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INTRODUCTION
The Unilever Sustainable Living Plan helps us to
drive sustainable, profitable growth for our brands,
save costs and fuel innovation.

The role of our factories in helping Unilever achieve


its USLP ambitions cannot be underestimated.

Green Pages will help you across our manufacturing


sites to achieve the USLP targets. It will guide you
to the key best practices for a range of eco-efficiency
focus areas and is complemented by an online
platform, encouraging you to share your eco-efficiency
ideas, growing the number of best practices.

Many simple solutions do not require large


investment and can be implemented quickly and
easily to help improve our manufacturing
sustainability performance.*

Looking back at what has been achieved so far,


at the multitude of best practices and ideas,
I would like to thank you for all your engagement
and commitment. It makes me confident that by
sharing our ideas, we can achieve even more –
and the Green Pages are an excellent starting point.

Tony Dunnage
Group Manufacturing Sustainability Director

* We also have a Small Actions Big Difference (SABD) fund which


is open to all projects that meet a clearly defined set of criteria.
Factories need to submit their sustainability project applications
for SABD funding through their SHE cluster representative.
INTRODUCTION

Unilever has a simple but clear purpose: To The Green Pages document is designed to help Unilever
make sustainable living commonplace. We
believe that this is the best way to ensure
manufacturing sites to achieve the Unilever Sustainable
long-term growth. Living Plan in manufacturing by providing key best
practices for a range of eco-efficiency focus areas:
And our vision is to grow our business, whilst
decoupling our environmental footprint from
our growth and increasing our positive social
impact.
WASTE TARGET POWER

POSITIVE
SOCIAL IMPACT
HEAT WATER

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REFRIGERATION
*URZWK

'EFRXSOH
ENVIRONMENTAL
FOOTPRINT

2


4
OUR ENVIRONMENTAL AMBITION

2 ELIMINATE WASTE
AT SOURCE
The three drivers of our environmental ambition
REDUCE WASTE
WASTE TO ENERGY
AT SOURCE

High Low ALTERNATIVE FUELS


RE-USE WASTE
AT SOURCE

PRIORITY
RE-USE WASTE
RECYCLE WASTE
MATERIAL FOR
Can be done in conjunction AT SOURCE
ANOTHER PURPOSE

1 REDUCE ENERGY
DEMAND
3 REDUCE WATER
LEAKS & LOSSES

RECOVER EFFLUENT REDUCE WATER


INCREASE ONSITE USE AT SOURCE
EVALUATE CARBON AND REUSE
RENEWABLE
OFFSETTING
ENERGY SUPPLY

CONSIDER
RAINWATER RE-USE WATER IN
HARVESTING WHERE THE SAME PROCESS
POSSIBLE
PURCHASE
EFFICIENT ONSITE
ENERGY FROM
GENERATION
GREEN SOURCES
RECYCLE WATER
FOR ANOTHER
PURPOSE

6
TABLE OF
CONTENTS
POWER WASTE
•  Compressed air leaks • Eliminating waste
•  Electric control valve actuators • Reducing waste
•  Fluorescent lighting • Reusing waste
•  High efficiency motors • Recycling waste
•  Power factor correction • Alternative fuels
•  Rotary screw air compressors • Waste to energy
- VSD - Variable Speed Drives • Our waste heirarchy
•  Solar PV (Photovoltaic)

REFRIGERATION
• Small scale wind turbines

HEAT •




Energy saving, CO2 and global warming
Minimise all cooling loads
• Biomass boilers • Condensing/evaporating
• Heating water using air condition pressure temperature
• Optimising set points and controls • Heat recovery best practice
• Reducing energy consumption by • High efficiency motors
proper insulation • Compressors control
• Solar thermal – hot water • Condenser heat recovery/upgrade
• Steam condensate return by adding a heat pump
• Steam system assessment report • Take action now!

• Steam-tracing

WATER 4XHVWLRQVWRVWLPXODWH\RXUWKLQNLQJ

• Calculating a site water base load


• Creating a site water balance
• Cooling water management technology
• Rainwater harvesting
• Cleaning In Place (CIP) 3rd Wash Recovery
• Good hose management
• Boiler condensate reuse
• Water Reuse – Ultra Filtration
8 / Reverse Osmosis
NEVER COMPROMISE
SAFETY OR QUALITY

SAFETY FIRST FOCUS ON QUALITY

Any plant or process changes must be


compliant with Unilever and local safety
and quality standards

10 11
TARGETS

As 32% of all energy consumed in our factories - electricity usage presents

significant opportunities for greenhouse gas emissions to be reduced, in keeping


with our 2020 Renewable Grid Electricity target.

Our primary objective is to reduce all types of energy we use. In some countries

we are also able to reduce the carbon intensity of the electricity that we purchase
through ‘certified green power’. This also contributes to emissions reduction and

CHAPTER ONE
our target of increasing the proportion of renewable energy used by our factories
to 50% by 2020.

POWER Reducing our electricity generation has the


following benefits:
- Reduced costs
- Reduced CO2 levels (applicable to energy generated with
the use of fossil fuels)

We can reduce our electrical energy consumption and the


CO2 levels by:
- Creating a loss tree and targeting the largest losses
- Starting at the point of use (e.g. air compressors)
- Replacing fossil fuel usage with renewable energy

12
POWER

COMPRESSED AIR LEAKS ELECTRIC CONTROL VALVE ACTUATORS

BASIC INFORMATION BASIC INFORMATION

OVERVIEW: OVERVIEW:

• Compressed air is one of the most costly forms of energy on a manufacturing site. • Many Unilever manufacturing sites have pneumatically powered control valves.
• The first activity - address compressed air leaks. • Valves are associated with generating steam for heating and electricity for cooling
• Average leakage rate varies up to 30% of air demand. Often an additional in order to facilitate the manufacture of product.
compressor is needed to cover the leaks in the system. • Compressed air driven instruments are a significant source of power consumption.

• Air driven instruments and the supporting instrument air systems demand

constant maintenance.
• New electric Control Valve Actuators (CVA) provide a viable alternative to
THE SOLUTION (COMPRESSED AIR AUDIT): pneumatic actuators and allow the elimination of the entire instrument air
infrastructure in that specific area of the plant.
• Determine the running costs of the air compressor system (approx.). • By eliminating the pneumatic actuators, we exclude the need of running the air
• Develop a list of all operations using compressed air. compressors when there is no production.
• Carry out a survey of the site to identify compressed air leaks.

• Implement a programme to repair the leaks.

• Determine the results achieved.

• Regular distribution system leak detection surveys will


THE SOLUTION:
generate substantial benefits.
• Find low cost alternatives to compressed air usage
• Identify opportunities that will update your process facilities or potential.
• Identify old infrastructure using pneumatic control valves.
• Review opportunities to eliminate POVs (Pneumatically Operated Valves).

