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Design Manual for Roads and Bridges

Pavement
Inspection & Assessment

CS 229
Data for pavement assessment
(formerly HD 29/08)

Revision 0

Summary
This document describes the technical requirements for undertaking detailed scheme-level
pavement investigations on the UK motorway and all-purpose trunk roads. It does not cover
network-level surveys which are described in CS 230. This document is complemented by CD
227 which sets out the requirements for determining the need for maintenance and for designing
maintenance treatments.

Application by Overseeing Organisations


Any specific requirements for Overseeing Organisations alternative or supplementary to those given in this document
are given in National Application Annexes to this document.

Feedback and Enquiries


Users of this document are encouraged to raise any enquiries and/or provide feedback on the content and usage
of this document to the dedicated Highways England team. The email address for all enquiries and feedback is:
Standards_Enquiries@highwaysengland.co.uk

This is a controlled document.


CS 229 Revision 0 Contents

Contents
Release notes 4

Foreword 5
Publishing information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Contractual and legal considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Introduction 6
Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Assumptions made in the preparation of the document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Mutual Recognition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Abbreviations 7

Terms and definitions 8

1. Scope 9
Aspects covered . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Use of GG 101 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

2. Visual condition surveys (VCS) 10

3. Deflectograph 11
Calibration, accreditation and quality assurance (QA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Survey category . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Survey procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Pavement temperature measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Direct measurement method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Contactless measurement method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Processing of deflectograph data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

4. Falling weight deflectometer (FWD) 15


Calibration, accreditation and quality assurance (QA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Pavement temperature range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Pavement temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Layer stiffness evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Joint performance evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Survey procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Pavement temperature measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Direct measurement method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Contactless measurement method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Layer stiffness evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Joint performance evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Load transfer efficiency (LTE) testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Void intercept (VI) testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Analysis of FWD data - layer stiffness evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Initial review of FWD deflection profile data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Calculating layer stiffnesses using back-analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Layer thicknesses to be used for back-analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Adjustment of asphalt layer stiffness for temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Goodness of fit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Analysis of FWD data - LTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Analysis of FWD data - VI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Reporting of FWD survey data and analysed results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

1
CS 229 Revision 0 Contents

5. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) 27


Legislation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Location referencing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Calibration and verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Survey limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Categories of accuracy and reliability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
GPR applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Layer thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Variation of sub-base moisture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Crack depth in flexible pavements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Method statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Reporting the results of a GPR survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

6. Invasive testing 32
Location referencing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Coring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Determining which asphalt layers are responsible for rutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Core logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Test pits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Test pit log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
DCP test procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) reporting and analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

7. Normative references 40

8. Informative references 41

Appendix A. Deflectograph 42
A1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
A2 Deflectograph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
A2.1 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
A2.2 Factors affecting dynamic response of the deflectograph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

Appendix B. Falling weight deflectometer (FWD) 46


B1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
B2 FWD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
B3 Surface modulus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

Appendix C. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) 50


C1 Introduction to GPR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
C1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
C1.2 General principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
C1.3 GPR calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
C1.4 Types of radar and their operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
C1.5 Antenna types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
C1.6 3D-GPR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
C1.7 Survey speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
C2 Additional guidance on the application of GPR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
C2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
C2.2 Construction changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
C2.3 Layer thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
C2.4 Identification of buried structural features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
C2.5 Deep voids beneath concrete slabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
C2.6 Depth and gross misalignment of joint dowel bars and details of reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . 57
C2.7 Variation of sub-base moisture content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
C2.8 Crack depth in flexible pavements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

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CS 229 Revision 0 Contents

C2.9 Identification of broad types of pavement materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58


C2.10 Debonding of pavement layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
C2.11 Condition of steel in concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
C2.12 Voids and wet patches beneath reinforced concrete slabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
C2.13 Small voids directly beneath unreinforced concrete slabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
C2.14 Debonding of joint sealant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
C3 Calibration of GPR for determination of layer thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
C3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
C3.2 Stage 1: identifying layer interface wavelets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
C3.3 Stage 2: calculating layer thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
C4 Reporting the results of a GPR survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

3
CS 229 Revision 0 Release notes

Release notes
Version Date Details of amendments
0 Mar 2020 CS 229 replaces HD 29/08. The full document has been re-written to make it
compliant with the new Highways England drafting rules.

4
CS 229 Revision 0 Foreword

Foreword
Publishing information
This document is published by Highways England.
This document, along with CS 230 and CD 227, supersedes HD 29/08 which is withdrawn.

Contractual and legal considerations


This document forms part of the works specification. It does not purport to include all the necessary
provisions of a contract. Users are responsible for applying all appropriate documents applicable to
their contract.

5
CS 229 Revision 0 Introduction

Introduction
Background
Road pavements do not last indefinitely. At some stage in their lives signs of wear such as polishing,
rutting, fretting and cracking may show on the surface. Maintenance is required when these signs of
wear are judged to affect the standards of service provided to the road user and the integrity of the
pavement structure.
The Overseeing Organisations use a hierarchical approach to assessing the needs of the motorways
and all-purpose trunk roads.
Network-level surveys, undertaken on a regular or routine basis, are used to identify lengths of
pavement that potentially require maintenance. Wherever possible these surveys are undertaken at
traffic speed. The requirements for this process are set out in CS 230 [Ref 8.I].
Once a length of road has been identified as requiring maintenance then a detailed investigation is
required to determine the maintenance need and to provide the information required to design the
appropriate maintenance treatments. The requirements for this process are set out in CD 227 [Ref 2.I].
This document sets out the technical requirements and associated advice for collecting the
scheme-level data required to support this process.

Assumptions made in the preparation of the document


The assumptions made in GG 101 [Ref 7.N] apply to this document.

Mutual Recognition
Where there is a requirement in this document for compliance with any part of a "British Standard" or
other technical specification, that requirement may be met by compliance with the Mutual Recognition
clause in GG 101 [Ref 7.N].

6
CS 229 Revision 0 Abbreviations

Abbreviations

Abbreviations
Abbreviation Definition
AMD Absolute mean deviation
CBR California bearing ratio
CDH Crack detection head
CWSF Continuous wave stepped frequency
CRCB Continuously reinforced concrete base
DCP Dynamic cone penetrometer
DPT Dynamic plate tester
ESBM Equivalent thickness of sound bituminous material
EXIF Exchangeable image file format
FWD Falling weight deflectometer
GPR Ground-penetrating radar
GPS Global Positioning System
HBM Hydraulically bound mixture
IRT Infra-red thermometer
LTE Load transfer efficiency
OFCOM Office of communications
PAK Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon [marker]
RMS Root mean squared deviation
TTBM Total thickness of bituminous material
UWB Ultra wide band
VCS Visual condition survey
VI Void intercept

7
CS 229 Revision 0 Terms and definitions

Terms and definitions

Terms
Terms Definitions
A method of predicting the pavement temperature using the
Contactless method
pavement surface temperature and ambient air temperature.
(of determining
Different approaches are used for predicting 40 mm and 100 mm
pavement temperature)
depth temperatures.
Cusum (or cumulative sum) is a sequential analysis technique
Cusum analysis
used for monitoring change detection.
The deflectograph is a self-contained lorry-mounted device
Deflectograph capable of taking deflection measurements at approximately 4 m
intervals in both wheel paths.
Direct measurement method A method of measuring pavement temperature by drilling holes
(of determining pavement into the pavement and inserting a probe into the hole and
temperature) recording the temperature.
The FWD is a dynamic plate test (DPT) device for measuring the
deflection response of road pavements. A load is applied to the
Falling weight deflectometer
pavement by dropping a mass onto a plate. Deflections are
(FWD)
measured by sensors located at various positions relative to the
load plate.
GPR is a non-destructive tool that can be used to obtain
Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) information about the construction of a pavement and its internal
features.

8
CS 229 Revision 0 1. Scope

1. Scope
Aspects covered
1.1 The requirements in this document shall be used when undertaking detailed, scheme-level pavement
surveys and investigations on the Overseeing Organisations' motorway and all-purpose trunk roads.
NOTE 1 This document does not cover the routine traffic-speed surveys or skidding resistance surveys
described in CS 230 [Ref 8.I] and CS 228 [Ref 9.I] respectively.
NOTE 2 Requirements for developing an investigation plan, interpreting data and designing renewal treatments
are set out in CD 227 [Ref 2.I].

Implementation
1.2 This document shall be implemented forthwith on all schemes involving the design of pavement
renewals on the Overseeing Organisations' motorway and all-purpose trunk roads according to the
implementation requirements of GG 101 [Ref 7.N].

Use of GG 101
1.3 The requirements contained in GG 101 [Ref 7.N] shall be followed in respect of activities covered by
this document.

9
CS 229 Revision 0 2. Visual condition surveys (VCS)

2. Visual condition surveys (VCS)


2.1 Visual condition surveys (VCS) on the motorway and all purpose trunk road network shall be
undertaken in accordance with the Overseeing Organisation's requirements set out in the appropriate
National Application Annex.

10
CS 229 Revision 0 3. Deflectograph

3. Deflectograph
3.1 This section sets out the requirements that shall be followed when undertaking and analysing
deflectograph surveys.
NOTE 1 The deflectograph is a self-contained lorry-mounted device capable of taking deflection measurements
at approximately 4 m intervals in both wheel paths.
NOTE 2 The deflectograph can be used to assess the structural condition of flexible pavements with asphalt or
hydraulically bound mixture (HBM) bases. It works on the principle that as a loaded wheel passes over
the pavement, the pavement deflects and the size of the deflection is related to the strength of the
pavement layers and subgrade.
NOTE 3 More information on the deflectograph is given in Appendix A. A detailed description of the equipment
is given in TRL LR834 [Ref 7.I].

Calibration, accreditation and quality assurance (QA)


3.2 Deflectographs shall be operated in accordance with the requirements of the Accreditation and Quality
Assurance of Deflectograph Survey Devices document ( AQA DSD [Ref 2.N]) available on the UK
Roads Liaison Group (UKRLG) website.
NOTE 1 The 'Accreditation and Quality Assurance of Deflectograph Survey Devices' document includes
requirements for undertaking static calibration checks of the deflectograph beam.
NOTE 2 The 'Accreditation and Quality Assurance of Deflectograph Survey Devices' document also sets out the
procedures to be used for the accreditation and re-accreditation of deflectographs by way of an annual
correlation trial and the regimes to be used for first party and third party quality assurance checks,
including dynamic calibration.
NOTE 3 Certificates are available on the UKRLG website so that anyone commissioning surveys can check the
accreditation status of individual deflectographs UKRLG (Deflectograph) [Ref 6.N].

Survey category
3.3 The categories for deflectograph surveys, defined by time of year and pavement temperature at a
depth of 40 mm in Table 3.3, shall be used to define the permitted usage of the data.

Table 3.3 Deflectograph survey categories and usage


Survey
Confidence Usage
category
Highest level of
1A Providing data to be used for the design
confidence
of renewal treatments
1B High level of confidence
Medium level of Providing data for advanced assessment
2
confidence of maintenance need
Not recommended. Data in this category is limited
Lowest level of
3 to allowing relative assessment of condition within a
confidence
site

NOTE 1 Deflection of flexible pavements varies with temperature. The parameter equivalent thickness of sound
bituminous material (ESBM) is used both for defining survey temperature limits and for adjusting
deflectograph deflections to the standard temperature of 20oC. ESBM is automatically calculated by the
Overseeing Organisations' approved deflectograph processing software. Details of the approved
software are provided in the National Application Annexes for each Overseeing Organisation.
NOTE 2 The deflection behaviour with temperature of pavements with strong hydraulically-bound layers
covered by asphalt can be significantly different from that of all asphalt construction. As the pavement
temperature of a composite pavement increases, the pavement deflection can decrease rather than

11
CS 229 Revision 0 3. Deflectograph

increase, as is normally observed in flexible pavements with asphalt base. This effect is due to the
hydraulically bound layer expanding with increasing temperature causing the cracks to close and the
slabs to start locking together so stiffening the structure. Although the stiffness of any asphalt layers
can reduce, at the same time, the overall effect can be an increase of the total pavement stiffness and
hence a reduction in measured deflection to relatively low values.
NOTE 3 The pavement temperature and time of year limits used to define deflectograph survey categories are
set out in the National Application Annexes for each Overseeing Organisation.
3.3.1 Prior to surveying, ESBM values for the lengths of road to be surveyed should be used to define the
appropriate temperature ranges for the survey category required.
3.4 Surveys carried out within two years of a pavement being constructed or reconstructed shall not be
used to determine residual life or strengthening requirements.
NOTE Early life deflections can be more variable and are not a reliable indicator of future structural strength of
a pavement until the pavement layers and the foundation have stabilised.

Survey procedure
3.5 The deflectograph shall be positioned so that the nearside beam-tip follows the centre of the nearside
wheel path of the lane to be surveyed.
3.6 The deflectograph shall operate at a constant speed within the range 2.4 km/h ± 0.1 km/h.
3.7 The survey data collected by the deflectograph shall be referenced to the Overseeing Organisation's
network referencing system.
3.7.1 The location of easily identifiable features may be recorded so that deflection values can subsequently
be related to their positions on the road.
3.7.2 The recorded output should be monitored for inconsistent data.
NOTE Inconsistent data includes erratic data, unusually high or low deflection data or large differences in
deflection between the nearside and offside wheel paths where this is not normally expected to be
observed.
3.8 Where inconsistencies occur, the deflectograph shall be checked immediately.
3.9 Where a fault is found, the survey shall be discontinued until the deflectograph is repaired.

Pavement temperature measurement


3.10 The pavement temperature shall be determined using either the "direct measurement method" or
"contactless method".
NOTE 1 The "direct measurement method" involves drilling holes into the pavement, to a depth of 40 mm and
inserting a probe into the hole and recording the temperature.
NOTE 2 The "contactless method" predicts the pavement temperature using the pavement surface temperature,
the ambient air temperature at the time of survey and the time of the survey.
NOTE 3 Regardless of the method used, it is most important that accurate road temperatures are recorded.
Small errors in measured temperature can lead to large errors in corrected deflection especially if the
structure includes considerable thicknesses of new asphalt.
3.10.1 The pavement temperature should be determined using the "contactless method".
3.11 The pavement temperature, its location and time of determination shall be recorded and entered on the
survey record at the start and finish of the survey and at least once every 30 minutes throughout the
survey.
3.12 Where daytime deflectograph surveys pass into and out of continuously shaded areas on the
carriageway, and in areas of significantly different surface characteristics, temperatures shall be
recorded in addition to other temperature recordings.

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CS 229 Revision 0 3. Deflectograph

NOTE Different surface characteristics include a change in the colour of the asphalt such as moving from a
thin surface course to a light coloured high friction surfacing.
3.13 Surveys shall not continue where the pavement temperature at any one point is changing at a rate
exceeding 2.5oC per hour, measured over a period of at least 15 minutes.
NOTE The limiting rate of change of temperature is set to ensure that the correction of deflections to the
standard temperature of 20oC remains valid.

Direct measurement method


3.14 For the direct measurement method, the temperature at a depth of 40 mm shall be measured using a
calibrated electronic thermometer with an accuracy equal to or better than 0.5oC and a resolution equal
to or better than 0.1oC.
3.14.1 Measurement holes may be pre-drilled along the survey route before the survey starts.
3.15 Glycerol, or similar substance, shall be placed in the bottom of the hole to ensure good thermal contact
between the thermometer and the bound material.
3.16 The temperature value indicated on the thermometer shall have stabilised before a representative
value is recorded.
NOTE The temperature can be assumed to have stabilised when there is no change in reading over a 30
second period.

Contactless measurement method


3.17 For the contactless method, a calibrated electronic thermometer capable of measuring the air
temperature to an accuracy equal to or better than 0.5oC with a resolution equal to or better than 0.1oC
shall be used.
3.18 For the contactless method, the pavement surface temperature shall be measured using a calibrated
infra-red thermometer (IRT) to an accuracy equal to or better than 1oC and with a resolution equal to or
better than 0.1oC.
3.19 The IRT emissivity shall be set at the manufacturer's recommended setting for asphalt.
3.20 The air and surface thermometers shall be mounted directly on the deflectograph in a location that
minimises the potential of external influences on the measurements, for example, away from any hot
exhaust fumes.
3.21 The temperature readings shall be visible to the operator so that there is no need to leave the vehicle in
order to take a measurement.
3.22 For the contactless method, the predicted temperature at a depth of 40 mm (T40) shall be calculated
using Equation 3.22:

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CS 229 Revision 0 3. Deflectograph

Equation 3.22 Equation to be used to calculate the predicted temperature at a depth of 40 mm


( [ ( )])
T ime − 18
T40 = 1.166 + (0.927 × TIRT ) + (0.02 × Tair ) + 0.337 × sin 2π +
( [ ( )]) 24
T ime − 14
0.078 × TIRT × sin 2π
24
where:
T40 is the predicted pavement temperature (oC) at a depth of 40 mm
TIRT is the surface temperature measured by the IRT (oC)
Tair is the air temperature measured at the time of the test (oC)
Time is the time the temperatures are taken (hours) i.e. decimal time using the 24-h clock

Processing of deflectograph data


3.23 Deflectograph data shall be processed in accordance with the National Application Annexes for each
Overseeing Organisation.

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CS 229 Revision 0 4. Falling weight deflectometer (FWD)

4. Falling weight deflectometer (FWD)


4.1 This section sets out requirements for falling weight deflectometer (FWD) surveys that shall be followed
when undertaking and analysing FWD surveys.
NOTE 1 The FWD is a dynamic plate test (DPT) device for measuring the deflection response of road
pavements. A load is applied to the pavement by dropping a mass onto a plate. Deflections are
measured by sensors located at various positions relative to the load plate.
NOTE 2 Most DPT equipment is classified by the load that can be applied to the test plate. There are four main
categories, A to D:
1) A: lightweight equipment that can apply a test load in the range of 1-15 kN;
2) B: medium-weight equipment that can apply a test load in the range of 30 to 120 kN;
3) C: heavyweight equipment that can apply a test load in the range 30 to 240 kN;
4) D. super heavyweight equipment that can apply a test load in the range 30 to 300 kN.

