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de Special 15-16/2009

ELECTROINSTALLATION:

Which method
is correct?
Crimp types at ORGAN DES
a glance ZVEH
Electroinstallation AT A GLANCE
In practice both standardised and non-
standard crimp profiles are being used.
Common amongst all crimping systems
is the requirement that the conductor,

Which method is correct? cable lug and crimping tools are engi-
neered to work with each other ensu-
ring a safe connection is achieved.

Crimp types at a glance


Initially the subject covering crimping profiles seems complicated; the
electrical installer is confronted with a number of different cable
types, each requiring different cable lugs or connectors and a profes-
sional crimping method. This combination depending on material,
design and application requires the correct crimping profile to be used.

T
The following article will give stands for KL: manufacturer (in this
a review of the most common case Klauke) and 18 for the die code.
crimp profiles the electrician The correct die code is a condition of
should be familiar with (Review: see a professional DIN crimp: Crimping dies
chart). used in the crimping tool need to com-
ply with the die code shown on the
For copper and aluminium: cable lug. The mirror image of the die
Hexagonal crimps code can be seen on the surface of the
Source: Klauke

crimping dies. After the crimping oper-


The most common type of crimp for ation the die reference code can be
cable lugs and connectors is the hexag- seen on the barrel of cable lug as part
onal crimp as this crimp profile is Incorrect cable lugs or the use of incorrect of a visible and recordable quality con-
suitable for copper and aluminium con- crimping tools can create serious safety trol procedure.
ductors (Picture 1). The range of app- defects in electrical installations and The die code corresponds approxi-
lications covering hexagonal crimps appliances mately to the tube diameter of the
includes the crimping of conductors as cable lug.
per VDE-0295-categories 2, 5 and 6 and Hexagonal Crimps – DIN Type The range of copper lugs is approxi-
the processing of non-tension connec- Hexagonal crimps differ in two ver- mately from 6 to 58 which correspond
tions of aluminium cables per DIN sions: One relates to the standard with the cross sections from 6 mm2 to
48201 part 1, and aluminium ropes per hexagonal crimp in accordance with 1000 mm2.
DIN EN 50182. DIN 48083 part 4 and the other to Hexagonal crimping dies per DIN
The advantage of a hexagonal the manufacturers related hexagonal 48083 part 4 for aluminium lugs and
crimp is the central force which is crimp. The standardized hexagonal connectors are described in accordance
applied consistently from all directions crimp allows cable lugs and connectors with the tube dimensions of lugs per
and over a larger area during the according to DIN 46235 to be crimped DIN 46239 and connectors per DIN
crimping operation. During this crimp- with certified crimping dies per DIN 46267 part 2.
ing operation the individual strands of 48083 part 4 (see Picture 2).
the conductor are being homo- Marking on DIN cable lugs provide The alternative: Manufacturer
geneously compressed preventing any essential information as to manufac- specific hexagonal crimps
damage. turer, dimensions and design of the Apart from DIN standard hexagonal
The result is a strong mechanical cable lug. These markings indicate for crimps the crimping of copper and par-
connection. Due to the even compres- instance which crimping tools and ticularly of cable types per VDE 0295
sion the hexagonal crimps are also suit- crimping dies need to be used to classification 2 also allows for a manu-
able for application in medium and achieve a DIN compliant crimp. This facturer related hexagonal crimp to be
high voltage areas. However, these designation is next to the manufactur- used. Prestigious manufacturers such as
advantages are faced with some limita- ers’ marking. For instance “KL 18...” Klauke provide hexagonal crimping
tions.
The complete compression of wire
strands using a hexagonal crimp and CRIMPING PROFILES
standard crimping dies is not possible. Crimping hexagonal- indent indent quad-point- oval-
This means: Standard hexagonal crimps profiles crimping crimping crimping indent crimping
are not gas-tight (see gas-tight oval solderless crimping
terminals
crimps at the end of this article).
Therefore it should be observed that Symbol
a professional hexagonal crimp re-
quires the use of crimping dies which
are matched exactly with material and
dimensions. Chart: Crimping profiles at a glance