THE BENEFITS:

• Reducing the energy consumption between 5-10% of the compressed air system.
THE BENEFITS:
• Reducing the pressure losses – increasing the system redundancy.
• Reducing the equipment breakdown because of pressure losses.

• Saves money.
• The elimination of low efficiency pneumatic control reduces the energy lost
• Reducing Maintenance. through bled air, leakage, transmission and compression of the air system.
• Variations in air pressure, density and temperature impact the calibration

of a pneumatic control valve assembly.


Typical Payback Period: • Electric actuators are essentially maintenance free.

Less than 3 years • Plant down time due to maintenance is reduced.

• Saves money.

• One of the main drivers to a site baseload is the consumption of compressed

References: air for pneumatic actuators. By replacing them with electrical actuators,
Simple Solutions SS018 – “Compressed air leaks – reducing energy consumption” we can reduce the baseload of the factory.
(check the Appendix)

Typical Payback Period:


Less than 3 years

14
POWER

FLUORESCENT LIGHTING / LED HIGH EFFICIENCY MOTORS

BASIC INFORMATION BASIC INFORMATION

OVERVIEW: OVERVIEW:

• The majority of lighting in Unilever is fluorescent either T12 or T8 fluorescent tubes. • 65% of typical site electricity consumption is represented by electric motors.
• The opportunity identified is to replace older T12 or T8 fluorescent light fixtures • These motors consume electricity equivalent to their capital cost within the first
with long-life T5 fluorescent light fixtures or LED. 500 hours of operation.
• 10% of a typical electrical load comes from lighting. • The operating cost of a motor is therefore much more important than the initial

• Potential to reduce factory fluorescent light energy by around 40% and with LED’s purchase price.
80% whilst still maintaining an equivalent level of illumination. • High efficiency motors should be specified for all applications.

• The use of natural daylight must be maximized • In general it is not considered economical to rewind a standard motor as this

• Health and Safety standards must be ensured to facilitate proper Lux Levels. cannot be done with the same precision as a new motor winding.

THE SOLUTION:
THE SOLUTION:
• Identify the fluorescent tube type and control gear. • Update Purchase Specification
• Lighting control possibility.

- June 2011 – Motors must meet IE2 standard
Lighting levels.

- Jan 2015 – Motors 7.5 – 375kW must meet IE3 or IE2 with VSD
Installation requirements – ‘one for one’ complete light fixture replacement.
- Jan 2017 – Motors 0.75 – 375kW must meet IE3 or IE2 with VSD
• Do not rewind standard efficiency motors.

THE BENEFITS:

• T5 (ECG) fluorescent lighting installation saves ~36% energy compared with T8 THE BENEFITS:
(CCG) and ~42% energy compared with T12 (CCG)*.
• The T5 (ECG) saves only 17% energy compared with T8 (ECG)*. • Motors up to 22kW typically last for 12-15 years.
• Saves money. • Potential saving of up to 2% of total site electricity costs by using high
efficiency motors.

Typical Payback Period:


Less than 3 years
Typical Payback Period:
Less than 3 Years
Look for the Whole life costing analysis on T8 vs. T5 vs. LED as the LED solution is
becoming more attractive.
Resources area on the “Sustainability Manufacturing” website (check the Appendix)
References:
References: Simple Solutions SS012– “High efficiency motors”
Simple Solutions SS029– “Fluorescent lighting” (check the Appendix) (check the Appendix)

16
POWER
ROTARY SCREW AIR COMPRESSORS
POWER FACTOR CORRECTION – VARIABLE SPEED DRIVES

BASIC INFORMATION BASIC INFORMATION

OVERVIEW: OVERVIEW:
• If the electricity supplier charges penalties for reactive power, implementing • Compressed air is one of the most costly forms of energy used on a
Power Factor Correction (PFC) has the potential to bring significant savings to the
manufacturing site.
electricity bill. • VSDs can more accurately match the demand for compressed air to compressor
• Simple payback periods can be less than a year.
• All electrical machines need two forms of power: speed, hence optimising pressure control.
• With Variable Speed Drive (VSD) technology sites might typically be able to save
- ‘Active’ energy measured in kWh
- ‘Reactive’ energy, measured in kVArh 15% of their air compressor electricity consumption.

THE SOLUTION:
THE SOLUTION:
• Check your latest monthly or quarterly energy bills for reactive energy charges.
• Check your site’s power factor at the incoming energy meter at least annually. • Identify the installed kW rating of each compressor.
• Check that existing power factor correction is functioning correctly. Power factor
• Establish the potential energy saving opportunity with your compressor supplier.
needs to be above 0.95. • Look at the air pressure control method.
• Determine the potential cost saving with power factor correction.
• Instead of operating between high and low pressure levels, VSDs can accurately
• It is recommended that a Preferred Supplier should be approached to provide
match the demand for compressed air to compressor speed.
advice on the appropriate rating and specification of any proposed equipment. • Determine the potential savings of the air compressor system (approximation).
• Find a suitable location for the power factor correction.
• Establish the necessary modifications to the power circuit.
• The use of thermo graphic inspection techniques is also recommended.

THE BENEFITS:
THE BENEFITS:
• The proportion of energy used
• Many electrical suppliers charge the site if the power factor by a compressed air system

100
(also known as cos Φ) is less than 0.95. compared to the total energy At 50% compressor output,
• The Power Factor is typically found in the range of 0.8-0.85 or lower where the Typically 65-70% there is an opportunity to
consumption of a site is
compensation is not working properly. reduce power consumption
generally within 5% to 10%. by typically 15%

Power
• Aim for maintaining a power factor at minimum 0.95.
• Saves money. 15% (Typical)
• Saves money.

Control Method
Typically 25-30%
Active Power P (kW) VSD
Typical Payback Period: Typical Payback Period: ON/OFF

Less than 3 years 2 Less than 3 years Inlet Throttle


1 kVAr2 Typical
0 50 100
Energy Saving
Resistance Reactive Output
kVAr1
References: Power S (kVAr) Capacitor
bank Qc
Simple Solutions SS017– “Power Factor Correction” (kVAr rating) References:
Q reduction
(check the Appendix) (kVA) Simple Solutions SS021– “Rotary Screw Air Compressors
– Variable Speed Drives” (check the Appendix)
Reduction in electricity demand

18
POWER

SOLAR PV (PHOTOVOLTAIC) SMALL SCALE WIND TURBINES

BASIC INFORMATION BASIC INFORMATION

OVERVIEW: OVERVIEW:

• As the price of electricity continues to rise and the installation costs of Solar PV are • Small scale/single turbines tend not to be as efficient as that of large wind farms.
decreasing, the installation of solar panels becomes more attractive. • Purchase of electricity from large wind farms is becoming more economically viable.
• The installation of solar PV provides a substitute for fossil fuels and is free

of CO2 emissions ignoring embedded costs of carbon.


