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PRACTICAL NO: 1

OBJECTIVE:
Identify key board, mouse, CPU, disk drives, disks, monitor and printer.

IDENTIFY KEY BOARD, MOUSE, CPU, DISK DRIVES, DISKS, MONITOR


AND PRINTER:

KEY BOARD:

In computing, a keyboard is typewriter keyboard, which uses an arrangement of buttons


or keys, to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches.
A keyboard typically has characters engraved or printed on the keys and each press of a
key typically corresponds to a single written symbol. However, to produce some symbols
requires pressing and holding several keys simultaneously or in sequence. While most
keyboard keys produce letters, numbers or signs (characters), other keys or simultaneous
key presses can produce actions or computer commands.

In normal usage, the keyboard is used to type text and numbers into a word
processor, text editor or other program. Keyboards are also used for computer gaming,
either with regular keyboards or by using keyboards with special gaming features, which
can expedite frequently used keystroke combinations. A keyboard is also used to give
commands to the operating system of a computer, such as Windows' Control-Alt-
Delete combination, which brings up a task window or shuts down the machine.
MOUSE:
A device that controls the movement of the cursor or pointer on a display screen. A
mouse is a small object you can roll along a hard, flat surface. Its name is derived from its
shape, which looks a bit like a mouse, its connecting wire that one can imagine to be the
mouse's tail, and the fact that one must make it scurry along a surface. As you move the
mouse, the pointer on the display screen moves in the same direction. Mice contain at
least one button and sometimes as many as three, which have different functions
depending on what program is running. Some newer mice also include a scroll wheel for
scrolling through long documents.
In particular, the mouse is important for graphical user interfaces because you can simply
point to options and objects and click a mouse button. Such applications are often
called point-and-click programs. The mouse is also useful for graphics programs that
allow you to draw pictures by using the mouse like a pen, pencil, or paintbrush.
There are three basic types of mice:
1. Mechanical: Has a rubber or metal ball on its underside that can roll in all
directions. Mechanical sensors within the mouse detect the direction the ball is
rolling and move the screen pointer accordingly.
2. Optomechanical: Same as a mechanical mouse, but uses optical sensors to detect
motion of the ball.
3. Optical: Uses a laser to detect the mouse's movement. You must move the mouse
along a special mat with a grid so that the optical mechanism has a frame of
reference. Optical mice have no mechanical moving parts. They respond more
quickly and precisely than mechanical and optomechanical mice, but they are also
more expensive.
CPU:

Pronounced as separate letters it is the abbreviation for central processing unit (CPU).
The CPU is the brains of the computer. Sometimes referred to simply as the central
processor, but more commonly called processor, the CPU is where most calculations
take place. In terms of computing power, the CPU is the most important element of
a computer system. The CPU market is dominated by Intel, AMD, and IBM. These
manufacturers supply the computer makers such as Dell, HP, and Apple.

On large machines, CPUs require one or more printed circuit boards. On personal
computers and small workstations, the CPU is housed in a single chip called
a microprocessor.
Modern CPUs are small and square and contain multiple metallic connectors or pins on
the underside. The CPU is inserted directly into a CPU socket, pin side down, on
the motherboard. Modern CPUs also have an attached heat sink and small fan that go
directly on top of the CPU to help dissipate heat.
Two typical components of a CPU are the following:
• The arithmetic logic unit (ALU), which performs arithmetic and logical
operations.
• The control unit (CU), which extracts instructions from memory and decodes
and executes them, calling on the ALU when necessary.
DISK DRIVE:

A disk drive is a device that reads and/or writes data to a disk. The most common type of
disk drive is a hard drive (or "hard disk drive"), but several other types of disk drives
exist as well. Some examples include removable devices, floppy, and optical drives,
which read optical media, such as CDs and DVDs.

While there are multiple types of disk drives, they all work in a similar fashion. Each
drive operates by spinning a disk and reading data from it using a small component called
a drive head. Hard drives and removable disk drives use a magnetic head, while optical
drives use a laser. CD and DVD burners include a high-powered laser that can imprint
data onto discs.

Since hard drives are now available in such large capacities, there is little need for
removable disk drives. Instead of expanding a system's storage capacity with removable
media, most people now use external hard drives instead. While CD and DVD drives are
still common, they have become less used since software, movies, and music can now
often be downloaded from the Internet. Therefore, internal hard drives (housed within
the computer) and external hard drives (housed in a separate box that connects to the
computer) are the most common types of disk drives used today.
MONITOR:

The term "monitor" is often used synonymously with "computer screen" or "display."
The monitor displays the computer's user interface and open programs, allowing the user
to interact with the computer, typically using the keyboard and mouse.

Older computer monitors were built using cathode ray tubes (CRTs), which made them
rather heavy and caused them to take up a lot of desk space. Most modern monitors are
built using LCD technology and are commonly referred to as flat screen displays. These
thin monitors take up much less space than the older CRT displays. This means people
with LCD monitors have more desk space to clutter up with stacks of papers, pens, and
other objects.
PRINTER:

In computers, a printer is a device that accepts text and graphic output from a computer
and transfers the information to paper, usually to standard size sheets of paper. Printers
vary in size, speed, sophistication, and cost. In general, more expensive printers are used
for higher-resolution color printing.

Personal computer printers can be distinguished as impact or non-impact printers. Early


impact printers worked something like an automatic typewriter, with a key striking an
inked impression on paper for each printed character . The dot-matrix printer was a
popular low-cost personal computer printer. It's an impact printer that strikes the paper a
line at a time. The best-known non-impact printers are the inkjet printer, of which several
makes of low-cost color printers are an example, and the laser printer . The inkjet sprays
ink from an ink cartridge at very close range to the paper as it rolls by. The laser printer
uses a laser beam reflected from a mirror to attract ink (called toner) to selected paper
areas as a sheet rolls over a drum.