2 de Special
Electroinstallation

Instead it depends more on the cross crimping tools can be used. The applied
section of the cable being used indi- crimp profile depends on the cross
cated in mm2, the cable lug and the die section of cables, cable lugs and
reference. The square mm size is mirror connectors to be used. Since the indent

Source: Klauke
printed on the crimping surface of the crimp does not represent a standard-
crimping dies. ized crimp it is imperative to only
Every manufacturer is responsible use high quality materials and tools
Picture 1: A hexagonal crimp is suitable for both for the electrical and mechanical dura- approved per IEC 1238 originating from
copper and aluminium conductors. The advanta- bility of connections crimped with one manufacturer. Only in this case
ge is the central force which is applied consi- there own tools. the electrician is safeguarded utilizing
stently from all directions. As a safe and professional crimp is cable lugs, connectors and tools
dependant on accurately matching which are matched to each other and
suitable crimping dies to the cable lugs, which provide and guarantee a safe
Klauke always recommends using the connection.
manufacturers approved crimping
tools. For copper and insulated
Source: Klauke

materials: Indent crimps


Proven and tested: Indent crimps
Indent crimps have been specifically
Picture 2: The standardized hexagonal crimp The indent crimp represents the oldest developed for processing connections
allows cable lugs and connectors per DIN 46235 electrical crimp profile. This crimp pro- of cablelugs according to DIN 46234
to be crimped with certified crimping dies per file is solely suitable for the processing and connectors per DIN 46341 part 1,
DIN 48083 part 4. of copper and is often used in control form A+B, which in turn are suitable for
panels and switch cabinets operated conductors of VDE 0295 classification 2,
within a range of 1000 V. The permissi- 5 and 6. Cable lugs and connectors
ble cable range includes stranded con- complying with these standards feature
ductors per VDE 0295 classification 2 a particular large outside diameter
and also fine stranded and compacted which will accept all types of cables
Source: Klauke

conductors per classification 5 and 6 up without any problem. The intense


to 400 mm2. These conductors can be indent crimp ensures that despite of
processed with R and F series tubular the large outside diameter a long last-
Picture 3: Indent (side indent) are always cable lugs. ing and “deep acting” crimp is
special application crimps which are Generally two different types of achieved (Picture 4).
primarily used for crimping fine stranded indent crimps are used: The W-profile The permitted cross sections range
and compacted conductors to secure a for cross sections from 0.5 mm2 up to from 0.5 mm2 up to 240 mm2. An
permanent connection. The applied crimp 16 mm2 and the classic single indent indent crimp is also suitable for F-type
profiles depend on the cross section of the con- crimp for cross sections from 6 mm2 up cable lugs ranging from 10 mm2 up to
ductor and type of cable lug. to 240 mm2. 300 mm2. F-type cable lugs feature a
Klauke crimping tools offer the pos- larger diameter; funnel shaped tube to
sibility to indent crimp cross sections up accept fine stranded and compacted
to 400 mm2. The characteristics of both types of cables per VDE 0295 classifica-
versions are identical: Indent crimps are tion 5 and 6 without any splitting. An
always special crimping operations par- indent crimp is also suitable to crimp
Source: Klauke

ticularly required for fine stranded and pre-insulated terminals in accordance


compacted conductors to secure a per- with DIN 46234 where the crimp pierces
manent connection (Picture 3). the insulation.
Picture 4: The intensive indent crimp is only The real benefit of indent crimping To avoid that the insulation is dam-
guaranteed when matched materials are is the simple operation and procedure aged during the crimping operation it
use despite the large outside diameters a for which normally hand operated is imperative to only use cable lugs with
permanent and „deep acting“ connection will
be achieved.
CONDUCTOR TYPES

dies tested and approved to IEC 1238 • round solid (re), conductors of classifi-
for crimping standard copper cable lugs cation 1 (described as solid conductors)
as per EN 13600. For commercial rea- • round stranded (rm) conductors of
sons such cable lugs are often used in classification 2
control and switch cabinets. Despite • fine stranded conductors of classification
offering cost benefits, there is no 5 (described as fine stranded conductors)
reduction in quality. • compacted conductors of classification 6
Important: The use of manufacturer (described as compacted conductors)
related crimping dies and cable lugs are
not controlled through the die codes.