NOTE 3 This section applies to DPT equipment in categories B, C and D only. For ease of reference, this
equipment is referred to as the falling weight deflectometer (FWD) throughout this section.
NOTE 4 The FWD can be a trailer mounted device, towed behind a vehicle or can be mounted within a van.
NOTE 5 FWD deflection measurements can be used for assessing the structural characteristics of flexible and
rigid pavements. FWD measurements allow the deflected shape of the pavement surface to be
derived. Estimates of layer stiffness can be made from knowledge of the deflected shape and the layer
thicknesses.
NOTE 6 The primary use of the FWD on jointed rigid pavements is to assess the performance of joints or cracks.
The tests most commonly used are the load transfer efficiency (LTE) test and void intercept (VI) test.
NOTE 7 The set up of the FWD depends on whether it is being used to assess layer stiffness or for the
assessment of joints/cracks.
NOTE 8 More information on FWDs is given in Appendix B.

Calibration, accreditation and quality assurance (QA)


4.2 FWDs shall be operated in accordance with the Accreditation and Quality Assurance of Dynamic Plate
Test Survey Devices document ( AQA DPTSD [Ref 3.N]) available on the UKRLG website.
NOTE 1 The accreditation and quality assurance of dynamic plate test survey devices document sets out the
procedures to be used for the accreditation and re-accreditation of FWDs by way of an annual
correlation trial and the regimes to be used for first party and third party quality assurance checks.
NOTE 2 The accreditation and quality assurance of dynamic plate test survey devices document also includes a
specification for FWDs.
NOTE 3 Certificates are available on the UKRLG website so that anyone commissioning surveys can check the
accreditation status of individual FWDs UKRLG (DPTD) [Ref 4.I].

Pavement temperature range


Pavement temperature
4.3 The standard pavement temperature for FWD surveys shall be the temperature at a depth of 100 mm
below the road surface.
NOTE The standard pavement temperature for FWD surveys is used for adjusting the stiffness of asphalt
layers to the standard reference temperature of 20 oC and for establishing whether the survey is in the
preferred or recommended temperature ranges.

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CS 229 Revision 0 4. Falling weight deflectometer (FWD)

Layer stiffness evaluation


4.4 The temperature categories for FWD stiffness evaluation testing on flexible pavements as set out in
Table 4.4 shall define the permitted usage of the data.

Table 4.4 Temperature categories for FWD stiffness evaluation testing on flexible pavements
Cate-
Confidence Usage
gory
Highest level of
1 Providing data to be used for the design of renewal treatments
confidence
Medium level of Data in this category shall be limited to allowing relative assessment of
2
confidence condition within a site
Lowest level of
3 Not recommended
confidence

4.5 For flexible pavements, the temperature ranges for each category in Table 4.4 shall be as defined in
Table 4.5.

Table 4.5 Temperature range for stiffness evaluation testing on flexible pavements
Temperature range (oC)
Pavement type
Category 1 Category 2 Category 3
≥ 5 to < 10
Flexible with an asphalt base ≥ 10 to ≤ 25 and <5 or >30
> 25 to ≤ 30
Flexible with an HBM base (where
the primary aim of the survey is to ≥ 5 to ≤ 15 > 15 to ≤ 25 <5 or >25
assess the condition of the HBM base)

NOTE 1 At very low temperatures (<5oC), ice can be present in the unbound materials which can significantly
affect the results.
NOTE 2 Since the stiffness of asphalt layers needs to be adjusted to the standard reference temperature of 20o
C, additional uncertainty is introduced when testing takes place at temperatures significantly above or
below 20oC. In addition, at high temperatures (>30oC) the response of asphalt becomes increasingly
viscous and it is more difficult to distinguish between sound and unsound materials.
NOTE 3 The effective stiffness of hydraulically bound bases can increase with temperature due to cracks locking
together and stiffening the structure. This effect is dependent upon the extent of cracking present and
is difficult to predict. However it is not very significant on severely cracked hydraulically bound bases.
4.6 On jointed rigid pavements, layer stiffness evaluation testing shall not be undertaken where
temperature gradients have caused hogging or warping of the slabs.
4.6.1 Where the conditions suggest that there can be a temperature gradient which can contribute to hogging
or warping, additional temperature measurements should be taken to assess the risk.

Joint performance evaluation


4.7 The preferred temperature range for testing the performance of joints (or cracks) on jointed rigid
pavements shall be 5oC to 15oC.
4.7.1 Where, for operational reasons, testing cannot be undertaken within the preferred range then testing of
the performance of joints (or cracks) on jointed rigid pavements should be undertaken within the range
5oC to 20oC.
4.7.2 In order to compare the performance of joints or cracks on a section of road, testing should be
undertaken at a similar temperature within the preferred range.

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4.8 Joint performance testing shall not be undertaken where temperature gradients have caused hogging
or warping of the slabs.
4.8.1 Where the conditions suggest that there can be a temperature gradient that can contribute to hogging
or warping, additional temperature measurements should be taken to assess the risk.
NOTE 1 The temperature condition of the pavement has a major effect on the measured LTE on jointed rigid
pavements. Generally, higher LTE values are obtained at high temperatures as the slabs expand and
lock together.
NOTE 2 At low temperature, the widths of the joints and/or cracks are greater and the relative movement is
larger.
NOTE 3 The locking effect depends on the roughness and nominal width of the joints or cracks and the
coefficient of thermal expansion of the slabs. This can therefore affect the appropriate temperature
range for load transfer testing.
NOTE 4 Higher VI values can be obtained on slabs which are warping ("curling up"). This can occur when the
surface temperature is lower than the temperature at the bottom of the slab.

Survey procedure
4.9 The loading plate shall be located in one of the wheel paths of the lane to be surveyed.
NOTE FWD testing is normally carried out in the nearside wheel path in order to assess the line of greatest
deterioration. Requirements and recommendations for test lane and frequency of testing are contained
in CD 227 [Ref 2.I].
4.10 The load shall be recorded to a resolution of 0.1 kN (or better).
4.10.1 The load pulse should have a rise time from start of pulse to peak of between 5 and 15 milliseconds.
4.11 The load pulse shall be applied through a circular plate, 300 mm in diameter.
4.11.1 Where the FWD has a 60 Hz smoothing filter option, it should be activated.
4.12 The pavement surface directly beneath the loading plate shall be free of standing water.
4.13 Deflections shall be measured to a resolution of 1 micron (or better) over the range 0 to 2 mm by a
minimum of 7 sensors situated at radii up to a distance of 2.25 m from the centre of the loading plate.
4.14 At least 3 drops, plus a small initial drop for settling the load plate, shall be made at each test point.
NOTE Where LTE and VI testing are both being undertaken, one drop at each of the load levels can be used.
4.15 The recorded data shall be monitored for inconsistencies.
NOTE 1 Inconsistent data includes large differences in the recorded deflections for the three drops,
non-decreasing deflections (with radial position) and failure to achieve the target load.
NOTE 2 Most FWDs have diagnostic software that monitors the data output and flags inconsistent data.
4.16 Where inconsistencies in the recorderd data occur, the device shall be checked immediately.
4.17 Where a fault is found, the survey shall be discontinued until the device is repaired.
4.18 The data collected shall be referenced to the Overseeing Organisation's network referencing system.
4.19 GPS co-ordinates shall be recorded and used to provide additional confirmation of the location of each
test point.
NOTE The performance of GPS location referencing systems is assessed as part of the annual FWD
accreditation trial. The requirements for individual Overseeing Organisations are given in the National
Application Annexes.
4.20 When testing on jointed rigid pavements, the location of the load plate relative to the joints shall also be
recorded.

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Pavement temperature measurement


4.21 The pavement temperature at a depth of 100 mm below the road surface shall be determined using
either the "direct measurement method" or "contactless method", defined below.
NOTE 1 The "direct measurement method" involves drilling holes into the pavement, to a depth of 100 mm and
inserting a probe into the hole and recording the temperature.
NOTE 2 The "contactless method" predicts the pavement temperature using the pavement surface temperature,
the time of measurement and the average air temperature for the previous calendar day.
NOTE 3 Regardless of the method used, it is most important that accurate pavement temperatures are
recorded. Small errors in measured temperature can lead to large errors in adjusted stiffness especially
where the structure includes large thicknesses of new asphalt.
4.22 The pavement temperature, its location and time of determination shall be recorded and entered on the
survey record at the start and finish of the survey and at least once every 30 minutes throughout the
survey.
4.23 During daytime surveys, temperatures shall also be recorded when passing into or out of continuously
shaded areas on the carriageway and areas having significantly differing surface characteristics.

Direct measurement method


4.24 For the direct measurement method, the temperature at a depth of 100 mm shall be measured using a
calibrated electronic thermometer with an accuracy equal to or better than 0.5oC and a resolution equal
to or better than 0.1oC.
4.24.1 It may be advantageous to pre-drill measurement holes along the survey route before the survey starts.
4.25 Glycerol, or similar substance, shall be placed in the bottom of the hole to ensure good thermal contact
between the thermometer and the bound material.
4.26 The temperature value indicated on the thermometer shall have stabilised before a representative
value is recorded.
NOTE The temperature can be assumed to have stabilised when there is no change in reading over a 30
second period.

Contactless measurement method


4.27 For the contactless method, the pavement surface temperature shall be measured using a calibrated
infra-red thermometer (IRT) to an accuracy equal to or better than 1oC and with a resolution equal to or
better than 0.1oC.
4.28 The IRT emissivity shall be set at the manufacturer's recommended setting for asphalt.
4.29 The IRT shall be mounted on the FWD in a location that minimises the potential of external influences
on the measurements, for example, away from any hot exhaust fumes.
4.30 The temperature readings shall be visible to the operator so that there is no need to leave the vehicle in
order to take a measurement.
4.31 The "average air temperature for the previous day" (Tair-pd), defined as the mean air temperature
measured between 00:00hrs and 24:00hrs on the previous calendar day i.e. the day before the day
that the survey commences, is used in the calculation and shall be based on a minimum of 24
measurements (i.e. taken at hourly intervals) by an accredited weather station located as close as
possible to the survey site (and no more than 30 km from the site).
4.32 For the contactless method, the predicted temperature at a depth of 100 mm (T100) shall be calculated
using equation 4.32:

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Equation 4.32 Equation to be used to calculate the predicted temperature at a depth of 100mm
( [ ( )])
T ime − 18
T100 = 1.195 + (0.611 × TIRT ) + (0.418 × Tair−pd ) + 0.361 × sin 2π +
( [ ( )]) 24
T ime − 14
0.121 × TIRT × sin 2π
24
where:
T100 is the predicted pavement temperature at a depth of 100 mm
TIRT is the surface temperature measured by the IRT (oC)
Tair-pd is the average air temperature for the previous day (oC)
is the time that surface temperature is taken (in hours), i.e. decimal time using the 2
Time
4-hour clock

Layer stiffness evaluation


4.33 Layer stiffness evaluation shall involve loading the pavement and measuring the resulting deflection
bowl in order to assess the structural condition of different layers within the pavement.
4.33.1 On flexible pavements, the load level should be set at 50 kN ± 10 percent.
4.33.2 On rigid pavements, or on flexible pavements where the central deflection measurement (d1) is
consistently less than 100 microns at 50 kN, the load level should be increased to 75 kN ± 10 percent.
4.33.3 FWD sensors should be located as shown in Table 4.33.3:

Table 4.33.3 Recommended FWD sensor positions


Distance (mm) from centre of loading plate
Geophone number
d1 d2 d3 d4 d5 d6 d7
0 300 600 900 1200 1500 2100

4.34 Where layer stiffness evaluation measurements are being taken on a jointed rigid pavement, the
measurements shall be taken in mid-slab locations and away from cracks.

Joint performance evaluation


Load transfer efficiency (LTE) testing
4.35 The LTE of jointed rigid pavements shall be assessed by loading the slab on one side whilst deflections
are measured on each side of the joint or crack.
4.35.1 The testing arrangement shown schematically in Figure 4.35.1 should be used for LTE testing. The
centre of the load plate is located 250 mm from the discontinuity with the deflection sensors d2 and d3
placed either side of the discontinuity, 200 and 300 mm from the load centre respectively.

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Figure 4.35.1 Load transfer efficiency FWD arrangement ("leave" side test)

NOTE Figure 4.35.1 shows the recommended arrangement for testing a transverse joint. Ideally the centre of
the plate, d2 and d3 form a straight line perpendicular to the joint or crack. However this is not always
possible, for example, when testing a diagonal crack.
4.35.2 The load level should be set to 75 kN ± 10 percent.
4.35.3 Where LTE testing and VI testing are both to be undertaken, the testing should be done simultaneously
and the load levels used for VI testing employed for the LTE testing.
4.35.4 When testing transverse joints, the downstream side ("leave" side) of the joint should be loaded.
NOTE The load transfer efficiency can depend on the support under the edge of the discontinuity. The
downstream side ("leave" side) of the discontinuity is often the weaker side.
4.36 The sensors shall be positioned to avoid spalled material around the discontinuity.
NOTE Where spalled material is present around a number of the discontinuities, the sensor spacings can be
adjusted to allow for this.

Void intercept (VI) testing


4.37 Where the FWD is to be used to determine the VI, at least three drops of the FWD, one each at a
different load level, shall be used to perform the VI test.
NOTE The VI test is used on jointed rigid pavements to determine the possible presence of voids beneath the
edge of slabs.
4.37.1 The load levels used for the VI testing should be 50 kN, 75 kN and 100 kN with one drop at each of
these loads, plus a settling drop.
4.37.2 The centre of the FWD load plate should be located 250 mm from the joint to be evaluated.
4.37.3 When testing transverse joints, the downstream side ("leave" side) of the joint should be loaded.
NOTE The downstream side ("leave" side) of the discontinuity is often the weaker side.

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CS 229 Revision 0 4. Falling weight deflectometer (FWD)

Analysis of FWD data - layer stiffness evaluation


Initial review of FWD deflection profile data
4.38 The first stage in the review and analysis of FWD data collected for the purpose of layer stiffness
evaluation is to prepare simple longitudinal plots of selected deflection parameters and the FWD
deflection data shall be "normalised" to a standard load of either 50 kN or 75 kN.
NOTE The deflected shape of the surface, generated by an FWD impact load, depends upon the type,
thickness and condition of the pavement layers.
4.38.1 The deflection parameters that should be plotted are the deflections d1 and d6 and the deflection
difference (d1-d4). A typical plot of these three deflection indicators is shown in Figure 4.38.1.

Figure 4.38.1 FWD deflection profiles

NOTE 1 The central deflection d1 gives an indication of overall pavement stiffness. The deflection difference
(d1-d4) relates to the stiffness and thickness of the bound pavement layers. Deflection d6 is an
indication of foundation condition.
NOTE 2 Plots show relative differences in the condition of the layers, allow lengths of road with similar behaviour
to be identified and can provide an indication of where structural weakness is likely to be present.

Calculating layer stiffnesses using back-analysis


4.39 Where back-analysis of FWD data is to be performed to provide estimates of pavement layer
stiffnesses, the back-analysis program used shall:

1) model the pavement structure as a number of horizontally infinite linear elastic layers;
2) use elastic multi-layer analysis based on Burmister's Burmister [Ref 11.N] equations with all layers
modelled linearly including an infinite depth subgrade and no slip between layers;
3) be able to model at least three independent layers;
4) be able to handle at least seven deflection sensors;
5) be able to report the computed surface deflection values.

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CS 229 Revision 0 4. Falling weight deflectometer (FWD)

NOTE 1 "Back -analysis" is an iterative procedure which uses multi-layered linear elastic modelling of the
pavement to match the computed deflections to the values measured by the FWD. The layer
stiffnesses are adjusted in this process until a reasonable match is obtained.
NOTE 2 The results of back analysis are strongly influenced by the type of program used and the way in which
the pavement is modelled (including the number of layers used and the assumed properties of those
layers).
4.40 The following standard rules shall be applied when undertaking back-analysis of FWD data:

1) the minimum thickness of any single layer is 75 mm;


2) the maximum number of independent layers (including the subgrade) is three;
3) adjacent asphalt layers are to be combined and modelled as a single layer;
4) adjacent layers of hydraulically bound mixture and/or pavement quality concrete are to be combined
and modelled as a single layer;
5) where an asphalt layer overlies a layer of hydraulically bound mixture or pavement quality concrete,
these are to be modelled as separate layers provided that neither is less than one-third the thickness
of the other (subject to constraints 1 and 2);
6) Poisson's ratios to be used are listed in the table below.

Table 4.40 Poisson's ratios to be used in back-analysis of FWD data


Material Poisson's ratio
Asphalt 0.35
Hydraulically bound mixture 0.35
Pavement quality concrete 0.20
Crushed stone 0.45
Soils (fine-grained) 0.45

NOTE The use of this procedure is expected to produce reasonably consistent results independent of who is
performing the analysis.
4.41 Where an alternative back-analysis procedure is used, this shall be in addition to the standard
procedure.
4.42 The reasons for using an alternative back-analysis procedure shall be clearly stated.
NOTE There can be occasions where the standard back-analysis procedure does not produce representative
or realistic estimates of stiffness. Table 4.42N lists some example scenarios where alternative analysis
procedures can sometimes produce more realistic estimates of layer stiffness.

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CS 229 Revision 0 4. Falling weight deflectometer (FWD)

Table 4.42N Some example situations where alternative (additional) back-analysis models can
be appropriate
Problem Possible alternative analysis methods
A non-linear (i.e. stress-dependent) subgrade or
the presence of bedrock is indicated by surface A layered subgrade model or a model using a
modulus plots. (Refer to Appendix B for stiff-layer at depth can be appropriate.
information on surface modulus analysis.)
Use a two-layer model combining all the bound
materials and use forward-analysis to determine
revised guide limits for the quality of the materials
On a flexible pavement with HBM base or an (supplementary testing needs to identify which
overlaid rigid pavement or a CRCB modelled layer is responsible for any low stiffnesses).
using a three-layer model, the stiffness of the Or
asphalt layer is unrealistically high (or low) or the Fix the stiffness of the asphalt layer in the
stiffness of the HBM/concrete is unrealistically analysis. This needs to be determined from a
low (or high). number of indirect tensile tests undertaken on the
main asphalt layers and adjusted to the FWD
loading time and temperature at the time of the
survey.
Presence of poor quality bound materials, i.e. a
It can be appropriate to sub-divide the bound
sub-layer of bound material is known to be in a
layers into two (intact and poor) layers or, in
severely deteriorated condition and to have very
extreme cases, to combine the poor materials
low stiffness (e.g. cracked/stripped lower bound
with the foundation layers.
layers in an evolved pavement).

