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Министерство образования и науки РФ

Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное


учреждение высшего профессионального образования
«Сибирская государственная автомобильно-дорожная
академия (СибАДИ)»

И.Н. Ефименко, Е.В. Цупикова, М.В. Цыгулева

АННОТИРОВАНИЕ
НАУЧНО-ПОПУЛЯРНЫХ ТЕКСТОВ
И ПОДГОТОВКА УСТНОГО СООБЩЕНИЯ
НА ОСНОВЕ ТЕКСТОВ
НАУЧНО-ПОПУЛЯРНОГО ХАРАКТЕРА
Английский язык

Учебно-методическое пособие

Омск
СибАДИ
2013

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УДК 811.111
ББК 81.432.1
Е 91

Рецензенты:
канд. филол. наук, доц. Е.Г. Кукля (ОмГПУ);
канд. филол. наук, доц. О.К. Мжельская (РГТУ)

Работа одобрена редакционно-издательским советом академии в качестве


учебно-методического пособия.

Ефименко И.Н.
Е 91 Аннотирование научно-популярных текстов и подготовка устного со-
общения на основе текстов научно-популярного характера. Английский
язык: учебно-методическое пособие / И.Н. Ефименко, Е.В. Цупикова, М.В. Цы-
гулева. – Омск: СибАДИ, 2013. – 135 с.

Целью учебно-методического пособия является формирование умений и


развитие навыков анализа информации, построение аннотации и развернутого
пересказа с использованием пресуппозиционных сведений, взятых из различных
областей науки или личного опыта обучающегося. Задания, предлагаемые в
учебно-методическом пособии, построены с учетом механизма работы речемыс-
лительного процесса человека и призваны обеспечить адекватную оценку и пе-
реработку поступающей информации. Кроме того, предложены задания, анало-
гичные заданиям проводимых регулярно он-лайн тестов.
Учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для студентов и магистран-
тов вузов, аспирантов и преподавателей.

Библиогр.: 4 назв.

 ФГБОУ ВПО «СибАДИ», 2013

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ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ

Предисловие…………………………………………………………. 4

Раздел I. Задания на формирование навыков


структурирования текста и выделения главной мысли……… 6

Раздел II. Научно-популярные тексты для пересказа………… 25

Образец работы над текстом……………………………...……… 25


Тексты для анализа и пересказа………………………….……… 29

Раздел III. Публицистические и научно-популярные тексты


для аннотирования……………………………………………..….. 51

Фразы для аннотирования текста…………………..…………… 51


Образец аннотации……………………………...………………… 57
Тексты для анализа и аннотирования…………………………… 58

Библиографический список………………………………………. 133

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ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

Предлагаемое вашему вниманию учебно-методическое пособие


имеет целью формирование умений и развитие навыков анализа и пе-
реработки информации, представленной в тексте научно-популярного
подстиля английского языка. Особенностью учебно-методического
пособия является обучение студентов анализу, пересказу и аннотиро-
ванию текста, построенным по алгоритмам, учитывающим механиз-
мы работы речемыслительного процесса. Следование алгоритмам пе-
реработки информации позволяет обучающемуся сформировать уме-
ние адекватно оценивать поступающую информацию и выявлять ее
пресуппозицию. Выявление пресуппозиции текста, в свою очередь,
позволяет студентам установить межпредметные связи дисциплины с
предметами общеобразовательного и специального характера, попол-
нить свои знания из разных областей научного поиска.
Пособие включает три раздела. Первый раздел содержит задания
на формирование навыков структурирования текста и выделения
главной мысли, такие, как: определить значения слов; расположить
предложения в логической последовательности и употребить необхо-
димые средства связи; найти и подчеркнуть конструкции, перевод ко-
торых дается ниже; определить и отметить в тексте синтаксические
конструкции, выражающие качество объекта, и т.д. Основная задача
раздела – активизировать знания студентов, касающиеся логического
и композиционного планов построения текста, знания, касающиеся
некоторых моментов грамматики английского языка и теории перево-
да.
Во втором разделе представлены научно-популярные тексты
для пересказа. Общие задания к текстам дополнены инструкцией к их
выполнению, а также образцом выполнения заданий:
- прочитать и перевести текст;
- выделить главную мысль текста;
- выписать ключевые слова (не более 9), определить их конкрет-
ность/абстрактность;
- обозначить ключевые понятия текста конкретными лексемами,
расположить понятия в схеме, отражающей их взаимосвязи;
- обозначить взаимосвязи понятий, связав их в рамках предло-
жения;
- подобрать определения для конкретных понятий, распростра-
нить полученные предложения;

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- пользуясь схемой, пересказать текст;
- пользуясь схемой, пересказать текст в иной логике (индуктив-
ной, дедуктивной);
- самостоятельно дополнить схему и полученный текст извест-
ными вам сведениями (из любой сферы научного или полученного в
ходе личного опыта знания);
- используя полученный материал, подготовить пересказ нового,
более полного по информации текста.
Задания второго раздела предложены в последовательности, от-
ражающей этапы мыслительной переработки и оценки получаемой
информации, служат развитию логического мышления, а именно та-
ких его операций, как анализ, синтез, обобщение, классификация,
конкретизация, категоризация, систематизация, ассоциация, аналогия,
схематизация, перекодирование, достраивание материала.
Третий раздел предлагает вниманию студентов публицистиче-
ские и научно-популярные тексты для аннотирования. Общие задания
к текстам раздела призваны сформировать следующие умения: анализ
информации и выделение главной мысли, логическое и композицион-
ное структурирование информации текста, распределение информа-
ции текста соответственно этапам аннотирования печатного произве-
дения, обобщение информации, выведение следствия из обозначен-
ных в тексте посылок, определение качественных характеристик
представленной информации – истинности/ложности, достаточно-
сти/недостаточности, достоверности, логичности; обозначение воз-
можной сферы применения данной информации.
Третий раздел включает основные модели аннотирования тек-
ста, распределенные по этапам анализа текста, а также образец анно-
тации.

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Раздел I. ЗАДАНИЯ НА ФОРМИРОВАНИЕ НАВЫКОВ
СТРУКТУРИРОВАНИЯ ТЕКСТА
И ВЫДЕЛЕНИЯ ГЛАВНОЙ МЫСЛИ

Text 1
1. Определите значения слов: one-celled, protista, surround (sur-
rounded; surrounded), borderline, protein, host.

2. Расположите данные ниже предложения в логической последо-


вательности и употребите необходимые средства связи.
Viruses do not show life activities unless they are inside a living cell.
They are not true cells but simply genetic material surrounded by a
protein coat.
Viruses cause many plant and animal diseases; unless the organism
can protect itself, the virus spreads to cause illness and even death.
Viruses are on the borderline between living and nonliving things.
Simple organisms are viruses and one-celled organisms, such as bac-
teria, blue-green algae, and protists.
They use their host’s DNA to reproduce.

3. Найдите и подчеркните конструкции, перевод которых дается


ниже.
Вирусы находятся на грани между живыми и неживыми суще-
ствами.
Вирусы не проявляют признаков жизни до тех пор, пока они не
попадают внутрь живой клетки.
Для размножения они используют ДНК своего хозяина.

4. Определите и отметьте в тексте синтаксические конструкции,


выражающие качество объекта.

Text 2
1. Определите значения слов: reproduction, conifer, seaweed, needle-
like, surface, prevent (prevented; prevented), evergreen, survive.

2. Расположите данные ниже предложения в логической последо-


вательности и употребите необходимые средства связи.
Conifers have needlelike leaves, whose small surface area prevents
the plant losing too much water.

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A male cone is usually smaller than a female cone, and both are usu-
ally carried on the same tree.
Conifers reproduce by means of cones.
Many conifers are evergreen - they do not shed their leaves in the
fall.
Plants that do not use flowers for reproduction include conifers,
ferns, mosses, and seaweeds (the last are not true plants).
This helps conifers survive in the cold, dry places they often live in.

3. Найдите и подчеркните конструкции, перевод которых дается


ниже.
Хвойные размножаются при помощи шишек.
У хвойных иглообразные листья, маленькая поверхность кото-
рых не позволяет растению терять много воды.
Многие из хвойных вечнозеленые, во время листопада они не
сбрасывают свои листья.

4. Определите и отметьте в тексте синтаксические конструкции,


выражающие качество объекта. Дайте характеристику основных
объектов, упомянутых в тексте.

Text 3
1. Определите значения слов: substance, chlorophyll, trap (trapped;
trapped), plant, anchor (anchored; anchored), soil, perennial, contain (con-
tained; contained).

2. Расположите данные ниже предложения в логической последо-


вательности и употребите необходимые средства связи.
Others, such as the giant redwood trees, are huge.
Many plants, such as marigolds and sunflowers, are annuals, which
means that they live for just a year.
Plants are usually anchored in a growing medium such as soil.
Some, such as mosses and liverworts, are small and delicate.
Perennials can live for many years: some bristlecone pine trees, for
example, are 5,000 years old.
Most plants are green because they contain the substance chloro-
phyll.
They use it to trap light energy; this is used during photosynthesis to
make food.