de Special 3
Electroinstallation

a high quality insulation and appropri-


ate crimp profiles (Picture 5).
The indent and the side indent are
also non-standard types of crimp but

Source: Klauke
can also be used for standard cable lugs

Source: Klauke
such as terminals per DIN 46234. For
this reason here it is also important to
use tools and materials from a single Picture 6: The quad point crimp is suitable for
quality manufacturer. Materials in- Picture 5: Cable lugs with a high cable lugs and connectors with cross sections
correctly matched are disadvantaged quality insulation and appropriate ranging from 10 mm2 up to 300 mm2 in
further due to the extreme stresses crimp profiles ensures that the combination with cable types per VDE 0295
applied during use. Once a single insulation does not become classification 2, 5 and 6.
strand has been lost mechanical and damaged during the crimping
electrical failures in the connection may operation.
become inevitable.

No dies required: the force and quality of the crimping

Source: Klauke
Quad point crimps tool used.

The quad point crimp originates in Gastight: Oval crimps


the USA and is being used mainly Picture 7: Gastight oval crimps provide for a
in panels and switch cabinets up to Gastight oval crimps are being used permanent connection and good electrical
1000 V. These are also used in other predominantly in the motor industry conductivity. The ingress of fluid or a gaseous
electrical connections i.e. in drive sys- and in aggressive environments such as medium is not possible under normal atmospheric
tems for locomotives where this type of agricultural operations or chemical conditions. An oxidation of the individual crimped
crimp offers the perfect solution. This industries. A gastight connection strands is prevented and an increase in resistance is
crimp profile is suitable for cable lugs means that both conductor and cable avoided.
and connectors ranging from 10 mm2 lug or connector is compacted together
up to 300 mm2 in combination with so tightly that no notable gap exists cific types of cables; therefore all types
cables per VDE 0295 classification 2, 5 (Picture 7). This means that the ingress of conductors are suitable for gastight
and 6 (Picture 6). of fluid or a gaseous medium is not pos- oval crimps. To meet the high technical
Attention: Application for use with sible under normal atmospheric condi- requirements of gastight connections it
pre-insulated cable lugs and connectors tions. An oxidation of the individual is absolutely imperative to use only
is not allowed. crimped strands is prevented and an high quality branded crimping tools
The advantage over a simple indent increase in resistance is avoided. For and connecting material.
crimp is the way the centric force is this reason gastight oval crimps provide
applied and that no crimping dies are for a permanent connection and good Outlook: Which crimp profile for
needed. This means that with just one electrical conductivity. the professional solution?
crimping tool all the above mentioned A gastight connection can be tested
cross sections can be processed. The by inspecting the polished cross section To ensure that durable crimping con-
quality of the crimp depends solely on of the lug. There is no restriction to spe- nections are achieved, specific crimping
operations are required.
In our next edition we will feature
IMPORTANT: SUITABLE TOOLS the various crimp profiles in detail and
will explain what needs to be observed
For all crimp profiles as a rule it is precondition the installation causing fire. To exclude such to obtain a professional high quality
to use professional tools, which do not over or consequences Klauke strongly recommends
connections.
under compress the connector. Incorrect crimps for crimping of their cable lugs the exclusive use
Lutz Remmel,
or the use of the wrong tools can result in an in- of their appropriate crimping tools.
crease in joint resistance and may jeopardise Product Manager / electrical
connecting systems,
Gustav Klauke GmbH, Remscheid

MORE INFORMATION
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–de Special 1-2/2008 of cables and conductors, 2009, revised
• Tubular cable lugs for special applications edition, 128 pages, paperback, with
– de Special 8/2008 CD-ROM, 18 ?, ISBN 978-3-8101-0285-0,
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4 de Special