Layer thicknesses to be used for back-analysis


4.43 It is essential that accurate and reliable thickness information be obtained prior to back-analysis.
Construction information from cores and GPR (where undertaken) shall be used to determine the layer
thicknesses for use in the back-analysis.
NOTE 1 Stiffness results from back-analysis are extremely sensitive to the layer thicknesses assumed for the
analysis.
NOTE 2 Underestimating the thickness of bound layers can result in an over-estimate of the stiffness of that
layer and overestimating bound layer thickness can similarly result in an under-estimate of the stiffness
of that layer. A 15% underestimate of the thickness of a bound layer can result in a 50% overestimate
of the stiffness of that layer.
4.43.1 Where layer thicknesses within a survey length are all within ±5% of the mean thickness then
back-analysis should be undertaken using the mean thickness value.
NOTE Construction thicknesses can be expected to be reasonably uniform in road sections that were
constructed at the same time and have not been subject to differential maintenance.
4.43.2 Where layer thicknesses within a survey length are all within ±5% of the mean thickness then additional
back-analyses using the maximum and minimum layer thicknesses may be undertaken to allow a
sensitivity analysis to be performed i.e. to quantify the likely effect of using the mean thickness on the
back-analysed stiffnesses.
4.44 Where the construction information from cores and GPR shows that the pavement is not uniform, the
pavement shall be divided into sub-sections of homogeneous construction.
4.44.1 The measured bound-layer thickness within a homogeneous section should lie within ±5% of the
bound-layer thickness used for that section.
4.44.2 The determination of the homogeneous section boundaries may be determined graphically by Cusum
analysis or by computation.

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CS 229 Revision 0 4. Falling weight deflectometer (FWD)

4.44.3 For sections where there is a continuous change in thickness, separate thicknesses may be used for
the back-analysis of each deflection bowl.

Adjustment of asphalt layer stiffness for temperature


4.45 The stiffness of asphalt layers, unless severely cracked, shall be adjusted to the standard reference
temperature of 20oC using Equation 4.45:

Equation 4.45 Equation for adjusting asphalt layer stiffness


2
−0.022×(20−T ))
E20 = ET × 10(0.0003×(20−T )
where:
E20 is stiffness at 20oC
ET is stiffness at temperature T
T is temperature of the asphalt (at depth of 100 mm) at time of testing

NOTE 1 Stiffnesses derived from back-analysis represent estimates of the in situ values at the time of testing.
The stiffness of asphalt is very dependent on temperature. Therefore, in order to compare the
stiffnesses of asphalt layers obtained with those expected from standard materials, it is necessary to
first adjust them to the standard reference temperature of 20oC.
NOTE 2 The susceptibility of asphalt stiffness to temperature can vary quite considerably and is a function of a
number of different material properties. This relationship can be used to provide adjustment of asphalt
layer stiffnesses provided that testing is carried out within the preferred range (for flexible pavements
with an asphalt base) of 10 to 25oC.
NOTE 3 The relationship can also be used where measurements are taken at other temperatures although the
absolute values of the adjusted asphalt layer stiffnesses need to be treated with caution.
4.45.1 The temperature dependency of the stiffness of severely cracked asphalt tends to be far less than that
of intact materials. Therefore, where a layer is known to be severely cracked throughout its depth,
temperature adjustment should not normally be applied.
4.46 When an alternative relationship is used to adjust the asphalt stiffness for temperature, this shall be in
addition to the standard relationship.
4.47 The reasons for using an alternative relationship for adjusting asphalt stiffness for temperature shall be
clearly stated.

Goodness of fit
4.48 When back-analysis of FWD data is undertaken, the goodness of fit parameters "absolute mean
deviation" (AMD) and "root mean squared deviation" (RMS) shall be calculated using the following
equations:

Equation 4.48a Absolute mean deviation (AMD)



∑ dci − dmi

AM D =
n

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CS 229 Revision 0 4. Falling weight deflectometer (FWD)

Equation 4.48b Root mean squared deviation (RMS)


v( )
u
u ∑ (dci − dmi )2
RM S = t
n

where:
dmi are the measured deflections in microns at positions i =1 to n
dci are the calculated deflections in microns at positions i =1 to n
n is the total number of sensor positions used in the analysis (normally seven).

NOTE 1 The AMD indicates whether or not there is an overall bias to the calculated deflection bowl relative to
the measured bowl. The RMS indicates how well, on average, the calculated bowl matches the
measured bowl.
NOTE 2 A good fit does not in itself indicate that a correct solution has been obtained. However a poor fit does
indicate that the solution found is suspect.
4.48.1 Table 4.48.1 contains guide values for AMD and RMS for pavements modelled with a total of two or
three layers (with the foundation counted as a layer). Back-analysed stiffnesses from bowls for which
the AMD or RMS exceed these values are suspect and should be treated with caution.

Table 4.48.1 Guide values for AMD and RMS


Maximum values (microns)
Number of layers
AMD RMS
2 4 11
3 2 5

NOTE Back-analysis programs vary in their ability to match calculated to measured deflections. Poor fits can
also be obtained where cracks or other discontinuities are present in the pavement, where incorrect
assumptions about layer thicknesses or material types are made, or where layer de-bonding is present.
Increasing the number of layers normally improves the level of fit but does not necessarily lead to more
realistic estimates of layer stiffness.
4.49 Isolated results which exceed these limits shall be discounted when assessing the overall condition of a
section.

Analysis of FWD data - LTE


4.50 The LTE for discontinuities shall be calculated using Equation 4.50:

Equation 4.50 Equation for calculating load transfer efficiency


deflection of unloaded slab d3
LT E = = × 100%
deflection of loaded slab d2
where:
d2 and d3 are as shown in Figure 4.35.1.

4.51 The deflections, d1, d2 and d3 shall be tabulated.

Analysis of FWD data - VI


4.52 The VI for each joint shall be calculated as follows:

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CS 229 Revision 0 4. Falling weight deflectometer (FWD)

1) a deflection versus load plot is to be produced (for each joint);


2) a linear regression is to be undertaken and the best fit line plotted through the data;
3) the point where the line intercepts the y axis (load = 0 line) is reported as the void intercept value
(microns).

Reporting of FWD survey data and analysed results


4.53 Where an FWD survey has been carried out, the information in Table 4.53 shall be reported:
Table 4.53 Reporting of FWD survey data and analysed results
Survey details
1) the date and time of the survey and the identities of the operator and company;
2) location of the survey including road number, lane number, transverse position, geographical
location, precise details of the longitudinal referencing in relation to the network section reference
and GPS coordinates;
3) make, model, serial number and accreditation certificate number of the FWD used;
4) target load level/s and the diameter of the loading plate;
5) type, number and positions of the deflection sensors;
6) method used to produce 100 mm depth temperatures. For temperatures measured using the
direct method, the locations, depths and times at which the pavement temperature were recorded.
For temperatures determined using the contactless method, the average air temperature for the
previous day (and the source of this data), the locations and times of IRT temperatures measured
during the survey, and the corresponding 100 mm depth temperatures;
7) test type, leave or approach for LTE and/or VI.
Survey results
1) tabulated deflections (normalised to 50 kN or 75 kN as appropriate);
2) for layer evaluation - graphs of the deflection parameters d1, (d1-d4) and d6 (normalised to 50 or
75 kN as appropriate) against chainage;
3) temperature applicable to each test point.
Analysis details – back-analysis
1) details of the FWD back-analysis program used (name, version, mode of operation);
2) details of the model used (i.e. thicknesses for each layer, number of layers, type of material
assumed, details of the source of the construction information used e.g. cores, GPR, as-built
drawings etc.).
Analysis results – back-analysis
For each back-analysis model reported:
1) tabulated back-analysed stiffnesses (including "as measured" and "adjusted to 20oC" for asphalt
layers);
2) graphs of the layer stiffness results (asphalt layers adjusted to 20oC);
3) tabulated layer thicknesses used for the analysis (i.e. for each test point);
4) AMD and RMS values for each test point.
Analysis results – LTE
1) tabulated load, deflection and LTE values;
2) graphs of LTE values.
Analysis results – VI
1) tabulated VI values;
2) graphs of VI values.

4.54 Any additional reporting and/or processing of FWD data shall be undertaken in accordance with the
relevant National Application Annex.

26
CS 229 Revision 0 5. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR)

5. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR)


5.1 This section sets out requirements for undertaking GPR surveys on paved roads that shall be followed
when undertaking and analysing the results of GPR surveys.
NOTE 1 GPR is a non-destructive tool that can be used to obtain information about the construction of a
pavement and its internal features.
NOTE 2 This section does not cover the use of GPR for monitoring of services such as subsurface drains,
buried pipes and any other non-pavement related features.
NOTE 3 Guidance on the use of GPR for the assessment of highway structures is given in CS 464 [Ref 6.I].
NOTE 4 The quality of the information obtained from GPR is largely a function of three factors:
1) the electrical properties (dielectric constant and the conductivity) of the materials forming the
pavement;
2) the survey conditions, including the methodology and type of GPR equipment employed as well as
environmental conditions such as external sources of electromagnetic interference;
3) the processing software and analysis methodology including calibration procedures employed.
NOTE 5 More information on the general principles of the use of GPR and their antenna types (including 3D
GPR) is provided in Appendix C.

Legislation
5.2 GPR surveys shall be undertaken in accordance with OfCOM's Requirements and Guidance Notes for
Ground Probing Radar' ( OfW 350 [Ref 10.N]), and the European GPR Association Code of Practice
ETSI EG 202 730 [Ref 5.N].

Location referencing
5.3 All GPR surveys shall be referenced against the appropriate Overseeing Organisation's network
referencing system.
NOTE Accurate location referencing is essential to allow reliable comparison between each type of data.
5.4 The location of GPR surveys undertaken at slow speed shall be recorded to an accuracy of ± 1 m, or
better.
5.5 The location of GPR surveys undertaken at traffic speed shall be recorded to an accuracy of ± 5 m, or
better.
5.5.1 The location of GPR surveys undertaken at traffic speed should be recorded to an accuracy of ± 1 m, or
better.
NOTE For traffic speed surveys, this level of accuracy is likely to require the use of a sophisticated GPS and
inertial measurement unit.

Calibration and verification


5.6 Where the GPR survey is to be used to determine the depth of pavement features or to identify
construction changes, cores shall be used to confirm the calibration of the GPR system and the
construction changes.
NOTE Details on GPR calibration methods are provided in Appendix C.
5.6.1 Cores should be taken following an initial analysis of the GPR data, when changes in construction and
layer thicknesses have been identified and located, and taken in representative areas where the layers
appear to be homogeneous in both quality and thickness.

Survey limitations
5.7 GPR surveys shall not be carried out when standing water is present on the surface of the pavement.

27
CS 229 Revision 0 5. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR)

NOTE A film of surface water can affect the radar signal making interpretation of the data more difficult.
5.8 GPR surveys shall not be carried out on recently salted (de-iced) roads.
NOTE There is a risk of penetration of saltwater into the subsurface layers. Salt increases the conductivity of
pavement materials which attenuates the radar signal and reduces the depth of penetration of the radar.

Categories of accuracy and reliability


5.9 Data from GPR surveys shall be used in accordance with the accuracy and reliability categories
defined in Table 5.9.

Table 5.9 Categories for defining accuracy and reliability of GPR data
Category Definition
Routine. Surveys in this category have sufficient accuracy and reliability to be used
A
regularly for pavement assessment.
Confirmation. Surveys in this category can be used to confirm that this pavement
B
condition exists with the assistance of evidence from other techniques.
Caution. Surveys in this category are only to be used as a guide and together with
C
other data to indicate the possible construction or condition of the pavement.
Unproven. Surveys in this category are unproven and have yet to be demonstrated as
D
suitable for use on the network.

5.9.1 GPR surveys should only be commissioned if they meet category A or B.


5.10 Results from GPR surveys in categories B, C or D shall not be used without supporting evidence
obtained using other techniques.

GPR applications
5.11 GPR surveys shall only be undertaken for the applications listed in Table 5.11.

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CS 229 Revision 0 5. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR)

Table 5.11 Permitted applications of GPR


Accuracy and reliability
category (refer to Table 5.9)
Pavement features
Slow speed Traffic speed
<25 km/h >50 km/h
Construction changes A* A*
Bound and unbound layer thicknesses and profiles A* A*
Identification of buried structural features such as concrete joints, or
A* B*
concrete beams
Large air-filled voids directly beneath unreinforced concrete slabs A* B*
Water-filled voids directly beneath unreinforced concrete slabs B* B*
Depth and gross misalignment of joint dowel bars; detail of steel
A C*
reinforcement in concrete slabs
Variation of sub-base moisture content (duplicate surveys required) B* B*
Depths of surface cracks in fully flexible pavements C D
Identification of broad types of pavement materials C C
Debonding of pavement layers C C*
Condition of steel in concrete C* D*
Voids and wet patches beneath reinforced concrete slabs C* D*
Small voids directly beneath unreinforced concrete slabs C* C*
Debonding of joint sealant D* D*

NOTE 1 For items marked * the use of 3D-GPR can improve the quality of data or improve the productivity
and/or coverage of the survey but does not change the category of the survey.
NOTE 2 The scan spacing of a GPR survey influences the size of feature that can be detected. Scan spacing
depends largely on the equipment used and the method of deployment, in particular survey speed.
This is mainly why surveys that detect discrete features in the pavement, such as voids or cracks, have
been given different classifications depending on survey speed.
NOTE 3 Ongoing developments in GPR systems make it likely that more features can be detected accurately
and reliably in future. This advice on the limitations of the technique can be kept under review and any
significant developments can be incorporated when they are ready for implementation.
NOTE 4 Additional information on the application of GPR is given in Appendix C.

Layer thickness
5.12 Where the depth of a reinforced concrete layer needs to be determined, the survey shall employ a scan
spacing which is less than the reinforcing bars spacing.
NOTE GPR cannot penetrate metal, closely spaced reinforcement or highly conducting materials.

Variation of sub-base moisture


5.13 In order to assess variation in sub-base moisture, the results from two identical surveys shall be used,
one undertaken in a prolonged spell of wet weather and one during a prolonged spell of dry weather.
NOTE The interface between the sub-base and the subgrade needs to be visible in the signals for the
technique to work.

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CS 229 Revision 0 5. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR)

Crack depth in flexible pavements


5.14 GPR surveys to determine crack depth shall be carried out using a crack detection head specifically
developed to measure surface crack depth in flexible pavements.
NOTE Crack detection head GPR equipment is used at slow speed and uses cores for calibration and control
purposes.

Method statement
5.15 Prior to commencement of GPR surveys, a method statement shall be produced.
NOTE The method statement contains details that can be used by the Overseeing Organisation to ensure that
the information produced by a GPR survey is sufficiently accurate and reliable.
5.16 The method statement shall be followed throughout the execution and analysis of the GPR survey(s).
5.17 The method statement shall include the following information:
1) equipment specification;
2) OFCOM licence number;
3) serial number of GPR equipment;
4) details of the calibration of the radar system;
5) quality control procedures for both survey and analysis;
6) work programme;
7) survey procedure;
8) risk assessment of the site work;
9) form of presentation to be used for reporting the results.

Reporting the results of a GPR survey


5.18 The results from a GPR survey shall:
1) be presented in a report;
2) be referenced against the appropriate Overseeing Organisation's network referencing system;
3) include all data in electronic format.
5.19 The GPR report shall include:
1) a text section summarising the results of the survey, assumptions used to interpret the radar data,
measurement accuracy achieved and problems encountered;
2) a graphical display of the survey results;
3) tabulation of the survey results;
4) core logs (where appropriate).
5.19.1 Graphs and tables should be produced to a standard format, displaying as much information as
possible.
5.19.2 The following information should appear on the graphs and tables:
1) road number;
2) network section identifier;
3) chainage in metres along road from the start of the network section;
4) date of survey;
5) direction of survey;
6) road type;

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CS 229 Revision 0 5. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR)

7) lane surveyed and track – nearside or offside wheel-track and/or between wheel-tracks;
8) survey length;
9) reporting interval and GPR scan interval (where different) and any averaging used;
10) surface moisture condition;
11) location of any construction changes and broad identification of materials;
12) pavement layer interface depth in millimetres;
13) location and size of subsurface defects (where appropriate);
14) location of roadside features where this aids location referencing of the survey data;
15) location of cores, core details, and corresponding radar depths.
NOTE An example of GPR reporting is included in Appendix C.

31
CS 229 Revision 0 6. Invasive testing

6. Invasive testing
6.1 This section sets out the requirements that shall be followed when undertaking invasive testing of road
pavements.
NOTE Invasive testing covers coring, test pits and dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) testing.

Location referencing
6.2 The locations of cores, test pits, and DCP tests shall be referenced against the appropriate Overseeing
Organisation's network referencing system.
NOTE Accurate location referencing is essential to allow reliable comparison between each type of data.
6.3 The locations shall be recorded to an accuracy of ± 1 m longitudinally and ± 0.1 m transversely from the
lane edge, or better.
6.3.1 The lane edge used for transverse location should be the nearside.
NOTE Traffic management requirements can sometimes prevent access to the nearside lane edge so the
offside lane edge can be used as the datum.
6.4 GPS co-ordinates shall be recorded, using a device capable of sub-metre accuracy, in order to provide
additional confirmation of the location of each test point.