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3. Найдите и подчеркните конструкции, перевод которых дается
ниже.
Большинство растений зеленые, потому что они содержат веще-
ство, называемое хлорофиллом. Они используют его для поглощения
световой энергии, которая используется во время фотосинтеза для по-
лучения питательных веществ. Растения, как правило, укореняются в
способствующей росту среде, такой как почва.
Некоторые из них, такие как мхи или печеночник, маленькие и
тоненькие.
Другие, такие как гигантское красное дерево, огромны. Многие
растения, такие как ноготки и подсолнечники, однолетние, а это озна-
чает, что они живут всего лишь один год.
Многолетние могут жить многие годы, некоторым реликтовым
соснам, например, по 5 000 лет.

4. Определите и отметьте в тексте синтаксические конструкции,


выражающие качество объекта. Дайте характеристику основных
объектов, упомянутых в тексте.

Text 4
1. Определите значения слов: vertebrate, backbone, completely, adapt
(adapted; adapted), streamlined, propel (propelled; propelled), steer
(steered; steered), freshwater, habitat, cartilaginous, float (floated; floated),
toothlike, scales.

2. Расположите данные ниже предложения в логической последо-


вательности и употребите необходимые средства связи.
They are called cartilaginous fish because they have a skeleton made
of cartilage, a kind of gristle.
Fish are found in both freshwater and marine habitats.
They have fins to propel, balance, and steer themselves.
Their big, oily liver helps them float, and they have a skin with tooth-
like scales.
They breathe under water and have a streamlined body for swim-
ming.
Fish are vertebrates (animals with a backbone) that are completely
adapted for life in water.
Sharks and rays belong to an ancient group of fish that existed 200
million years before dinosaurs.

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3. Найдите и подчеркните конструкции, перевод которых дается
ниже.
Рыбы – это позвоночные (животные со спинным хребтом), кото-
рые полностью адаптировались к проживанию в воде.
У них есть плавники, при помощи которых они передвигаются,
держат равновесие и управляют направлением движения.
Средой обитания для рыб может быть как пресная, так или мор-
ская вода.
Их называют хрящевыми рыбами, так как у них скелет состоит
из своего рода хрящей.

4. Определите и отметьте в тексте синтаксические конструкции,


выражающие качество объекта. Дайте характеристику основных
объектов, упомянутых в тексте.

Text 5
1. Определите значения слов: support (supported; supported), along-
side, species, share (shared; shared), constantly, react (reacted; reacted),
environment, interaction.

2. Расположите данные ниже предложения в логической последо-


вательности и употребите необходимые средства связи.
The members of a community constantly react with one another and
their environment, creating a balanced, living system called an ecosystem,
such as an ocean or a rain forest.
Organisms usually live alongside other members of the same species
to form a population.
The part of the Earth and its atmosphere that can support living or-
ganisms is called the biosphere.
The study of all these interactions is called ecology.
This consists of the air and land, as well as lakes, rivers, and oceans.
Together, they all form a community.
Lots of different populations share the same habitat.

3. Найдите и подчеркните конструкции, перевод которых дается


ниже.
Та часть земной поверхности и окружающей ее атмосферы, ко-
торая поддерживает живые организмы, называется биосферой.
Организмы обычно проживают вместе с другими представите-

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лями того же вида и образуют популяцию.
Члены сообщества постоянно вступают в контакт друг с другом
и с окружающей их средой, создавая сбалансированную жизненную
систему, которая называется экосистемой, такую как океан или
джунгли.

4. Определите и отметьте в тексте синтаксические конструкции,


выражающие качество объекта. Дайте характеристику основных
объектов, упомянутых в тексте.

Text 6
You know what "afraid" means, don’t you? If I am afraid, I am
frightened or scared. If I am very afraid, I could say that I am terrified.
When we want to talk about the thing that makes us afraid, we say
"afraid of". Some people are afraid of flying in airplanes. Some little chil-
dren are afraid of the dark. My daughter is afraid of spiders.
Sometimes, however, we use the word "afraid" in a different way.
We use it when we have to tell someone something which is unpleasant or
unwelcome or upsetting to them. If we say "I am afraid that…" it makes
what we have to say a little softer and less unpleasant. Let’s look at some
examples.
Kevin comes home from work. He wants to watch the world cup
football on the television. But Joanne has bad news for him. First, the tele-
vision has broken; and second, her mother is coming to supper. Joanne’s
mother doesn’t like football, nor does she like Kevin.
So Joanne says, "Kevin, I know you want to watch the football to-
night. But I am afraid that the television isn’t working properly. And I am
afraid my mother is coming to supper. Why don’t you go to the pub to
watch the football. I will tell Mum that you are working late tonight."
Kevin’s friend George often arrives late for work, and often his work
is poor. His boss calls him into his office. He says, "Unless your work im-
proves, I am afraid you will need to look for another job."
Jessica and her children are planning a picnic tomorrow. But then
Jessica listens to the weather forecast. She tells the children, "I am afraid
its going to rain tomorrow – lets have our picnic at the weekend instead".
That is all I have time for today. I am afraid that is the end of the
podcast. But here is Majek Fashek, and he is Not Afraid.

1. Определите значения слов: fearful, terrible, horrible, frightful,

10
dreadful, formidable, awful, audacious, frighten (frightened; frightened),
scared (scared; scared), upsetting.

2. Определите и отметьте в тексте синтаксические конструкции,


выражающие качество объекта. Дайте характеристику основных
объектов, упомянутых в тексте.

3. Проанализируйте структуру каждого абзаца, выделяя и назы-


вая все виды предложений, входящих в каждый абзац.

4. Разделите текст на смысловые части и озаглавьте каждую.

5. Разделите текст на вводную часть (зачин), информационную


(основную) и заключительную (концовку).

6. Установите, повторяется ли главная мысль в тексте. Сколько


раз? В каком структурном компоненте текста она формируется?

Text 7
Today’s program is all about eyes. When it comes to relationships,
people’s eyes can be a window into their hearts. This means that their eyes
can tell a lot about how they feel. We will tell a story about a man and
woman who are teachers at the same school. The woman is interested in
the man. She uses many methods to catch his eye, or get him to notice her.
Once he sets eyes on her, or sees her, she might try to get him interested in
her by acting playful. In other words, she might try to make eyes at him or
give him the eye.
Let us suppose that this man gets hit between the eyes. In other
words, the woman has a strong affect on him. He wants to spend time with
her to get to know her better. He asks her out on a date.
She is so happy that she may walk around for days with stars in her
eyes. She is extremely happy because this man is the apple of her eye, a
very special person. She might tell him that he is the only person she
wants, or "I only have eyes for you."
On their date, the couple might eat a meal together at a restaurant. If
the man is really hungry, his eyes might be bigger than his stomach. He
might order more food than he can eat. When his food arrives at the table,
his eyes might pop out. He might be very surprised by the amount of food
provided. He might not even believe his own eyes. If fact, all eyes would

11
be watching him if he ate all the food. This might even cause raised eye-
brows. People might look at the man with disapproval.
During their dinner, the couple might discuss many things. They
might discover that they see eye to eye, or agree on many issues. They
share the same beliefs and opinions. For example, they might agree that
every crime or injury should be punished. That is, they firmly believe in
the idea of an eye for an eye. They might also agree that it is wrong to pull
the wool over a person’s eyes. This means to try to trick a person by mak-
ing him believe something that is false. But the man and woman do not be-
lieve in the evil eye, that a person can harm you by looking at you.
The next day, at their school, the woman asks the man to keep an eye
on, or watch the young students in her class while she is out of the class-
room. This might be hard to do when the teacher is writing on a board at
the front of the classroom. To do so, a teacher would need to have eyes in
the back of his head. In other words, he would know what the children are
doing even when he is not watching them.

1. Определите значения слов: notice (noticed; noticed), suppose (sup-


posed; supposed), affect (affected; affected), provide (provided; provided),
disapproval, issue, belief, injury, punish (punished; punished), firmly.

2. Определите и отметьте в тексте синтаксические конструкции,


выражающие качество объекта. Дайте характеристику основных
объектов, упомянутых в тексте.

3. Проанализируйте структуру каждого абзаца, выделяя и назы-


вая все виды предложений, входящих в каждый абзац.

4. Разделите текст на смысловые части и озаглавьте каждую.

5. Разделите текст на вводную часть (зачин), информационную


(основную) и заключительную (концовку).

6. Установите, повторяется ли главная мысль в тексте. Сколько


раз? В каком структурном компоненте текста она формируется?

Text 8
Expressions about water are almost as common as water itself. But
many of the expressions using water have unpleasant meanings.

12
The expression "to be in hot water" is one of them. It is a very old
expression. "Hot water" was used five-hundred years ago to mean being in
trouble. One story says it got that meaning from the custom of throwing
extremely hot water down on enemies attacking a castle.
That no longer happens. But we still get in "hot water." When we are
in "hot water," we are in trouble. It can be any kind of trouble – serious or
not so serious. A person who breaks a law can be in hot water with the po-
lice. A young boy can be in hot water with his mother, if he walks in the
house with dirty shoes.
Being in "deep water" is almost the same as being in hot water.
When you are in deep water, you are in a difficult position. Imagine a per-
son who cannot swim being thrown in water over his head.
You are in deep water when you are facing a problem that you do not
have the ability to solve. The problem is too deep. You can be in deep wa-
ter, for example, if you invest in stocks without knowing anything about
the stock market.
"To keep your head above water" is a colorful expression that means
staying out of debt. A company seeks to keep its head above water during
economic hard times. A man who loses his job tries to keep his head above
water until he finds a new job.
"Water over the dam" is another expression about a past event. It is
something that is finished. It cannot be changed. The expression comes
from the idea that water that has flowed over a dam cannot be brought back
again.
When a friend is troubled by a mistake she has made, you might tell
her to forget about it. You say it is water over the dam.
Another common expression, "to hold water," is about the strength or
weakness of an idea or opinion that you may be arguing about. It probably
comes from a way of testing the condition of a container. If it can hold wa-
ter, it is strong and has no holes in it.
If your argument can hold water, it is strong and does not have any
holes. If it does not hold water, then it is weak and not worth debating.
"Throwing cold water" also is an expression that deals with ideas or
proposals. It means to not like an idea. For example, you want to buy a
new car because the old one has some problems. But your wife "throws
cold water" on the idea because she says a new car costs too much.