The four printer qualities of most interest to most users are:

• Color: Color quality of the printer.


• Resolution: Printer resolution (the sharpness of text and images on paper) is
usually measured in dots per inch (dpi ).
• Speed: Speed of the printer with which it takes out the prints.
• Memory: Most printers come with a small amount of memory (for example,
one megabyte ) that can be expanded by the user.
PRACTICAL NO: 2

OBJECTIVE:

Practice for booting up of a computer system with DOS system disk and power off
system at DOS prompt.

BOOTING UP COMPUTER WITH DOS DISK:

Booting up computer system with DOS system disk means that you are booting up the
computer system through DOS mode. For this purpose you should first insert the
bootable disk which has the capability of booting up the computer and for this the DOS
system should already be installed in the computer system. When you insert the bootable
disk the system starts booting and a message in DOS mode appears as shown below:
POWER OFF SYSTEM AT DOS PROMPT:

In order to power off the system at DOS prompt you should just simply write “exit” while
being in the environment of DOS mode and after that the DOS system turn’s off just as
when you turn off your system by plugging off the main switch of the computer system.
Image of exiting from DOS mode is shown in figure below:
PRACTICAL NO: 3

OBJECTIVE:

Practice for CLS, VER, VOL, DATE and TIME commands.

PRACTICE FOR CLS, VER, VOL, DATE AND TIME COMMANDS:

CLS:

Syntax:
cls

Purpose:

This is the clear the screen command. All existing text on the screen will be cleared and
the prompt placed at the top left hand corner of the screen ready for the next command.

Example:
C:\> cls

VER (VERSION)

Syntax:

VER

Purpose:

VER displays the DOS version number for the version of DOS currently active.

Example

To display the currently operating version of DOS, enter

C:\> ver
The program will display
MS-DOS Version (version number)

VOL (VOLUME)

Syntax:
vol [Drive:]

Purpose:
Displays the disk volume label and serial number, if they exist. A serial number is
displayed for a disk formatted with MS-DOS version 4.0 or later.

Example:

To display the currently operating version of DOS, enter

C:\> vol

The program will display


Volume in C drive has no label.

Volume Serial Number is 3R62-BD15

DATE

Syntax:

Displays or sets the date.

DATE [/T | date]

Parameters:

Type DATE without parameters to display the current date setting and
a prompt for a new one. Press ENTER to keep the same date.

If Command Extensions are enabled the DATE command supports


the /T switch which tells the command to just output the
current date, without prompting for a new date.

Example:
C:\Date

TIME

Syntax:

TIME
TIME hh:mm[:ss][.cc][A|P]

Purpose:

Displays current time setting of system clock and provides a way for you to reset the
time.
You can also enter the time at the same time you enter the time command. Either way,
you must enter the time in the following format:

hh:mm:ss.cc

where hh is a one or two digit hours designation, mm is a one or two digit designation of
minutes after the hour, ss is a one or two digit designation of seconds after the minute,
and cc is a one or two digit designation of the hundredths of a second past the second.
The following numbers are allowed:

hh 0-23 for hours


mm 0-59 for minutes
ss 0-59 for seconds
cc 0-99 for hundredths of seconds
A|P A.M. or P.M. (default is A.M.)

Only the hour setting and the minute setting are required. The following are allowable
settings:

04:23
4:03
11:5:09
17:59:02.22
2:3:2.9

Example:

C:\> time

12:00

Set the time to 12:00


PRACTICAL NO: 4

OBJECTIVE:

Practice for COPY, REN commands.

PRACTICE FOR COPY, REN COMMANDS:

COPY - COPIES A FILE OR A GROUP OF FILES

Syntax:
COPY DRIVE1:\PATH1\ FILE1(S) DRIVE2:\PATH2\ FILE2(S)

Purpose:
The COPY command enables you to make copies of files. It may be used to make a copy
within a particular directory, to copy from one directory to another and to copy from one
disk to another. You can use the command to copy one file by using its filename, or
several files by using the DOS wildcard characters * and/or?

Example 1:
Copy one file from drive C to drive A

COPY C:\HELLO.BAT A:

Example 2:
Make a copy of a file within the same directory. You have to give the copy a different
name. e.g. GREETING.BAT

COPY A:\HELLO.BAT A:\GREETING.BAT

Example 3:
Copy all the files in the root of A to a directory on the hard drive

COPY A:\*.* C:\DOCS

Now use the DIR command to list the files on drive A again.
RENAME OR REN - RENAMES FILES

Command Syntax:
REN DRIVE: \PATH\ FILE1 FILE2

Or

REN {oldname} {newname} {ENTER}

Purpose:

The RENAME or REN command is used to rename a file or a group of files. The file
contents and the location of the renamed files remains the same.

Example 1:
Rename a single file

REN C:\HELLO.BAT MESSAGE.BAT

Example 2:
Rename a group of files to have a common file extension

REN A:\TEMP-DIR\*.BAT *.BAK


PRACTICAL NO: 5

OBJECTIVE:

Practice for DEL, TYPE, PATH, PROMPT, COPY CON, MD, CD, RD commands.

PRACTICE FOR DEL, TYPE, PATH, PROMPT, COPY CON, MD, CD, RD
COMMANDS.