• An important deciding factor in building a solar PV installation is the solar intensity

levels from your area. THE SOLUTION:

• Check the availability of government grants for renewables/wind in your area.


• Create a feasibility study taking into consideration wind availability, space
THE SOLUTION: requirements, environmental agency legislation, etc.
• Occasionally Power Purchase agreements can be considered in the

• In its simplest form photovoltaic converts sun beams into electricity. right circumstances
• Photovoltaic systems bear no consumable or moving parts unless they are
merged with sun trackers.
• Check the availability of government grants for renewable energy/solar PV

in your area. THE BENEFITS:


• Perform a feasibility study taking into consideration roof top and ground availability.

• Can be cost competitive in the right circumstances.


• Good renewable energy source.
• Costs are low.

THE BENEFITS:

• Photovoltaic systems do not produce carbon emission. They create pure clean energy.
• Maintenance costs are low with easy and silent operation. One to watch
• Contribution to our USLP target of 40% of energy used in manufacturing

to come from renewable sources by 2020.


• Long life of operation.

References:
Wind Power quick scan – found on the Sustainability
One to watch Manufacturing Website (check the Appendix)

References:
Solar PV quick scan – found on the Sustainability
Manufacturing Website (check the Appendix)

20
TARGETSWRDFKLHYH&DUERQ3RVLWLYH

• By 2030 we will source 100% of our total energy across our operations from renewable sources




CHAPTER TWO 

HEAT The conventional ways of generating heat use fossil fuels


(e.g. coal) generating CO2 (which is a high potential ozone
depleting gas).

We can reduce our heat demand by


doing the following:

• create a loss tree


• consider replacing steam with hot
water (where possible)
• replace fossil fuel usage with
renewable energy (biomass fuels
comprise more than 10% of all
fuels used in our factories)

22
Have you considered replacing
HEAT the use of steam with hot water or
evaluated if it is possible to reduce
the temperature generated?
– this will save energy
BIOMASS BOILERS HEATING WATER USING AIR CONDITIONING

BASIC INFORMATION BASIC INFORMATION

OVERVIEW: OVERVIEW:

• The fossil fuels used to generate heat contribute significantly to our CO2 emissions. • This project is based on the information from a case study done in South Africa.
• This also means that we are looking at less carbon intensive forms of • Based on a case study:
energy, e.g. biomass. - Before - two geysers in the administration building - 3kW electric

• Burning biomass fuels in our boilers results in CO emissions. However, - After - 1.1 kW heat pump
2
these come from ‘short cycle’ carbon from biological sources and are not
considered in the same way as fossil fuels’ emissions.
• Renewable energy sources such as biomass can reduce emission of greenhouse

gasses, reduce our reliance on fossil fuels and in many cases reduce energy costs and THE SOLUTION:
carbon taxes.
• Make sure to contact the equipment supplier and agree that the solution meets
the appropriate safety and technical conditions.
THE SOLUTION: • Install a heat pump of 1.1 kW.

• The heat pump heats the water to 55°C.

• Consider first reducing your demand of heat at the point of use. • Connect the reverse side of the heat pump to an evaporator.

• Ensure boiler flexibility of biomass (different kinds of biomass as boiler fuel). • The evaporator cools a server room to 21°C.

• Ensure that the biomass transport system is reliable.

• Creates a matrix of fuel oil vs. biomass in low production volume scenario.

• Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) and Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)

improvements should be applied before the implementation. THE BENEFITS:


• Use the quick scans to have a clear understanding if the biomass solution is

applicable for your site/area.


• Reduce the energy consumption in heating/cooling the room.
• Ensure there is a long term sustainable source of biomass fuel.
• Energy use before – 245 kWh/day, energy use after – 24 kWh/day.
• CO use before – 234 kg/day, CO use after – 23 kg/day.
• Primary fuel crops are not an acceptable biomass source. 2 2
• Saves money.

THE BENEFITS:

• Enables future growth through infrastructural changes. Typical Payback Period:


• Reduction in CO2 emissions from site (typical 80% reduction in emissions from fuel). 1.8 years
• Cost reduction in steam.

• Achievement of our USLP target of 40% of energy used in manufacturing to come

from renewable sources by 2020.

One to watch

References:
Biomass boilers quick scan – found on the Sustainability Manufacturing Website (check the Appendix)
0305- Biomass Sourcing Standard

24
HEAT
REDUCING ENERGY CONSUMPTION
OPTIMISING SET POINTS AND CONTROLS BY BETTER INSULATION

BASIC INFORMATION BASIC INFORMATION

OVERVIEW: OVERVIEW:

• Energy efficiency of factory equipment, systems and processes is largely • Inadequately insulated pipes waste energy daily.
determined by the choice of set points and the control strategies. • When correct insulation is in place, losses could be reduced to a minimum.
• Areas where major savings can be obtained are at the set points and • Correct insulation ensures high safety standards.

control strategies for:


- Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems
- Water/glycol chillers
- Compressed air system THE SOLUTION:
- Steam raising system
- Central refrigeration system • Acquire an infra-red camera to detect incorrect insulation.
- Processing lines and the interface with utilities supply conditions • Survey the site to identify missing, defect or incorrect insulation.
- Processing plants where the use of PID • Implement a programme to install/repair the insulation.
(Proportional–Integral–Derivative) loops is high • Implement an ongoing system to monitor.
• Check the insulation periodically.
THE SOLUTION:

•  alk around the site and observe where set points and control strategies
W
may impact energy consumption. THE BENEFITS:
• Make a list of potential saving areas.
• As an option, engage a third party to conduct the survey.
• Operational costs for steam/heat will be less.
• Make a site plan for each of the Top 10 saving opportunities.
• Boiler needs less fuel and less treated water.
• Ensure that the safety and quality of the process is not affected. • 10% of the thermal energy could be saved.

• Periodically review progress: return to step one every 2-3 years. • In line with TPM Continuous Improvement.

• If we use fossil fuels to generate heat, by improving the insulation

we lower the CO2 footprint of the site.


THE BENEFITS:

• At site level, it should be possible to save >2% of electricity and 5% of

thermal energy consumption every year therefore saving money. Typical Payback Period:
• Typical savings range from 5 to 20% of the energy consumption of the
Below 2 years
respective equipment, system or process.

Typical Payback Period: References:


Below 2 years Simple Solutions SS015–
“Thermal insulation” (check the Appendix)

References:
Simple Solutions SS011– “Optimizing set point and controls” (check the Appendix)

26
HEAT

SOLAR THERMAL – HOT WATER STEAM CONDENSATE RETURN

BASIC INFORMATION BASIC INFORMATION

OVERVIEW: OVERVIEW:
• The installation of a solar thermal solution is becoming cheaper vs. the cost of the • Condensate represents a by-product of steam usage.
fossil fuel used to generate heat in a conventional way (e.g. boilers) • Pre-heated, pre-treated condensate is an expensive commodity.
• By replacing the heat generation from fossil fuels with solar thermal, we lower
which should be returned to the boiler house for reuse.
our CO2 emissions.
• A decisive factor in installing solar thermal is the intensity and availability of the

sun in your area.


