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• Physics: Study of the physical world. Science of energy General Problem Solving Strategy:

• Metric System: System of measurement based on Step 1: Identify what’s being given

multiples of 10. Step 2: Clarify what’s being asked.

• SI System: Systeme International d’Unites (Internation If necessary, rephrase the question

system of units). Step 3: Select a strategy

• Uncertainty: The last digit in a measurement is Trial & error, search, deductive reasoning,

uncertain—each person may see it slightly differently when knowledge-based, working backwards

reading the measurement. Step 4: Solve using the strategy

• Significant Figures: Digits that were actually measured Step 5: Review the answer

and have physical significance. (Also called “significant

digits”) Use the KUDOS method for solving word problems.

U = Unknown

Metric Prefixes commonly used in physics D = Definition

Prefix Symbol Multiple O = Output

Kilo k 1000 S = Substantiation

Deci d 0.1

Centi c 0.01 Multiple-choice tips:

Milli m 0.001 Scan all the choices

Micro µ 0.000001 Avoid word confusion

Nano n 0.000000001 Beware of absolutes

The “base unit” is when there’s no prefix. Essay tips:

Understand the question

To determine the equivalent in “base units”: Answer the whole question and only the question

1. Use prefix to determine multiple Watch your time

2. Multiply number by the multiple Free-Repsonse tips:

3. Write the result with the base unit Show partial work

Examples: Don’t forget units

1.25 mL Æ “milli” means 0.001 Æ 0.00125 L Don’t be fooled by blank space

87.5 kg Æ “kilo” means 1000 Æ 87500 g

04: Describing Motion Kinematics in 1

02: Basic Math for Physics Dimension

• Vector: A quantity that represents magnitude (size) and

If a # is … to a then … the # to Example direction. It is usually represented with an arrow to indicate

variable, solve for the the appropriate direction. They may or may not be drawn to

variable scale.

Added Subtract 5=x+2 • Scalar: A quantity that can be completely described its

-2 -2 magnitude, or size. It has no direction associated with its

5-2 = x size.

Subtracted Add 3=x–6 • Velocity: Speed of an object which includes its direction of

+6 +6 motion. Velocity is a vector quantity.

3-6 = x • Acceleration: Rate at which an object’s velocity changes

Multiplied Divide 2 = 4x with time; this change may in speed, direction, or both.

1. 4

2/4 = x • v=d/t

Divided Multiply 2·6=x·2 • a = ∆v/∆t=(vf-vi)/t

2 • d=vit+at2/2

2·6=x • vf2=vi2+2ad

• acceleration due to gravity = -9.8 m/s2

On Your Calculator:

• For sign conventions, assign a direction as positive, keep

• Always use the ÷ key to designate a number is on the

this convention throughout the problem, any quantities in

bottom of an expression.

the opposite direction must be negative.

• Always use the EE (or EXP) key to enter scientific notation.

• Often, up and right are positive, while down and left are

• Always use parenthesis around addition or subtraction

negative.

when combining it with other operations

• To make something negative (when taking the number to a

The motion of an object moving with a constant acceleration is

power), keep the negative outside of the parenthesis.

pictured below. The distance moved in each unit of time

increases. In fact, it is proportional to the square of the time.

Important Formulas:

opposite opposite

sinθ = tanθ =

hypotenuse adjacent

• An object moving with a constant velocity would cover

adjacent − b ± b 2 − 4ac

cosθ = x= equal amounts of distance in equal time intervals.

hypotenuse 2a • An object moving with a constant acceleration would cover

varying amouts of distance in equal time intervals.

05: Kinematics in Two Dimensions: Vectors 07: Work and Energy

• Resultant: the result of adding two or more vectors; • Work: Product of force on an object and the distance

vector sum. through which the object is moved.

• Vector Component: the parts into which a vector can be • Power: Work done per unit of time.

separated and that act in different directions from the • Energy: The ability to do work.

vector. • Base level: An arbitray reference point from which

• Vector Addition: The process of combining vectors; added distances are measured.

tip to tail. • Kinetic Energy: The energy an object has due to it motion.

• Gravitational Potential Energy: The energy an object has

Vertical due to its position above some base level.

Velocity of a projectile

component • Work Energy Theorem: The work done is equal to the

change in energy.

• Conservation of Energy: energy is not created or

destroyed, just transformed from one type to another.