DEL OR ERASE - DELETES A FILE OR A GROUP OF FILES

Syntax:
DEL DRIVE: \PATH\FILE(S) /P

Purpose:
The DEL or ERASE commands perform the same operation; you can use either.
The P switch causes DOS to prompt the user with the name of the file to be deleted, to
confirm that this is really his intention, before actually carrying out the deletion.
If the P switch is omitted then the deletion is carried out silently.

Example 1:
Prompt the user with the name of each file in the current directory that has the
extension .BAK, and ask him to confirm whether it should be deleted

DEL *.BAK /P

Example 2:
Delete the file HELLO.BAT from the DOCS directory

DEL C:\DOCS\HELLO.BAT

Example 3:
Delete all files in the root of A

DEL A:\*.*

Whenever the wildcard character is used in this manner, the user is always reminded that
all files in the directory will be deleted, and asked to confirm Yes or No.
WARNING

NEVER delete the file COMMAND.COM file since it is the file which enables DOS
commands to run.

Be very careful when using wildcard characters with the DEL/ERASE command, as you
will not be asked to confirm the deletion of individual files when using it (unless you use
the /P switch) and so may delete a file which you really need to keep. You should always
use DIR to list the contents of the directory before you start deleting using wildcards, to
see exactly what files will be affected.

TYPE

Syntax:

TYPE [d:][path]filename

Purpose:
Displays the contents of a file. When you use the TYPE command, the file is displayed
with limited on-screen formatting. Tabs are expanded and generally displayed as eight
spaces wide. If you display files that contain special (non-text) characters, these
characters may have unpredictable effects on your display.
Wild card characters (? and *) cannot be used with this command in either the filename
or the extension.

Example:

To display the contents of the file LETTER3.TXT on drive B, enter

C:\>type b:letter3.txt

PATH

Syntax:

PATH;
PATH [d:]path[;][d:]path[...]

Purpose:
Sets or displays directories that will be searched for programs not in the current directory.
PATH tells DOS which directories should be searched for external commands after DOS
searches your working directory. DOS searches the paths in the order specified in the
PATH command.
If you enter the PATH command without options , the program will display the currently
set path designations.

Examples:

To tell DOS to search for external DOS commands and other executable programs in the
PROGRAM directory that is within the root directory on drive C, enter

path c:\program

You can tell DOS to search more than one path by specifying several pathnames
separated by semicolons. For example:

path \program;\files\sales;\data2

To reset the path designation so that DOS will search only the current directory, enter

path ;

PROMPT

Syntax:

PROMPT [prompt text][options ]

Purpose:
Changes the DOS command prompt. You can change the DOS prompt (the indicator that
DOS is ready for input) to almost any type of special prompt you want. For example, you
can use this command to make the prompt display the current time, the date, or the
current directory. You can also use combinations of the special prompt characters to
create custom prompts.

Examples:

To change the prompt to display the current drive and directory and a greater-than
symbol, enter

prompt $p$g

You can also create more complicated prompts. For example, to use the same prompt as
above, with two added spaces and the characters TIME= followed by a display of the
current time, enter

prompt $p$g TIME=$t

The resulting prompt (if you are working in the DOS directory on drive C) will look like
this:

C:\DOS> TIME=11:07:54.23

COPY CON

Purpose:
An internal command for creating a quick batch files in DOS or Windows.

Example:
to create the WRITE batch file, type:

copy con write.bat

After pressing Enter, you'll get a blank line. Type your text and press Enter to end the
line. When done, press F6 (ctrl-Z), then press Enter.

Copy Con works a line at a time. You cannot go back and change lines, but you can use
backspace to delete characters on the same line.

MD OR MKDIR - CREATES A DIRECTORY

Syntax:
MD DRIVE: \PATH\DIRECTORY

Purpose:
The MD or MKDIR command is used to create subdirectories in the root directory or
other subdirectories.

Example 1:
Create a subdirectory named DOCS in the root directory of C

MD C:\DOCS
Example 2:
Create a subdirectory of the DOCS subdirectory called WORK

MD C:\DOCS\WORK

Example 3:
Create a subdirectory of WORK called TEMP

MD C:\DOCS\WORK\TEMP

Example 4:
If you were already in the WORK directory (see next section re changing directory) the
following would be sufficient to create the TEMP subdirectory

MD TEMP

CD OR CHDIR - CHANGES DIRECTORY

Syntax:
CD DRIVE: \PATH
Or CD

Purpose:
The CD or CHDIR command is used to move from one directory to another; or to show
the current directory path (i.e. the hierarchy of directories from the root directory to the
one you are currently working in). The directory you are currently in is known as the
current or default directory. When you move to another directory it becomes the current
directory. Once your system has booted your initial current directory will normally be the
root.

DOS uses the following ‘special’ characters to reference particular directories within the
directory structure and these can also be used with the CD command.

\ - the Root Directory


. - the Current Directory
.. - the Parent Directory of the current directory

Example 1:
Move to the subdirectory TEMP (assuming it exists)

CD C:\DOCS\WORK\TEMP
Example 2:
Display the path to the current directory (i.e. Current Directory Path)

CD

Example 3:
Move to the parent directory of the current directory

CD ...

Example 4:
Move back to the subdirectory TEMP (this example assumes you are currently in
subdirectory WORK; use example 2 to check before moving)

CD TEMP

Example 5:
Move to the root directory. (This will make the root the current directory)

CD \

RD OR RMDIR - REMOVES A DIRECTORY

Syntax:

RD DRIVE: \PATH\DIRECTORY

Purpose:
RMDIR or RD is used to remove a directory. This command will only work if the
directory concerned is empty.