1. Определите значения слов: expression, break a law, face (faced;


faced), solve (solved; solved), invest (invested; invested), debt, stocks,

13
seek (sought; sought), argue (argued; argued), probably.

2. Определите и отметьте в тексте синтаксические конструкции,


выражающие качество объекта. Дайте характеристику основных
объектов, упомянутых в тексте.

3. Проанализируйте структуру каждого абзаца, выделяя и назы-


вая все виды предложений, входящих в каждый абзац.

4. Разделите текст на смысловые части и озаглавьте каждую.

5. Разделите текст на вводную часть (зачин), информационную


(основную) и заключительную (концовку).

6. Установите, повторяется ли главная мысль в тексте. Сколько


раз? В каком структурном компоненте текста она формируется?

7. Найдите в первом абзаце элементы, несущие наиболее значи-


мую информацию.

8. Оцените важность информации, представленной в каждом аб-


заце.

9. Расположите предложения текста по степени важности инфор-


мации.

10. Найдите избыточную информацию в тексте.

11. Исключите избыточную информацию из текста.

12. Работайте в паре. Сравните различные варианты исключения


избыточных элементов информации, выберите тот, в котором
наиболее полно сохранена существенная информация.

Text 9. Digital entropy


How much information does it take to control something? By com-
bining thermodynamics with information theory, MIT researchers have de-
termined the minimum amount of information one needs to bring an unruly
object under control, providing quantitative answers to such subjects as

14
taming chaos. From the perspective of thermodynamics, controlling an ob-
ject means reducing its disorder, or entropy. Lowering the disorder of a hot
gas, for example, decreases the number of possible microscopic arrange-
ments in the gas. This in turn removes some of the uncertainty from the
gas's detailed properties. According to information theory, this reduced un-
certainty is tantamount to increased information about the gas. Applying
this "digital entropy" perspective to the notion of control, the researchers
found that controlling an object becomes possible when one acquires
enough information about it (and then applies this information to the ob-
ject) to keep the uncertainties in its properties at manageable levels. Cha-
otic systems are particularly hard to control because they constantly mani-
fest new amounts of uncertainty in their properties. Perhaps there is no bet-
ter everyday example of chaos than steering a car: a tiny change in steering
can quickly be amplified into a huge change in course. For example, if a
blindfolded driver initially knows that her car is within two feet from a
curb, tiny fluctuations in steering can make this uncertainty 4 feet after one
second, 8 feet after two seconds, and so on. Only if the driver receives sec-
ond-by-second instructions for adjusting the steering to keep the uncer-
tainty down to the two-feet level does she have any hope of controlling it.
If the driver makes such steering adjustments only half as frequently, her
car will go out of control (crash into the curb) but it will take exactly twice
the amount of time than if no adjustments were made.

1. Укажите, в каких предложениях объясняется причина событий.


1. If the driver makes such steering adjustments only half as fre-
quently, her car will go out of control.
2. Chaotic systems are particularly hard to control because they con-
stantly manifest new amounts of uncertainty in their properties.
3. It will take exactly twice the amount of time than if no adjustments
were made.

2. Соедините предложения с помощью подчинительных союзов.


1. A blindfolded driver initially knows that her car is within two feet
from a curb. Tiny fluctuations in steering can make this uncertainty 4 feet
after one second.
2. The driver has any hope of controlling it. The driver receives sec-
ond-by-second instructions for adjusting the steering to keep the uncer-
tainty down to the two-feet level.

15
3. Найдите в первом абзаце элементы, несущие наиболее значи-
мую информацию.

4. Оцените важность информации, представленной в каждом аб-


заце.

5. Расположите предложения текста по степени важности инфор-


мации.

6. Найдите избыточную информацию в тексте.

7. Исключите избыточную информацию из текста.

8. Работайте в паре. Сравните различные варианты исключения


избыточных элементов информации, выберите тот, в котором
наиболее полно сохранена существенная информация.

Text 10. Sandstone tortuosity


In conventional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging, a liquid
is the working substance. For example, the hydrogen nuclei in watery liv-
ing tissue are weakly oriented by a powerful magnet, and then these nuclei
signal their positions by emitting radio waves. By contrast, gas-phase
NMR imaging has been difficult because of the low density of gases,
which yields only a weak NMR signal. Recently, however, practical NMR
imaging has been realized for noble-gas atoms by strongly orienting the
nuclei (with polarized laser light) outside the sample and then injecting
them into, say, the lungs, where they rapidly diffuse into the deepest of al-
leyways, providing data that can't be collected in any other way. In a new
extension of gas-phase NMR to the study of porous materials such as oil-
bearing sandstone and carbonate rocks, the aim right now is not so much to
provide images (the rapid diffusion of the gas atoms limits the spatial reso-
lution, as one would expect for a moving target, to about one millimeter) as
it is to characterize internal topology. Ronald Walsworth and his col-
leagues at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and Schlum-
berger-Doll inject xenon atoms into various porous rock samples filled
with countless pores and connections, which affect the rate of gas diffusion
and flow in the porous solid. They determine such things as the pore sur-
face-area-to-volume ratio and a property called 'tortuosity,' which is an in-
dication of how the structure of the porous medium restricts the flow of

16
gases or liquids through the material. In this sense, tortuosity is to fluid
flow what the structure of a wire (cross-section, length, etc.) is to the flow
of electricity. Noble gases may be handier to use than liquids in NMR stud-
ies of rocks and other porous materials since the gas can flow further and
faster through the pores without losing its orientation.

1. Укажите, в каких предложениях объясняется причина событий.


1. Noble gases may be handier to use than liquids in NMR studies of
rocks and other porous materials since the gas can flow further and faster
through the pores without losing its orientation.
2. Gas-phase NMR imaging has been difficult because density of
gases was low.
3. The hydrogen nuclei in watery living tissue are weakly oriented by
a powerful magnet, and then these nuclei signal their positions by emitting
radio waves.

2. Соедините предложения с помощью подчинительных союзов.


1. The aim is not so much to provide images. It is to characterize in-
ternal topology.
2. A property called 'tortuosity' was determined. An experiment with
xenon atoms injection into various porous rock samples filled with count-
less pores was conducted.

3. Прочтите сложные предложения, назовите союзы (союзные


слова), которые используются для связи простых предложений.
1. Recently practical NMR imaging has been realized for noble-gas
atoms by strongly orienting the nuclei outside the sample and then inject-
ing them into, say, the lungs, where they rapidly diffuse into the deepest of
alleyways, providing data that can't be collected in any other way.
2. Ronald Walsworth and his colleagues inject xenon atoms into var-
ious porous rock samples filled with countless pores and connections,
which affect the rate of gas diffusion and flow in the porous solid.

4. Найдите в первом абзаце элементы, несущие наиболее значи-


мую информацию.

5. Оцените важность информации, представленной в каждом аб-


заце.

17
6. Расположите предложения текста по степени важности инфор-
мации.

7. Найдите избыточную информацию в тексте.

8. Исключите избыточную информацию из текста.

9. Работайте в паре. Сравните различные варианты исключения


избыточных элементов информации, выберите тот, в котором
наиболее полно сохранена существенная информация.

Text 11. Extra invisible dimensions


Extra invisible dimensions are for particle physicists what they are
for Star Trek captains: a device for covering a lot of ground quickly and
explaining anomalous behavior. In physics the importation of extra dimen-
sions into the standard theory helps to make peace between quantum me-
chanics and general relativity, but it doesn't explain the great disparity (the
"hierarchy problem") between the temperature at which the weak and elec-
tromagnetic forces fuse together (10^2 GeV, expressed in energy units)
and the temperature at which gravity joins up with the other forces (10^18
GeV), a temperature so hot, or an energy so high, that such conditions have
not prevailed since a tiny moment after the big bang. Some theories con-
tend that we are not aware of the extra dimensions because they extend on-
ly a very short distance, far smaller than the size of an atom. Yet, another
way of playing with spacetime is to introduce a new dimension essentially
infinite in extent but one in which gravitons, the carriers of gravity, would
largely be locked up in localized regions, at least in the extra dimension.
This exciting new idea, advanced by Lisa Randall of Princeton and Raman
Sundrum, now at Stanford, has the effect of fusing gravity with the other
known forces at the more reasonable energy of 10^3 GeV (rather than at
10^18 GeV), thus solving the hierarchy problem. One testable implication
of the new hypothesis would be the existence of exotic new particles,
which could be detectable at energies to be available in a few years at the
Large Hadron Collider (LHC) under construction in Geneva.