Horizontal compoent

• v=d/t • W= F d = mad

• a = ∆v/∆t=(vf-vi)/t • W = F d cos θ

• d=vit+at2/2 • P = W/t

• vf2=vi2+2ad • a = ∆v/∆t

• Pythagorean Theorem: c2=a2+b2 • cos θ = adjacent / hypotenuse

• Sin θ = opp/hyp • KE = ½ mv2

• Cos θ = adj/hyp • PE = mgh

• Tan θ = opp/adj

• acceleration due to gravity = -9.8 m/s2 • Work is done only when a force acts in the direction of

• Important formula note: All of these formulas could motion of an object

apply to any direction. Common subscripts are shown that • If the force is perpendicular to the direction of motion, then

indicate the direction of a particular quantity no work is done.

• v or y = vertical direction • Power is the ratio of work done per time

• h or x = horizontal direction • Energy may appear in different forms, but it is always

conserved.

• Projectiles move with a constant acceleration due to • The total amount of energy before and after some

gravity only in the vertical direction. interaction is constant.

• Projectiles move with a constant velocity only in the • Work and energy are interchangeable.

horizontal direction.

06: Force and Motion - Newton’s Laws 08: Momentum and Collisions

• Static Equilibrium: A motionless state where all the • Momentum: A vector quantity that is the product of mass

forces acting on an object yield a net force of zero. and velocity of an item. It may be considered as inertia in

• Dynamic Equilibrium: A condition of constant motion.

motion/zero acceleration where all the forces acting on an • Impulse: A change in momentum. The product of force

object yield a net force of zero. and the time through which the force acts.

• Friction Force: A force that acts to resist motion of • Conservation of Momentum: The momentum of a system

objects that are in contact. will remain constant. Momentum isn’t created or destroyed

• Normal Force: Support force that acts perpendicular to a unless an outside force is acting on the system.

surface. If the surface is horizontal, this force balances the • Elastic Collision: A collision where there is no kinetic lost,

weight of the object. momentum is still conserved, the object have no

• Force: A vector quantity that tends to accelerate an object; deformation.

a push or a pull. • Inelastic Collision: A collision where kinetic energy is lost

• Net Force, Fnet: : A combination of all the forces that act due to heat, deformation, or other methods. However,

on an object momentum is still conserved for the system.

• Fnet=ma • P=mv

• µ=Ff/FN • Ft=m∆v

• Fnet=ΣF = the sum of all forces • J=Ft

• Newton’s 1st law : An object at rest wants to stay at • Explosion: one object breaking into more objects.

rest, an object in motion tends to stay in motion; inertia. 0=mv+mv+…

• Newton’s 2nd law : Fnet=ma. • Hit and stick: one object striking and joining to the other.

• Newton’s 3rd law: For every force that is an equal and m1v1+m2v2=(m1+m2)v3

opposite force; action and reaction. • Hit and rebound: one object striking and bouncing off of

the other. m1v1+m2v2=m1v3+m2v4

An inclined A

plane showing FN

all the forces Ball A strikes

acting on the m A B motionless ball B.

object: F┴ After the collision

Ff they move off as

shown.

W

B

Note how momentum is conserved. In the X direction, the

momenta add up to the original momentum before the

θ F║ collision. In the Y direction, the momenta cancel out since

there was no momentum in that direction initially.

09: Circular Motion and Gravitation 11: Solids and Fluids

• Centripetal Force: a center seeking force for an object • Solids: Matte with definite shape and volume

moving in a circular path. • Fluids: Matter with indefinite shape and definite volume

• Centrifugal Force: An apparent, but nonexistent, outward • Thermal expansion: Volume of matter increase with

pointing force for an object moving in a circular path. A temperature

rotating object may seem to be pushed outward, but • Stress: Force causing deformation

actually must be pulled inward in order to maintain any • Strain: Degree of deformation

circular path. • Buoyancy: The force caused by pressure variation with

• Inverse Square Law: A relationship relating the strength depth to lift immersed objects

of an effect to the inverse square of the distance away from • Surface tension: The force to attract surfaced molecular to

the source. make the surface area of fluid as small as possible

• Gravitational Field: The map of influence that a massive • Capillary action: The phenomena of fluids automatically

body extends into space around itself. raising in open-ended tubes

• Linear Speed: Straight path distance moved per unit of • Viscosity: The inter-friction mechamism in fluid to dissipate

time, also referred to as tangential speed. energy

• Rotational Speed: Number of rotations or revolutions per • Laminar flow: Every particle passing a particular point

unit of time, often measured in rpm, revolutions per moves exactly along the smooth path followed by particles

minute. passing that point early

• Universal Gravitational Constant: A proportionality • Turbulant flow: The irregular flow when the velocity of the

constant that relates the strength of gravitational attraction flow is high

in Newton’s law of universal gravitation. • Thermal expansion: (L − L0 ) = α (T − T0 )