Example:
Remove the empty subdirectory of C:\DOCS\WORK called TEMP

RD C:\DOCS\WORK\TEMP
PRACTICAL NO: 6

OBJECTIVE:

Practice of the practical’s at S. No. 3, 4, 5.

PRACTICE OF THE PRACTICAL’S AT S. NO. 3, 4, 5:

CLS:
C:\> cls

VER:
C:\> ver

VOL:
C:\> vol

DATE:
C:\Date

TIME:
C:\> time

COPY:

Copy one file from drive C to drive A

COPY C:\HELLO.BAT A:

REN:
Rename a single file

REN C:\HELLO.BAT MESSAGE.BAT

DEL:
Delete the file HELLO.BAT from the DOCS directory

DEL C:\DOCS\HELLO.BAT
TYPE:
To display the contents of the file LETTER3.TXT on drive B, enter

C:\>type b:letter3.txt

PATH:
To tell DOS to search for external DOS commands and other executable programs in the
PROGRAM directory that is within the root directory on drive C, enter

C:\>path c:\program

PROMPT:
To change the prompt to display the current drive and directory and a greater-than
symbol, enter

C:\>prompt $p$g

COOY CON:
to create the WRITE batch file, type:

copy con write.bat

MD:
Create a subdirectory named DOCS in the root directory of C

MD C:\DOCS

CD:
Move to the subdirectory TEMP (assuming it exists)

CD C:\DOCS\WORK\TEMP

RD:
Remove the empty subdirectory of C:\DOCS\WORK called TEMP

RD C:\DOCS\WORK\TEMP
PRACTICAL NO: 7
PRACTICAL NO: 7

OBJECTIVE:

Practice for FORMAT commands with /s,/4,/u switches.

PRACTICE FOR FORMAT COMMANDS WITH /S, /4, /U SWITCHES.

FORMAT - FORMATS A DISK

Syntax:

FORMAT DRIVE /SWITCHES

Where SWITCHES are

S - Create a DOS system/boot disk - i.e. Format the disk and


automatically install the DOS system files (IO.SYS,
MSDOS.SYS and COMMAND.COM) on it

F:x - where x is the floppy disk size


i.e. one of 160, 180, 320, 360, 720, 1.2, 1.44, 2.88

The F switch is most commonly needed if formatting a DD (Double Density) disk in a


HD (High Density) drive. Specifically, formatting a 3.5” 720 KB disk in a 3.5” 1.44 MB
drive, e.g.

FORMAT A: /F:720

If you use the FORMAT command without switches on a 3.5” disk in a HD (1.44 MB)
drive, DOS will attempt to format that disk to 1.44 MB even if it is a DD disk. This will
result in a disk which is unreadable on DD drive machines. By using the F:720 switch the
disk will be readable on both types of machine.

Other SWITCHES

T:t - where t is the number of tracks per disk side


N:s - where s is the number of sectors per track

Together these provide an alternative to the F:x switch for specifying the size of the disk
being formatted, e.g.
FORMAT A: /T:80 /N:9

can be used to perform the same format as using F:720 above.

Remember - a machine with a HD drive can read and format both HD and DD disks.
a machine with a DD drive can read and format only DD disks.

Purpose:
A disk must be formatted for a particular operating system before it can be read from or
written to by that operating system. DOS formatting creates a new root directory and file
allocation table on the disk, it also destroys anything already on the disk. Therefore do
not format a disk until you are sure there is nothing on the disk that you want to preserve.

You will not normally need to format a disk a second time (i.e. after your initial format of
a blank disk). If you do reformat a disk, all existing data on it will be destroyed.

Example:

Examples using the FORMAT command -

Example 1: Format a HD floppy disk in a HD drive

FORMAT A:

Example 2: Format a disk as a DOS System disk

FORMAT A: /S

Example 3: Format a 3.5” DD 720 KB disk in a 3.5” HD 1.44 MB drive

FORMAT A: /F:720
/T:80 /N:9

When the FORMAT operation is complete, the system will ask if you wish to FORMAT
more diskettes. It will show the following message:

Format another (Y/N)?


If you are working with only one diskette, answer N (No) and carry on with you work. If
you wish to FORMAT several diskettes, answer Y (Yes) until you have finished
formatting all your diskettes.

PRACTICAL NO: 8

OBJECTIVE:

Practice for DISCOPY, DISKCOMP commands.

PRACTICE FOR DISCOPY, DISKCOMP COMMANDS:

Syntax:
DISKCOPY [d:] [d:] [/1] [/V] [/M]

Where
/1 - Copies only the first side of the diskette, even if the target diskette is double sided.
/V - Verifies that the source data was copied correctly onto the destination drive.
Selecting this option will slow down the copying process.
/M - Forces DISKCOPY to use only conventional memory for interim storage during the
copy procedure.

OR

DISKCOPY DRIVE1: DRIVE2:


(Source disk) (Destination disk)

Purpose:

Makes an exact copy of a diskette. This command is used only for copying diskettes, not
hard disks.

The first drive you specify is the drive for the source diskette. The second is the drive for
the target diskette. DISKCOPY checks to determine if the disk in the target drive has
been previously formatted. If not, DISKCOPY will format it before it starts the copy
(except in early versions of DOS).

If the target drive is the same as the source drive (or if you do not enter a drive
designator), the copying will be done using one drive. The program will prompt you
when to insert each diskette.

Example:
Let's use DISKCOPY! From your C drive MS-DOS Prompt, do this:

1. DISKCOPY A: A: {ENTER}

2. When this message appears:


Insert SOURCE diskette in drive A:
Press any key when ready...
Insert the source diskette and press any key when ready!

