) ]


[ 1 - (-.312 )2 1 - ( -.417) 2 ]

rXY.Z ≅ 0.806

Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,


Sam Houston State University
40

Notice the difference between the correlation


(0.826) and the partial correlation (0.806) when
controlled for age at first arrest.

Partial Correlation Coefficient (cont.)

Example
What is the correlation between age at first
arrest (X) and length of sentence (Y), partialling
out or controlling for age (Z)?

Correlations

AGE AGE_FIRS SENTENCE


AGE Pearson Correlation 1.000 -.312** .826**
Sig. (2-tailed) . .009 .000
N 70 70 70
AGE_FIRS Pearson Correlation -.312** 1.000 -.417**
Sig. (2-tailed) .009 . .000
N 70 70 70
SENTENCE Pearson Correlation .826** -.417** 1.000
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .
N 70 70 70
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

rXY.Z = [ -.417 - (-.312) (.826) ]


[ 1 - (-.312 )2 1 - ( .826) 2 ]

Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,


Sam Houston State University
41

rXY.Z ≅ -0.298

Notice the difference between the correlation


(-0.417) and the partial correlation (-0.298) when
controlled for age.

SPSS Partial Correlation Results

Age and sentence controlling for age


at first arrest
- - - P A R T I A L C O R R E L A T I O N C O E F F I C I E N T S - - -

Controlling for.. AGE_FIRS

AGE SENTENCE

AGE 1.0000 .8055


( 0) ( 67)
P= . P= .000

SENTENCE .8055 1.0000


( 67) ( 0)
P= .000 P= .

(Coefficient / (D.F.) / 2-tailed Significance)

" . " is printed if a coefficient cannot be computed

Age at first arrest and sentence controlling


for age
- - - P A R T I A L C O R R E L A T I O N C O E F F I C I E N T S - - -

Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,


Sam Houston State University
42

Controlling for.. AGE

SENTENCE AGE_FIRS

SENTENCE 1.0000 -.2980


( 0) ( 67)
P= . P= .013

AGE_FIRS -.2980 1.0000


( 67) ( 0)
P= .013 P= .

(Coefficient / (D.F.) / 2-tailed Significance)

" . " is printed if a coefficient cannot be computed

Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,


Sam Houston State University
43

Multiple Partial Correlation

rxy.zz′

More than one variable can be partialled out of a


bivariate correlation.

X Y

Z′
Z

Example

What is the correlation between age (X) and


sentence (Y) …

Partialling out prior arrests, time to


disposition, prior convictions, drug use
and the seriousness of the offense?

Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,


Sam Houston State University
44

Multiple Partial Correlation (cont.)

The bivariate correlations among the seven


variables.

Correlations
C o rre la t io n s

A G E S E N T E N CPER _ A R R STTM _ D IS P R _ C O N DV R _ S C O RSEE R _ IN D X


AGE P e a r s o n C o r r e la tio1 n. 0 0 0 . 8 2 *6* .1 7 9 .0 4 8 .3 0 *2 . 2 5 *2 . 6 0 *9*
S ig . ( 2 - ta ile d ) . .0 0 0 .1 3 8 .6 9 2 .0 1 1 .0 3 6 .0 0 0
N 70 70 70 70 70 70 70
S E N T E N C PE e a r s o n C o r r e la tio .n8 2 *6* 1 .0 0 0 . 2 4 *6 - .0 8 4 .4 0 *0* . 3 4 *6* . 7 4 *4*
S ig . ( 2 - ta ile d ) .0 0 0 . .0 4 0 .4 8 9 .0 0 1 .0 0 3 .0 0 0
N 70 70 70 70 70 70 70
P R _ A R R S PT e a r s o n C o r r e la tio .n1 7 9 . 2 4 *6 1 .0 0 0 - .0 7 2 .7 9 *5* -.0 0 3 . 5 0 *2*
S ig . ( 2 - ta ile d ) .1 3 8 .0 4 0 . .5 5 6 .0 0 0 .9 7 9 .0 0 0
N 70 70 70 70 70 70 70
T M _ D I S P P e a r s o n C o r r e la tio .n0 4 8 -.0 8 4 -.0 7 2 1 .0 0 0 - .0 6 6 -.0 2 4 .0 3 2
S ig . ( 2 - ta ile d ) .6 9 2 .4 8 9 .5 5 6 . .5 8 9 .8 4 1 .7 9 4
N 70 70 70 70 70 70 70
P R _ C O N VP e a r s o n C o r r e la tio .n3 0 *2 . 4 0 *0* . 7 9 *5* - .0 6 6 1 .0 0 0 .0 5 6 . 5 7 *8*
S ig . ( 2 - ta ile d ) .0 1 1 .0 0 1 .0 0 0 .5 8 9 . .6 4 5 .0 0 0
N 70 70 70 70 70 70 70
D R _ S C O RPEe a r s o n C o r r e la tio .n2 5 *2 . 3 4 *6* -.0 0 3 - .0 2 4 .0 5 6 1 .0 0 0 . 2 7 *9
S ig . ( 2 - ta ile d ) .0 3 6 .0 0 3 .9 7 9 .8 4 1 .6 4 5 . .0 1 9
N 70 70 70 70 70 70 70
S E R _ IN D XP e a r s o n C o r r e la tio .n6 0 *9* . 7 4 *4* . 5 0 *2* .0 3 2 .5 7 *8* . 2 7 *9 1 .0 0 0
S ig . ( 2 - ta ile d ) .0 0 0 .0 0 0 .0 0 0 .7 9 4 .0 0 0 .0 1 9 .
N 70 70 70 70 70 70 70
* * . C o r r e la tio n is s ig n if ic a n t a t t h e 0 .0 1 le v e l ( 2 - ta ile d ) .
* . C o r r e la tio n is s ig n if ic a n t a t t h e 0 .0 5 le v e l ( 2 - ta ile d ) .

Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,


Sam Houston State University
45

Multiple Partial Correlation (cont.)

The partial correlation of age and sentence,


controlling for five other variables.

- - - P A R T I A L C O R R E L A T I O N C O E F F I C I E N T S - - -

Controlling for.. PR_ARRST TM_DISP PR_CONV DR_SCORE SER_INDX

AGE SENTENCE

AGE 1.0000 .7044


( 0) ( 63)
P= . P= .000

SENTENCE .7044 1.0000


( 63) ( 0)
P= .000 P= .

(Coefficient / (D.F.) / 2-tailed Significance)

" . " is printed if a coefficient cannot be computed

Notice the difference between the correlation


and the partial correlation between age and
sentence.

 Correlation = +0.826

 Partial correlation = +0.7044

The correlation is lower when the intercorrelation


with the other five variables is removed.

Correlation: Charles M. Friel Ph.D., Criminal Justice Center,


Sam Houston State University