• Fg=Gm1m2/d 2

• Pressure variation with depth: P = ρgh

• G=6.67x10-11Nm2/kg2

• ac=v2/r • Buyonancy (Archimedes’ princple): B = ρgV

• Fc=mv2/r • Bernoulli’s equation (along any streamline):

1 2

• Weightlessness: Astronauts “floating” in space may P+ ρv + ρgh = const

appear to be weightless. However, the pull from gravitiy 2

definitely still acts on them. If it didn’t, their inertia would

carry them off in a straight line never to return to the Applied force

earth. Instead, the pull from gravity acts as a centripetal

• Stress =

force to maintain their orbit about the earth.

Loaded area

10: Rotational Motion and Equilibrium 12:Temperature and Kinetic Theory of Gases

• Pressure: Force of gas molecules colliding with surfaces

• Torque: The rotational quantity that causes rotation; the

1 atm = 101300 Pa = 101.3 kPa = 760 mm Hg = 14.7 psi

product of force times lever arm.

• Standard Temperature and pressure: 1 atm (or anything

• Lever Arm: The distance from the axis of rotation to the

it’s equal to) and 0°C (273 K)

location where the force is applied.

• Ideal Gas: all assumptions of the kinetic molecular theory

• Moment of Inertia: The rotational equivalent of linear

are true.

inertia; a measure of the ease of rotating some object.

• Real Gas: real gases have significant particle volume and

• Angular Momentum: The rotational equivalent of linear

significant attractions/repulsions

momentum that describes the tendency of an object to

continue rotating.

• Rotational Equilibrium: The situation when the net Ideal Gas Law: PV = nRT

torque on an object equals zero. P = Pressure

• Radian: A unit of rotational displacement; one revolution V = Volume

equals 2 ∏ radians. n = moles

T = Temperature (in Kelvin)

• I=Σmr2 R = Gas constant = 8.31 L × kPa or L × atm

0.0821

• L=Iω mole × K mole × K

• Ƭ=F l

• Root-Mean-Square Speed (Vrms): one measure of

Linear motion formula Rotational motion average particle speed in a gas

formula 3RT

d

vrms =

v= ∆θ M

ω=

t ∆t

∆v ∆ω • Average Translational Kinetic Energy (KEave): average

a= α=

∆t ∆t kinetic energy (energy due to motion) of each particle

3

d = v i t + at 2 /2 θ = ωi t + αt 2 /2 For the entire gas: KE ave = RT

2

v 2f = v i2 + 2ad ω2f = ωi2 + 2αθ Per molecule:

K ave =

3 R

T

2 NA

• θ= angular displacement • Diffusion: The rate at which a gas travels through a

• ω=angular speed container

• α=angular acceleration • Effusion: The rate at which a gas escapes through a tiny

hole

• Ƭ=torque

Attacking Strategy for Gas Laws

• I=rotational inertia 1. Identify quantities by their units

• Draw a diagram if needed. Identify all given information. 2. Write known and unknown quantities symbollicaly

Be sure to make diagrams or calculations with direction in 3. Choose equation based upon list of quantities

mind. Draw all forces and components. Plug quantities into equation and solve.

13: Heat and Thermodynamics 15: Conductors, Capacitors and Dielectrics

• Thermodynamics: Study of heat changes. • Conductor: Material where electrons are loosely bound and

• Specific Heat Capacity (Cp): Amount of energy that 1 are able to flow throughout due to the free electrons.

gram of material can absorb before increasing in • Insulator: Materials where electrons are bound and don’t

temperature. Cp for water: 4.18 J or 1.00 cal flow easily.

For changes in temperature: • Semiconductor: Materials in between insulator and

Qheat = m × C p × ∆T m = mass; ∆T = T2 – T1 conductor.