THE SOLUTION:

• Document the layout and schematic of the existing condensate return system.
THE SOLUTION: • Install/extend the steam trap network.
• Install steam trap monitors.
• 
Check the availability of government grants for renewable energy/solar
• Install a condensate meter.
thermal in your area.
• 
Create a feasibility study taking into consideration roof top availability,
solar radiation for your area, possible infrastructure works to the roof and ground.
THE BENEFITS:

THE BENEFITS: • The energy content of a ton of condensate at 90°C is 315 MJ.
• Up to 10% of a site’s total steam costs may be saved.
• The reduction of hot water generation from fossil fuels will result in • Gas/water/chemicals consumption can be lowered.
lower fuel consumption. • If we generate steam with fossil fuels we can lower the CO emissions by
• Reduce the CO footprint of the site. 2
2
• In some areas, reducing batch time by the increased availability of hot water.
returning as much condensate back to the boilers.
• Achievement of our Unilever Sustainable Living Plan target of 40% of

energy used in manufacturing to come from renewable sources by 2020.


• Long life of operation. Typical Payback Period:
• Silent to operate. 1-2 years depending on the
• Easy to maintain. condensate system complexity
Pasteurizing
Process

One to watch
Town Water Product Water
to Processing
Latest heat
References: STEAM Total heat used in heating
Solar Thermal quick scan – found the process
on the Sustainability Manufacturing
Sensible heat Condensate
Website (check the Appendix) Carbon Softener
Filter Tank 50 Ton Solar Boiler Process
Hot Water Tank Water Plant

References:
Simple Solutions SS001– “Steam condensate return” (check the Appendix)
28
HEAT

STEAM SYSTEM ASSESSMENT REPORT STEAM TRACING

BASIC INFORMATION BASIC INFORMATION

OVERVIEW: OVERVIEW:

• The steam system is one of the main contributor to the steam losses. • In order to prevent solidification of oil products in pipes, typically these

• Identifying and improving the following areas could reduce your overall are heated with steam tracing continuously 24hr/day.
steam demand: • Oil product in the pipes were unnecessarily overheated.

- Steam Generation • Condensed water discharged via condense spot at nearly 95-100°C.

- Steam Distribution (PDV and Tetra systems)


- Steam trap inspection
- Condensate recovery
- CIP loop THE SOLUTION:

• Instead of feeding 24 hour/day, steam is fed now discontinuously at

different time intervals.


THE SOLUTION: • “On/Off Valves” (Samson-3354) were mounted to main steam collectors

feeding tracings in seven different points.


• 
Contact your local Unilever agreed steam solutions representatives. • For determining optimum time interval, trial/errors were done to prevent

• 
Facilitate site visits and agree on the audit members. solidification (best at app. 15 min on 15 off).

THE BENEFITS: THE BENEFITS:

• Reduce the heat demand, resulting in lower fuel consumption. • Steam valves are now automatically opened/closed with timer system.
• Reduce the CO2 footprint of the site. • Oil is not overheated unnecessarily.
• Identify quick wins with no/low investment. • Thermal energy of steam and hot water is transferred to oil efficiently.

• Improves the line efficiency. Now, condensed water discharges at 55-60°C.


• Decrease the Conversion Cost for high heat consumption products.

Typical Payback Period:


Typical Payback Period: Less than 3 years
1-2 years depending on the
steam system complexity

30
TARGETS

• By 2030, water abstraction by our global factory network will be reduced by
75% PTOP vs 2008 levels.
- ndset

- ZERO or low evaporative losses

- ZERO tolerance on wastewater non-compliance

CHAPTER THREE • We will focus in particular on factories in water-scarce locations.

WATER

 ater is a key ingredient for many of our products and


W
essential for our processes. Although water does not
represent a significant operating cost, we use a lot of
energy and chemicals in pumping, treating, heating and
disposing of it.

In water-scarce areas, challenges around continued


water availability are greater and as such it is even
more important that our factories are as water
efficient as possible.

In the following projects you


will find technologies and
practices which help to reduce
water abstraction.

Many of these initiatives also


have energy, chemicals and/
or waste benefits.

32
WATER
X
BOREHOLE WATER Administration
80.129 m3/year (300) m3/year Sanitary
(300) m3/year

CREATING A SITE WATER BALANCE


Steam to atmosphere
13,440 m3/year

BASIC INFORMATION HPC Plant


Sanitary
(2,000) m3/year
OVERVIEW:
Total Softwater wastewaters
X 1,113 m3/year
• Developing a site water balance is a core part of any water audit. Boiler House
• This involves mapping the water through a facility, from source X
through the various process usages (including domestic) and to effluent DAF Plant
24,000 m3/year X
treatment and discharge from site.
• This allows the site to understand where significant users are and target
X Margarine
Sanitary - HW
solutions most effectively. Wastewater
(5,835) m3/year

X Savoury
Biological
Treatment Plant
THE SOLUTION:
X X
MUNICIPAL WATER Condensers (5,000) m3/year
52.983 m3/year 7,200 m3/year
Blowdown
• Collect water data from flow meters at inlets and outlets. Include all 5,400 m3/year
known losses. Physical Effluent
Firewater 0 m3/year Treatment Plant
• Document the water flows using a Water Distribution Map. Water to atmosphere
• Identify information gaps and make assumptions where needed. In some 1,800 m3/year
Surface rainwater
cases the site will be required to invest in additional sub-­metering at crucial
pinch points, in order to complete the site water balance. KEY
(20,400) m3/year
X
• Assess the Headline Water Balance (water in – water out should be within ±10%).

• Assessing the Site Water Balance (site should be able to trace >80% of water use). X Existing Meter (no number) Steam

To Apa Nova sewer


Recommended sub-meter Figures in () are estimated 74,712 m3/year

THE BENEFITS:

• A water balance enables the site to target large water users and identify

the most effective solutions.


• A water balance also allows factories, lines and categories to benchmark

their water use, create league tables and understand where further
efficiencies can be made.
• Although a water balance does not create efficiencies directly, the

information enables action which in most cases result in a payback of


less than one year.