1. Укажите, в каких предложениях объясняется причина событий.


1. Some theories contend that we are not aware of the extra dimen-
sions because they extend only a very short distance.

18
2. After the effect of fusing gravity with the other known forces had
been studied, the hierarchy problem was solved.

2. Прочтите сложные предложения, назовите союзы (союзные


слова), которые используются для связи простых предложений.
1. Extra invisible dimensions are for particle physicists what they are
for Star Trek captains.
2. In physics the importation of extra dimensions into the standard
theory helps to make peace between quantum mechanics and general rela-
tivity, but it doesn't explain the great disparity between the temperature at
which the weak and electromagnetic forces fuse together.
3. A temperature is so hot, or an energy is so high, that such condi-
tions have not prevailed since a tiny moment after the big bang.
4. One testable implication of the new hypothesis would be the exis-
tence of exotic new particles, which could be detectable at energies to be
available in a few years at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) under con-
struction in Geneva.

3. Найдите в первом абзаце элементы, несущие наиболее значи-


мую информацию.

4. Оцените важность информации, представленной в каждом аб-


заце.

5. Расположите предложения текста по степени важности инфор-


мации.

6. Найдите избыточную информацию в тексте.

7. Исключите избыточную информацию из текста.

8. Работайте в паре. Сравните различные варианты исключения


избыточных элементов информации, выберите тот, в котором
наиболее полно сохранена существенная информация.

Text 12. Gravity's gravity


A new experiment at the University of Washington seeks to deter-
mine whether the gravitational binding energy of an object generates grav-
ity of its own. As formulated by Albert Einstein, the Equivalence Principle

19
(EP) states that if we stand in a closed room we cannot tell whether the
weight we feel is the result of gravity pulling down or the force of a rocket
carrying us forward through otherwise empty space. All of this gets com-
plicated in some theories of gravity, which predict that the EP will be vio-
lated to a small degree since in addition to the usual gravity, carried from
place to place by spin-two particles called gravitons, there should exist an-
other, fainter kind of gravity carried by spin-zero particles (sometimes
called dilatons). For this reason, and because recent observations of super-
novas suggest that some repulsive gravitational effects might be at work in
the cosmos, scientists want to explore the possibility of EP violations.
Three decades of lunar laser ranging (bouncing light off reflectors placed
on the Moon) show that the Moon and the Earth fall toward the Sun with
the same acceleration to within half a part in a trillion (10^12). What the
Washington physicists have done is focus attention on the subject of gravi-
tational binding energy, or self-energy, and whether it too obeys the EP. To
illustrate the concept of binding energy, consider that the mass of an alpha
particle is actually about 28 MeV less than the sum of its constituents. This
energy (about 7.6 parts in a thousand of the alpha mass) represents the en-
ergy (vested in the strong nuclear force) needed to hold two protons and
two neutrons together inside the alpha. Gravity being very much weaker
than the strong nuclear force, the gravitational binding energy, the self-
energy of gravity attraction, is almost infinitesimal. For example, self-
energy effectively reduces the mass energy of the Earth by a factor of only
about 4.6 parts in 10^10. Is this tiny "mass" also subject to the EP? Sup-
plementing existing lunar laser ranging results with new data from special
test masses mounted on a sensitive torsion balance to take into account the
different compositions of the Earth and Moon, the Washington physicists
show that gravitational self-energy does obey the equivalence principle at
the level of at least one part in a thousand. Thus, gravitational self-energy
does indeed generate its own gravity.

1. Укажите, в каких предложениях объясняется причина событий.


1. A new experiment at the University of Washington seeks to de-
termine whether the gravitational binding energy of an object generates
gravity of its own.
2. Three decades of lunar laser ranging show that the Moon and the
Earth fall toward the Sun with the same acceleration to within half a part in
a trillion.

20
3. Because recent observations of supernovas suggest that some re-
pulsive gravitational effects might be at work in the cosmos scientists want
to explore the possibility of EP violations.

2. Прочтите сложные предложения, назовите союзы (союзные


слова), которые используются для связи простых предложений.
1. As formulated by Albert Einstein, the Equivalence Principle (EP)
states that if we stand in a closed room we cannot tell whether the weight
we feel is the result of gravity pulling down or the force of a rocket carry-
ing us forward through otherwise empty space.
2. The Washington physicists show that gravitational self-energy
does obey the equivalence principle at the level of at least one part in a
thousand.
3. If self-energy effectively reduces the mass energy of the Earth by a
factor of only about 4.6 parts in 10^10, is this tiny "mass" also subject to
the EP?

3. Найдите в первом абзаце элементы, несущие наиболее значи-


мую информацию.

4. Оцените важность информации, представленной в каждом аб-


заце.

5. Расположите предложения текста по степени важности инфор-


мации.

6. Найдите избыточную информацию в тексте.

7. Исключите избыточную информацию из текста.

8. Работайте в паре. Сравните различные варианты исключения


избыточных элементов информации, выберите тот, в котором
наиболее полно сохранена существенная информация.

Text 13. Ultrasound imaging without physical contact


Ultrasound imaging without physical contact between device and pa-
tient has been achieved, providing a potential solution to an unmet medical
need-determining the depth and severity of serious burns in a convenient,
accurate, and pain-free fashion. At the present time, physicians usually di-

21
agnose burns by inspecting them visually; however, such visual observa-
tion cannot provide direct information on whether there is damage to un-
derlying blood vessels, a condition that requires surgery. Technologies
such as conventional ultrasound or MRI are too slow, either time-
consuming, or cumbersome. In addition, they are painful for the patient if
they require direct contact with the burn area. This is certainly the case
with conventional ultrasound, which requires direct contact with the body,
or must at least be connected to the body via water. That's because generat-
ing ultrasound in a device and sending it through air causes a large propor-
tion of the sound to bounce right back into the device. This results from a
great mismatch between air and the device in the values of their "imped-
ance," the product of the density of the substance and the velocity of sound
through it. By more closely matching the impedance values between the
device and air, a significantly greater proportion of sound can be transmit-
ted to the body, and reflected back, to obtain enough of a signal for an im-
age. In a non-contact ultrasound device described at last week's meeting of
the Acoustical Society of America in Columbus, Joie Jones of UC-Irvine
and his colleagues pass the sound wave through a multilayered material,
with each succeeding layer having an impedance value closer to that of air.
The transmission is improved to the point that the researchers could image
burns by holding their device about two inches away from the skin, in
about a minute or so. Having tested this device on over 100 patients, the
researchers plan to move to larger clinical studies and develop a device that
can take images in real time.

1. Укажите, в каких предложениях объясняется причина событий.


1. Technologies such as conventional ultrasound or MRI are too slow
and in addition they are painful for the patient.
2. Conventional ultrasound must at least be connected to the body via
water because generating ultrasound in a device and sending it through air
causes a large proportion of the sound to bounce right back into the device.

2. Соедините предложения с помощью подчинительных союзов.


1. They are painful for the patient. They require direct contact with
the burn area.
2. The transmission is improved. The researchers could image burns
by holding their device about two inches away from the skin, in about a
minute or so.
3. This device having been tested on over 100 patients. The research-

22
ers plan to move to larger clinical studies and develop a device that can
take images in real time.

3. Прочтите сложные предложения, назовите союзы (союзные


слова), которые используются для связи простых предложений.
1. At the present time, physicians usually diagnose burns by inspect-
ing them visually; however, such visual observation cannot provide direct
information on whether there is damage to underlying blood vessels, a
condition that requires surgery.
2. In a non-contact ultrasound device Joie Jones his colleagues pass
the sound wave through a multilayered material, and each succeeding layer
has an impedance value closer to that of air.

4. Найдите в первом абзаце элементы, несущие наиболее значи-


мую информацию.

5. Оцените важность информации, представленной в каждом аб-


заце.

6. Расположите предложения текста по степени важности инфор-


мации.

7. Найдите избыточную информацию в тексте.

8. Исключите избыточную информацию из текста.

9. Работайте в паре. Сравните различные варианты исключения


избыточных элементов информации, выберите тот, в котором
наиболее полно сохранена существенная информация.

Text 14. Undersea volcano


Like astronomers who team up to view supernova eruptions at a vari-
ety of wavelengths, geophysicists have been able to mount an in-depth
study of the eruption in January 1998 of the Axial Volcano, lying 1500 m
underwater about 200 miles off the Oregon-Washington coast. Axial,
which is a large volcanic edifice lying along a rift zone in the Northeast
Pacific where new ocean floor is being created, is one of the few places on
the worldwide 60,000-km mid-ocean ridge system (Iceland and the Azores
are other examples) where volcanic activity can be monitored in real time.

23
In this case, the coverage consisted of Navy hydrophone arrays (lis-
tening for quakes rather than subs), surface ships, moored sensors, and in-
struments placed on the very summit of the caldera in anticipation of an
eruption. The 1998 event is chronicled in a variety of ways in a series of
articles in the December 1 and 15 issues of Geophysical Research Letters.
For example, C.G. Fox reports (via on-the-spot seafloor measurements) a
3-meter drop in the caldera floor; Baker et al. provide the first incite obser-
vation of the water temperature change above an erupting rift zone (consti-
tuting the "largest vent field heat flux yet measured"); Embley et al esti-
mate that up to 76 million cubic meters of lava were produced, modest by
land volcano standards, but the largest outpouring in 20 years of monitor-
ing along the Juan de Fuca Ridge.
(Robert Embley, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory)

1. Прочтите сложные предложения, назовите союзы (союзные


слова), которые используются для связи простых предложений.
1. Like astronomers who team up to view supernova eruptions at a
variety of wavelengths, geophysicists have been able to mount an in-depth
study of the eruption.
2. Axial, which is a large volcanic edifice lying along a rift zone in
the Northeast Pacific where new ocean floor is being created, is one of the
few places on the worldwide 60,000-km mid-ocean ridge system where
volcanic activity can be monitored in real time.