3. When this message appears:


Insert TARGET diskette in drive A:
Press any key when ready...

Remove the SOURCE diskette and insert the TARGET diskette into drive A: and press
any key again.

4. When copying is complete this prompt appears:


Copy another diskette (Y/N)?

Type Y (for yes) to copy another diskette, N (for no) to exit from the DISKCOPY
command.

DISKCOMP

Syntax:

DISKCOMP [d:] [d:][/1][/8]

Where
/1 - Causes only the first side of the disk to be compared (even if the disk is double-
sided).

/8 - Causes only 8 sectors per track to be compared (even if the disk contains a different
number of sectors per track).

Purpose:

DISKCOMP compares two disks, track by track, and displays the numbers of tracks that
are not identical.

If you enter only one drive designation, DISKCOMP compares with the disk in the
currently active drive.
If you enter one drive designation that is the same as the current drive (or if you don`t
enter a drive), the comparison will take place on one drive. DISKCOMP will prompt you
when it is time to insert each disk to be compared.

Disks copied using the DISKCOPY command should be reported to be identical when
checked using this command; however, disks copied using the COPY command may not
be identical since DOS may not copy files to the same locations on the disk.

Example:
C :\> DISKCOMP X: Z/1
It will compare the side of X: with that of B:

If differences are found on a track, the program will display an explanatory message. For
example, if track eight on side one are not the same, DOS will display

Compare error(s) on track 8, side 1


PRACTICAL NO: 9

OBJECTIVE:
Practice FOR SCANDISK, XCOPY, DELTREE, TREE, LABEL commands.

PRACTICE FOR SCANDISK, XCOPY, DELTREE, TREE, LABEL


COMMANDS:

SCANDISK

Syntax:

SCANDISK
SCANDISK [d: [d: . . .]|/all][/checkonly|/autofix[/nosave]|/custom][/surface]
[/mono][/nosummary]
SCANDISK volume-name[/checkonly|/autofix[/nosave]|/custom][/mono]
[/nosummary]
SCANDISK /fragment [d:][path]filename
SCANDISK /undo [undo-d:][/mono]

Parameters:

/all - Used to check and repair all local drives.

/autofix - This option will fix any errors it encounters without prompting you first. By
default, when you use the /AUTOFIX option, ScanDisk will save any lost clusters it finds
as files in the drive`s root directory. If you want ScanDisk to delete lost clusters instead
of saving them, include the /NOSAVE option. Using the /AUTOFIX option, ScanDisk
will also prompt you for an Undo disk unless you include the /NOSUMMARY option.
The /AUTOFIX command can be used in conjunction with the /CHECKONLY and
/CUSTOM options.

/checkonly - Use this option if you want to check a drive for errors without repairing the
damage. You cannot use this switch with the /AUTOFIX or /CUSTOM options .

/custom - Use this option if you want to run ScanDisk using the configuration settings in
the Custom section of the SCANDISK.INI file. This is useful for running ScanDisk from
a ba Also prevents u cannot use this option in conjunction with the /AUTOFIX and
/CHECKONLY options.

/mono - Use this osurface scan after checking other areas of a drive. During a surface
scan of an unSPLAY=MONO line in your SCANDISK.INI file if can be realiably written
and read from the drive being scanned. During a surface scan of a DoubleSpace drive,
ScanDisk confirms that data can be decompressed. It is a good idea to periodically do a
surface scan of all drives.

Purpose:

Starts the Microsoft Scan Disk program which is a disk analysis and repair tool used to
check a drive for errors and correct any problems that it finds (new with DOS Version
6.2).

The ScanDisk program checks and fixes the problems in the following areas:

File allocation table (FAT)


File system structure (lost clusters, crosslinked files)
Directory tree structure
Physical surface of the drive (bad clusters)
DoubleSpace volume header (MDBPB)
DoubleSpace volume file structure (MDFAT)
DoubleSpace compression structure
DoubleSpace volume signatures
MS-DOS boot sector

ScanDisk can be used to check for errors on the following types of drives:

Hard drives
DoubleSpace drives
Floppy disk drives
RAM drives
Memory cards

The ScanDisk program cannot be used with CD-ROM drives, network drives, drives

Examples:

If you want to check and fix the current drive, enter

scandisk
To check all your drives, enter

scandisk /all
This will check all your hard disk partitions, as well as all mounted DoubleSpace drives.
h drive. Also prevents ScanDisk from prompting you for an Undo disk if it finds errors.

/surface - Automatically performs a surface scan after checking other areas of a drive.
During a surface scan of an uncompressed drive, SCANDISK confirms that data can be
realiably written and read from the drive being scanned. During a surface scan of a
DoubleSpace drive, ScanDisk confirms that data can be decompressed. It is a good idea
to periodically do a surface scan of all drives.

XCOPY

Xcopy Copies files and directories, including subdirectories.