References:
Typical Payback Period: Simple Solutions SS005–
Doing a balance alone can lead “Creating a site water balance”
to opportunity identification (check the Appendix)

34
WATER

CALCULATING A SITE WATER BASE-LOAD COOLING WATER MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY

BASIC INFORMATION BASIC INFORMATION

OVERVIEW: OVERVIEW:

• Once a site water balance has been completed sites should understand their • The stresses placed on industrial cooling systems are different in every facility

base-load water use. and change constantly depending on the production volumes and
• The site water base-load identifies the amount of water required for non-factory atmospheric conditions.
line activities such as domestic use and building services (HVAC, etc.), it also • Stresses in the system create scaling, corrosion and fouling which if not

helps to identify leakages. managed can result in excessive water and energy use, additional
maintenance costs and unscheduled downtime.
• The cooling water management technology is an automated system which

frequently monitors cooling water for key parameters such as pH,


THE SOLUTION:
Conductivity, Corrosion, Scale index and Bio Index. It reacts by adjusting the
chemical and control parameters to minimise operational risks, water and
• Identify a suitable non-production day or period (ideally several days).
energy consumption and maximise lifetime of the equipment.
• Identify which equipment will be operating during this period.
• Gather data from either:

- Automated meters
- Manual meters
• Analyse the data and identify whether there are any unknown water users THE SOLUTION:
or where there might be anomalies or unaccounted water use. • Use the water balance to identify whether cooling systems represent a significant
point of water use for the factory or are subject to large maintenance costs.
• Engage with Cooling Water Management Technology provider to commission an

THE BENEFITS: assessment study and identify the site specific opportunities.
• Explore how online systems can link into the monitoring system. The site will
• A site’s base-load represents continuous water use present throughout the year.
need to assess their metering capability.
As such, savings can represent constant, year round savings.
• Examining the base-load data frequently as this identifies hidden leaks and losses

across the site.


• As with the water balance, the base-load assessment does not create efficiencies
THE BENEFITS:
directly, but the information enables action which in most cases will result in
a payback of less than one year. • An increase in the number of water cycles and a decrease in blowdown results in

significant water and waste water savings.


• Prevention of the build up of scale, corrosion and/or biofilm.
References: • Additional benefits include: control of scale, corrosion, and microbiological
Typical Payback Period:
Simple Solutions SS002– contamination, reduced maintenance costs, reduced energy requirements.
To be calculated based on
“Creating a site water base-load” • There are similar systems which optimise online water related performance
the projects identified
(check the Appendix) in boilers and membranes.

Typical Payback Period:


To be determined by analysing the following aspects:
i) potential collection areas ii) local rainfall and intensity,
iii) current water costs iv) additional risks such as supply interruptions
36
WATER

RAINWATER HARVESTING CLEANING IN PLACE (CIP) 3RD WASH RECOVERY

BASIC INFORMATION BASIC INFORMATION

OVERVIEW: OVERVIEW:

• Rainwater harvesting is the collection of rainwater from roofs, site hard • For most categories the water used in CIP is a significant percentage of the

standing areas and drainage systems. total water used by the site.
• Rainwater can be used directly for irrigation or low grade applications or • As we try and be more reactive to the market with shorter production cycles, the

stored and treated for other uses within the factories. number of CIP washes and the amount of water used will likely increase.
• The application can be installed in new factories or retrofitted to existing • Collection of the 3rd CIP wash and use as the 1st wash is deemed to be best

facilities and forms part of most building certification schemes. practice, however there are still a large number of sites sending the 3rd wash
• The suitability will be dependent on the meteorological conditions and the to the drain.
site specific opportunities e.g. roof type.

THE SOLUTION:
THE SOLUTION:
• Assess the current CIP activities on site to determine whether the CIP 3rd
• Assess collection potential.
• Wash Recovery opportunity exists and compare with category core design
Assess potential catchment area.
• for CIP.
Identify operations where collected rainwater could be utilised. • Implement CIP 3rd Wash Recovery programme.
• Assess collection and storage requirements. • In some cases this may require additional tanks and/or pipelines.
• Assess additional treatment requirements. • Where it is not possible, report barriers to action.

THE BENEFITS:
THE BENEFITS:
• The potential benefits are site specific, dependent on rainfall, seasonality,
and the ability to capture and use rainwater. • Significant decrease in water use and waste water treatment costs.
• Rainwater harvesting can significantly reduce the amount of water required • Additional benefits include energy and chemical use.
by the site.
• This can represent a cost reduction opportunity for the site (>10% of water costs).

• Care will need to be taken to ensure water quality standards are reached.
Payback may vary site by site.
• Rainwater harvesting can also reduce the loading on surface drainage and
Why not calculate for your site?
effluent treatment during peak rainfall.

References:
Payback may vary site by site. Simple Solutions SS025– “Rainwater
Why not calculate for your site? harvesting” (check the Appendix)

38
WATER

GOOD HOSE MANAGEMENT BOILER CONDENSATE REUSE

BASIC INFORMATION BASIC INFORMATION

OVERVIEW: OVERVIEW:
• Hose pipes are used throughout all of Unilever’s sites globally. They convey hot • Steam is generated in many manufacturing operations to supply heat to heating
water, cold water and water dosed with detergent. and process systems. Reusing steam in the boilers provides an opportunity to
• Open ended hoses, at standard mains pressure, can deliver significant quantities
recover the heat and reduce water use on site. Condensate is a valuable resource
of water ranging from 1m³/hour for a 25mm (1”) hose to 4.2m³/hour for a 50mm and even the recovery of small quantities is often economically justifiable. Sites
(2”) hose. should be aware of the quality restrictions associated with direct steam injection.
• Hoses are spread out across a manufacturing facility and are rarely quantified

centrally as potentially a large number of flow meters would be required.


• Hoses represent a significant water user throughout a site and simple measures

can save water and the associated commercial savings. THE SOLUTION:

• Examine the current percentage (%) of condensate returned to the boiler.


•  Build the business case by determining the annual fuel, water and effluent costs
THE SOLUTION: and capital case for retrofitting the boiler condensate return.
•  Engage a fully accredited steam system installer to design & install the
• Identify all hose points.
condensate recovery system.
• Remove all hoses and change the outlets to plug-in type points as this allows for
hoses to be kept centrally. This requires users to physically collect the hose,
connect and replace after use.
• Implement a dry floor policy & insist all clean-up operations are conducted using THE BENEFITS:
scrapers or squeegees before reaching for a hose pipe.
• Add trigger grips to all hoses to avoid hoses left running. Adding an inexpensive • Returning more condensate to the feed tank can potentially reduce blowdown and
trigger grip reduces water use, per hose, by 25-35%. thus reduces the energy lost from the boiler. Dependent upon the size of the
• Reduce hose diameter where possible. Reducing the diameter of the hose from steam generation plant on site, the implementation of full condensate recovery
50mm to 25mm reduces the flow by 75%. could potentially save from up to 10% of the total site water use and save
significant quantities of energy.

THE BENEFITS:
Typical Payback Period:
Simple measures adopted on hose use can yield significant savings. A site with
• Less than 2 years
open ended hoses can expect to save 10-15% of total site water usage, with
typical savings of 5% achievable.