Coring
General
6.5 When coring is undertaken, it shall be undertaken in accordance with BS EN 12697-27 [Ref 4.N].
NOTE Coring of road pavements is normally undertaken for one or more of the following reasons:
1) to determine the thickness of bound layers and total pavement thickness;
2) to determine the type and condition of the bound layers;
3) to determine the depth of defects such as cracking;
4) to determine the presence and location of steel reinforcement in rigid pavements;
5) to provide samples of bound material for testing;
6) to allow access to the unbound layers to allow DCP testing;
7) to determine which asphalt layers are responsible for rutting.
6.5.1 150 mm diameter cores should be extracted as they normally provide sufficient material for any
laboratory testing and, if sited on cracks, are more likely to be successfully extracted.
NOTE Coring through cracks is usually slower and more difficult than coring through sound material as the
core pieces can jam in the core barrel. Where some of the layers are both cracked and de-bonded from
each other, it can be very difficult to remove the core from the barrel without damaging the material
further.
6.5.2 Where the sole purpose of coring is to determine layer thicknesses in a pavement in sound condition
then 100 mm diameter or smaller cores may be extracted.
6.6 Coring activities and the cutting lubricant shall not be a hazard to other road users.
NOTE Coring of road pavements normally uses water to lubricate the drill and the process generates a slurry.
A wet vacuum system can be used to collect the coring slurry.
6.7 Unless the sole purpose of the coring is to provide information about the upper pavement layers, cores
shall be extracted to the full depth of the bound layers.
NOTE Where disintegrated material is encountered, recovery of all material can be impractical.
6.7.1 Where pavement material has disintegrated during coring and there is only partial recovery of material,
the layer thicknesses should be determined from the core hole.

32
CS 229 Revision 0 6. Invasive testing

NOTE Determining the layer thicknesses can be difficult where the disintegrated layer is near the bottom of
the core hole.
6.8 On-site photographs shall be taken of:
1) the pavement surface before coring;
2) down the core hole showing the bottom of the core and a ruler showing the full depth of the core hole;
3) the core after it has been extracted.

6.8.1 Photographs should also be taken of the reinstated core hole.


6.8.2 All photographs taken on site should be date and time stamped.
NOTE The data and time can be shown on the photograph and recorded in the photograph's electronic EXIF
data.
6.9 Core holes shall be reinstated in accordance with Series 900 of MCHW [Ref 8.N].

Determining which asphalt layers are responsible for rutting


6.10 When coring is used to determine which asphalt layers are responsible for the presence of rutting, the
following procedure shall be used:
1) three transverse locations are marked out across the rut at a spacing of approximately 0.5 m;
2) manual rut depth measurements are undertaken using a minimum 2 m long, type 2 straight edge
using the method described in BS 8420 [Ref 9.N];
3) the surface of the core is marked to preserve orientation;
4) a core is extracted at each location;
5) the thickness of each layer is measured in each core;
6) the layer thicknesses from the three cores are used to identify which layer(s) have thinned.

Core logging
6.11 Cores extracted where an asphalt material is present shall be PAK tested to detect the possible
presence of tar.
NOTE PAK testing involves spraying the core with a spray marker product specifically designed to detect
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (Kohlenwasserstoffe is German for Hydrocarbons hence "PAK").
Further details on PAK testing are given in Managing Reclaimed Asphalt – Highways & Pavements
(ADEPT, 2016) Managing Reclaimed Asphalt [Ref 5.I] .
6.12 For each core, a full record of the core details shall be made in the form of a core log.
6.13 The core log shall include a good quality colour photograph showing the side of the core with a scale
strip and the core reference clearly visible, and a photograph of the top (surface) of the core showing
the orientation of the core in the road.
NOTE 1 Locating the scale strip half way up the side of the core can reduce the apparent error in measurement
in the photograph due to perspective.
NOTE 2 A good quality photograph is to be in focus, evenly lit, shot with a high resolution camera so that the
detail of the aggregate and defects can be clearly seen. Natural lighting usually produces the best
detail in the photographs. Flash photography, particularly when the core surface is wet, can produce
strong highlights which obscure the details.
6.14 Where a defect is apparent in the core (for example cracking), the face with the defect shall be shown
in the photograph.
6.14.1 Where the defect obscures other details of the core then an additional photograph taken of another
side of the core should be included.

33
CS 229 Revision 0 6. Invasive testing

6.15 Where a layer is missing from a core because it was disintegrated, the photograph shall show the intact
layers of the core with a gap left for the missing layer.
6.16 A photograph showing the material from any disintegrated layer shall be included.
6.17 The core log shall also include photographs of the pavement surface before coring, down the core hole
and of the core shortly after it has been extracted.
6.17.1 The core log should include a photograph of the reinstated core hole.
6.18 The following reference information shall be included on the log sheet for each core:

1) unique core reference;


2) section reference and chainage;
3) GPS coordinates;
4) traffic direction;
5) lane and offset (and datum used, for example nearside lane edge);
6) coring date and time;
7) pavement condition at core location (including presence of cracks and their orientation and rut
depth);
8) the reason why the core was extracted.

6.19 The following details shall be included on the log sheet for each core:
1) thickness of each bound layer;
2) any missing layers;
3) for each layer:
a) type of material present;
b) possible presence of tar bound layers (from PAK test);
c) condition of the material, such as sound, cracked, friable etc;
d) stripping of binder from the aggregate (if present);
e) condition of the bonding between layers;
f) presence of detritus where there is a lack of bond between layers;
g) voiding and segregation (if present);
h) crack depth and severity, soft or otherwise deleterious aggregate, bleeding and any other
peculiarities (if present).
4) the total depth of cracking (if present and applicable);
5) the nature of the material at the bottom of the core hole (for example, crushed stone, gravel or
further bound material).
6.20 Cores shall be retained for a minimum of three months after the reporting of the core log.
NOTE Core retention allows a decision to be made on whether the core is to be tested following the review of
the core log.

Test pits
6.21 Where a test pit is required, it shall be excavated in accordance with the requirements in this section.
NOTE 1 Excavating and reinstating test pits is a much slower and more disruptive method of obtaining
pavement information than coring.
NOTE 2 Test pitting can be used for one or more of the following purposes:

1) obtaining bulk samples of the bound or unbound layers for laboratory testing;
2) detailed examination of the unbound layers or subgrade including in situ testing;

34
CS 229 Revision 0 6. Invasive testing

3) investigating the causes of rutting;


4) investigating drainage problems within or beneath the pavement;
5) investigating stepping/differential movement at joints in rigid pavements;
6) investigating poor 'load transfer' at joints in rigid pavements;
7) investigating potentially suspect material beneath the concrete;
8) Investigating the cause of pumping at joints.
NOTE 3 The plan dimensions of the pit depends on the excavation method and the required final depth. A
typical plan size could be 0.6 m wide x 1.0 m long for a pit of 0.6 m depth.
NOTE 4 The test pit location depends on the nature of the distress being investigated.
NOTE 5 Information on the thickness and condition of bound layers is normally best obtained from cores. Bound
layer details can only be reliably observed on the sawn edges of the excavation, which normally only
extends to between 50 and 100 mm.
6.21.1 Where large samples of asphalt are required for compositional analysis or tests on recovered binder, or
if hidden cracks in lower layers are being sought, the surfacing and base should be removed layer by
layer.
6.21.2 In flexible pavements, where a test pit is being opened to investigate which asphalt layers have
deformed and are responsible for rutting, a rotary diamond saw of at least 150 mm cutting depth should
be used to obtain a clean cut face within the asphalt layers.
NOTE A steel straight edge across the width of the pit can be used as a datum line.
6.22 The surface of each layer shall be closely examined before excavation is continued.
6.23 The sub-base shall not be damaged when removing the lowest layer of bound material.
6.24 The general appearance of each layer shall be noted.
6.24.1 Photographs of the pit faces should be taken.
NOTE The limited space within the pit and indistinct material boundaries and characteristics sometimes make
it difficult to produce useful images.
6.24.2 All photographs taken on site should be date and time stamped.
NOTE The data and time can be shown on the photograph and recorded in the photograph's electronic EXIF
data.
6.25 Reinstatement of test pits in flexible pavements shall be undertaken in accordance with Series 900 of
MCHW [Ref 8.N].
6.26 Reinstatement in rigid pavements shall only be made with concrete in accordance with Series 1000 of
MCHW [Ref 8.N].
NOTE The reinstatement of rigid pavements after pitting can be more difficult and disruptive than for flexible
pavements due to the time taken for the concrete to reach its required strength.
6.27 When replacing the concrete in a jointed rigid pavement, the joint shall be reformed, with intact dowel
bars included, and the joint resealed (refer to CD 227 [Ref 2.I]).

Test pit log


6.28 The pavement layer details revealed in the pit shall be recorded on a test pit log.
6.29 The following reference information shall be included on the test pit log:
1) unique test pit reference;
2) section reference and chainage;
3) GPS coordinates;

35
CS 229 Revision 0 6. Invasive testing

4) traffic direction;
5) lane and offset (and datum used e.g. nearside lane edge);
6) date and time of excavation and reinstatement;
7) pavement condition at pit location;
8) the reason why the test pit was excavated.
6.30 The following details shall be included on the test pit log:

1) for each bound layer;


a) thickness of layer;
b) type of material present;
c) condition of the material, e.g. sound, cracked, friable etc;
d) condition of the bonding between layers.
2) the nature of the unbound material.
6.30.1 Where the construction variation across the pit is complex, a diagram may also be provided.
6.31 Where samples of material are recovered for subsequent laboratory testing, this shall be noted on the
test log and a unique reference number allocated to the sample.
6.32 Where in situ testing of the unbound materials is undertaken, the results shall be included on the test
log.
6.32.1 The results of tests on samples collected during the excavation may be reported on the test log.
NOTE 1 The collection and testing of samples from the unbound layers depends on the purpose of the test pit
and the materials discovered during excavation.
NOTE 2 Tests on materials are normally reported separately.

Dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP)


DCP test procedure
6.33 Where DCP testing is undertaken, it shall be undertaken in accordance with the requirements in this
section.The DCP test is a simple and rapid method for assessing the strength and thickness of the
foundation layers.
6.34 The DCP equipment used shall be as described in ORN18 [Ref 1.N].
NOTE 1 The DCP has an 8 kg hammer that drops through a height of 575 mm and drives a 60° cone with
maximum diameter of 20 mm vertically through unbound material.
NOTE 2 The strength of the material can be assessed by measuring the rate of penetration per drop or "blow".
NOTE 3 The DCP is shown schematically in Figure 6.34N3.

36
CS 229 Revision 0 6. Invasive testing

Figure 6.34N3 Dynamic cone penetrometer

6.35 The depth of penetration shall be recorded at approximately 10 mm increments, together with the
number of blows to achieve this.
NOTE 1 The number of blows between readings can vary depending on the strength of the layer being
penetrated.
NOTE 2 The DCP can penetrate most types of granular or lightly stabilised materials fairly easily. However, in
strongly stabilised layers, very dense, high quality crushed stone and granular materials with large
particles progress is much slower or negligible.
6.35.1 Where there is less than 4 mm measurable penetration after 40 consecutive blows it should be
assumed that the DCP cannot penetrate the material and the test terminated.
6.36 The cone shall be inspected before use.
6.37 The cone shall be replaced if there are signs of visible damage or when its diameter is reduced by 10%.
NOTE 1 A mechanical extractor mechanism can be used to remove the cone and shaft from within the
pavement. This reduces both manual handling and stress on the apparatus.
NOTE 2 The use of push fit (sacrificial) cones can also ease removal of the shaft.

Dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) reporting and analysis


6.38 The results (blows against depth) shall be recorded on a DCP test log.
6.39 The DCP test log shall include the following reference information:
1) unique DCP reference number;
2) core hole depth;
3) zero error;

37
CS 229 Revision 0 6. Invasive testing

4) section reference and chainage;


5) traffic direction;
6) lane and offset (and datum used e.g. nearside lane edge);
7) GPS coordinates;
8) date and time of test.
NOTE 1 The zero error is the reading on the ruler when the DCP is placed on a hard, flat, level surface. Where
an extension shaft is used, the zero error can be negative.
NOTE 2 The zero error is used, along with the depth of the core hole, to calculate the depth of penetration.
6.39.1 Where the test was undertaken in a core hole or test pit, the DCP log reference should link to the
reference number for the core or test pit.
6.39.2 The data should be plotted as the cumulative number of blows (positive x axis) against depth of
penetration relative to the pavement surface (negative y axis) as shown in the example in Figure 6.39.2.

Figure 6.39.2 DCP result example

NOTE 1 Note that the y axis shows the depth below the surface of the pavement.
NOTE 2 A change in slope of the plotted data indicates a change of strength and/or material type. The
thicknesses of different strength layers are usually determined by inspection and the average
penetration rate, in mm per blow, calculated for each.

38
CS 229 Revision 0 6. Invasive testing

6.39.3 The penetration rate may be converted to a nominal California bearing ratio (CBR) value using the
following relationship developed by the Transport Research Laboratory given in Overseas Road Note 8
[Ref 1.I]:

Equation 6.39.3 TRRL CBR DCP relationship

CBR = 10(2.48−1.057×Log10 P )
where:
P is the penetration rate in mm per blow.

NOTE The accuracy of this relationship reduces for CBR values below 10%.

39
CS 229 Revision 0 7. Normative references

7. Normative references
The following documents, in whole or in part, are normative references for this document and are
indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated
references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

Ref 1.N Transport Research Laboratory. ORN18, 'A guide to the pavement evaluation and
maintenance of bitumen-surfaced roads in tropical and sub-tropical countries'
Ref 2.N UK Roads Liaison Group. TRL. AQA DSD, 'Accreditation and Quality Assurance of
Deflectograph Survey Devices'
Ref 3.N UK Roads Liaison Group . TRL. AQA DPTSD, 'Accreditation and Quality Assurance
of Dynamic Plate Test Survey Devices'
Ref 4.N BSI. BS EN 12697-27, 'Bituminous mixtures. Test methods. Sampling'
Ref 5.N ETSI . ETSI EG 202 730, 'Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters
(ERM); Code of Practice in respect of the control, use and application of Ground
Probing Radar (GPR) and Wall Probing Radar (WPR) systems and equipment'
Ref 6.N UK Roads Liaison Group. UKRLG (Deflectograph), 'http://www.ukroadsliaisongroup.-
org/en/asset-condition/road-condition-information/data-collection/deflectograph/'
Ref 7.N Highways England. GG 101, 'Introduction to the Design Manual for Roads and
Bridges'
Ref 8.N Highways England. MCHW, 'Manual of Contract Documents for Highway Works'
Ref 9.N BSI. BS 8420, 'Methods of measuring irregularities on surfaces of roads, footways
and other paved areas using straightedges and wedges'
Ref 10.N OFCOM. OfW 350, 'Requirements and Guidance Notes for Ground Probing Radar'
Ref 11.N American Institutue of Physics, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol 23, pp 126-128.
Burmister, DM. Burmister, 'The General Theory of Stresses and Displacements in
Layered Soil Systems III'

40
CS 229 Revision 0 8. Informative references

8. Informative references
The following documents are informative references for this document and provide supporting
information.

Ref 1.I TRRL. Overseas Road Note 8, 'A users manual for a program to analyse dynamic
cone penetrometer data'
Ref 2.I Highways England. CD 227, 'Design for pavement maintenance'
Ref 3.I Forum of European National Highway Research Laboratories. FEHRL Report
1996/1, 'Harmonisation of the Use of the Falling Weight Deflectometer on Pavements
Part 1 – Harmonisation of FWD Measurements and Data Processing for Flexible
Road Pavement Evaluation'
Ref 4.I UK Roads Liaison Group. UKRLG (DPTD),
'http://www.ukroadsliaisongroup.org/en/asset-condition/road-condition-information/d-
ata-collection/dynamic-plate-test-devices-dpt/'
Ref 5.I ADEPT. Managing Reclaimed Asphalt, 'Managing Reclaimed Asphalt – Highways &
Pavements'
Ref 6.I Highways England. CS 464, 'Non-destructive testing of highways structures'
Ref 7.I Transport Research Laboratory. Kennedy, C.K., Fevre, P. and Clarke, C.S. TRL
LR834, 'Pavement deflection: equipment for measurement in the United Kingdom'
Ref 8.I Highways England. CS 230, 'Pavement maintenance assessment procedure'
Ref 9.I Highways England. CS 228, 'Skidding resistance'
Ref 10.I New York: Dover. Blackman, R. B. and Tukey, J. W.. Blackman & Tukey, 'The
Measurement of Power Spectra : From the Point of View of Communications
Engineering'

41
CS 229 Revision 0 Appendix A. Deflectograph

Appendix A. Deflectograph
A1 Introduction
This appendix provides a brief introduction to the deflectograph.

A2 Deflectograph
A2.1 Description
The deflectograph is an automated deflection measuring system and is regarded by the Overseeing
Organisations as the standard deflection measuring device for use on flexible pavements i.e. flexible
with an asphalt base and flexible with an HBM base. The equipment is a fully self-contained
lorry-mounted system, whereby measurements of deflection are taken at approximately 4 m intervals in
both wheel-tracks while the machine is in motion. A photograph of a deflectograph is shown in Figure
A.2 and a close up of the near-side measuring beam is shown in Figure A.1. The transient deflection is
measured as the deflectograph travels slowly along the line of twin measurement beams which are
attached to a reference frame. The measurement is not an absolute value of surface deflection since
the reference frame sits within the wheelbase of the lorry and is itself influenced by the load. It
represents a repeatable measure but since the analysis method is empirical, it is important that the
procedures for the use of the deflectograph are closely followed.

Figure A.1 Deflectograph measuring beam

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CS 229 Revision 0 Appendix A. Deflectograph

Figure A.2 Deflectograph

The details and dimensions for the chassis of the vehicle are shown in Figure A.3 and for the beam
assembly in Figure A.4. Further details are given in TRL LR834 [Ref 7.I].

