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Basic concepts of development

1. Potency
2. Commitment
3. Specification
4. Induction
5. Competence
6. Determination
7. Differentiation
8. Morphogenetic gradients
9. Cell fate and cell lineages
10. Stem cells
11. Genomic equivalence and the cytoplasmic determinants
12. Imprinting
13. Mutants
14. Transgenics in analysis of development
B. Gametogenesis, fertilization and early development
1. Production of gametes
2. Cell surface molecules in sperm-egg recognition in animals
3. Embryo sac development
4. Double fertilization in plants
5. Zygote formation
6. Cleavage
7. Blastula formation
8. Embryonic fields
9. Gastrulation
10. Formation of germ layers in animals
11. Embryogenesis
12. Establishment of symmetry in plants
13. Seed formation
14. Germination
C. Morphogenesis and organogenesis in animals:
1. Cell aggregation and differentiation in Dictyostelium
2. Axes and pattern formation in
1. Drosophila
2. Amphibia
3. Chick
3. Organogenesis
1. Vulva formation in Caenorhabditis elegans
2. Eye lens induction
3. Limb development
4. Regeneration in vertebrates
4. Differentiation of neurons
5. Post embryonic development
1. Larval formation
2. Metamorphosis
3. Environmental regulation of normal development
6. Sex determination
D. Morphogenesis and organogenesis in plants
1. Organization of shoot and root apical meristem
2. Shoot and root development
3. Leaf development and phyllotaxy
4. Transition to flowering
5. Floral meristems
6. Floral development
1. Arabidopsis
2. Antirrhinum.
E. Programmed cell death, aging and senescence
1. Programmed cell death
2. Aging
3. Senescence

The Cellular Basis of Morphogenesis

One of the most important conclusions of the cell lineage studies is that cells are constantly changing
during embryogenesis (Larsen and Mclaughlin 1987). Cells do not remain in one p lace, nor do they keep
the same shape. Early embryologists recognized that there were two major types of cells in the embryo:
epithelial cells, which are tightly connected to one another in sheets or tubes; and mesenchymal cells,
which are unconnected to one another and operate as independent units. Morphogenesis is brought
about through a limited repertoire of variations in cellular processes within these two types of
arrangements (Table1.1):

• Direction and number of cell divisions

• Cell shape changes
• Cell movement
• Cell growth
• Cell death
• Changes in the composition of the cell membrane or secreted products
Cell migration
One of the most important contributions of fate maps has been their demonstration of extensive
cell migration during development. Mary Rawles (1940) showed that the pigment cells
(melanocytes) of the chick originate in the neural crest, a transient band of cells that joins the
neural tube to the epidermis. When she transplanted small regions of neural crest-containing
tissue from a pigmented strain of chickens into a similar position in an embryo from an
unpigmented strain of chickens, the migrating pigment
cells entered the epidermis and later entered the feathers
(Figure 1.llA). Ris (1941) used similar techniques to show
that while almost all of the externa I pigmen t of the chick
embryo carne from the migrating neural crest cells, the pig