2. Найдите в первом абзаце элементы, несущие наиболее значи-


мую информацию.

3. Оцените важность информации, представленной в каждом аб-


заце.

4. Расположите предложения текста по степени важности инфор-


мации.

5. Найдите избыточную информацию в тексте.

6. Исключите избыточную информацию из текста.

7. Работайте в паре. Сравните различные варианты исключения


избыточных элементов информации, выберите тот, в котором
наиболее полно сохранена существенная информация.

24
Раздел II. НАУЧНО-ПОПУЛЯРНЫЕ ТЕКСТЫ
ДЛЯ ПЕРЕСКАЗА

Общие задания к текстам:


1. Прочитать и перевести текст.
2. Выделить главную мысль текста.
3. Выписать ключевые слова (не более 9), определить их кон-
кретность/абстрактность.
4. Обозначить ключевые понятия текста конкретными лексема-
ми, расположить понятия в схеме, отражающей их взаимосвязи.
5. Обозначить взаимосвязи понятий, связав их в рамках предло-
жения.
6. Подобрать определения для конкретных понятий, распростра-
нить полученные предложения.
7. Пользуясь схемой, пересказать текст.
8. Пользуясь схемой, пересказать текст в иной логике (индук-
тивной, дедуктивной).
9. Самостоятельно дополнить схему и полученный текст извест-
ными вам сведениями (из любой сферы научного или полученного в
ходе личного опыта знания).
10. Используя полученный материал, подготовить пересказ
нового, более полного по информации текста.

Образец работы над текстом


Опорная схема материала позволяет связно, логично и без пропус-
ков воссоздать текст. Такая схема является фреймом − опорной схемой
двойной структуры, включающей в себя как постоянную (константную)
часть содержания текста, так и переменную, факультативную, которую
можно замещать эквивалентными компонентами.
При построения опорных схем нужно учитывать следующие типы
взаимосвязи понятий: гипонимия (родовидовые отношения слов), гете-
ронимия (отношение целого и его частей), внешняя метонимия (отноше-
ния между словами, обозначающими разные денотаты, связанные преди-
кативной связью в рамках речевой ситуации), синонимы (слова одной
части речи, различающиеся оттенками значения или стилистической ок-
раской), дублеты (слова, объем содержания которых полностью совпада-
ет), антонимы (слова с противоположным значением).
Что касается построения логической опорной схемы текста, заме-
тим, что такая работа позволяет выявить богатую пресуппозицию тек-

25
ста и оценить характеристики представленной в нем информации.
Приведем примеры такой работы:
Больницы и морги переполнены, чрезвычайные службы не справля-
ются с наплывом пострадавших... Крупнейшие города мира, обычно та-
кие оживленные, замирают. Предприятия лишаются четверти рабочей
силы – люди болеют. Общественный транспорт прекращает работу.
Это не научная фантастика – такой сценарий развития событий пред-
сказывается на основе данных последних исследований. По мнению уче-
ных, пандемия практически неизбежна.
Такие картины показывает новый фильм «Пандемия», снятый в
жанре «докудрамы», когда предполагаемые события излагаются так,
будто они происходят в самом деле. Авторами фильма выступила кор-
порация BBC.
«Счет смертным случаям в мире пойдет на миллионы; глобальной
экономике будет нанесен страшный удар, общество погрузится в хаос».
Школы закрыты. Собрания людей запрещены. Все это – меры по
сдерживанию болезни, которую сдержать уже не удается…
Однако это не научная фантастика, отмечают авторы фильма.
В основе прогнозов лежат данные последних исследований, которые ис-
пользуются правительствами разных стран для того, чтобы формиро-
вать планы своих действий на случай пандемии.
В ходе составления схем студенты делают следующие выводы по тек-
сту:

к/ф «Пандемия»

катастрофа

следствия катастрофы меры борьбы

болезнь запрещение со- закрытые отсутствие транс-


браний людей школы портировки

переполнены больницы и морги

нехватка рабочей силы

26
Вывод:
Текст нелогичен, непоследователен.
Информация характеризуется недостаточностью.
Для документального драматического фильма мало ссылок на
исследования ученых и чётко сформулированных причин и прогнозов.
А ведь причиной могло быть все, что угодно: употребление нового
опасного наркотика, радиация, теракт, массовое заражение каким-
либо заболеванием, мутации.

Вывод:
Я считаю, что информация, представленная в тексте, харак-
теризуется недостаточностью, так как в тексте не указаны причи-
ны возникновения пандемии, коими могут быть: катастрофы миро-
вого масштаба или нездоровый образ жизни, который ведет боль-
шая часть человечества. Также в тексте не хватает описания мер
борьбы с пандемией, нет ни слова о вакцине. В итоге текст не явля-
ется логически выстроенным, имеют место быть повторы, повест-
вование прыгает от одной подтемы к другой.

Работа по составлению опорных схем помогает, кроме того, на-


дежно и эффективно усвоить информацию, например:

Highway engineering faculty


The students of the faculty are trained in the following qualifi-
cations:
operation and maintenance of automobile roads, construction of
bridges, tunnels and air fields.
They also concern township roads (city streets).
The students study a classification of roads, the structure of a
highway. Any highway engineer knows the following classification
roads: state, federal, regional, country and city roads and streets.
As far as the road design is concerned, it consists of the sub-
grade, subbase and pavement. Subgrade is the foundation of the road.
Subbase is the middle layer of the road. It is made of gravel, crushed
stone or different mixtures. Between subgrade and subbbase there is
drainage layer, which is usually made of sand. The upper layer of the
road is pavement, made of asphaltconcrete or cement-concrete.

27
HIGHWAY ENGINEERING FACULTY

Operation and maintenance Construction of bridges


of automobile roads tunnels and airfields

Automobile roads

Consist of:

Subgrade ( foundation of Subbase ( middle layer of Pavement


the roads) the road) (the upper layer)

Gravel Crushed Different


stone mixtures

28
Тексты для анализа и пересказа

Text 15. The Universe


There are billions of stars in the universe. Stars are massive, energy-
filled globes of fiery gases. The force of gravity holds these gases together.
At a star's core, atoms of hydrogen join together to form helium in a proc-
ess called nuclear fusion. The energy generated by this process produces a
star's heat and light. Collections of stars are called galaxies, and each gal-
axy contains many different types of stars. Most scientists believe that the
universe was born 15 billion years ago in a colossal explosion called the
big bang. No one knows exactly what happened but it is thought that the
universe formed from a tiny, dense, intensely hot center. The young uni-
verse began to expand rapidly and, within minutes, tiny particles of matter
formed. Over millions of years this matter began to cluster together and
develop into the first galaxies. The Universe contains everything that exists
– not only the Earth and everything on it, but also all the planets, stars, and
galaxies, and the space in between them. The sun, at the center of the solar
system, is just one of about 100 billion stars in our galaxy, or collection of
stars, called the Milky Way. Astronomers have estimated that there are
about 100 billion other galaxies in the universe. Most scientists think that
the universe formed about 15 billion years ago in an enormous explosion
called the big bang. They also think that the universe is expanding.

1. Продолжите предложение: The universe is…


A a collections of stars.
B everything that exists.
C the Earth and everything on it.
D all the planets, stars, and galaxies, or the space in between them.

2. Определите, какие утверждения соответствуют содержанию


текста.
A The universe was formed about fifteen billion years ago in an
enormous explosion.
B Atoms of helium join together to form in a process called nuclear
fusion.
C The young universe began to expand rapidly from a tiny star.
D It is known that the universe formed from a tiny, dense, intensely
hot center.
3. Определите, какое утверждение не соответствует содержанию

29
текста.
A The big bang is a colossal explosion.
B The sun is a one of the stars in the Milky Way.
C A star's heat and light is produced due to the energy generated by
the nuclear fusion.
D The first galaxies appeared within minutes.

4. Дополните таблицу по памяти.


The Universe Вселенная
There are … in the universe. Во Вселенной биллионы звезд.
Collections of stars …, and each Скопления звезд называют галак-
galaxy contains many different ... тиками, и каждая галактика со-
держит множество разнообразных
типов звезд.
Most scientists believe that the Большинство ученых полагают,
universe was born 15 billion years что Вселенная возникла 15 бил-
ago … called the big bang. лионов лет тому назад во время
колоссального взрыва, называе-
мого Большим взрывом.
…. what happened but it is Никто достоверно не знает, что
thought that the universe formed произошло, но полагают, что Все-
from a tiny, dense, intensely hot ленная образовалась из маленько-
center. го, плотного, чрезвычайно разо-
гретого центра.
The young universe … and, within Молодая Вселенная начала быст-
minutes, tiny particles of matter ро расширяться, и в пределах не-
formed. скольких минут возникли мель-
чайшие частицы материи.
Over millions of years this matter В течение многих миллионов лет
began to cluster together and ... эта материя начала группировать-
ся и разрастаться в первые галак-
тики.
The Universe contains … - not on- Вселенная содержит все, что су-
ly the Earth and everything on it, ществует: не только Землю и все
but also all the planets, stars, and то, что на ней находится, но также
galaxies, and ... и все планеты, звезды и галакти-
ки, а также и пространство между
ними.
The sun, at the center of the solar Солнце, находящееся в центре

30
system, is just … in our galaxy, or Солнечной системы, это лишь од-
collection of stars, called the на из около 100 биллионов звезд в
Milky Way. нашей Галактике или скопления
звезд под названием Млечный
Путь.