Syntax:
xcopy Source [Destination] [/w] [/p] [/c] [/v] [/q] [/f] [/l] [/g] [/d[:mm-dd-yyyy]] [/u] [/i]
[/s [/e]] [/t] [/k] [/r] [/h] [{/a|/m}] [/n] [/o] [/x] [/exclude:file1[+[file2]][+[file3]] [{/y|/-y}]
[/z]

Parameters:

Source
Specifies the location and names of the files you want to copy. This parameter must
include either a drive or a path.
Destination
Specifies the destination of the files you want to copy. This parameter can include a drive
letter and colon, a directory name, a file name, or a combination of these.
/w
Displays the following message and waits for your response before starting to copy files:
Press any key to begin copying file(s)

/p
Prompts you to confirm whether you want to create each destination file.
/c
Ignores errors.
/v
Verifies each file as it is written to the destination file to make sure that the destination
files are identical to the source files.
/q
Suppresses the display of xcopy messages.
/f
Displays source and destination file names while copying.
/l
Displays a list of files that are to be copied.
/g
Creates decrypted destination files.
/d[:mm-dd-yyyy]
Copies source files changed on or after the specified date only. If you do not include a
mm-dd-yyyy value, xcopy copies all Source files that are newer than existing Destination
files. This command-line option allows you to update files that have changed.
/u
Copies files from Source that exist on Destination only.
/i
If Source is a directory or contains wildcards and Destination does not exist, xcopy
assumes destination specifies a directory name and creates a new directory. Then, xcopy
copies all specified files into the new directory. By default, xcopy prompts you to specify
whether Destination is a file or a directory.
/s
Copies directories and subdirectories, unless they are empty. If you omit /s, xcopy works
within a single directory.
/e
Copies all subdirectories, even if they are empty. Use /e with the /s and /t command-line
options.
/t
Copies the subdirectory structure (that is, the tree) only, not files. To copy empty
directories, you must include the /e command-line option.
/k
Copies files and retains the read-only attribute on destination files if present on the source
files. By default, xcopy removes the read-only attribute.
/r
Copies read-only files.
/h
Copies files with hidden and system file attributes. By default, xcopy does not copy
hidden or system files.
/a
Copies only source files that have their archive file attributes set. /a does not modify the
archive file attribute of the source file. For information about how to set the archive file
attribute by using attrib, see Related Topics.
/m
Copies source files that have their archive file attributes set. Unlike /a, /m turns off
archive file attributes in the files that are specified in the source. For information about
how to set the archive file attribute by using attrib, see Related Topics.
/n
Creates copies by using the NTFS short file or directory names. /n is required when you
copy files or directories from an NTFS volume to a FAT volume or when the FAT file
system naming convention (that is, 8.3 characters) is required on the destination file
system. The destination file system can be FAT or NTFS.
/o
Copies file ownership and discretionary access control list (DACL) information.
/x
Copies file audit settings and system access control list (SACL) information (implies /o).
/exclude:filename1[+[filename2]][+[filename3]]
Specifies a list of files containing strings.
/y
Suppresses prompting to confirm that you want to overwrite an existing destination file.
/-y
Prompts to confirm that you want to overwrite an existing destination file.
/z
Copies over a network in restartable mode.
/?
Displays help at the command prompt.

Remarks
Using /v
Windows XP does not use this command. It is accepted only for compatibility with MS-
DOS files.

Using /exclude
List each string in a separate line in each file. If any of the listed strings match any part of
the absolute path of the file to be copied, that file is then excluded from the copying
process. For example, if you specify the string "\Obj\", you exclude all files underneath
the Obj directory. If you specify the string ".obj", you exclude all files with the .obj
extension.

Using /z
If you lose your connection during the copy phase (for example, if the server going
offline severs the connection), it resumes after you reestablish the connection. /z also
displays the percentage of the copy operation completed for each file.

Using /y in the COPYCMD environment variable


You can use /y in the COPYCMD environment variable. You can override this command
by using /-y on the command line. By default, you are prompted to overwrite, unless you
run copy from within a batch script.

Copying encrypted files


Copying encrypted files to a volume that does not support EFS results in an error.
Decrypt the files first or copy the files to a volume that does support EFS.

Appending files
To append files, specify a single file for destination, but multiple files for source (that is,
by using wildcards or file1+file2+file3 format).

Examples:
To copy all the files and subdirectories (including any empty subdirectories) from drive
A to drive B, type:

xcopy a: b: /s /e
To include any system or hidden files in the previous example, add the/h command-line
option as follows:

xcopy a: b: /s /e /h

To update files in the \Reports directory with the files in the \Rawdata directory that have
changed since December 29, 1993, type:

xcopy \rawdata \reports /d:12-29-1993

To update all the files that exist in \Reports in the previous example, regardless of date,
type:

xcopy \rawdata \reports /u

To obtain a list of the files to be copied by the previous command (that is, without
actually copying the files), type:

xcopy \rawdata \reports /d:12-29-1993 /l > xcopy.out

The file Xcopy.out lists every file that is to be copied.

To copy the \Customer directory and all subdirectories to the directory \\Public\Address
on network drive H:, retain the read-only attribute, and be prompted when a new file is
created on H:, type:

xcopy \customer h:\public\address /s /e /k /p

DELTREE

Syntax:

DELTREE [/Y] [d:]path [d:]path[...]

Parameters:
/Y - Carries out the DELTREE command without providing a prompt to confirm the
deletion.

Purpose:

Deletes (erases) a directory including all files and subdirectories that are in it (new with
DOS Version 6).
Unlike the RMDIR command, the DELTREE command allows you to delete a directory
even if it contains files and subdirectories. All files and subdirectories subordinate to the
directory you are deleting will also be deleted regardless of any attributes. This means
that even if a file has hidden, system, read-only, or other attributes, it will still be deleted.
You can specify more than one directory for deletion.

Examples:
To delete the directory LETTERS including all files and subdirectories containedin it,
enter

DELTREE c:\letters

TREE - DISPLAYS THE DIRECTORY STRUCTURE

Syntax:
TREE DRIVE:\PATH /SWITCH

Where SWITCH is

F - Display the names of files in each directory

Purpose:
The TREE command enables the user to obtain a graphical view of the structure of
directories and subdirectories on a disk.