Figure A.3 Chassis details for the deflectograph vehicle

43
CS 229 Revision 0 Appendix A. Deflectograph

Figure A.4 Deflectograph – beam assembly

A2.2 Factors affecting dynamic response of the deflectograph


The axle weights shown in Figure A.3 are for the vehicle plus crew with the beam assembly in the
carrying position.
The load on the front wheels influences the magnitude of the measured deflection. Experience in the
accreditation trials has demonstrated that equipment with a front axle load falling within 10% of the
target limit has performed acceptably with regards to deflection measurements. Therefore equipment
falling within this wider front axle range can be regarded as acceptable provided that they perform
satisfactorily in the dynamic tests at the accreditation trial.
Where the rear wheel loading is different from the recommended value of 3175 kg, but within the
tolerance allowed, measured deflections are multiplied by a correction factor of 3175/(actual wheel
loading). This correction is made to all measured deflections by the deflectograph analysis program
when actual rear wheel weights are entered. The intention is that typical average values should be
entered, as weights can vary depending on fuel carried and the number of crew on board.
The position of the T-frame relative to the vehicle axles is important because the front skids can be

44
CS 229 Revision 0 Appendix A. Deflectograph

within the deflection bowl generated by the front wheels of the machine. The shape of this bowl varies
depending on the type of pavement material used and the magnitude of the deflection.
Components which operate during the recording cycle, i.e. pivot bearings, transducers and
amplification are critical to the performance of the deflectograph and should be well maintained.
Requirements for static calibration are set out in the Accreditation and Quality Assurance of
Deflectograph Survey Devices document ( AQA DSD [Ref 2.N]).

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CS 229 Revision 0 Appendix B. Falling weight deflectometer (FWD)

Appendix B. Falling weight deflectometer (FWD)


B1 Introduction
This appendix provides a short introduction to the FWD and describes a method for calculating the
surface modulus from FWD measurements.

B2 FWD
The FWD generates a load pulse by dropping a mass onto a circular loading plate. A set of buffers
located between the plate and the falling weight are used to spread the impact and produce a particular
load pulse shape from the impact. The mass and drop height can be adjusted to achieve the desired
impact loading. Peak vertical deflections are measured at the centre of the loading plate and at several
radial positions by a series of sensors, usually geophones. A load cell measures the peak impact load
applied to the plate. Figure B.1 shows a representation of a typical deflection bowl (with the FWD
configured for evaluating layer stiffness). The deflections and the peak impact load are stored
electronically.

Figure B.1 Schematic representation of an FWD deflection bowl (not to scale)

The impact method of load application used by the FWD is fundamentally different from the rolling
wheel system employed by the deflectograph. As yet, no satisfactory relationship has been found to
convert FWD deflections to equivalent deflectograph deflections. Whereas the deflectograph system
normally only uses the maximum deflection recorded at each measurement point, FWD measurements
allow the deflected shape of the pavement surface to be derived. Estimates of layer stiffness can be
made from knowledge of this deflected shape and the layer thicknesses.

B3 Surface modulus
Deflection measurements can be used to produce surface modulus plots. These plots can be used to
study the profile of stiffness with depth and can be used to identify situation where it may be
appropriate to use an alternative back-analysis model.

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CS 229 Revision 0 Appendix B. Falling weight deflectometer (FWD)

The surface modulus at a point, distance r from the centre of the loaded area, is roughly equal to the
"weighted mean elastic stiffness" below a depth R on the load centre line. Note that the depth R is
based on the "equivalent pavement thickness", where the thickness of the pavement layers is converted
to an equivalent thickness of a material with an elastic stiffness equal to the subgrade stiffness. At a
point sufficiently far from the loaded area, the deflection is not influenced by the upper pavement layers.
Therefore the surface modulus calculated at the outer points on the deflection bowl is approximately
equal to the subgrade modulus. Such plots give an indication of the stiffness of the pavement at
different equivalent depths and can be used as guidance for the selection of further investigation and
analysis methods. Further details of this method are given in FEHRL Report 1996/1 [Ref 3.I].
The surface modulus at the top of the pavement (equivalent depth = 0 mm) is calculated as follows:

Equation B.1 Surface modulus at the top of the pavement


( ) a
Eo = 2 1 − v 2 σ o
δo
The surface modulus at the equivalent depth R (valid for r>2a) can be calculated from:

Equation B.2 Surface modulus at equivalent depth R


( ) a2
Eo (r) = 1 − v 2 σo
r.δr
where:
Eo is the surface modulus at the centre of the loading plate (MPa)
Eo (r) is the surface modulus at a distance r (MPa)
v is Poissons's ratio
σ o is the contact pressure under the loading plate (kPa)
a is the radius of the loading plate (mm)
r is the distance from sensor to loading centre (mm)
δ r is the deflection at a distance r (microns).

For surface modulus analysis, it is normal to assume a value of 0.35 for Poisson's ratio. Five common
examples of surface modulus plots are shown in Figure B.2. Graph i) shows a continuously decreasing
value of surface modulus with increasing distance. This indicates that the outermost deflection
measurement points were not far enough away from the load.

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CS 229 Revision 0 Appendix B. Falling weight deflectometer (FWD)

Figure B.2 Typical surface modulus plots

Graph ii) shows a decreasing value which becomes constant. This indicates a normal pavement
structure overlying a linear elastic subgrade.

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CS 229 Revision 0 Appendix B. Falling weight deflectometer (FWD)

Graph iii) shows a decreasing value which starts to gradually increase for the outer deflection
measurement points. This indicates a normal pavement structure on a non-linear elastic subgrade, or a
layered subgrade which increases in stiffness with depth.
Graph iv) shows a decreasing value with a sudden large increase for the outermost measurement
points. This indicates that a very stiff subgrade layer underlies the pavement (e.g. bedrock).
Graph v) shows a minimum value close to the surface. This indicates a weak interlayer somewhere in
the upper bound layers.

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CS 229 Revision 0 Appendix C. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR)

Appendix C. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR)


C1 Introduction to GPR
C1.1 Introduction
The interpretation of raw GPR data from pavements is a specialist skill and should only be undertaken
by experienced analysts. This section is intended to provide an introduction to the techniques and
analysis methods.

C1.2 General principles


GPR operates by transmitting electromagnetic radiation from an antenna into a pavement. The
electromagnetic radiation penetrates down into the pavement as an energy wave, with an envelope in
the shape of a cone.
As the wave travels through the various pavement layers, its velocity is changed and its strength is
attenuated. Part of the signal is reflected back at buried discontinuities or interfaces between different
materials such as different pavement layers. These reflected signals and the two-way travel time
contain the information about the interior of the pavement. The strength of the reflected wave depends
mainly on the difference in the dielectric constant of the adjacent materials in the pavement, the greater
the difference the stronger the reflection. In addition, polarisation of the wave and its angle of incidence
can affect the strength of the reflected signal.
The electromagnetic radiation that GPR systems transmit can be visualised as a single cycle of a
sinusoidal wave travelling into the pavement in a straight line and being partly reflected at each layer
interface. The path of the wave and its reflection at layer interfaces is shown in the left hand part of
Figure C.1. As the signal penetrates the pavement, in addition to some of the wave being reflected,
part of the energy is absorbed and the wave is attenuated. The attenuation depends on frequency and
on the type and condition of the pavement material. Eventually the wave can be too weak for any
reflections to be picked up by the radar receiver. For these reasons the depth to which GPR can
penetrate into the pavement is limited, although at the frequencies used for road surveying the
penetration is usually adequate to determine the thickness of most pavements.
The radar receives, via its antenna, the reflected wave, recording its amplitude (strength), phase,
frequency and arrival time relative to when the signal pulse was transmitted from the antenna. The
reflected signal may be displayed as a radar waveform (also known as an 'A-scan' or trace plot) as
shown in the right hand part of Figure C.1. The waveform shows the reflected signal amplitude against
time. The amplitude wavelets on the waveform are caused by the interface between the pavement
layers and represent the reflections of the sinusoidal radar signal. The attenuation of the signal, with
depth, is shown by the decrease in the amplitude of the wavelets as time increases.

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CS 229 Revision 0 Appendix C. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR)

Figure C.1 Reflection of radar signal at pavement interfaces and signal waveform

By moving the radar along or across the pavement, transmitting at fixed distance intervals, and
recording and storing digitally the reflected waveforms, a waveform graph representing the pavement
structure is built up. Figure C.2 is an example of a sequence of reflected waveforms recorded as a
GPR system is moved along a pavement.

Figure C.2 Waveform graph of a longitudinal section of road

Electronic distance measuring devices are used to make GPR systems transmit at fixed distance
intervals rather than time intervals.

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CS 229 Revision 0 Appendix C. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR)

The waveform is made up of a number of measured amplitude points (known as samples) equally
spaced down the time axis (the sampling interval); generally the more samples used to record the
waveform, the better the data quality. Conversely, however, increasing the number of measured points
places increased demand on the GPR system and may mean a reduction in survey speed or scan
spacing. Therefore it is important that at least the minimum number of samples required to construct a
true waveform from the highest frequency antenna is used; this can be determined from Nyquist
sampling theorem Blackman & Tukey [Ref 10.I].
Interpretation of the pavement structure and features from a waveform graph requires the wavelets to
be correctly related to changes in material or other features and the signal travel time interval between
the wavelets to be converted to thickness using signal velocity. Note that the signal velocity depends on
the material the wavelets are passing through.

C1.3 GPR calibration


The general procedure used for GPR analysis to identify layer interfaces and the equation to convert
the time data to depth data is described in Section C.3. The conversion process, commonly known as
calibration, requires a value for the velocity of the signal in each detected layer.
There are four methods of obtaining the signal velocities in the layers and these are described in more
detail in Section C.3:
1) use of published velocity data; this is the least accurate method because, for a given material, the
range of possible velocities is relatively wide and it is difficult to estimate where within the range the
material lies. In addition any moisture present in the material greatly affects the velocity;
2) the 'core' method; this method can give an accurate estimate of velocities and material types
providing that the whole of the layers are recovered. The limitations are that the estimate relates to
the core's position and applies over the area of the core which is different to the area of the antenna
footprint. The method cannot take into account material variations between core points;
3) the 'common depth point' method; this method takes into account material variations along the
pavement but relies on averaging over many measurements to reduce errors and therefore cannot
deal with very localised variability in materials. Also, when surveying at high speed very shallow
layer boundaries can present difficulties when wider separations of the antennas are used;
4) the 'reflection coefficient method'; this method also takes into account material variations along the
pavement, but determines the velocity at the upper surface of a material layer and this velocity may
not always represent the velocity in the whole of the layer. As layers lower down in the structure are
measured the accuracy decreases because the method assumes no energy loss by scatter or
absorption in the pavement material. This method should be used with care as it is only viable for
certain situations, for example it may be appropriate for newly laid thin layers.
A GPR interpretation may be the result of a combination of the four calibration methods above
depending on the number and location of available core data and whether the common depth point
method and/or reflection coefficient method have been carried out as they require specific modes of
deployment which are not always appropriate. The GPR report should describe how the calibration was
carried out for each point and what velocities were determined.
A measure of the accuracy of the results of a survey can be obtained by comparing layer thicknesses
obtained from cores, not used to calibrate the radar system, with the radar reported thicknesses at the
same points. It should be noted however that the core data does not always correlate perfectly with the
radar results. This can be due to errors in location, material loss from the core, radar measurements
giving the average depth over the antenna footprint rather than the area of the core, and internal bound
layer boundaries in the core being incorrectly identified as the base of the bound layer.

C1.4 Types of radar and their operation


There are currently four main types of GPR antennas in common use;

1) single frequency, where a single antenna transmits a pulse of relatively short bandwidth;

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CS 229 Revision 0 Appendix C. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR)

2) multi-frequency, where antenna elements which are capable of transmitting short bandwidth pulses
over two or more frequency are contained within the same housing and have the same mid-point;
3) ultra wide band (UWB), where a signal antenna transmits a long bandwidth pulse which can be
converted into short bandwidth pulses during post processing;
4) continuous wave stepped frequency (CWSF); where a single antenna element can transmit a
sinusoidal signal over a range of frequencies which can be isolated in post processing.

In addition to these four main types, GPR measuring systems can also be generally defined by the:
1) sample points per waveform;
2) scan rate;
3) antenna operating frequency;
4) antenna signal coupling (ground coupled or air launched);
5) antenna type (dipolar or horn antenna).

The surface area, or footprint, that a radar signal examines depends mainly on the antenna central
frequency; a higher frequency antenna has a smaller footprint as the physical dimensions of the
antenna can be less. Multi-channel systems allow a wide range of data collection options ranging from
one measuring line being scanned with antennas operating at different frequencies in one run, to a
number of parallel measuring lines being scanned with antennas operating at the same frequency in
one run. The first option is useful for network level surveys where data is only gathered from one line
(generally the nearside wheel-track) and the second option is useful where large areas need to be
surveyed in detail. 3D-GPR takes this a step further and is described below.
The scan interval in the direction of travel depends on the capability and configuration of the system
and the speed of travel. The scan interval effects the size of pavement features that the radar can
detect. For example, a single channel radar or a single channel on a multi-channel radar may record at
up to 500 (varying with manufacturer) scans per second using 512 samples per waveform. At a typical
traffic-speed survey velocity of 80 km/h, this scanning rate gives a minimum measurement interval of
44 mm of travel. It is necessary to select an appropriate scan interval for the size of features that need
to be detected which may govern whether the survey can be carried out at traffic speed or has to be
carried out at slow speed with traffic management.
The operating frequency affects the depth of penetration and the resolution of the radar as shown in
Table C.1.

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CS 229 Revision 0
Table C.1 Typical values of penetration and resolution for various radar frequencies
450 MHz 900 MHz
Dielectric Wavelength Depth of resolution Min. depth of Wavelength Depth of resolution Min. depth of
constant (mm) (mm) penetration (mm) (mm) penetration
(mm) (mm)
5 298 75 894 149 37 447
6 272 68 816 136 34 408
7 252 63 756 126 31 378
8 235 59 705 118 29 353
9 222 56 666 111 28 333
10 211 53 632 105 26 316
11 201 50 603 101 25 302
12 192 48 577 96 24 289
1 GHz 1.5 GHz
Min. depth of Min. depth of
Dielectric Wavelength Depth of resolution Wavelength Depth of resolution
penetration penetration
constant (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm)
54

(mm) (mm)
5 134 34 402 89 22 267
6 122 31 366 82 20 245
7 113 28 339 76 19 227

Appendix C. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR)


8 106 27 318 71 18 212
9 100 25 300 67 17 200
10 95 24 284 63 16 189
11 90 23 271 60 15 181
12 87 22 260 58 14 173
2 GHz 4 GHz
Min. depth of Min. depth of
Dielectric Wavelength Depth of resolution Wavelength Depth of resolution
penetration penetration
constant (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm)
(mm) (mm)
5 67 17 201 34 8 101
6 61 15 184 31 8 92
7 57 14 170 28 7 85
CS 229 Revision 0
Table C.1 Typical values of penetration and resolution for various radar frequencies (continued)
450 MHz 900 MHz
8 53 13 159 27 7 80
9 50 13 150 25 6 75
10 47 12 141 24 6 71
11 45 11 136 23 6 68
12 43 11 130 22 5 65
55

Appendix C. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR)


CS 229 Revision 0 Appendix C. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR)

C1.5 Antenna types


The positioning of the radar antenna in relation to the pavement surface determines how the signal is
coupled. If the antenna is in contact with the surface, the radar signal is ground coupled, if not then it is
air coupled. The method of coupling affects both sensitivity and depth of penetration into the pavement.
Ground coupling introduces more signal into the pavement, enhancing sensitivity and increasing
penetration depth, but it makes traffic speed operation more difficult.
There are two types of antenna design, dipoles and horns. Dipoles operate most effectively when they
are ground coupled, however, they can be air coupled but the gap between the antenna and pavement
surface has to be small, ideally one-tenth of the transmitted wavelength in air to give satisfactory
results. This means that the antenna mounting has to be carefully designed to enable surveys to be
carried out at traffic speed. Horn antennas are air coupled and operate with a large air gap and so are
more easily adapted to surveys at traffic speed. However, they are typically more susceptible to outside
interference and unwanted reflections from nearby surface objects.

C1.6 3D-GPR
3D-GPR is a mode of deployment where numerous closely spaced parallel profiles are collected. Most
often the profile spacing is the same as the longitudinal scan interval but this is not always the case as
asymmetrical 3D surveys are also used when either the longitudinal or transverse spacing is higher.
3D-GPR allows data to be presented in such a way that patterns caused by structural features such as
joints and reinforcement bar, as well as defects such as voids and delamination become much clearer
and can be more easily presented. Specific GPR systems are available for 3D surveys. These consist
of many individual antenna elements equally and closely spaced in a single wide array. They are
typically UWB or stepped frequency antennas so a large frequency range can be covered. 3D-GPR
surveys should be considered when cross-carriageway pavement information is required as well as
longitudinal pavement information. 3D-GPR systems also allow transverse, cross-carriageway profiles
to be analysed from the data without specific transverse scans.

C1.7 Survey speed


Depending on the coupling and design of the radar system, a survey can either be carried out at low
speed either from a slow moving vehicle or push by hand, typically between 0.5 and 20 km/h, or at
traffic speed, typically between 50 and 80 km/h. The scan interval, in the direction of travel, achieved
with high speed surveys is typically lower so generally only larger features can be detected.

C2 Additional guidance on the application of GPR


C2.1 Introduction
This section provides additional guidance on the use of GPR for the assessment of road pavements
and should be read in conjunction with Section 5 of this document.

C2.2 Construction changes


The following are typical examples of changes in pavement construction which GPR can detect:

1) changes in primary construction type i.e. from flexible to rigid pavement and vice versa;
2) changes in base type i.e. from hydraulically bound to asphalt base and vice versa;
3) persistent step changes in layer thickness;
4) location of repairs such as haunches or patches;
5) hidden trenches covered by asphalt.
Where the construction changes are outside the line of the survey or of a short length they may not be
detected.

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CS 229 Revision 0 Appendix C. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR)

C2.3 Layer thickness


GPR can, in general, detect all interfaces between layers of contrasting material. If two overlying
materials are similar, no interface may be detected. For example, asphalt surfacing and base layers
often appear to GPR as a single layer. Therefore, caution should be exercised when a GPR Contractor
reports the thicknesses of individual layers within the bound layers as there may be undetected
interfaces.
Layer thickness determination of HBM can be difficult if the material has disintegrated. In this situation
it has similar dielectric properties to granular material and the bottom of the disintegrated HBM layer
could be misinterpreted as the bottom of the sub-base.
Caution is required for interpreting disintegrated lean concrete layers. The best depth resolution for
concrete is 20 mm (using a 2.5-GHz antenna).
Trials have shown that at slow speed (<25 km/h), GPR can determine the combined thickness of
asphalt layers to within an accuracy of approximately 5% of the real thickness. However, at traffic
speed (70 km/h) the error can increase to approximately 9%. In both cases, cores were used to
calibrate layer velocities and it is the location referencing between the GPR and the core data which led
to the reduction in reliability at traffic speed. For underlying layers of hydraulically bound material and
unbound material, the expected accuracies are approximately ±15% and ±30% of the real thicknesses,
respectively.