5. Какая из предложенных ниже моделей больше подходит для


описания следующей мысли: The sun, at the center of the solar system,
is just one of about 100 billion stars in our galaxy, or collection of stars,
called the Milky Way.
А The book under review covers such points as...
B One of the most interesting question is that…
C The theory belongs to…
D The author emphasizes the fact that…

6. Какое из данных ниже предложений можно описать с помощью


следующей модели аннотирования: The author determines the nature
of...
А They also think that the universe is expanding.
B Stars are massive, energy-filled globes of fiery gases.
C At a star's core, atoms of hydrogen join together to form helium in
a process called nuclear fusion.
D The young universe began to expand rapidly and, within minutes,
tiny particles of matter formed.

Text 16. The solar system


The sun and the eight planets in orbit around it make up the solar
system. The eight planets, which are drawn to the sun by its gravity, are
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The
sun is the heaviest of these bodies. The Earth is one of eight planets that
travel around the sun in the solar system. Of these planets, the Earth is the
third nearest the sun. It is the only planet known to support life. About 5
billion years ago, a cloud of gas and dust began to condense into a solid
mass – the young Earth. At first, this mass was very cold, but later it was
melted by radioactivity. Heavy metals collected at the center and rocks
floated near the surface. After millions of years, the rocks formed a hard
crust and the oceans and the atmosphere appeared.

1. Продолжите предложение: The solar system is…

31
A Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Nep-
tune.
B the sun and the eight planets in orbit around it.
C the sun and the moon.
D the sun, the eight planets and Earth satellites.

2. Определите, какое утверждение соответствует содержанию тек-


ста.
A The sun travels around the Earth in the solar system.
B The Earth was born as a cloud of cold gas and dust.
C The planets are drawn to the sun by its gravity.
D Rocks were melted by radioactivity.

3. Определите, какое утверждение не соответствует содержанию


текста.
A The sun is the heaviest body in the solar system.
B The Earth is the only planet known to support life.
C The Earth appeared about 5 billion years ago.
D The eight planets are drawn to each other by gravity.

4. Дополните таблицу по памяти:


The solar system Солнечная система
The sun and the eight planets in Солнце и восемь планет, которые
orbit around it …. движутся вокруг него, составля-
ют Солнечную систему.
The eight planets, …, are Mer- Восемь планет, которые находят-
cury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupi- ся в зоне притяжения Солнца, на-
ter, Saturn, Uranus, and Nep- зываются Меркурий, Венера,
tune. Земля, Марс, Юпитер, Сатурн,
Уран и Нептун.
The sun is ... Солнце самое тяжелое из всех
этих тел.
It is … to support life. Это единственная из известных
планет, на которой есть жизнь.
About 5 billion years ago, a Около 5 биллионов лет тому на-
cloud of gas and dust … – the зад облако газа и пыли начало
young Earth. конденсироваться в плотную
массу – молодую планету Земля.
Heavy metals … and rocks Тяжелые металлы сосредоточи-

32
floated near the surface. лись в центре, а породы всплыли
на поверхность.

5. Какая из предложенных ниже моделей больше подходит для


описания следующей мысли: The Earth is one of eight planets that
travel around the sun in the solar system.
А In examining the problem the author points out that…
B It’s necessary to note that…
C The author emphasizes the fact that…
D Further the author says…

6. Какое из данных ниже предложений можно описать с помощью


следующей модели аннотирования: Besides that in the article we may
find information about…
А The sun is the heaviest of these bodies.
B About 5 billion years ago, a cloud of gas and dust began to
condense into a solid mass – the young Earth.
C The sun and the eight planets in orbit around it make up the solar
system.
D Heavy metals collected at the center and rocks floated near the
surface.

Text 17. Biosphere


The part of the Earth and its atmosphere that can support living
organisms is called the biosphere. This consists of the air and land, as well
as lakes, rivers, and oceans. Organisms usually live alongside other mem-
bers of the same species to form a population. Lots of different populations
share the same habitat. Together, they all form a community. The members
of a community constantly react with one another and their environment,
creating a balanced, living system called an ecosystem, such as an ocean or
a rain forest. The study of all these interactions is called ecology.

1. Продолжите предложение: The biosphere is…


A the part of the Earth and its atmosphere that can support living or-
ganisms.
B the part of population of some species.
C the part of the Earth and its ecosystem that can support living or-
ganisms.
D the part of the Earth.

33
2. Дополните таблицу по памяти.
Biosphere Биосфера
The part of the Earth and its atmos- Та часть земной поверхности и
phere that can … is called the bio- окружающей ее атмосферы, ко-
sphere. торая поддерживает живые ор-
ганизмы, называется биосферой.
Organisms usually … to form a Организмы обычно проживают
population. вместе с другими представите-
лями того же вида и образуют
популяцию.
Lots of different populations … Множество разных популяций
уживаются в одной и той же
среде обитания.
… is called ecology. Наука обо всех этих взаимодей-
ствиях называется экологией.

3. Какая из предложенных ниже моделей больше подходит для


описания следующей мысли: The part of the Earth and its atmosphere
that can support living organisms is called the biosphere.
А The introduction is to tell us that….
B The main idea of the article is…
C The aim of the article is to provide the reader with some material
on…
D At the beginning of the novel the author describes…

4. Какое из данных ниже предложений можно описать с помощью


следующей модели аннотирования: Lots of different populations
share the same habitat.
А The writer attracts our attention to the main idea…
B In addition to his analyses the author tells us about…..
C The author gives us some information about…

D In examining the problem the author points out that…

Text 18. Human influences


Of all species, humans have the greatest effect on the environment.
Some of our activities threaten the world's habitats and therefore the
Earth's biodiversity (its range of plants and animals). The balance of nature

34
is upset by activities such as overfishing, overhunting, and cutting down
too many trees. We also damage the environment by polluting the land, the
air, and oceans, rivers, and lakes. One of the causes of over-activity is the
sheer number of people in the world. This number is rising.

1. Продолжите предложение: According to the passage, the human in-


fluence is…
A overfishing and overhunting.
B overfishing.
C the effect on the environment.
D sheer number of people.

2. Дополните таблицу по памяти.


Human influences Влияние человека
Of all species, humans have Из всех видов существ человеческие
…. существа оказывают самое большое
влияние на окружающую среду.
Some of our activities threat- Некоторые виды человеческой дея-
en the world's habitats and тельности представляют угрозу окру-
therefore the Earth's …(its жающей среде и, следовательно, и
range of plants and animals). биологическому разнообразию на
земле (разнообразию растений и жи-
вотных).
The balance of nature is up- Природный баланс нарушается таки-
set by activities such as …. ми видами деятельности, как чрез-
мерные уловы рыбы, завышенные от-
стрелы зверей и вырубка слишком
большого количества деревьев.
We also damage the envi- Мы также наносим ущерб окружаю-
ronment by polluting the щей среде путем загрязнения почвы,
land, the air, and oceans, riv- воздуха, воды в океанах, реках и озе-
ers, and lakes. рах.
… is the sheer number of Одной из причин такой чрезмерной
people in the world. активности человека является количе-
ство людей в мире.

3. Какая из предложенных ниже моделей больше подходит для


описания следующей мысли: The balance of nature is upset by activi-
ties such as overfishing, overhunting, and cutting down too many trees.

35
А The author discusses the phenomenon of...
B He examines why…
C The author emphasizes the fact that…
D A bit later the author devotes some attention to…

4. Какое из данных ниже предложений можно описать с помощью


следующей модели аннотирования: In the opinion of the author…
А We also damage the environment by polluting the land, the air,
and oceans, rivers, and lakes.
B Of all species, humans have the greatest effect on the environment.
C One of the causes of over-activity is the sheer number of people in
the world.
D The balance of nature is upset by activities such as overfishing,
overhunting, and cutting down too many trees.

Text 19. The earth’s cycles


Life on Earth depends on a number of different cycles. The energy
flow starts when light energy is trapped by green plants when they make
their own food by photosynthesis. For this reason they are called the
world's producers. The energy in plants is passed on when they are eaten
by herbivores, which are the primary (first-level) consumers. Carnivores,
the secondary consumers, obtain their energy by eating herbivores. Every
time energy is passed on, some is lost as heat and in undigested matter.
Dead organisms provide energy for the decomposers (fungi and bacteria).

1. Определите, какое утверждение соответствует содержанию тек-


ста.
A The energy flow starts when green plants make their own food by
photosynthesis.
B Herbivores are called the world's producers.
C The primary consumers obtain their energy by eating the secon-
dary consumers.
D Dead organisms are called decomposers.