References:
Typical Payback Dependent on Simple Solutions SS025– “Rainwater
cost of water but typically less harvesting” (check the Appendix)
than 2 years

40
WATER

WATER REUSE – ULTRA FILTRATION / REVERSE OSMOSIS

BASIC INFORMATION

OVERVIEW:

• Water reuse offers the opportunity to greatly reduce the demand on

water sources by treating and reusing water in the system.

THE SOLUTION:

• Ultra Filtration (UF) and Reverse Osmosis (RO) technologies are able to treat

water to an extremely high quality.


• Quality remains a priority and you should always consult the Unilever Quality

team when considering water reuse activities.


• It should also be noted that the perception of water reuse is also a concern

for the business, and care should be taken to ensure category teams have
been involved.

THE BENEFITS:

• Significant decrease in water use.


• Reduced waste water treatment volumes and costs.
• Where water reuse activities have been used in process water alone,
a typical decrease in the water use could be as much as 16% of total
site water consumption.

Typical Payback Period:


3 years

42
TARGETS

• In order to ensure we focus on reducing waste at source, we are targeting a


reduction in the total amount of waste we generate.

CHAPTER FOUR

WASTE DISPOSED
WASTE + RW + COD = TOTAL
WASTE

Our waste metric includes:


- Any waste sent for disposal
- Recyclable waste
- Volume of COD leaving the site in our effluent streams

The reduction of waste at source


ensures the best environmental and
financial benefits.

44
WASTE

ELIMINATING WASTE REDUCING WASTE

BASIC INFORMATION BASIC INFORMATION

OVERVIEW: OVERVIEW:

• Waste elimination and prevention is at the top of the waste hierarchy and the most • Waste reduction is also an important step towards a more sustainable factory.
important step to achieving greater economic and environmental savings, while • Reduction at source lowers costs of disposal and waste storage areas.
also increasing resource resilience.
• Waste can be eliminated by using Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) tools and

techniques to understand how it is generated and why; upon gaining this


understanding, activities such as switching to alternative materials, production THE SOLUTION:
planning optimisation and design modifications can lead to the elimination of waste.
• Circular Value Chain projects implemented with the help of suppliers can prevent • Analyse where the largest amounts of waste are being generated.
waste from being generated in the inbound part of the Supply Chain. • Speak to your supplier for alternative solutions e.g. switch to reusable thicker
boxes for inbound packaging delivery material (Purfleet historic example).

THE SOLUTION:
THE BENEFITS:
• Analyse where your waste is being generated.
• Understand what material is needed and what could be exchanged for a greener one. • Safer for operators as it doesn’t require sharp knives to open the boxes
• Ensure production sequencing is optimal to ensure wastage is avoided (Velcro opening).
wherever possible. • More efficient Supply Chain as boxes are returned to packaging supplier
• Speak to your suppliers e.g. eliminate cardboard boxes for inbound packaging on returning vehicles.
materials with metal cages (Helsingborg). • Reduced inbound costs for reuse of cardboard and for bigger size of boxes

(more inbound packaging can be fitted).


• Reduced disposal costs as supplier takes responsibility.

• Less resources used to sort/segregate/clean/shred waste for disposal routes.

THE BENEFITS: • Less energy used to produce or rework waste.

• Reduced waste disposal cost.


• Time spent on unpacking by the operator is reduced
(cages contain more pack material).
• Improved operators’ safety thanks to easy opening.

46
WASTE

REUSING WASTE RECYCLING WASTE

BASIC INFORMATION BASIC INFORMATION

OVERVIEW: OVERVIEW:

• It is important to understand that waste can also be reused for high end value • Whenever waste is unavoidable, finding the best recycling solution helps Unilever
products, leading to lower costs of production and avoided costs for disposal activities. to stay cost competitive and efficient.
• Products’ reuse, when possible, drives waste reduction at source. • For common materials (cardboard, paper, plastics), waste markets are developed

and waste can be sold resulting in a small profit being generated.

THE SOLUTION:
THE SOLUTION:
• Agree with the Quality function whether product reuse is possible.
• Installation of product recovery tanks at the end of the line allows product collection Appropriately segregate waste on site.

at the first stage of Cleaning In Progress (CIP) or changeover e.g. Halb Recovery Study the local market for recycling options.

tank (Tortuguitas).

THE BENEFITS:
THE BENEFITS:
• Composting on-site helps create a better environment for employees to work in
• Product can be reused in the next manufacturing cycle. e.g. Cikarang has created a beautiful garden thanks to recycling their organic waste.
• The load on existing Effluent Treatment Plants is reduced. • Sending used materials to a mature market can lead to small revenues rather

• Energy consumption and waste are reduced. than costs e.g. cardboard waste is sold at our European facilities thanks to the
• Costs are recovered. maturity of the market in the Cluster.

References:
Simple Solutions SS014–
“Waste recycling and reuse”
(check the Appendix)

48
WASTE

ALTERNATIVE FUELS OUR WASTE HEIRARCHY

BASIC INFORMATION

OVERVIEW: REDUCE

Within the Unilever waste hierarchy, turning waste into alternative fuels through the
cement industry is preferred to sending it to incinerators with energy recovery.

The cement industry is responsible for around 6% of global CO2 emissions and
replacing fossil fuels is an important part of industries’ commitment to green house REUSE
gas emission reduction.

This is a good outlet to send the waste that cannot be recycled or reused from our

ENVIRONMENTAL SAVINGS
manufacturing process as it replaces fossil fuels in the cement making process.

RECYCLE

COST SAVINGS
THE SOLUTION:

• Identify and approach a cement factory close by


(could also be steel or other industry). WASTE AS
• Engage with Procurement and Group for support where needed.
AN ALTERNATIVE
FUEL

THE BENEFITS: WASTE TO


ENERGY
• Landfill avoidance
• Partnership creation with global cement players
• Lowering amount of fossil fuels used globally

WASTE TO ENERGY
BASIC INFORMATION

OVERVIEW:

In many locations the only route to avoid landfills is to send the difficult waste
streams to a waste to energy route.

Here the incineration of waste leads to heat recovery and power generation.

50
Energy Saving, CO2 and Global Warming

CHAPTER FIVE
• Almost all refrigeration systems are driven by electricity.

• Burning fossil fuel to produce electricity creates CO2.

REFRIGERATION • CO2 is the major Global Warming gas (Indirect Contribution).

• Refer to the Unilever Guidelines for information related to


refrigerant types that are allowed into new equipment.

52
REFRIGERATION

Always start with EXERCISE


minimising all cooling loads!
Every degree C/F decrease of the evaporating pressure/
temperature costs you 2.5/1.5 % more electricity!