C2.4 Identification of buried structural features


The scan spacing of the GPR needs to be small enough that the joint or feature is not missed.

C2.5 Deep voids beneath concrete slabs


GPR can give good estimates of the depth of deep air filled voids and shallower water filled voids under
unreinforced concrete slabs and indicate their position and relative plan size. Surveys to measure voids
can normally be considered where an investigation has shown that there are likely to be problems due
to poor support under the concrete slab.
Where a survey is required, a close scan spacing (≤100 mm) should be used and multiple offset
profiles (at least one profile per wheel-path and in the oil lane) be used as this gives the greatest
coverage and accuracy. For measurement at traffic speed, the success in detection can depend on the
scan spacing achievable, the size of the voids and the number of longitudinal profiles collected. Depth
of the feature and chosen antenna frequency can also affect the accuracy of measurements.
Additional evidence that voids exist and are causing problems can be obtained from FWD and/or
invasive methods.

C2.6 Depth and gross misalignment of joint dowel bars and details of reinforcement
GPR can measure the depth of the dowel bars in jointed rigid pavements and whether they are grossly
misaligned. If a survey is required, it is advised that very precise location referencing techniques be
used to give greatest accuracy. Surveys aimed at providing details of the reinforcement in the
pavement, such as depth and spacing, should be carried out with a very small scan spacing (≤50 mm,
but ideally ≤10 mm).
Transverse scans are required along the line of the joint to assess dowel and tie bars. One scan is
required just beside the joint, and two further scans each side of the joint on a line just above the ends
of the dowel or tie bars. This type of survey also allows the determination of the depth and spacing of
reinforcing steel mesh where present.

C2.7 Variation of sub-base moisture content


Variations in sub-base moisture can appear as variations in sub-base signal velocity as well as
variations in signal attenuation. Variations in velocity and signal attenuation can be measured providing
the interface between the sub-base and subgrade is visible in the radar signals. Any variation in

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CS 229 Revision 0 Appendix C. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR)

sub-base material produces a similar variation in velocity and attenuation so in order to eliminate this
effect a second survey on the same section should be undertaken and the results of two surveys
compared.
One survey should preferably be carried out in a prolonged spell of wet weather, when the sub-base
moisture content is likely to be at its highest. The other survey should preferably be carried out one
during a prolonged spell of dry weather, when the sub-base moisture content is likely to be at its lowest.
Areas where there are significant differences between the signal velocities and/or the signal attenuation
measured during the two surveys are likely to indicate that water may be present. Trial pits or dry
coring should be undertaken to confirm the findings of the GPR results.

C2.8 Crack depth in flexible pavements


A crack detection head (CDH) has been developed for use by GPR contractors to measure the depth of
surface-initiated cracks in flexible pavements. This equipment is used with a very small scan spacing
(≤20 mm) and requires cores for calibration and control purposes.

C2.9 Identification of broad types of pavement materials


Experienced GPR contractors can obtain sufficient information to suggest broad material types from the
survey results by considering such information as signal attenuation, the amplitude of the reflection at
the material interfaces and signal velocity within the layers. However such interpretations are not 100%
reliable and should be confirmed from a secondary source of material information such as core
samples or reliable as-built records.

C2.10 Debonding of pavement layers


This feature could be visible in the bound material at slow speed with a high frequency antenna. There
is a higher chance to be detected with the presence of water in the debonded area.

C2.11 Condition of steel in concrete


GPR is unlikely to indicate directly the condition of any steel but if the steel has corroded and damaged
the surrounding concrete, GPR may detect the damage.

C2.12 Voids and wet patches beneath reinforced concrete slabs


Reflections from voids or wet patches may be masked by reflections from the overlying reinforcement.
The scan spacing and the antenna footprint need to be sufficiently small to allow scans to pass
between the mesh.

C2.13 Small voids directly beneath unreinforced concrete slabs


Air filled voids less than 80 mm deep are difficult to identify. Water filled voids less than 25 mm deep
are also difficult to identify.

C2.14 Debonding of joint sealant


This could be detected at slow speed with special GPR systems. Not proven to date.

C3 Calibration of GPR for determination of layer thickness


C3.1 Introduction
This section gives details of the methods which can be used to determine the thickness of the
pavement layers from radar data. The information is presented to illustrate the strengths and weakness
of the different approaches.
The process of determining the layer thicknesses from a GPR waveform is carried out in two stages:
1) identifying layer interface wavelets on the waveform;

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CS 229 Revision 0 Appendix C. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR)

2) using the times between the wavelets to calculate the layer thicknesses.

C3.2 Stage 1: identifying layer interface wavelets


The layer interfaces appear on the waveform as wavelets and the following processes are carried out
to identify and characterise all the layer interface wavelets:
1) relate wavelets to material boundaries (it may be necessary to filter the data to clearly resolve the
wavelets);
2) track along pavement, wavelets relating to material boundary;
3) record time to wavelet at each sample point along the pavement;
4) repeat the above processes for all material boundaries forming the pavement.
This is typically a semi-automated process and most GPR interpretation software has the functionality
to automatically detect and follow clear interfaces. However, their effectiveness depends on the clarity
and consistency of the interface(s). In most cases there is the ability to override the automated
interpretation and draw the interfaces by hand via a mouse or touch screen interface.

C3.3 Stage 2: calculating layer thickness


The thickness of a layer, D, is related to the signal travel time in the layer by Equation C.1:

Equation C.1 Relationship between layer thickness, velocity and travel time
( )
T
D=V
2
where:
D is the layer thickness (mm)
V is the velocity of radar signal in layer (mm/s)
T is the 2-way travel time of the signal in layer (ns).

Two way travel time of the signal in the layer is the time interval on the GPR record between the
wavelets occurring at the layer's lower and upper interfaces at the same location along the pavement.
The velocity of the radar signal within a layer is related to the layer material's dielectric constant by
Equation C.2:

Equation C.2 Relationship between signal velocity in a material and dielectric constant
VAir
V = √
ϵ
where:
V is the velocity of radar signal in layer (mm/ns)
VAir is the velocity of radar signal in air (mm/ns) (see Table C.2)
ϵ is the dielectric constant of the layer material.

There are four basic methods of calculating velocities:

1) use published data of mean velocities of pavement materials;


2) the 'core method' uses cores to establish layer thicknesses and then calculate velocities by
rearranging Equation C.1;

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CS 229 Revision 0 Appendix C. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR)

3) calculate velocity from recorded radar signal using 'common mid point' method;
4) calculate velocity from recorded radar signal using 'reflection coefficient' method.

Typical velocities for different pavement materials are given in Table C.2. These have been calculated
from the materials' dielectric constant using Equation C.2. Any moisture in the material alters the
dielectric constant and hence affect the signal velocity greatly.

Table C.2 Range of velocities and dielectric constants for various pavement materials
Pavement material Velocity (mm/ns) Dielectric constant
Air 299 1
Asphalt 90 – 160 4 – 10
Pavement
100 – 130 5–9
quality concrete
Hydraulically
100 – 120 6–9
bound mixture
Granular 70 – 120 6 – 18
Capping 70 – 110 7 – 18
Water 33 81

The 'core method', enables velocities to be accurately calculated if done with care. Aspects requiring
particular attention are:
1) ensuring that the core position is accurately located within the GPR data;
2) correctly estimating the layer thicknesses from a core;
3) ensuring that the complete core is extracted from the pavement.

It is most common to use a combination of two or more of the above calibration techniques, for example
using the common mid point method results in a new velocity for every measurement. Just slight
inconsistencies in the layer interface interpretation can lead to large errors in the calculated velocity
therefore it is advisable that the published velocity data is used to quality check the velocities and
exclude those outside the published values. Similarly where cores are available for only part of the
survey, there may not be a sufficient number of them to fully represent the variability in construction.
Therefore other methods can be used to aid interpolation or extrapolation of velocities calculated at
core locations.
It is known that layer thicknesses can change significantly over longitudinal distances of as little as a
metre. If a core is not located on the radar data to an accuracy better than a metre it is possible that the
wrong layer thickness can be used to calculate the signal velocities.
Often the interface between pavement layers is quite rough. This means that it can be quite difficult to
measure, on a core, the layer thickness. Typically, the accuracy with which the actual thicknesses may
be measured from a core is ± 5 mm if the core is fully extracted and not damaged.
The common mid point method is based on calculating the velocity using a common depth point and
requires a multi-dipole antenna system. With this system, the various return signals for the different
antennas, which have different travel times through a layer, are analysed to obtain values for the
velocities in each layer. The method is illustrated in Figure C.3 and Equation C.3 for the surface layer of
the pavement.

60
CS 229 Revision 0 Appendix C. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR)

Equation C.3 Common depth point method for signal velocity in surface layer of pavement

S22 − S12
V =
T22 − T12

where:
V is the signal velocity in the surface layer of the pavement (mm/ns)
T1 is the signal travel time along path XOY (ns)
T2 is the signal travel time along path WOZ (ns)
S1 is the antenna spacing XY (mm)
S2 is the antenna spacing WZ (mm).

Figure C.3 Common depth point method for signal velocity in surface layer of
pavement

It can be seen that, for a fixed antenna spacing, as the thickness of the layer increases and also as the
layer being measured moves lower in the pavement structure, T1 approaches T2 thus decreasing the
accuracy of the method. This can be compensated for by increasing the antenna separation but
accepting that shallow layer boundaries can then be difficult to resolve. Care should be taken when
moving down the pavement to ensure that each dipole pair samples the same spot.
The reflection coefficient method is based on calculating the velocity using the reflection coefficient and
requires a horn antenna. Before making measurements a metal plate is placed on the pavement
surface to determine the amplitude of the signal returned from a perfect reflector. This amplitude is
compared with the amplitude of the signal returned from the pavement surface and the other layer
interfaces in the construction to obtain the velocity at the top of each layer. The method is illustrated in
Figure C.4 and Equation C.4 for the surface layer.

61
CS 229 Revision 0 Appendix C. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR)

Equation C.4 Reflection coefficient method for signal velocity in surface layer of pavement

(A1 − A2 )
V = 299
(A1 + A2 )
where:
V is the signal velocity in the surface of pavement (mm/ns)
A1 is the signal amplitude reflected from metal plate
A2 is the signal amplitude reflected from pavement surface
299 is the signal velocity in air (mm/ns).

Figure C.4 Reflection coefficient method for signal velocity in surface layer of
pavement

The method assumes that the receiving antenna collects all the transmitted energy. This assumption
becomes less valid with increasing depth due to the combination of the horn's narrower receiving
aperture and the increasing scatter and absorption of the radar signal by the pavement materials. For
this method it is particularly important that conditions where there is standing water on the pavement
surface be avoided as the water layer may affect the calibration. This method should be used with care
as it is only viable for certain situations, for example it may only be appropriate for newly laid thin layers.

C4 Reporting the results of a GPR survey


Examples of how the data can be presented in graphical form and tabular form are shown in Figure C.5
and Table C.3, respectively.

62
Figure C.5 Example graph showing the longitudinal depth profile of the bound and granular layers of a pavement

CS 229 Revision 0
63

Appendix C. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR)


CS 229 Revision 0
Table C.3 Example showing how layer thickness data from a GPR survey should be presented
April
Scheme: XXXX Date Surveyed:
2017
Network: YYYY
EB Sections: …
Profile Loc:
L1 NSWP
Layer 1 Layer 2 Layer n…
Survey Section Grid X Grid Y Altitude
Chainage (m) Chainage (m) (m) (m) (m) Thickness Thickness Thickness
Material Material Material
(mm) (mm) (mm)
0 465 123546.0 123546.0 31 185 Asphalt 151 HBM
1 466 123457.0 123457.0 32 184 Asphalt 159 HBM
2 467 123458.0 123458.0 31 201 Asphalt 134 HBM
3 468 123459.0 123459.0 32 200 Asphalt 131 HBM
4 469 123460.0 123460.0 33 205 Asphalt 134 HBM
64

Appendix C. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR)


© Crown copyright 2020.
You may re-use this information (not including logos) free of charge in any format or medium, under the terms of the
Open Government Licence. To view this licence:
visit www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/,
write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU,
or email psi@nationalarchives.gsi.gov.uk.
Design Manual for Roads and Bridges

Pavement
Inspection & Assessment

CS 229
England National Application Annex to CS 229
Data for pavement assessment
(formerly HD 29/08)

Revision 0

Summary
This National Application Annex gives the Highways England-specific requirements for
undertaking detailed, scheme-level pavement surveys and investigations. Specifically, it covers
visual condition surveys (VCS), the temperature and seasonal limits used to define deflectograph
survey categories, GPS accuracy requirements for falling weight deflectometers (FWD) and
processing requirements for deflectograph and FWD data.

Feedback and Enquiries


Users of this document are encouraged to raise any enquiries and/or provide feedback on the content and usage
of this document to the dedicated Highways England team. The email address for all enquiries and feedback is:
Standards_Enquiries@highwaysengland.co.uk

This is a controlled document.


CS 229 Revision 0 Contents

Contents
Release notes 2

Foreword 3
Publishing information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Contractual and legal considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Introduction 4
Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Assumptions made in the preparation of the document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Mutual recognition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Abbreviations 5

E/1. Visual condition surveys (CS 229, 2.1) 6


Asphalt surfaced pavements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Rigid pavements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Continuously reinforced concrete pavements (CRCP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

E/2. Deflectograph 12
Survey category (CS229, 3.3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Processing of deflectograph data (CS229, 3.23) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

E/3. Falling weight deflectometer (FWD) 14


Survey procedure (CS229, 4.19) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Reporting of FWD survey data and analysed results (CS229, 4.54) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

E/4. Normative references 15

E/5. Informative references 16

1
CS 229 Revision 0 Release notes

Release notes
Version Date Details of amendments
0 Mar 2020 Highways England National Application Annex to CS 229.

2
CS 229 Revision 0 Foreword

Foreword
Publishing information
This document is published by Highways England.
This document gives the Highways England-specific requirements for undertaking detailed,
scheme-level pavement surveys and investigations. Along with CS 230 [Ref 1.I] and CD 227 [Ref 3.N],
it supersedes HD 29/08 which is withdrawn.

Contractual and legal considerations


This document forms part of the works specification. It does not purport to include all the necessary
provisions of a contract. Users are responsible for applying all appropriate documents applicable to
their contract.

3
CS 229 Revision 0 Introduction

Introduction
Background
This National Application Annex gives the Highways England-specific requirements for undertaking
detailed, scheme-level pavement surveys and investigations.
Specifically, it covers visual condition surveys (VCS), the temperature and seasonal limits used to
define deflectograph survey categories, GPS accuracy requirements for falling weight deflectometers
(FWD) and processing requirements for deflectograph and FWD data.

Assumptions made in the preparation of the document


The assumptions made in GG 101 [Ref 5.N] apply to this document.

Mutual recognition
Where there is a requirement in this document for compliance with any part of a "British Standard" or
other technical specification, that requirement may be met by compliance with the mutual recognition
clause in GG 101 [Ref 5.N].

4
CS 229 Revision 0 Abbreviations

Abbreviations

Abbreviations
Abbreviation Definition
CRCP Continuously reinforced concrete pavement
ESBM Equivalent thickness of sound bituminous material
FWD Falling weight deflectometer
GPS Global Positioning System
HAPMS Highways England Pavement Management System
OSGR Ordnance Survey grid reference
TRACS4 TRAffic-speed condition survey contract 4
VCS Visual condition survey

5
CS 229 Revision 0 E/1. Visual condition surveys (CS 229, 2.1)

E/1. Visual condition surveys (CS 229, 2.1)


E/1.1 This section sets out the requirements that shall be followed when undertaking detailed, scheme-level
visual condition surveys (VCS) of pavement renewal schemes.
NOTE The role of a detailed VCS in providing information required for developing an investigation and
designing pavement renewal maintenance treatments is set out in CD 227 [Ref 3.N].
E/1.2 VCS of the carriageway shall be undertaken using downward and forward facing images collected at
traffic speed as part of the traffic-speed condition survey contract 4 (TRACS4) contract or images of
equivalent quality.
NOTE 1 More information on the TRACS4 contract is given in CS 230 [Ref 1.I].
NOTE 2 The TRACS4 specification for imaging and cracking measurement is available from Highways England.
E/1.3 All VCS data shall be referenced against the HAPMS network referencing system.
E/1.4 On jointed rigid pavements, the HAPMS referencing shall be supplemented by numbering of the bays.
E/1.5 The results of the VCS shall be set out in the form of a strip plan to be provided in electronic format.
E/1.6 The strip plan shall record defects (as described in the rest of this section) and other road surface
features including surface type, construction types and temporary repairs.

Asphalt surfaced pavements


E/1.7 On asphalt surfaced pavements, the VCS strip plan shall assign defects using the definitions set out in
the HAPMS Visual Survey Manual ( HAPMS VSM [Ref 4.N]).
NOTE The HAPMS Visual Survey Manual is available to Highways England staff and authorised service
providers at: http://hawacphap013/hapms/.
E/1.8 The HAPMS visual survey defect definitions shall be used for all flexible pavements and for overlaid
rigid pavements with more than 50 mm of asphalt cover.
NOTE Overlaid rigid pavements with up to 50 mm of asphalt overlay are regarded as rigid.
E/1.8.1 HAPMS visual survey data may be loaded into HAPMS.
NOTE Coloured strip plans showing the occurrence of all defects can be produced from HAPMS. Adjacent
lanes can be shown together, provided there is survey data for each. The scale and aspect ratio of the
strip plans can be varied to suit the scheme length and complexity of defects.

Rigid pavements
E/1.9 On rigid pavements, the VCS shall assign defects and condition using the definitions and symbols
listed in Table E/1.9.