2. Сопоставьте перевод предложений из текста с полученным ва-


ми. Где необходимо, уточните перевод.
По этой причине их называют мировыми производителями.
Энергия растений передается дальше, когда их поедают траво-
ядные, которые являются первичными (первого уровня) потребителя-

36
ми.
Всякий раз при передаче энергии некоторая ее часть теряется в
виде тепла и непереваренных веществ.

3. Какая из предложенных ниже моделей больше подходит для


описания следующей мысли: The energy flow starts when light energy
is trapped by green plants when they make their own food by photosynthe-
sis.
А Further the author says that..
B One of the most interesting question is…
C The author provides much information on…
D The author gives us some information about…

4. Какое из данных ниже предложений можно описать с помощью


следующей модели аннотирования: The author starts by telling the
reader about…
А Life on Earth depends on a number of different cycles.
B Dead organisms provide energy for the decomposers (fungi and
bacteria).
C The energy in plants is passed on when they are eaten by herbi-
vores, which are the primary (first-level) consumers.
D Carnivores, the secondary consumers, obtain their energy by eat-
ing herbivores.

Text 20. Our planet the Earth


Our planet, the Earth, is the home of hundreds of thousands of living
creatures. Life has permeated everywhere. It has ascended to the tops of
the highest mountains, where there is hardly any air, and has hidden be-
neath the expanses of the oceans, reconciling itself to the tremendous pres-
sures exerted by the waters. Life has come to the hot, arid deserts and to
the eternal ice of the Arctic. Living creatures have adapted themselves to
an absence of oxygen, to everlasting gloom, and to unbroken silence. But,
wherever living organisms have settled, they need food which has to be
distributed throughout their bodies, and they have to carry out the proc-
esses of metabolism. They also need to feel at home in their environment
and start families to ensure the survival of the species.

1. Определите, какое утверждение не соответствует содержанию


текста.

37
A Life has ascended to the tops of the highest mountains.
B Life has come to the deserts and to the Arctic.
C Living organisms have adapted themselves to various conditions.
D Living organisms can live even without food.

2. Переведите словосочетания и составьте с ними предложения:


проникла всюду;
жаркие безводные пустыни и вечные льды арктических облас-
тей;
приспособилась к отсутствию кислорода;
находить пищу, распределять ее по всему телу, осуществлять
обмен веществ, уметь ориентироваться в привычной для них обста-
новке и обзаводиться потомством.

3. Какая из предложенных ниже моделей больше подходит для


описания следующей мысли: Our planet, the Earth, is the home of
hundreds of thousands of living creatures.
А Everybody knows, that…
B The main idea of the article is…
C The aim of the article is to explain...
D The writer attracts our attention to the main idea…

4. Какое из данных ниже предложений можно описать с помощью


следующей модели аннотирования: The author emphasizes the fact
that…
А Life has permeated everywhere.
B Living creatures have adapted themselves to an absence of oxygen,
to everlasting gloom, and to unbroken silence.
C Life has come to the hot, arid deserts and to the eternal ice of the
Arctic.
D They also need to feel at home in their environment and start fami-
lies to ensure the survival of the species.

Text 21. Nikola Tesla


The Croatian-born American inventor Nicola Tesla patented an elec-
tricity-generating and distribution system that transmitted alternating cur-
rent (AC). He developed and applied many other important ideas in the
fields of electricity and radio. The Tesla coil, an induction coil he invented,
is used in radio technology and operates at every high frequencies. Tesla

38
worked briefly for the American inventor Thomas Edison (1847-1931), but
they fell out because they disagreed about the best form of electric current
to use for large-scale supply. In the end, Tesla's alternating current system
was favored over Edison's direct current (DC) system.

1. Продолжите предложение: According to the passage, Nicola Tesla


invented…
A transmitted alternating current.
B an induction coil.
C direct current system.
D radio technology.

2. Дополните таблицу по памяти.


Nikola Tesla Никола Тесла
He … many other important Он разработал и внедрил много
ideas in the fields of electricity других важных идей в области
and radio. электричества и радио.
The Tesla coil, an induction Катушка Теслы, катушка индуктив-
coil he invented…. ности, которую он изобрел, исполь-
зуется в радиотехнологии и работа-
ет на любых высоких частотах.
In the end, …was favored over В конечном счете системе перемен-
Edison's direct current (DC) ного тока Теслы было отдано пред-
system. почтение перед системой постоян-
ного тока (DC) Эдисона.

3. Какая из предложенных ниже моделей больше подходит для


описания следующей мысли: The Croatian-born American inventor
Nicola Tesla patented an electricity-generating and distribution system that
transmitted alternating current (AC).
А The author thinks that...
B The article is devoted to the problem of…
C In summing up the author…
D At the beginning of the text the author describes smb…

4. Какое из данных ниже предложений можно описать с помощью


следующей модели аннотирования: The Tesla coil, an induction coil
he invented, is used in radio technology and operates at every high fre-
quencies.

39
А Besides that in the article we may find information about…
B The article is devoted to the problem of…
C The author gives us some information about…
D The author starts by telling the reader about…

Text 22. Dmitry Mendeleyev


The Russian chemist Dmitry Mendeleyev is regarded as the father of
the periodic table of chemical elements. He studied all the elements known
at the time and discovered that they showed a regular repetition of proper-
ties when arranged in a certain order. He also predicted the discovery and
properties of new elements. All of these have now been isolated and
named; one, mendelevium, is named for Mendeleyev. Mendeleyev also
experimented with agricultural production based on scientific principles,
increasing its efficiency to such an extent that his methods came to be ap-
plied in many Russian industries.

1. Продолжите предложение: According to the passage, Dmitry Men-


deleyev…
A detected new chemical elements.
B arranged chemical elements in a certain order.
C increased the efficiency of agricultural production.
D experimented with scientific principles.

2. Дополните таблицу по памяти.


Dmitry Mendeleyev Дмитрий Менделеев
The Russian chemist Dmitry Русский химик Дмитрий Менде-
Mendeleyev is regarded ... леев считается отцом периодиче-
ской таблицы химических эле-
ментов.
He also … and properties of new Он также предсказал открытие и
elements. свойства новых элементов.
Mendeleyev also experimented Менделеев также проводил экс-
with agricultural production based перименты в сельскохозяйствен-
on scientific principles, .. that his ном производстве, основанном на
methods came to be applied in научных принципах, поднимаю-
many Russian industries. щих его производительность до
таких размеров, что эти методы
стали применять во многих от-
раслях российской промышлен-

40
ности.

3. Какая из предложенных ниже моделей больше подходит для


описания следующей мысли: Mendeleyev also experimented with ag-
ricultural production based on scientific principles, increasing its efficiency
to such an extent that his methods came to be applied in many Russian in-
dustries.
А The author starts by telling the reader about…
B Finally, the author suggests…
C The author summarize that...
D In conclusion the author says that…

4. Какое из данных ниже предложений можно описать с помощью


следующей модели аннотирования: The author mentions, that…
А The Russian chemist Dmitry Mendeleyev is regarded as the father
of the periodic table of chemical elements.
B All of these have now been isolated and named; one, mendele-
vium, is named for Mendeleyev.
C He also predicted the discovery and properties of new elements.
D He studied all the elements known at the time and discovered that
they showed a regular repetition of properties when arranged in a certain
order.

Text 23. Marie Curie


Polish-born physicist Marie Curie and her French husband Pierre are
famous for their work on radioactivity. They were inspired by the work of
the French physicist Henri Becquerel (1852 – 1908). Marie Curie was the
first to use the term "radioactive" for substances that have considerable
electromagnetic activity. She also isolated two new radioactive elements,
polonium and radium. After Pierre's death, she took over his job as profes-
sor of physics at the University of Paris, the first woman to teach there. She
continued her research, looking for medical uses for radioactivity. She was
awarded the Nobel Prize for physics in 1903 and for chemistry in 1911.

1. Определите, какое утверждение не соответствует содержанию


текста.
A Marie Curie and her husband Pierre were inspired by the work of
Henri Becquerel.
B Marie Curie and her husband Pierre isolated polonium and ra-

41
dium.
C Marie Curie was the first woman-professor in the world.
D Marie Curie was awarded the Nobel Prize.
2. Дополните таблицу по памяти.
Marie Curie Мария Кюри
… Marie Curie and her Полька по происхождению, физик
French husband Pierre are Мария Кюри и ее муж, француз
famous for their work on Пьер, прославились своими трудами
radioactivity. по радиактивности.
… by the work of the Их вдохновляли работы французско-
French physicist Henri Bec- го физика Генри Бекереля (1852 –
querel (1852 – 1908). 1908).
Marie Curie … the term Мария Кюри первой употребила
"radioactive" for substances термин "радиоактивный" для ве-
that have considerable elec- ществ, обладающих высокой элек-
tromagnetic activity. тромагнитной активностью.
After Pierre's death, she После смерти Пьера она заняла его
…as professor of physics at место в качестве профессора физики
the University of Paris, the Парижского университета и стала
first woman … there. первой женщиной, которая там пре-
подавала.
She continued her research, Она продолжала свои исследования,
… for radioactivity. занимаясь поиском возможности
применения радиоактивности в ме-
дицине.
3. Какая из предложенных ниже моделей больше подходит для
описания следующей мысли: She continued her research, looking for
medical uses for radioactivity.
А The author warns that…
B The author takes into account…
C He calls attention to the fact that…
D The author applies for…
4. Какое из данных ниже предложений можно описать с помощью
следующей модели аннотирования: The author emphasizes the fact
that…
А Marie Curie was the first to use the term "radioactive" for sub-
stances that have considerable electromagnetic activity.