Heat from
products
(10-60%) Adjust the condensing pressure setpoint to a lower value

Heat by
transmission Heat from Clean the condenser
through walls lights (3-10%)
(10-30%)
Automatically remove air from the installation

Check the air flow on the condenser

Minimise all
Change the size of the refrigerant expansion valves
Heat losses cooling loads Heat from
via doors,
fans, pumps
air infiltration Increase the number of condensers, larger condenser
(5-10%)
(10-20%)

Improve condensate drain from condensers

Other Check the boxes if you did the activity


Heat input
(heat from
from air
fork lift trucks,
cooler defrost
automation
(3 – 10%)
etc)

54
REFRIGERATION

HIGH EFFICIENCY MOTORS


EXERCISE

Every degree C/F decrease of the evaporating pressure/


temperature costs you 2.5/1.5 % more electricity!
Increasing the
Increase evaporating -25 C evaporating Total Saving
Factory evaporating temperature by
1°C decreases the
temperature has
been increased
in Refrigeration:
240.000 kWh/year
temperature energy consumption to – 20 C
by 3 - 4 %.

Adjust the setpoint of the evaporator control to a higher value

Correct defrosting, thin and equal frost layers AMMONIA SYSTEM


WASTE HEAT
RECOVERY SYSTEM
Sufficient air circulation

Proper air distribution and product stowage in storage room

Correct fan selection (fan efficiency) NRVA

SUCTION DISCHARGE
Minimise oil carry-over, efficient oil separator, oil draining, change oil type LINE LINE

Increase the number and/or size of evaporators OIL EVAPORATE


DRAIN CONDENSOR
EVAPORATOR SAFETY
WITH NATURAL VALVE
CIRCULATION AND
Installation of electronic expansion valves LOW PRESSURE
FLOAT VALVE
LIQUID LINE RECEIVER

Minimise moisture load on evaporators FILLING


VALVE
OIL
DRAIN
RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR
Water Preheating
Check the boxes if you did the activity saving €25,000 per year

56
REFRIGERATION

OTHER OPPORTUNITIES OTHER OPPORTUNITIES


COMPRESSORS CONTROL COMPRESSORS CONTROL

CONTROL OF ONE COMPRESSOR MOTOR


SLIDE VALVE CONTROL
Part load with frequency control, 7-12% electricity savings, stable operation.

60% OF CAPACITY REQUIRES 80% OF ENERGY: 20% LOSS!
CAPACITY CONTROL BETWEEN COMPRESSORS

Part load: 1 compressor on 100% capacity has a better efficiency than


2 compressors on 50%.
VFD speed is determined by suction pressure PID control
Avoid part load of one stage freezing

screw compressors. CASCADE CONTROL - 3 DRIVES


There is no dead band (Ramp up/down time is max 30s)
Start with measurements to study
the present capacity control:
estimated improvements 5%-10% 3.8 years Faster system response allows higher temperature operation

Compressor COP is linear down to 60% of the capacity (no losses)

Minimum speed must be maintained (Motor cooling, oil pressure)

CASCADE CONTROL - 1 DRIVE & 2 SOFT STARTERS

58
REFRIGERATION

OTHER OPPORTUNITIES TAKE ACTION NOW!


COMPRESSORS CONTROL

CONDENSER HEAT RECOVERY/UPGRADE BY ADDING A HEAT PUMP

A heat pump is a refrigeration system where you use the heat (condenser side)

of the cycle, instead of the cold (evaporator side). BY MINIMISING LOAD, IMPROVED SETTINGS, GOOD

10%
HOUSEKEEPING: SAVINGS OF 10% ARE POSSIBLE
(Part of) the condenser heat of the normal refrigeration system is used as heat

(NO/LOW INVESTMENTS).
source for the heat pump (evaporator side of heat pump).

Delivers hot water up to 80°C (condenser side of heat pump)


BY IMPROVEMENT/CHANGE OF EQUIPMENT,

10%
ANOTHER 10% CAN BE ACHIEVED (LOW/MEDIUM
Electrically driven high INVESTMENTS, PAYBACK TIME BELOW ONE YEAR).
Hot water of Design heating Payback period:
pressure ammonia
80°C max COPh = 6.5 2.4 years
compression Heat Pump

BY COMBINING SOPHISTICATED TECHNOLOGIES,

10%
ANOTHER 10% CAN BE ACHIEVED (MEDIUM/HIGH
INVESTMENTS, PAYBACK TIME BELOW THREE YEARS).

Note: Energy in refrigeration is mainly electricity.


Therefore CO2 emission reduction depends on
national/local conversion figure (kg CO2 / kWh) .

60
QUESTIONS TO STIMULATE YOUR THINKING

ENERGY DEMAND AT EACH STAGE OF THE PROCESS:


WHAT CAN YOU MEASURE?

CIP - Pasteurisation - etc


SHUT DOWN

PROCESS
RUNNING

QUESTIONS
START UP

TO STIMULATE

PREPARATION AREAS
ARE YOU GENERATING STEAM IN EXCESS OF REQUIRED TEMPERATURES?
DO YOU EVEN REQUIRE STEAM AS OPPOSED TO HOT WATER?

YOUR THINKING

STORAGE AREAS
DO YOU STORE HOTTER OR COLDER THAN IS NECESSARY?
HOTTER USUALLY HAS AN ADVERSE EFFECT ON QUALITY

GENERATION
HOW EFFICIENT IS YOUR GENERATION?

ELECTRICITY HOT WATER STEAM

62
QUESTIONS TO STIMULATE YOUR THINKING QUESTIONS TO STIMULATE YOUR THINKING

ENERGY GENERATION (HEAT AND POWER) ARE YOUR STORAGE AND DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS
OF RAW MATERIALS ENERGY EFFICIENT?

Poorly insulated Poor design of Insulation of


Effective condensate recovery storage and preparation areas equipment is
reduces the energy input into distribution essential for energy
efficiency and also for
the boiler operation as well as safety in many cases.
the chemical and water
requirements – often also Many pipe work
achieving effluent savings. distribution systems
are inadequately
Projects in this area usually insulated as well as
have a very good payback. equipment such as
heat exchangers and
storage tanks.

Considerations for energy generation

•  hat is the standard efficiency of your boiler?


W
• How many hours does it run per week?
• Does it need to run all week or can it be switched off for part? Avoid partial loading!
• Are you using the supply temperature, can it be reduced without loss of productivity?
• Do you really need steam or could hot water satisfy the site requirements?
• Heat recovery e.g. from air compressors?
• How effective is your condensate recovery?

