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AN EFFICIENT TARGET TRACKING APPROACH

THROUGH MOBILE CROWDSENSING

SEMINAR REPORT
Submitted by
SULFIYA S (AEC16CS035)
In partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of
Bachelor of Technology
in
Computer Science and Engineering
of
APJ ABDUL KALAM TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, ARANMULA


(Under CAPE, Estd by Govt. of Kerala)
NOVEMBER 2019
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, ARANMULA
(Under CAPE, Estd by Govt. of Kerala)
NOVEMBER 2019

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the seminar report document entitled “ AN EFFICIENT TARGET
TRACKING APPROACH THROUGH MOBILE CROWDSENSING” is a bonafide
record of the seminar report presented by SULFIYA S (AEC16CS035)in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the Degree of Bachelor of
Technology in Computer Science Engineering of APJ Abdul Kalam Technological
University.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to express my deepest gratitude to all those who provided me the
possibility to complete the seminar. It is my privilege to express gratitude to Dr.
SAJEEV V, Principal College of engineering, Aranmula for providing all the
technical facilities in the campus.
I would like to express my profound thanks to Mr. MUHAMMED AZHARUDEEN SAHIB S ,Head
of the Department, Computer Science &Engineering. I am extremely thankful for his
valuable suggestions in this period.
I would like to express my sincere thanks and gratitude to seminar Guide Mrs.
SABITHA ,Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science & Engineering and
Seminar coordinator Ms. BINITHA S, Assistant Professor, Department of Computer
Science & Engineering. I am extremely thankful for her valuable guidance and
suggestions in this period that provided the vision, encouragement and necessary
advice to me during the whole time.
I thankfully remember all the faculty members, my family and friends for their
valuable suggestions and kind co-operation. I express my sincere gratitude to the
Almighty for giving me the strength and power to complete seminar.
SULFIYA S

ABSTRACT

As the widespread of mobile devices in recent years, mobile crowd sensing (MCS) has
become a powerful mechanism to produce knowledge by collecting the individual
contributed sensor data. In this paper, I aim to solve the target tracking problem
through mobile crowd sensing . The traditional tracking method tends to rely on
photos or videos provided by pre-deployed monitors, which may consume much power
resources. Different from the traditional tracking method, the tracking approach
through mobile crowd sensing (TAMC) proposed in this paper utilizes the wireless
communication of mobile users to collect and contribute the valuable information
about the target's whereabouts. Specifically, whenever the mobile users witness the
target person, they will take photos of the target person and report the location
and time of witnessing the target to the platform. Due to the fact that mobile
users communicate with the platform only when they witness the target, the crowd
sensing network composed of mobile users can be seen as a green network. In this
way, the visited location history and corresponding time sequence of the target are
available through the reports of mobile users. Once a new report is uploaded to the
platform, the location history is updated. Then, according to the latest report, we
apply a tree-based location prediction model named XG Boost, which is a scalable
machine learning system, to predict the next place to be visited by the target.
Finally, we conduct extensive experiments on a large-scale real-world dataset,
namely, the Gowalla check-in The experimental results show that compared with the
baseline methods, the tracking approach can predict the next places accurately.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Contents
Page No
ABSTRACT
LIST OF FIGURES
i
LIST OF TABLES
ii
ABBREVIATIONS iii
CHAPTER NO
TITLE
PAGE NO
1
INTRODUCTION
1
2
MOBILE CROWDSENSING
4
3
PROBLEMS OF CURRENT TARGET
TRACKING SYSTEM
7
4
TARGET TRACKING WITH THE HELP OF MCS
10
5
PROBLEM DESCRIPTION AND FORMULATION
13
6
EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION
17

6.1 DATA PREPERATION


17

6.2 EVALUATION METRIC


18

6.3 RESULTS AN EVALUATION


19
7
CONCLUSION
26
8
REFERENCES
27

LIST OF FIGURES

SL
NO FIGURE NAME PAGE NO

2.1 MCS SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE


5
2.2 SCREENSHOT OF THE APPLICATION SHOWING DATA 6
COLLECTION, QUERY AND RESULTS
4.1 THE SCENARIO OF TRACKING TARGET MOVEMENT
10
THROUGH MOBILE CROWDSENSING
5.1 THE ILLUSTRATION OF PREDICTION PLATFORM
14
5.2 THE ILLUSTRATION OF TARGET TRACKING
15
6 .1 AN EXAMPLE OF CHECK-IN POINTS OF FOUR USERS
17
IN GOWALIA DATASET
6.2 PERFORMANCE COMPARISON ABOUT PRECISION, RECALL 20
AND F1 SCORE
6.3 ACCURACY @N COMPARISON RESULTS ON DIFFERENT MODELS 22
6.4 ACCURACY @N COMPARISON RESULTS ON DIFFERENT MODELS 23
6.5 ACCURACY @N COMPARISON RESULTS FOR THE SINGLE FEATURE 25
6.6 ARP COMPARISON FOR THE SINGLE FEATURES
25

LIST OF TABLES

SL
NO TABLE NAME
PAGE NO
6.1 DATASET DESCRIPTION
18

6.2 THE CONFUSION MATRIX


21

6.3 AVERAGE PERCENTILE RANK OF DIFFERENT 21


MODELS

6.4 AVERAGE PERCENTILE RANK OF DIFFERENT 22


FEATURES

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

SL.NO ABBREVIATIONS EXPANSION


1 MCS Mobile Crowd
Sensing
2 TAMC Tracking Approach Through
Mobile
Crowdsensing
3 CAROMM Context Aware Real
Time Open
Mobile
Crowder
4 LR Logistic
Regression
5 RF Random
Forest
6 KNN K-Nearest
Neighbour
7 IFM Individual
Feature Based
Method
8 GFM Global Feature
Based Method
9 CFM Context Feature
Based Method

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