• Superconductor: A material where electrons flow without

For increases in temperature that cross several phases any resistance. Generally, superconductivity only occurs at

simply sum the Qfus, Qvap, and Qheat as needed. very low temperatures.

For changes in state: Temperature doesn’t change as the • Resistor: A device used to control or regular the amount of

added energy is used to break intermolecular forces. electric charge flowing.

Melting: ∆Q fus = m × L fus Qfus = heat of fusion • Resistivity: An intrinsic property of a material that partially

determines the resistance of a wire.

Boiling: ∆Qvap = m × Lvap Qvap = heat of vaporization • Capacitor: A device used to store or accumulate electric

energy. This is done by oppositely charging two nearby

• Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics: Objects in thermal conductive surfaces that are not in contact with each other.

equilibrium are at the same temperature. Objects in • Dielectric: an insulating material is inserted between the

contact will eventually come to thermal equilibrium. plates of a capacitor.

• 1st Law of Thermodynamics (Law of Conservation of • Dielectric Constant: the factor that describes the

Energy): Energy cannot be created nor destroyed in a additional capacitance gained by adding a dielectric material

chemical or physical process. between the plates of a capacitor.

∆U = ∆Q + W

U = internal energy (in J) • R=ρ L/A

Q = heat (in J); • q=CV

W = work done on (W>0) or by (W<0) the system • C= kε o A/d

• Entropy (S): Disorder or random-ness

• 2nd Law of Thermodynamics: The total entropy of the •ε o =8.85x10-12C2/Nm2

universe can never decrease. • Uc=qV/2=CV2/2

Linear and Volume Expansion: Objects expand when • V=PE/q

heated.

∆L = L × α × ∆T Factors that determine the resistance of a wire:

L = length; α = linear expansion coefficient; ∆T = T2 – T1 • Resistivity of wire material

• Length of wire

14: Electrostatics • Cross sectional area of wire

• Temperature of wire

• Charge: A fundamental intrinsic property of matter that

gives rise to the attractions and repulsions between 16: Electric Circuits

electrons and protons. • Series Circuit: A circuit where the components form one

• Charging by Contact: The transfer of electric charge from continuous loop. The current is constant throughout.

one object to another by simple contact or conduction. • Parallel Circuit: A circuit where each component is connect

• Charging by Induction: Redistribution or charging or an to form its own separate independent branch. The voltage is

object by bringing a charged item in close proximity to, but constant throughout.

not touching, an uncharged object. • Internal Resistance: Resistance from the processes inside

• Coulomb’s Law: Mathematical relationship between a voltage source; reistance due to the battery itself.

electric force, charge, and distance. The electric force • Kirchhoff’s Laws: Two laws, the junction and loop rule,

varies directly with the product of the charges, and that help describe circuits with multiple loops or voltage

inversedly to the square of the distance between the sources.

charges. • Junction Rule: A restatement of conservation of charge;

• Polarized: Separation or alignment of the charges in a the current going into a junction must equal the current

neutral body so that like charges are grouped together, going out of the junction.

resulting in a positive and a negative region. • Loop Rule: A restatement of conservation of energy; the

• Electric Field: A force field that fills the space near any sum of all voltages in the elements of a loop is zero.

charge.

• Electric Potential: The ratio of electric potential energy to • V=IR Ohm’s law

electric charge at a particular spot in an electric field. It is • P=IV=I2R

often referred to as voltage since it is measured in volts. • RS=R1+R2+R3+…

• Equipotential Line: A line where all points have an equal • RP=1/R1+1/R2+1/R3+…

electric potential, or voltage. In this series

sw itch

circuit the

2

• FE=kq1q2/r current flow

• k=9x109Nm2/C2 2 Light would be

batteries

• k=1/4π ε o ε o =8.85x10-12C2/Nm2 bulb equal

• 1 Coulomb = 6.25x1018 electrons throughout.

resistor

• E=F/q -

• V=PE/q

• V=kq/r

surrounding an area of negative circuit the 2

charge. The E field lines always point in the direction that a voltage to each batteries

small positive test charge would move in the field. resistor would

be equal.