64
QUESTIONS TO STIMULATE YOUR THINKING QUESTIONS TO STIMULATE YOUR THINKING

IS YOUR CIP PROCESS OPTIMISED? WHAT TYPE OF LIGHTING ARE YOU USING?
Automatic Cleaning In Place (CIP) – use SPC Maximise use of natural light
(Statistical Process Control) techniques here

At this temperature every one degree


is worth 3% energy savings

66
QUESTIONS TO STIMULATE YOUR THINKING QUESTIONS TO STIMULATE YOUR THINKING

DO YOU HAVE AN ELECTRICAL DO YOU HAVE A HEAT BALANCE OF YOUR SITE?


ENERGY BALANCE OF YOUR SITE?

OFFICE 1 PRODUCTION AREA 1


ADMINISTRATION BUILDINGS OFFICE 2 STEAM BOILER 1 PRODUCTION AREA 2
(...) (...)

COMPRESSOR 1 HEAT EXHANGER 1

TRANSFORMER 1 AIR COMPRESSORS AREA COMPRESSOR 2 BOILER HOUSE STEAM BOILER 2 TANK FARM
ELECTRICAL ENERGY HEAT
MASS BALANCE (...) MASS BALANCE (...)

LINE 1 TERMOFICATION
PRODUCTION AREA LINE 2 HOT WATER BOILER PRODUCTION AREA 3
(...) (...)

(...) (...)
MAIN INCOMER MAIN INCOMER

BOILER 1
BOILER HOUSE BOILER 2
(...)

SPRAY TOWER
STORAGE 1
TRANSFORMER 2 WAREHOUSE AREA STORAGE 2 STEAM BOILER 1 JACKETING
(...) TANK FARM
REFINERY

METER HOT WATER PUMP METER


TANK FARM AREA PROCESS PIMP 1
(...)
(...)

LEVEL 0 LEVEL1 LEVEL 2 LEVEL 3 LEVEL 0 LEVEL1 LEVEL 2 LEVEL 3

The meter readings difference between each The meter readings difference between each
previous level sum and the current level sum will previous level sum and the current level sum will
show the unaccounted energy / energy losses show the unaccounted energy / energy losses

68
QUESTIONS TO STIMULATE YOUR THINKING

SOME OTHER POINTS TO THINK ABOUT

Consider running environmental awareness programmes

Good environmental projects will be supported


– refer to your regional SHE teams

Good engineering standards are essential for good performance

Domestic heating can often be satisfied by local


solutions as opposed to centralised schemes

Consider heat integration

To achieve our targets


we need to work together

70
APPENDIX

72
APPENDIX

CO2 EMISSION FACTORS FOR ALL COUNTRIES UTILITIES CONVERSION TABLES


Below, you will find the key CO2 factors for the main fuels used in your energy generation: Whenever you are thinking of a project business model, and need to calculate different utilities savings
based on a common Reporting Unit, the following table can help you:

Utility Type kg CO2 per GJ Comments Utility Input Unit Factor Reporting Unit

Gas 55.80 IPCC 2006 Biogas m3 > 7.86 kWh


CHP Heat kW > 0.001 MW
CHP Heat kW > 0.0036 MWh
LPG 62.80 IPCC 2006
CHP Heat kWh > 0.001 MWh
CHP Power kW > 0.001 MW
Light Fuel Oil 75.10 IPCC 2006 CO2 Emissions kg > 0.001 Tonnes
Electricity gWh > 1,000,000 kWh
Heavy Fuel Oil 78.40 IPCC 2006 Electricity gWh > 1,000 mWh
Electricity kW > 0.001 MW
Electricity kWh > 0.001 MWh
Coal 92.70 IPCC 2006
Electricity MW > 0.001 gW
Electricity MWh > 0.001 gWh
Fuel Crops 112.00 IPCC 2006 - rated as zero for Unilever KPIs Electricity MWh > 1,000 kWh
Electricity Watts > 0.001 kW
Solid Biomass Waste 100.00 IPCC 2006 - rated as zero for Unilever KPIs Electricity Wh > 0.001 kWh
Energy GJ > 277.78 kWh
Wood/Wood Waste 112.00 IPCC 2006- rated as zero for Unilever KPIs Energy MJ > 0.001 GJ
Heavy Fuel Oil Litres > 11.723 kWh
Light Fuel Oil Litres > 10.6 kWh
Liquid Biofuels 79.60 IIPCC 2006- rated as zero for Unilever KPIs
Natural Gas ft3 > 0.3 kWh
Natural Gas kW > 0.001 MW
Biogas 54.60 IPCC 2006- rated as zero for Unilever KPIs Natural Gas kW > 3.6 MWh
Natural Gas kWh > 0.001 MWh
Natural Gas M3 > 10.7 kWh
You can get these factors from the EPR system – ask the responsible EPR person from your site Natural Gas M3 > 0.0107 MWh
Natural Gas MWh > 1,000 kWh
Natural Gas MWh > 10,700 M3
Guidance information for EPR available within the "Help" function of the system. Natural Gas (Average) M3 > 0.0105 MWh
Production M3 > 1,000 Iitres
Steam Kg > 0.001 Tonnes
Steam lb > 0.4536 Kg
Water 100L > 0.1 M3
Water 10L > 0.01 M3
Water HL > 0.1 M3
Water L > 0.001 M3
Water M3 > 1,000 L
Water M3 / hr > 0.0167 M3
74
GLOSSARY

CC Conversion Cost
CHP Combined Heat and Power
CIP Cleaning in Place
EPR Environmental Performance Report
GMP Good Manufacturing Practice
GWP Global Warming Potential
HVAC Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning
LCCA Life Cycle Climate Impact Assesment
LPG Liquified petroleum Gas
MM&T Metering Monitoring and Targeting
PFC Power Factor Correction
PID Proportional Integral Derivative
RO Reverse Osmosis
SHE Safety Health and Environment
SPC Statistical Process Control
TEWI Total Equivalent Warming Impact
TPM Total Productive Maintenance
UF Ultra Filtration
USLP Unileve Sustainable Living Plan
VFD Variable Frenquency Drives
VSD Variable Speed Drives

76
NOTES

78
FURTHER INFORMATION GREEN PAGES
WRITTEN BY GROUP MANUFACTURING SUSTAINABILITY
Tony Dunnage
USEFUL LINKS Alexandru Dinca
Lisa Hawkes
International Renewable Energy Agency
Maeve Hall
http://costing.irena.org/ 
For any of the following projects, please refer to your regional
SHE Manager for guidance:
Sustainable Living Portal for Unilever
http://unilever.com/sustainable-living/ SABD (Small Actions Big Difference)
MM&T (Metering Monitoring and Targeting)
International Energy Agency
Water Projects
http://www.iea.org
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KWWSLQVLGHXQLOHYHUFRPIXQFWLRQVXVWVXVWPDQX3DJHVGHIDXOWDVS[


On this site – on the Resource area - you will find the following tools
that are being referenced in this booklet and many more:
- Whole life costing tool
- Quick Scans
- Simple Solutions
- Energy roadmap
- Energy management
- Factory checklist

80
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