Table E/1.9 Standard symbols for recording the condition of rigid pavements
Condition Symbol
Cracks:

Wide (W) - more than 1.5 mm in width

Medium (M) - 0.5 to 1.5 mm in width

Narrow (N) - less than 0.5 mm in width

Hairline (H) - present but distinguishable only


with difficulty

6
CS 229 Revision 0 E/1. Visual condition surveys (CS 229, 2.1)

Table E/1.9 Standard symbols for recording the condition of rigid pavements (continued)

Bifurcated cracks

Overbanded (or sealed) crack

Overbanded (or sealed) crack that


has subsequently failed

Plastic shrinkage cracks

Surface crazing (showing the degree)

Scaling

Miscellaneous surface defects

7
CS 229 Revision 0 E/1. Visual condition surveys (CS 229, 2.1)

Table E/1.9 Standard symbols for recording the condition of rigid pavements (continued)

Surface texture worn

Fatting up (bleeding)

Edge defect

Repairs:

Asphalt - B
Cementitious - C
Epoxy - E

(OK) indicates sound


(F) indicates failed

8
CS 229 Revision 0 E/1. Visual condition surveys (CS 229, 2.1)

Table E/1.9 Standard symbols for recording the condition of rigid pavements (continued)

Missing roadstud (and cracks)

Rust staining

Defective joint seals

Shallow spalling at joints (or at cracks)

Deep spalling at joints

Opening of longitudinal joint (width in mm)

Faulting (stepping) at joint or crack


(with difference in level in mm)

9
CS 229 Revision 0 E/1. Visual condition surveys (CS 229, 2.1)

Table E/1.9 Standard symbols for recording the condition of rigid pavements (continued)

Vertical movement at joint or crack observable


under passing traffic

Evidence of pumping

Settlement

NOTE 1 Shallow spalling is < 10 mm and deep spalling is ≥ 10 mm.


NOTE 2 Detailed descriptions and photographs of each type of defect are included in the Concrete Pavement
Maintenance Manual ( CS CPMM [Ref 2.N]).
E/1.10 The air temperature and weather conditions at the time of the VCS shall be recorded.
E/1.10.1 Surveys of concrete roads should be carried out in the cooler months of the year between mid-October
and mid-April.
NOTE 1 Cracks are more noticeable and the efficiency of joint seals can be better assessed at low
temperatures.
NOTE 2 Cracks are most readily visible when the pavement surface is drying out after wet conditions.
E/1.11 The occurrence of alkali-silica reaction shall be recorded.
NOTE Alkali-silica reaction can be inferred from the presence of areas of crazing containing a white or creamy
powdery material which streaks the surface after heavy rainfall.

Continuously reinforced concrete pavements (CRCP)


E/1.12 In CRCPs, "normal" cracking shall only be recorded for the first 10 m in every 100 m length.
NOTE 1 It is normal for CRCP to contain cracking that does not influence its performance. These types of
cracks are referred to as "normal" cracks and are exclusively transverse with no spalling or bifurcations,
are less than 1 mm in width and are spaced at least 1 m apart.
NOTE 2 CRCP construction has no transverse movement joints to accommodate longitudinal movement, and
as a consequence transverse shrinkage cracks spaced between 1 m and 4 m develop shortly after
construction over the total area of the slab. As time passes additional transverse cracks slowly develop
between the wider spaced cracks. All these cracks are held closed by a continuous layer of heavy
reinforcement, thus maintaining aggregate interlock and ensuring transfer of load across the cracks.
Such cracking is considered normal for this type of construction and its presence does not indicate
significant failure or weakness.

10
CS 229 Revision 0 E/1. Visual condition surveys (CS 229, 2.1)

NOTE 3 Significant defects, indicating a weakened structure or need for maintenance, include:

1) transverse cracks at spacings of less than 1 m;


2) transverse cracks with widths greater than 1 mm;
3) longitudinal cracks;
4) areas of polygonal cracking;
5) loose or missing blocks of concrete (puncheons);
6) crack bifurcations;
7) failing repairs;
8) spalling.

E/1.13 At CRCP ground anchors (terminations), all features including "normal" cracking, shall be recorded for
the adjacent 100 m of the pavement.

11
CS 229 Revision 0 E/2. Deflectograph

E/2. Deflectograph
Survey category (CS229, 3.3)
E/2.1 The temperature and time of year limits set out in Figure E/2.1a and Figure E/2.1b shall be used to
define the deflectograph survey category.

Figure E/2.1a Temperature limits for deflectograph survey categories

Figure E/2.1b Time of year limits for deflectograph survey categories

NOTE 1 Road temperature is the temperature measured at a depth of 40 mm.

12
CS 229 Revision 0 E/2. Deflectograph

NOTE 2 Equivalent thickness of sound bituminous material (ESBM) is calculated automatically by HAPMS.
NOTE 3 The shaded areas in Figure E/2.1b represent the permitted periods for each survey category period.

Processing of deflectograph data (CS229, 3.23)


E/2.2 All deflectograph survey data shall be processed centrally through HAPMS using the most recent traffic
and construction data.
NOTE Further details are given in HAPMS documents, available to Highways England staff and authorised
service providers at: http://hawacphap013/hapms/.

13
CS 229 Revision 0 E/3. Falling weight deflectometer (FWD)

E/3. Falling weight deflectometer (FWD)


Survey procedure (CS229, 4.19)
E/3.1 GPS equipment used to provide the location of FWD shall have met the "medium performance
category" for reporting OSGR coordinates at the annual accreditation trial ( AQA DPTSD [Ref 1.N]).

Reporting of FWD survey data and analysed results (CS229, 4.54)


E/3.2 The results for all FWD surveys shall be uploaded to HAPMS.
NOTE Details of the files to be uploaded, "Supplementary" and "F20" files are provided in the HAPMS
documentation available to Highways England staff and authorised Service Providers at:
http://hawacphap013/hapms/.

14
CS 229 Revision 0 E/4. Normative references

E/4. Normative references


The following documents, in whole or in part, are normative references for this document and are
indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated
references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

Ref 1.N UK Roads Liaison Group . TRL. AQA DPTSD, 'Accreditation and Quality Assurance
of Dynamic Plate Test Survey Devices'
Ref 2.N Concrete Society (on behalf of Highways England and Britpave). CS CPMM,
'Concrete Pavement Maintenance Manual'
Ref 3.N Highways England. CD 227, 'Design for pavement maintenance'
Ref 4.N Highways England. HAPMS VSM, 'HAPMS Visual Survey Manual V2.04'
Ref 5.N Highways England. GG 101, 'Introduction to the Design Manual for Roads and
Bridges'

15
CS 229 Revision 0 E/5. Informative references

E/5. Informative references


The following documents are informative references for this document and provide supporting
information.

Ref 1.I Highways England. CS 230, 'Pavement maintenance assessment procedure'

16
© Crown copyright 2020.
You may re-use this information (not including logos) free of charge in any format or medium, under the terms of the
Open Government Licence. To view this licence:
visit www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/,
write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU,
or email psi@nationalarchives.gsi.gov.uk.
Design Manual for Roads and Bridges

Pavement
Inspection & Assessment

CS 229
Northern Ireland National Application Annex to
CS 229 Data for pavement assessment
(formerly HD 29/08)

Revision 0

Summary
This National Application Annex gives the Department for Infrastructure, Northern Ireland-specific
requirements for undertaking detailed, scheme-level pavement surveys and investigations.

Feedback and Enquiries


Users of this document are encouraged to raise any enquiries and/or provide feedback on the content and usage of
this document to the dedicated team in the Department for Infrastructure, Northern Ireland. The email address for all
enquiries and feedback is: dcu@infrastructure-ni.gov.uk

This is a controlled document.


CS 229 Revision 0 Contents

Contents
Release notes 2

Foreword 3
Publishing information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Contractual and legal considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Introduction 4
Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Assumptions made in the preparation of the document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Mutual Recognition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Abbreviations 5

NI/1. Visual condition surveys (CS229, 2.1) 6


Asphalt surfaced pavements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Rigid pavements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Continuously reinforced concrete pavements (CRCP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

NI/2. Deflectograph 11
Survey category (CS229, 3.3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Processing of deflectograph data (CS229, 3.23) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

NI/3. Falling weight deflectometer (FWD) 13


Survey procedure (CS229, 4.19) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Reporting of FWD survey data and analysed results (CS229, 4.54) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

NI/4. Normative references 14

1
CS 229 Revision 0 Release notes

Release notes
Version Date Details of amendments
0 Mar 2020 Department for Infrastructure, Northern Ireland National Application Annex to
CS 229.

2
CS 229 Revision 0 Foreword

Foreword
Publishing information
This document is published by Highways England on behalf of the Department for Infrastructure,
Northern Ireland.
This document, along with CS 230 and CD 227, supersede HD29/08 which is withdrawn.

Contractual and legal considerations


This document forms part of the works specification. It does not purport to include all the necessary
provisions of a contract. Users are responsible for applying all appropriate documents applicable to
their contract.

3
CS 229 Revision 0 Introduction

Introduction
Background
This National Application Annex sets out the Department for Infrastructure Northern Ireland-specific
requirements for undertaking detailed, scheme-level pavement surveys and investigations.
Specifically, it covers visual condition surveys (VCS), the temperature and seasonal limits used to
define deflectograph survey categories, GPS accuracy requirements for falling weight deflectometers
(FWD) and processing requirements for deflectograph and FWD data.

Assumptions made in the preparation of the document


The assumptions made in GG 101 [Ref 4.N] apply to this document.

Mutual Recognition
Where there is a requirement in this document for compliance with any part of a "British Standard" or
other technical specification, that requirement may be met by compliance with the Mutual Recognition
clause in GG 101 [Ref 4.N].

4
CS 229 Revision 0 Abbreviations

Abbreviations

Abbreviations
Abbreviation Definition
CRCP Continuously reinforced concrete pavement
ESBM Equivalent thickness of sound bituminous material
FWD Falling weight deflectometer
GPS Global Positioning System
PMS Pavement management system
OSGR Ordnance Survey grid reference
VCS Visual condition survey

5
CS 229 Revision 0 NI/1. Visual condition surveys (CS229, 2.1)

NI/1. Visual condition surveys (CS229, 2.1)


NI/1.1 This section sets out the requirements that shall be followed when undertaking detailed, scheme-level
visual condition surveys (VCS) of pavement renewal schemes for designated roads.
NOTE The role of a detailed VCS in providing information required for developing an investigation and
designing pavement renewal maintenance treatments is set out in CD 227 [Ref 3.N].
NI/1.2 VCS of the carriageway shall be undertaken to gather condition data either by surveys carried out on
foot or at traffic speed.
NI/1.3 VCS of the carriageway shall be undertaken using downward and forward facing images collected in
accordance with the requirements set out in the contract with the Department for Infrastructure.
NI/1.3.1 The specification for imaging and cracking measurement should be aligned with Highways England
TRACS4 requirements.
NI/1.4 All VCS data shall be referenced against the PMS network referencing system.
NI/1.5 On jointed rigid pavements, the PMS referencing shall be supplemented by numbering of the bays.
NI/1.6 The results of the VCS shall be set out in the form of a strip plan to be provided in electronic format.
NI/1.7 The strip plan shall record defects (as described in Section NI/1) and other road surface features
including surface type, construction types and temporary repairs.

Asphalt surfaced pavements


NI/1.8 On asphalt surfaced pavements, the VCS strip plan shall assign defects based on the descriptions
contained in table in Table NI/1.10.

6
CS 229 Revision 0 NI/1. Visual condition surveys (CS229, 2.1)

Table NI/1.8 VCS carriageway defects


Defect Definition
Single or multiple non-interlocking cracks ( > 1 mm wide) and
1 Major area cracking
not classified as transverse cracking.
Single or multiple non-interlocking cracks ( ≤ 1 mm wide) and
2 Minor area cracking
not classified as transverse cracking.
3 Major crazing Interlocking pattern of cracks ( > 1 mm wide).
4 Minor crazing Interlocking pattern of cracks ( ≤ 1 mm wide).
Bitumen in the surface course is flush or covering the coarse
5 Major fatting
aggregate.
Bitumen in the surface course is close to but below the top of
6 Minor fatting
the coarse aggregate.
The visible presence of fines emanating from a crack/hole/joint
in the pavement. The occurrence is accompanied by a
7 Mud pumping
cracked or depressed area of at least one square metre in
asphalt pavements.
Patches or reinstatements that have subsided or rutted more
8 Patching failure than 10 mm over any part of the patch/reinstatement or that
exhibit more than 20% cracking.
Loss of material from the wearing course to a degree that the
Major surface
9 original surface is not discernible. Includes chipping loss from
defectiveness
surface applied chippings.

Minor surface Loss of material from the wearing course to a degree that the
10
defectiveness original surface is still discernible.
Single or multiple cracks ( > 0.1 m spaced), cracks > 1 mm
11 Major transverse crack
wide, at right angles to the centre line.
Single or multiple cracks ( > 0.1 m spaced), cracks ≤ 1 mm
12 Minor transverse crack
wide, at right angles to the centre line.

NI/1.9 The PMS visual survey defect definitions shall be used for all flexible pavements and for overlaid rigid
pavements with more than 50 mm of asphalt cover.
NOTE Overlaid rigid pavements with up to 50 mm of asphalt overlay are regarded as rigid.
NI/1.9.1 Visual survey data may be loaded into the PMS.

Rigid pavements
NI/1.10 On rigid pavements, the VCS shall assign defects and condition using the definitions and symbols
listed in Figure NI1.10a & Figure NI1.10b.

7
CS 229 Revision 0 NI/1. Visual condition surveys (CS229, 2.1)

Figure NI/1.10a Standard symbols for recording condition of rigid pavements

8
CS 229 Revision 0 NI/1. Visual condition surveys (CS229, 2.1)

Figure NI/1.10b Standard symbols for recording condition of rigid pavements


(continued)

NOTE 1 Shallow spalling is < 10 mm and deep spalling is ≥ 10 mm.


NOTE 2 Detailed descriptions and photographs of each type of defect are included in the Concrete Pavement
Maintenance Manual ( CS CPMM [Ref 2.N]).

9
CS 229 Revision 0 NI/1. Visual condition surveys (CS229, 2.1)

NI/1.11 The air temperature and weather conditions at the time of the VCS shall be recorded.
NI/1.11.1 Surveys of concrete roads should be carried out in the cooler months of the year between mid-October
and mid-April.
NOTE 1 Cracks are more noticeable and the efficiency of joint seals can be better assessed at low
temperatures.
NOTE 2 Cracks are most readily visible when the pavement surface is drying out after wet conditions.
NI/1.12 The occurrence of alkali-silica reaction shall be recorded.
NOTE Alkali-silica reaction can be inferred from the presence of areas of crazing containing a white or creamy
powdery material which streaks the surface after heavy rainfall.

Continuously reinforced concrete pavements (CRCP)


NI/1.13 It is normal for CRCP to contain cracking that does not influence its performance. These types of
cracks are referred to as "normal" cracks. The "normal" cracking shall only be recorded for the first 10
m in every 100 m length.
NOTE 1 CRCP construction has no transverse movement joints to accommodate longitudinal movement, and
as a consequence transverse shrinkage cracks spaced between 1 m and 4 m develop shortly after
construction over the total area of the slab. As time passes additional transverse cracks slowly develop
between the wider spaced cracks. All these cracks are held closed by a continuous layer of heavy
reinforcement, thus maintaining aggregate interlock and ensuring transfer of load across the cracks.
Such cracking is considered normal for this type of construction and its presence does not indicate
significant failure or weakness.
NOTE 2 "Normal" cracks in CRCPs are exclusively transverse with no spalling or bifurcations, are less than 1
mm in width and are spaced at least 1 m apart.
NOTE 3 Significant defects, indicating a weakened structure or need for maintenance, include:

1) transverse cracks at spacings of less than 1 m;


2) transverse cracks with widths greater than 1 mm;
3) longitudinal cracks;
4) areas of polygonal cracking;
5) loose or missing blocks of concrete (punchouts);
6) crack bifurcations;
7) failing repairs;
8) spalling.
NI/1.14 At CRCP ground anchors (terminations), all features including "normal" cracking, shall be recorded for
the adjacent 100 m of the pavement.

10
CS 229 Revision 0 NI/2. Deflectograph

NI/2. Deflectograph
Survey category (CS229, 3.3)
NI/2.1 The temperature and time of year limits set out in Figure NI/2.1 and Figure NI/2.2 shall be used to
define the deflectograph survey category.

Figure NI/2.1a Temperature limits for deflectograph survey categories

Figure NI/2.1b Time of year limits for deflectograph survey categories

NOTE 1 Road temperature is the temperature measured at a depth of 40 mm.

11
CS 229 Revision 0 NI/2. Deflectograph

NOTE 2 Equivalent thickness of sound bituminous material (ESBM) is calculated automatically by PMS.
NOTE 3 The shaded areas in Figure NI/2.1b represent the permitted periods for each survey category period.

Processing of deflectograph data (CS229, 3.23)


NI/2.2 All deflectograph survey data shall be processed centrally through the PMS using the most recent
traffic and construction data.
NOTE Further details are available from the Overseeing Organisation.

12
CS 229 Revision 0 NI/3. Falling weight deflectometer (FWD)

NI/3. Falling weight deflectometer (FWD)


Survey procedure (CS229, 4.19)
NI/3.1 GPS equipment used to provide the location of FWD shall have met the "medium performance
category" for reporting OSGR coordinates at the annual accreditation trial AQA DSD [Ref 1.N].

Reporting of FWD survey data and analysed results (CS229, 4.54)


NI/3.2 The results for all FWD surveys shall be uploaded to the PMS.