Example 1:
Display the structure of the DOCS directory

TREE C:\DOCS

Example 2:
Display the directory structure and files of C

TREE C: /F

LABEL

Syntax:
label [Drive:][label]

label [/MP][volume][label]
Parameters:
Drive: Specifies the drive letter (followed by a colon) of the disk you want to name.
label Specifies the name for the volume.
/MP Specifies that the volume should be treated as a mount point or volume name.
volume Specifies the drive letter (followed by a colon), mount point, or volume name. If
a volume name is specified, the /MP parameter is unnecessary.
/? Displays help at the command prompt.

Purpose:

Label Creates, changes, or deletes the volume label (that is, the name) of a disk. Used
without parameters, label changes the current volume label or deletes the existing label..

Label command messages


If you do not specify a label when you use the label command, label displays a message
in the following format:Volume in drive A is xxxxxxxxxxx
Volume Serial Number is xxxx-xxxx
Volume label (11 characters, ENTER for none)?

The "Volume Serial Number" part of the message is not displayed if the disk has no serial
number.

You can type the volume label you want or press ENTER to delete the current label. If a
disk has a label and you press ENTER for none, label prompts you with the following
message:

Delete current volume label (Y/N)?

Press Y to delete the label; press N to keep the label.

Limitations on volume label names


A volume label can contain as many as 32 characters for NTFS volumes and as many as
11 characters for FAT volumes and can include spaces but no tabs.

FAT volume labels cannot contain any of the following characters:

*?/\|.,;:+=[]<>"

This limitation does not apply to NTFS volumes.

For FAT volumes, volume labels are stored as uppercase regardless of whether they
contain lowercase letters. NTFS volume labels retain and display the case used when the
label was created.

Examples:
To label a disk in drive A that contains sales information for July, type:
label a:sales-july

PRACTICAL NO: 10

OBJECTIVE:
Practice for PRINT, UNDELETE commands.

PRACTICE FOR PRINT, UNDELETE COMMANDS:

PRINT

Syntax:

PRINT [/B:(buffersize)] [/D:(device)] [/M:(maxtick)] [/Q:(value] [/S:(timeslice)] [/U:


(busytick)] [/C][/P][/T] [d:][path][filename] [...]

Parameters:

/C - Provides a way to select which files to cancel. A filename already in the print queue
that precedes this option will be suspended. Names of files (already in the print queue)
that follow this option will be canceled. You can also list more files to print as part of the
same PRINT command by entering the /P option followed by the filenames to print.

/P - Sets the print mode. The preceding filename and all following filenames will be
added to the print queue. You can also list files to cancel as part of the same PRINT
command by entering the /C option followed by the filenames to cancel.

/T - Deletes all files in the print queue (those waiting to be printed). After the print files
are canceled, the program displays a cancellation message. If a file is being printed as the
PRINT command is used with this option, the printing will stop immediately.

The following options are allowed only the first time you run the PRINT command:

/D (device) - Specifies the print device. If not specified, PRINT will prompt you to enter
the name of a print device. The default is PRN.

/B (buffersize) - This parameter sets the size (in bytes) of the amount of memory used by
the PRINT buffer. Increasing this value speeds up the operation of the PRINT command.
If you do not use the /B option, the PRINT buffer will be set to 512 bytes.

/M (maxtick) - Specifies how many computer clock ticks PRINT can have to print a file.
The value of /M can be from 1 to 255. If you do not use the /M option, this parameter will
be set to 2.

/Q (value) - Specifies the maximum number of files that are allowed in the print queue
(from 4 to 32). If you do not use the /Q option, this parameter will be set to 8.

/S (timeslice) - Specifies the time slice (the interval of time used by DOS to schedule
PRINT jobs). If you do not use the /S option, this parameter will be set to 8.

/U (busytick) - Specifies the number of computer clock ticks that DOS will wait for a
printer that is not available. If the wait is longer than this value, DOS gives up its time
slice (refer to option /S above). If you do not use the /U option, this parameter will be set
to 1.

Purpose:

Using the PRINT command, you can set up one or more files to print and continue to use
other programs (often referred to as background printing).

If you use the PRINT command without entering any options , the current contents of the
print queue is displayed. This does not change the status of the files currently in the
PRINT queue. If you do not enter any of the forward slash options (/), the /P option is
assumed.

The first time you use the PRINT command, the following prompt appears (unless you
specify the /D parameter):

Name of list device [PRN:]

Whatever device you enter becomes the PRINT output device. Press the Enter key to
accept the default (PRN).

During use of the PRINT command, one or more messages may be displayed. Each
message and its meaning are summarized below.

Message: List output is not assigned to a device

Meaning: The name of the printer you specified was not valid.

Message: PRINT queue is full

Meaning: You attempted to enter more than 10 files in the PRINT queue.

Message: PRINT queue is empty

Meaning: There are no files in the print queue.


Message: No files match d:(filename)

Meaning: No files match the filename specification you entered.

Message: All files canceled by operator

Meaning: You entered the /T (terminate) option to cancel all the files currently in the
PRINT queue.

Message: File canceled by operator

Meaning: You entered the /C (cancel) option to cancel the file currently in the PRINT
queue.

Example:
to print the file letter.txt, type

C :\> PRINT C:\LETTER.TXT

To stop printing and cancel the print queue, enter

print /t

To remove the files LETTER.TXT, START.EXE, and RATE.COM (all on drive B) from
the PRINT queue, enter

print b:letter.txt/c b:start.exe b:rate.com

To remove the file SALES.DOC from the PRINT queue and, at the same time, add the
files OLDSALE.DOC and NEWSALE.DOC, enter

print sales.doc/c oldsale.doc/p newsale.doc

UNDELETE

Syntax:

UNDELETE [d:][path][filename] [/DT|/DS|/DOS]


UNDELETE [/list|/all|/purge[d:]|/status|/load|/U|/S[d:]|/Td:[-entries]]

Purpose:
It is used to recover files that have been previously erased. The UNDELETE command
can only recover deleted files if no new files or changes have been made on the disk since
the deletion. Therefore, if you accidentally delete a file that you want to keep, stop what
you are doing immediately and use the UNDELETE command to retrieve the file.