17: Magnetic Fields 19: Vibrations and Waves

• Magnetic Domains: Microscopic areas of atoms where the • Wave motion : The process in which the disturbance in a

magnetic fields are aligned. point in the medium is transmitted to other parts of the

• Ferromagnetic: A naturally magnetic class of materials medium with out the bodily movement of the particles.

where the magnetic domains are ordered and do not cancel • Longitudional Waves: The particles in the medium move

out. parallel to the direction of the wave. Eg. Sound waves

• Magnetic Field Lines: Lines showing the shape and exent • Transverse waves: In a transverse wave the particles in

of a magnetic field around a permanent magnet or a the medium move perpendicular to the direction of the

moving charged object. wave. Eg. Light waves, waves on strings.

• Mass Spectrometer: A device that magnetically • Time period (T): The time taken by a body to complete

separates charged ions according to their mass. A one vibration.

magnetic field is used to accomplish this separation. • Frequency: Frequency is the number of oscillations

completed in a unit time

• FB=BIL sinθ • Amplitude (r): The maximum displacement of the body in

• FB=qvBsinθ vibration.

• B = μ o i / 2π r • Mechanical waves: A mechanical wave is just a

disturbance that propagates through a medium

• μ o=4π x10 Tm/A

-7

• Electromagnetic wave: An electromagnetic wave is simply

light of a visible or invisible wavelength. Oscillating

Right Hand Rule, RHR intertwined electric and magnetic fields comprise light. Light

1. The fingers extend or curl in the direction of the magnetic can travel without medium.

field. • Crest: The maximum displacement position in a wave is

2. The outstretched thumb points in the direction of called a crest.

conventional current, or the direction of a positively charged • Trough: The minimum displacement position in a wave is

moving particle. called a trough

3. A line perpendicular to the palm indicates the direction of

the magnetic force. • Period of a swinging pendulum: T = 2π√(l/g)

X X X X X • Period of a mass on a spring: T = 2π√(M/K)

• Wave speed equation: v=fλ

X X X • f = 1/T

. . .

• Reflection of a wave at a boundary: When a wave is

. . . progressing towards an open end or from a medium of

greater to lesser density it reflects back with the same

X X direction of displacement. When a wave is progressing

towards a fixed end it gets inverted.

X X X X X

20: Sound

18: Electromagnetism • Sound: Sound is a form of energy .When Matter vibrates

• Electromotive Force, EMF: A voltage that gives rise to a very quickly it transports energy in the form of waves. It

current flow. This voltage can be induced or created by a stimulates our sense of hearing. Sound waves are pressure

changing magnetic field. waves (energy per unit area). Sound cannot travel through

• Induced current: The flow of charge in a conductor due vacuum. A wave is a carrier of sound energy.

to the changing magnetic flux near that conductor. • Beats: Beats are the periodic and repeating fluctuations

• Lenz’s Law: The induced emf always gives rise to a heard in the intensity of a sound. Two sound waves of nearly

current whose magnetic flux opposed the original change in same frequencies interfere with one another to produce

magnetic flux. Thus, the induced current tries to maintain beats

the level of magnetic flux. • Pitch: Pitch is the highest or lowest sound an object makes.

• Generator: A machine that produces electricity by a • Audible sounds: The audio spectrum extends from

rotating coil of wire immersed in a stationary magnetic approximately 20Hz to 20,000 Hz. These sounds can be

field. This rotating motion could be obtained from a variety heard by human ear

of sources. • Below 20 Hz – Infrasonics

• Above 20KHz – Ultrasonics

• ΦB=BAcosθ • Doppler effect: The apparent change in the frequency of

• Acircle=∏r2 sound due to relative motion between the sound source and

• ε=-N∆Φ/∆t observer is called Doppler Effect.

• ε=BLv • Intensity: The loudness οφ sound is directly proportional to

the square of the amplitude or intensity (I). It is convenient

X X X to use a logarithmic scale to determine the intensity level

β = 10 log (I/I0)

• Reference intensity or threshold of hearing , I0 = 1.00

X X X x 10-12 W/ m2 ; β = 0 dB

• Stationary or Standing waves are formed due to

superposition of two identical waves moving in opposite

X X X directions.

Here the conducting loop begins to pass into the magnetic • There is no net flow of energy in the medium.

field that goes into the page. An induced emf, and current • Node: The points of no displacement when standing waves

are created. The current flows so that the newly created B are formed.

field opposes the change in the original B field. While totally • Antinodes: The points along the medium which vibrate

immersed, no current would flow since there would be no back and forth with maximum displacement.

change in the B field flux. • Echo : The sound obtained by reflection at a wall, cliff or a

mountain is called an echo.