13
CS 229 Revision 0 NI/4. Normative references

NI/4. Normative references


The following documents, in whole or in part, are normative references for this document and are
indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated
references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

Ref 1.N UK Roads Liaison Group. TRL. AQA DSD, 'Accreditation and Quality Assurance of
Deflectograph Survey Devices'
Ref 2.N Concrete Society (on behalf of Highways England and Britpave). CS CPMM,
'Concrete Pavement Maintenance Manual'
Ref 3.N Highways England. CD 227, 'Design for pavement maintenance'
Ref 4.N Highways England. GG 101, 'Introduction to the Design Manual for Roads and
Bridges'

14
© Crown copyright 2020.
You may re-use this information (not including logos) free of charge in any format or medium, under the terms of the
Open Government Licence. To view this licence:
visit www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/,
write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU,
or email psi@nationalarchives.gsi.gov.uk.
Design Manual for Roads and Bridges

Pavement
Inspection & Assessment

CS 229
Scotland National Application Annex to CS
229 Data for pavement assessment
(formerly HD 29/15)

Revision 0

Summary
This National Application Annex gives the Transport Scotland-specific requirements for
undertaking detailed, scheme-level pavement surveys and investigations.

Feedback and Enquiries


Users of this document are encouraged to raise any enquiries and/or provide feedback on the content and usage
of this document to the dedicated Transport Scotland team. The email address for all enquiries and feedback is:
TSStandardsBranch@transport.gov.scot

This is a controlled document.


CS 229 Revision 0 Contents

Contents
Release notes 2

Foreword 3
Publishing information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Contractual and legal considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Introduction 4
Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Assumptions made in the preparation of the document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Mutual Recognition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Abbreviations 5

S/1. Visual condition surveys (CS229, 2.1) 6


Asphalt surfaced pavements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Rigid pavements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

S/2. Deflectograph 7
Survey category (CS229, 3.3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Processing of deflectograph data (CS229, 3.23) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

S/3. Falling weight deflectometer (FWD) 9


Survey procedure (CS229, 4.19) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Reporting of FWD survey data and analysed results (CS229, 4.54) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

S/4. Normative references 10

S/5. Informative references 11

1
CS 229 Revision 0 Release notes

Release notes
Version Date Details of amendments
0 Mar 2020 Transport Scotland National Application Annex to CS 229.

2
CS 229 Revision 0 Foreword

Foreword
Publishing information
This document is published by Highways England on behalf of Transport Scotland.
This document, along with CS 230 and CD 227, supersedes HD29/08 which is withdrawn.

Contractual and legal considerations


This document forms part of the works specification. It does not purport to include all the necessary
provisions of a contract. Users are responsible for applying all appropriate documents applicable to
their contract.

3
CS 229 Revision 0 Introduction

Introduction
Background
This National Application Annex gives the Transport Scotland-specific requirements for undertaking
detailed, scheme-level pavement surveys and investigations.
Specifically, it covers visual condition surveys (VCS), the temperature and seasonal limits used to
define deflectograph survey categories, GPS accuracy requirements for falling weight deflectometers
(FWD) and processing requirements for deflectograph and FWD data.

Assumptions made in the preparation of the document


The assumptions made in GG 101 [Ref 3.N] apply to this document.

Mutual Recognition
Where there is a requirement in this document for compliance with any part of a "British Standard" or
other technical specification, that requirement may be met by compliance with the Mutual Recognition
clause in GG 101 [Ref 3.N].

4
CS 229 Revision 0 Abbreviations

Abbreviations

Abbreviations
Abbreviation Definition
FWD Falling weight deflectometer
VCS Visual condition survey
CRCP Continually reinforced concrete pavement
GPS Global Positioning System
OSGR Ordinance Survey grid reference
PMS Pavement management system

5
CS 229 Revision 0 S/1. Visual condition surveys (CS229, 2.1)

S/1. Visual condition surveys (CS229, 2.1)


S/1.1 This section sets out the requirements that shall be followed when undertaking detailed, scheme-level
visual condition surveys (VCS) of pavement renewal schemes.
NOTE The role of a detailed VCS in providing information required for developing an investigation and
designing pavement renewal maintenance treatments is set out in CD 227 [Ref 2.N].
S/1.2 All VCS data shall be referenced against the pavement management system (PMS) network
referencing system.
S/1.3 The results of the VCS shall be set out in the form of a strip plan to be provided in electronic format.
S/1.4 The strip plan shall record defects and other road surface features.
S/1.5 The air temperature and weather conditions at the time of the VCS shall be recorded.

Asphalt surfaced pavements


S/1.6 On asphalt surfaced pavements, the VCS strip plan shall assign defects using the definitions set out in
the trunk road inspection manual ( TS TRIM [Ref 4.N]).
NOTE The Transport Scotland trunk road inspection manual is available to Transport Scotland staff and
authorised service providers.
S/1.7 The visual survey defect definitions shall be used for all flexible pavements and for overlaid rigid
pavements with more than 30 mm of asphalt cover.
S/1.8 PMS visual survey data shall be loaded into the PMS.

Rigid pavements
S/1.9 On rigid pavements, the VCS shall assign defects and condition using the definitions and symbols
listed in the Transport Scotland trunk road inspection manual.
NOTE 1 Detailed descriptions and photographs of each type of defect are included in the Transport Scotland
trunk road inspection manual.
NOTE 2 Additional guidance is given in the Concrete Pavement Maintenance Manual CS CPMM [Ref 1.I].
S/1.10 The occurrence of alkali-silica reaction shall be recorded.
NOTE Alkali-silica reaction can be inferred from the presence of areas of crazing containing a white or creamy
powdery material which streaks the surface after heavy rainfall.

6
CS 229 Revision 0 S/2. Deflectograph

S/2. Deflectograph
Survey category (CS229, 3.3)
S/2.1 The temperature and time of year limits set out in Figure S/2.1a and Figure S/2.1b shall be used to
define the deflectograph survey category.

Figure S/2.1a Temperature limits for deflectograph survey categories

Figure S/2.1b Time of year limits for deflectograph survey categories

NOTE 1 Road temperature is the temperature measured at a depth of 40 mm.

7
CS 229 Revision 0 S/2. Deflectograph

NOTE 2 Equivalent thickness of sound bituminous material (ESBM) is calculated automatically in the pavement
management system (PMS).
NOTE 3 The shaded areas in Figure S/2.1b represent the permitted periods for each survey category period.
S/2.1.1 It is accepted that weather conditions can vary appreciably in different regions and from year to year.
Also unusual conditions such as prolonged hot dry weather may occur during periods of the year
specified for category 1.
S/2.2 Where there is a case for reclassifying a survey, either up or down, by one category Transport Scotland
shall be given details, including a description of the weather conditions prevailing in the period prior to
the survey.
NOTE Due to the weather conditions generally associated with the more northerly latitudes of Scotland the
last two weeks of June are included in survey category 1 for this Region.

Processing of deflectograph data (CS229, 3.23)


S/2.3 All deflectograph survey data shall be processed centrally through the PMS using the most recent
traffic and construction data.
NOTE Further details are given in the PMS documents, available to Transport Scotland staff and authorised
service providers.

8
CS 229 Revision 0 S/3. Falling weight deflectometer (FWD)

S/3. Falling weight deflectometer (FWD)


Survey procedure (CS229, 4.19)
S/3.1 GPS equipment used to provide the location of FWD shall have met the "medium performance
category" for reporting Ordinance Survey grid reference (OSGR) coordinates at the annual
accreditation trial AQA DPTSD [Ref 1.N].

Reporting of FWD survey data and analysed results (CS229, 4.54)


S/3.2 The results for all FWD surveys shall be uploaded to the PMS.

9
CS 229 Revision 0 S/4. Normative references

S/4. Normative references


The following documents, in whole or in part, are normative references for this document and are
indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated
references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

Ref 1.N UK Roads Liaison Group . TRL. AQA DPTSD, 'Accreditation and Quality Assurance
of Dynamic Plate Test Survey Devices'
Ref 2.N Highways England. CD 227, 'Design for pavement maintenance'
Ref 3.N Highways England. GG 101, 'Introduction to the Design Manual for Roads and
Bridges'
Ref 4.N Transport Scotland. TS TRIM, 'Trunk Road Inspection Manual'

10
CS 229 Revision 0 S/5. Informative references

S/5. Informative references


The following documents are informative references for this document and provide supporting
information.

Ref 1.I Concrete Society (on behalf of Highways England and Britpave). CS CPMM,
'Concrete Pavement Maintenance Manual'

11
© Crown copyright 2020.
You may re-use this information (not including logos) free of charge in any format or medium, under the terms of the
Open Government Licence. To view this licence:
visit www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/,
write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU,
or email psi@nationalarchives.gsi.gov.uk.
Design Manual for Roads and Bridges

Pavement
Inspection & Assessment

CS 229
Wales National Application Annex to CS 229
Data for pavement assessment
(formerly HD 29/08)

Revision 0

Summary
This National Application Annex gives the Welsh Government-specific requirements for
undertaking detailed, scheme-level pavement surveys and investigations.

Feedback and Enquiries


Users of this document are encouraged to raise any enquiries and/or provide feedback on the content and usage
of this document to the dedicated Welsh Government team. The email address for all enquiries and feedback is:
Standards_Feedback_and_Enquiries@gov.wales

This is a controlled document.


CS 229 Revision 0 Contents

Contents
Release notes 2

Foreword 3
Publishing information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Contractual and legal considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Introduction 4
Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Assumptions made in the preparation of the document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Mutual Recognition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Abbreviations 5
Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

W/1. Visual condition surveys (CS229, 2.1) 6


Asphalt surfaced pavements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Rigid pavements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Continuously reinforced concrete pavements (CRCP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

W/2. Deflectograph 10
Survey category (CS229, 3.3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Processing of deflectograph data (CS229, 3.23) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

W/3. Falling weight deflectometer (FWD) 12


Survey procedure (CS229, 4.19) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Reporting of FWD survey data and analysed results (CS229, 4.54) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

W/4. Normative references 13

1
CS 229 Revision 0 Release notes

Release notes
Version Date Details of amendments
0 Mar 2020 Welsh Government National Application Annex to CS 229.

2
CS 229 Revision 0 Foreword

Foreword
Publishing information
This document is published by Highways England on behalf of the Welsh Government.
This document, along with CS 230 and CD 227, supersede HD29/08 which is withdrawn.

Contractual and legal considerations


This document forms part of the works specification. It does not purport to include all the necessary
provisions of a contract. Users are responsible for applying all appropriate documents applicable to
their contract.

3
CS 229 Revision 0 Introduction

Introduction
Background
This National Application Annex sets out the Welsh Government-specific requirements for undertaking
detailed, scheme-level pavement surveys and investigations.
Specifically, it covers visual condition surveys (VCS), the temperature and seasonal limits used to
define deflectograph survey categories, GPS accuracy requirements for falling weight deflectometers
(FWD) and processing requirements for deflectograph and FWD data.

Assumptions made in the preparation of the document


The assumptions made in GG 101 [Ref 4.N] apply to this document.

Mutual Recognition
Where there is a requirement in this document for compliance with any part of a "British Standard" or
other technical specification, that requirement may be met by compliance with the Mutual Recognition
clause in GG 101 [Ref 4.N].

4
CS 229 Revision 0 Abbreviations

Abbreviations
Abbreviations
Abbreviations
Abbreviation Definition
WG Welsh Government
CRCP Continuously reinforced concrete pavement
ESBM Equivalent thickness of sound bituminous material
FWD Falling weight deflectometer
GPS Global Positioning System
IRIS Integrated roads information system
OSGR Ordnance Survey grid reference
PMS Pavement management system
SCANNER Surface condition assessment for the national network of roads
SCRIM Sideways force routine investigation machine
VCS Visual condition survey

5
CS 229 Revision 0 W/1. Visual condition surveys (CS229, 2.1)

W/1. Visual condition surveys (CS229, 2.1)


W/1.1 This section sets out the requirements that shall be followed when undertaking detailed, scheme-level
visual condition surveys (VCS) of pavement renewal schemes.
NOTE The role of a detailed VCS in providing information required for developing an investigation and
designing pavement renewal maintenance treatments is set out in CD 227 [Ref 3.N].
W/1.2 VCS of the carriageway shall be undertaken using the following methods:

1) video surveys from SCANNER or equivalent;


2) routine safety and detailed inspections;
3) scheme level surveys.

NOTE 1 More information regarding the IRIS contract is available from Welsh Government (WG).
NOTE 2 The SCANNER specification for imaging is available from WG.
W/1.3 All VCS data shall be referenced against the IRIS PMS network referencing system.
W/1.4 On jointed rigid pavements, the IRIS PMS referencing shall be supplemented by numbering of the bays.
W/1.5 The results of the VCS shall be set out in the form of a strip plan to be provided in electronic format.
W/1.6 The strip plan shall record defects (as described in Section W/1) and other road surface features
including surface type, construction types and temporary repairs.

Asphalt surfaced pavements


W/1.7 On asphalt surfaced pavements, the VCS strip plan shall assign defects with an appropriate key and
corresponding description.
W/1.8 Defects and definitions shall be consistent for all flexible pavements and for overlaid rigid pavements
with more than 50 mm of asphalt cover.
NOTE Overlaid rigid pavements with up to 50 mm of asphalt overlay are regarded as rigid.
W/1.8.1 VCS should be loaded into IRIS PMS once approved by WG.
NOTE VCS data is to be be supplied to the Overseeing Organisation upon completion of this exercise. The
data is acceptable in electronic format only.

Rigid pavements
W/1.9 On rigid pavements, the VCS shall assign defects and condition using the definitions and symbols
listed in Figure W/1.9a and W/1.9b.

6
CS 229 Revision 0 W/1. Visual condition surveys (CS229, 2.1)

Figure W/1.9a Standard symbols for recording condition of rigid pavements

7
CS 229 Revision 0 W/1. Visual condition surveys (CS229, 2.1)

Figure W/1.9b Standard symbols for recording condition of rigid pavements


(continued)

NOTE 1 Shallow spalling is < 10 mm and deep spalling is ≥ 10 mm.


NOTE 2 Detailed descriptions and photographs of each type of defect are included in the Concrete Pavement
Maintenance Manual ( CS CPMM [Ref 2.N]).

8
CS 229 Revision 0 W/1. Visual condition surveys (CS229, 2.1)

W/1.10 The air temperature and weather conditions at the time of the VCS shall be recorded.
W/1.10.1 Surveys of concrete roads should be carried out in the cooler months of the year between mid-October
and mid-April.
NOTE 1 Cracks are more noticeable and the efficiency of joint seals can be better assessed at low
temperatures.
NOTE 2 Cracks are most readily visible when the pavement surface is drying out after wet conditions.
W/1.11 The occurrence of alkali-silica reaction shall be recorded.
NOTE Alkali-silica reaction can be inferred from the presence of areas of crazing containing a white or creamy
powdery material which streaks the surface after heavy rainfall.

Continuously reinforced concrete pavements (CRCP)


W/1.12 It is normal for CRCP to contain cracking that does not influence its performance. These types of
cracks are referred to as "normal" cracks. The "normal" cracking shall only be recorded for the first 10
m in every 100 m length.
NOTE 1 CRCP construction has no transverse movement joints to accommodate longitudinal movement, and
as a consequence transverse shrinkage cracks spaced between 1 m and 4 m develop shortly after
construction over the total area of the slab. As time passes additional transverse cracks slowly develop
between the wider spaced cracks. All these cracks are held closed by a continuous layer of heavy
reinforcement, thus maintaining aggregate interlock and ensuring transfer of load across the cracks.
Such cracking is considered normal for this type of construction and its presence does not indicate
significant failure or weakness.
NOTE 2 "Normal" cracks in CRCPs are exclusively transverse with no spalling or bifurcations, are less than 1
mm in width and are spaced at least 1 m apart.
NOTE 3 Significant defects, indicating a weakened structure or need for maintenance, include:

1) transverse cracks at spacings of less than 1 m;


2) transverse cracks with widths greater than 1 mm;
3) longitudinal cracks;
4) areas of polygonal cracking;
5) loose or missing blocks of concrete (punchouts);
6) crack bifurcations;
7) failing repairs;
8) spalling.
W/1.13 At CRCP ground anchors (terminations), all features including "normal" cracking, shall be recorded for
the adjacent 100 m of the pavement.

9
CS 229 Revision 0 W/2. Deflectograph

W/2. Deflectograph
Survey category (CS229, 3.3)
W/2.1 The temperature and time of year limits set out in Figure W/2.1 and Figure W/2.2 shall be used to
define the deflectograph survey category.

Figure W/2.1a Temperature limits for deflectograph survey categories

Figure W/2.1b Time of year limits for deflectograph survey categories

NOTE 1 Road temperature is the temperature measured at a depth of 40 mm.

10
CS 229 Revision 0 W/2. Deflectograph

NOTE 2 Equivalent thickness of sound bituminous material (ESBM) is calculated automatically by IRIS PMS.
NOTE 3 The shaded areas in Figure W/2.1b represent the permitted periods for each survey category period.

Processing of deflectograph data (CS229, 3.23)


W/2.2 All deflectograph survey data shall be processed centrally through IRIS PMS using the most recent
traffic and construction data.
NOTE Further details are given in IRIS contract documents, available from WG.

11
CS 229 Revision 0 W/3. Falling weight deflectometer (FWD)

W/3. Falling weight deflectometer (FWD)


Survey procedure (CS229, 4.19)
W/3.1 GPS equipment used to provide the location of FWDs shall have met the "medium performance
category" for reporting OSGR coordinates at the annual accreditation trial AQA DPTSD [Ref 1.N].

Reporting of FWD survey data and analysed results (CS229, 4.54)


W/3.2 All FWD results shall be forwarded to WG.
W/3.2.1 Alternatively FWD results may be uploaded directly to IRIS PMS.

12
CS 229 Revision 0 W/4. Normative references

W/4. Normative references


The following documents, in whole or in part, are normative references for this document and are
indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated
references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

Ref 1.N UK Roads Liaison Group . TRL. AQA DPTSD, 'Accreditation and Quality Assurance
of Dynamic Plate Test Survey Devices'
Ref 2.N Concrete Society (on behalf of Highways England and Britpave). CS CPMM,
'Concrete Pavement Maintenance Manual'
Ref 3.N Highways England. CD 227, 'Design for pavement maintenance'
Ref 4.N Highways England. GG 101, 'Introduction to the Design Manual for Roads and
Bridges'

13
© Crown copyright 2020.
You may re-use this information (not including logos) free of charge in any format or medium, under the terms of the
Open Government Licence. To view this licence:
visit www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/,
write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU,
or email psi@nationalarchives.gsi.gov.uk.