Parameters:
/all - Automatically recovers all of the files you specify.

/list - All available files are listed (but files are not recovered).

/DOS Restricts recovery to those files that meet the file specifications (filespec) in the
disk directory table.

/DT - Restricts recovery to those files found in the Delete Tracking File.

/DS - Restricts recovery to those files found in the SENTRY directory.

/load - Loads the Undelete memory-resident program into memory using information
defined in the UNDELETE.INI file.

/unload - Unloads the memory-resident portion of the Undelete program from memory,
turning off the capability to restore deleted files.

/purged[d] - Deletes the contents of the SENTRY directory.

/status - Displays the type of delete protection in effect for each drive.

/S[d] - Enables the Delete Sentry level of protection and loads the memory-resident
portion of the UNDELETE program.

/Tdrive[-entries] - Enables the Delete Tracker level of protection and loads the memory-
resident portion of the UNDELETE program. The optional entries parameter specifies the
maximum number of entries in the deletion-tracking file (PCTRACKR.DEL). It must be
a value in the range 1 through 999 with the default value determined by the type of disk
being tracked.

Examples:

To undelete all recoverable files in the LETTERS directory, enter

undelete \letters\*.* /all

To undelete all recoverable files in the current directory using the delete-tracking file,
enter
undelete /dt
PRACTICAL NO: 11

OBJECTIVE:
Practice for practical’s at S.No. 8, 9, 10, 11.

PRACTICE FOR PRACTICAL’S AT S.NO. 8, 9, 10, 11:

DISKCOPY:

Let's use DISKCOPY! From your C drive MS-DOS Prompt, do this:

1. DISKCOPY A: A: {ENTER}

DISKCOMP:
it will compare the side of X: with that of B:

C :\> DISKCOMP X: Z/1

SCANDISK:
If you want to check and fix the current drive, enter

C :\> scandisk

XCOPY:

To copy all the files and subdirectories (including any empty subdirectories) from drive
A to drive B, type:

C :\> xcopy a: b: /s /e

DELTREE:

To delete the directory LETTERS including all files and subdirectories contained in it,
enter

C :\> DELTREE c:\letters

TREE:

Display the structure of the DOCS directory

C :\> TREE C:\DOCS


LABEL:

To label a disk in drive A that contains sales information for July, type:

C :\> label a: sales-July

PRINT:

to print the file letter.txt, type

C :\> PRINT C:\LETTER.TXT

UNDELETE:

To undelete all recoverable files in the LETTERS directory, enter

C :\> undelete \letters\*.* /all


PRACTICAL NO: 12

OBJECTIVE:
Practice for creating a batch file.

PRACTICE FOR CREATING A BATCH FILE:

BATCH FILES

Batch files are a way to automate commands or groups of commands which are routinely
executed from the command line.

Some benefits of batch files include:

• Saving time and effort


• Simplification of operations for inexperienced users
• Simplification of complex commands for experienced users

Common uses for batch files include:

• Copying or deleting files


• Creating the proper environment for an application
• Setting environmental variables

Batch files are files containing DOS commands or other valid external commands. Each
command must be placed on its own line and the file must be text only - use Notepad,
EDIT, or any other pure-text editor to create and modify them.

A common practice is to place all batch files in one directory and then PATH to that
directory. This centralization of batch files makes it easier to modify them should that
become necessary.

This rather odd method of execution can be demonstrated with the following batch file:

@echo off
cls
echo this is the test.bat batch file
pause
cls
echo echo hey! look at this! >>test.bat
cls
echo this is the last line of the test.bat... or is it?
Pause
BATCH FILE EXAMPLES

The following batch file examples can be pasted into a text editor and modified to match
your environment. If you paste them into a word processor, be sure that you Save As a
plain text file.

Displaying a text file:

When large amounts of text are to be displayed to the screen from within a batch file, a
more convenient alternative to ECHOing text to the screen is to place the text in a
separate file and then display the contents of that file:

TYPE afile.txt
Or, when there is more text that can fit on one screen:
MORE < afile.txt

The second example takes advantage of redirection, see below.

Deleting Temporary Files:

Place the following lines in an AUTOEXEC.BAT to clean out temporary files during the
boot. (Note the use of redirection, covered in detail below).

del c:\windows\recent\*.* < d:\batch\yes


del c:\windows\internet temporary files\cookies*.* < d:\batch\yes

Control a Printer:

Use a one-line batch file like this one to issue a form feed to a HP laser printer:

@echo off
rem feed.bat
rem issues a form feed to a HP laser printer on LPT1
rem represents ascii char #27, control character for printers
echo .&l0H > lpt1

Find a Disk File:

A batch file like the following one can be used to find a disk file from the command line.

The /v switch for CHKDSK is for "Verbose", which will list all files on the specified
disk. That output is piped (|) through the FIND filter.

The replaceable parameters %1 and %2 stand in for the drive designation and the
filename being searched for and make the batch file more flexible. (See replaceable
parameters below for more information about them).
rem FF.bat, findfile.bat
rem Usage: FF D: filename.ext
CHKDSK %1 /v | FIND "%2"