21: Physical Optics 23: Atomic Physics

• Electromagnetic Spectrum: A diagram that illustrates all Bohr’s atom model - Proposed by Neil Bohr in 1913

the varieties of electromagnetic waves based on their

relative frequency/wavelengths. Our eyes observe only a

small amount of this spectrum.

• Principle of Superposition: When two or more waves

occupy the same region of space simultaneously, the

resulting wave disturbance is the sum of separate waves.

• Constructive Interference: Two or more waves

superimposing to create a resulting wave that has a larger • First postulate: An atom consists of a positively charged

amplitude. nucleus at the centre. The electrons move round the nucleus

• Destructive Interference: Two or more waves in certain stationary orbits of definite radii and not all

superimposing to create a resulting wave that has a smaller possible radii.

amplitude. • Second postulate: The radius of the orbit is such that the

• Diffraction: The bending of waves around corners or small angular momentum of the electron is an integral multiple of

openings. h/2p

• Young’s Double Slit Experiment: Experiment that • Third postulate: Electron may jump from one orbit to the

measured the wavelength of light by interference from two other, in which case the difference in energy between the

small slits two states of motion is radiated in the form of a light

• Polarization: Light where the electric field fluctuates in quantum.

only one direction. • Atomic Spectra Solids, liquids and diffused gases emit

light when heated. This light produces ordered arrangement

• 3x108m/s speed of light in a vacuum of lines or bands or continuous patch of light.

• sinθ=mλ/d bright fringe formula

• sinθ=(m+1/2) λ/d dark fringe formula

• sinθ=mλ/d diffraction grating formula

• S=Socos2θ Malus’ law

Here a

polarizing filter

changes

random

unpolarized

light into a

wave that

vibrates in only Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle

Unpolarized Polarizing Polarized one direction.

light filter light If position is identified the momentum cannot be measured

If momentum is measured the position is lost.

∆x X ∆p ≥ h / 4π

22: Geometric Optics 24: Nuclear Physics

• Law of Reflection: The angle of incidence equals the

• Radioactivity: Emission of radiation as a consequence of a

angle of reflection.

nuclear reaction, or directly from the breakdown of an

• Virtual Image: An image that cannot be projected onto a

unstable nucleus.

screen. The rays of light don’t actually converge there,

• Half Life: The time required for half of the nuclei in a

they just seem to originate from that location.

sample of a specific isotope to undergo radioactive decay.

• Real Image: An image where the rays of light actually

• Alpha Particle: A positively charged helium nucleus

meet at a location. It can be projected onto a screen.

(consisting of two protons and two neutrons).

• Refraction: The bending of light due to its change in

• Beta Particle: An energetic electron produced as the result

velocity in various media.

of a nuclear reaction or nuclear decay.

• Index of Refraction: The ratio between the speed of light

• Gamma Particle/Ray: Very high frequency

in a vacuum and a particular medium.

electromagnetic radiation emitted as a consequence of

• Total Internal Reflection: The complete reflection of

radioactivity.

light when it strikes the boundary between two media at

• Fission: The process whereby one item splits to become

greater than a critical angle.

two.

• Binding Energy: The energy needed to separate the

• 1/f=1/do+1/di

constituent parts of an atom or nucleus

• m=hi/ho=-di/do

• Mass Defect: The difference between the mass of an atom

• n=c/v

and the sum of the masses of its individual components.

• n1sinθ1=n2sinθ2

Half Life: The amount of time needed for half of the original

nuclei to decay away into another element.

angle of

normal

Note how the incidence Calculating Binding Energy:

beam bends to 1. Determine the masses of each of the particles

the normal individually.

when entering 2. Determine the mass of a whole nucleus.

the more dense 3. The difference between the two provides “m”.

air Refracted

glass medium. angle of 4. Use m in the equation E=mc2 to calculate E.

beam

Then it bends refraction

away from the • Nuclear power plants have provided energy for half a

normal when re glass century.

entering air. • Atomic bombs are based on fission and among the most

“unrefracted” destructive weapons ever created.

beam Medical applications of radioactivity are commonplace in

our society, and are seen in cancer therapy, tracers,

tomography (PET scans), NMRs and MRIs.

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