42
B After Pierre's death, she took over his job as professor of physics at
the University of Paris, the first woman to teach there.
C She also isolated two new radioactive elements, polonium and ra-
dium.
D She was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics in 1903 and for
chemistry in 1911.

Text 24. Galileo Galilei


The work of Italian scientist Galileo Galilei (known as Galileo)
revolutionized astronomy. Galileo developed the telescope and made
important discoveries about the planets and the sun. His observations
confirmed the work of the Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus
(1473 – 1543) who believed that the Earth and other planets revolve
around the sun. This finding went against the Church's teaching that
the Earth is the center of the universe, and the Church punished Gali-
leo. Galileo suggested the use of the pendulum in clocks and also
discovered an important principle about gravity that the rate at which
an object falls is not related to its weight.

1. Определите, какое утверждение соответствует содержанию тек-


ста.
A Galileo observations were important.
B Galileo discovered that the rate at which an object falls is related
to its weight.
C Galileo suggested teaching an important principle about gravity at
schools.
D Galileo discovered that the rate at which an object falls is unre-
lated to its weight.

2. Дополните таблицу по памяти.


Galileo Galilei Галилео Галилей
The work of Italian scientist Gal- Работа итальянского ученого
ileo Galilei (known as Galileo) ... Галилео Галилея (известного
по имени Галилей) сделала ре-
волюцию в астрономии.
His observations …Nicolaus Co- Его наблюдения подтвердили ра-
pernicus (1473 – 1543) who be- боту польского астронома Нико-
lieved that the Earth and other plan- лая Коперника (1473 – 1543), ко-
ets revolve around the sun. торый верил, что Земля и другие

43
планеты двигаются вокруг Солн-
ца.
This finding went against the Это открытие противоречило
Church's teaching that the Earth is учению церкви о том, что Земля
the center of the universe, and ... является центром мироздания, и
церковь покарала Галилея.
Galileo suggested the use of the Галилей предложил использовать
pendulum in clocks and also dis- маятник в часах, а также открыл
covered an important principle важнейший закон тяготения, гла-
about gravity that the rate at which сящий, что скорость падения тела
an object falls is ... не зависит от его веса.

3. Какая из предложенных ниже моделей больше подходит для


описания следующей мысли: Galileo suggested the use of the pendu-
lum in clocks and also discovered an important principle about gravity that
the rate at which an object falls is not related to its weight.
А In the last part the author describes…
B He illustrates his theory with…
C The main idea of the article is…
D At the beginning of the novel the author describes …

4. Какое из данных ниже предложений можно описать с помощью


следующей модели аннотирования:
А Galileo developed the telescope and made important discoveries
about the planets and the sun.
B The Church punished Galileo.
C Nicolaus Copernicus believed that the Earth and other planets re-
volve around the sun.
D The work of Italian scientist Galileo Galilei (known as Galileo)
revolutionized astronomy.

Text 25. Archimedes


The Greek mathematician Archimedes was the father of geometry.
He discovered the value of π, which is the ratio of the circumference of a
circle to its diameter. Pi is used to calculate the volume of cylinders and
spheres. Archimedes then looked for ways of measuring the volume and
mass of irregular objects. Eventually, he discovered the principle of dis-
placement: that an object put wholly or partly into water loses weight equal
to the weight to water it displaces. One method of lifting water is known as

44
the Archimedes' screw because it is thought that he invented it.

1. Определите, какое утверждение не соответствует содержанию


текста.
A Pi is used to calculate the volume of cylinders and spheres.
B Pi is used to calculate the mass of cylinders and spheres.
C Pi is the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter.
D An object put wholly or partly into water loses weight equal to the
weight to water it displaces.

2. Составьте второе предложение с предложенным словом таким


образом, чтобы оно имело тот же смысл, что и первое предложе-
ние.
1. The Greek mathematician Archimedes was the father of geometry.
called
The Greek mathematician Archimedes ………………… the father of
geometry.
2. Archimedes looked for ways of measuring the volume and mass of
irregular objects.
were
Ways of measuring the volume and mass of irregular objects …….
by Archimedes.
3. One method of lifting water is known as the Archimedes' screw.
of
The Archimedes' screw is an ancient type ………………………..
device.

3. Дополните таблицу по памяти.


Archimedes Архимед
He discovered …, which is the ratio of Он открыл величину π, ко-
the circumference of a circle to its di- торая представляет собой
ameter. отношение длины окружно-
сти к ее диаметру.
π is used to calculate the volume of …. Величиной π пользуются
при расчетах объема цилин-
дров и шаров.
Archimedes then looked for … and Кроме этого, Архимед искал
mass of irregular objects. способы измерения объема и
массы предметов непра-

45
вильной формы.
Eventually, he …: that an object put В результате он открыл за-
wholly or partly into water loses кон замещения, согласно ко-
weight equal to the weight to water it торому предмет, помещен-
displaces. ный полностью или частич-
но в воду, теряет вес, рав-
ный весу вытесненной воды.

4. Какая из предложенных ниже моделей больше подходит для


описания следующей мысли: An object put wholly or partly into water
loses weight equal to the weight to water it displaces.
А Besides that in the article we may find information about…
B The phenomenon of displacement is that…
C The writer attracts our attention to the main idea, theme, events…
D In addition to his analyses, results the author tells us about…..

5. Какое из данных ниже предложений можно описать с помощью


следующей модели аннотирования: In summing up the author tells
us…
А Archimedes was the father of geometry.
B He discovered the value of π.
C Archimedes then looked for ways of measuring the volume and
mass of irregular objects.
D He discovered the principle of displacement.

Text 26. Reptiles


Reptiles are vertebrates that have successfully adapted to life on land.
They have a scaly skin to avoid drying out and have well-developed lungs
to breathe in air. Most reptiles lay eggs that have food and water in the wa-
terproof shell. These characteristics enable them to survive in dry places.
Reptiles are ectothermic, which means their body temperature varies with
the surroundings. There are three main groups of reptiles: snakes and liz-
ards, crocodiles and alligators, and turtles.

1. Определите, какое утверждение соответствует содержанию тек-


ста.
A Reptiles have a scaly skin to breathe in air.
B Well-developed lungs, a scaly skin and waterproof shells enable

46
reptiles to lay eggs.
C Reptiles are cold-blooded.
D Reptiles have successfully adapted to underwater life.

2. Дополните таблицу по памяти.


Reptiles Рептилии
Reptiles are …that have … adapted Рептилии – это позвоночные,
to life on land. которые успешно приспособи-
лись к жизни на суше.
They have a scaly skin to … and У них чешуйчатая кожа, чтобы
have well-developed lungs to breathe избежать высыхания, и хорошо
in air. развитые легкие, чтобы ды-
шать воздухом.
These characteristics … in dry plac- Эти характеристики дают им
es. возможность выживать в за-
сушливых местах.
Reptiles are ectothermic, which Рептилии – эктотермы, а это
means their body temperature …. означает, что температура их
тела отличается от температу-
ры окружающей среды.
There are three main groups of rep- Существует три основных
tiles: …. группы рептилий: змеи и яще-
рицы; крокодилы и аллигаторы
и черепахи.

3. Какая из предложенных ниже моделей больше подходит для


описания следующей мысли: Reptiles are vertebrates that have suc-
cessfully adapted to life on land.
А The author concerned with…
B The author provides much information on…
C The author takes into account…
D The author explains….

4. Какое из данных ниже предложений можно описать с помощью


следующей модели аннотирования: The author provides much infor-
mation on the classification of reptiles:
А They have a scaly skin to avoid drying out and have well-
developed lungs to breathe in air.
B There are three main groups of reptiles: snakes and lizards, croco-

47
diles and alligators, and turtles.
C Most reptiles lay eggs that have food and water in the waterproof
shell.
D These characteristics enable them to survive in dry places.

Text 27. Movement


All living organisms move, although in plants the movement might
not be obvious. Animals move to escape predators, to find food or a mate,
or to avoid something unpleasant, for example. Movement usually involves
muscles pulling on a skeleton. In some invertebrates, such as insects, the
skeleton is outside the body. Mammals and other vertebrates have a skele-
ton inside the body, made of bones. A joint is where bones meet; joints
give the skeleton flexibility.

1. Определите, какое утверждение не соответствует содержанию


текста.
A Animals move to avoid something unpleasant.
B In some invertebrates the skeleton is outside the body.
C In some vertebrates the skeleton is inside the body.
D All living organisms move through the plants.

2. Дополните таблицу по памяти.


Movement Передвижение
Animals move to escape Животные передвигаются, чтобы убе-
predators, to find food or a жать от хищников, найти пищу или
mate, or …, for example. супругу или, например, чтобы избе-
жать неприятностей.
Movement usually involves Передвижение, как правило, связано с
… on a skeleton. напряжением мышц на скелете.
A joint is where bones meet; Сустав – это место, где одна кость со-
joints give the skeleton ... единяется с другой; суставы придают
скелету гибкость.

3. Какая из предложенных ниже моделей больше подходит для


описания следующей мысли: A joint is where bones meet.
А The author determines the nature of...
B The author provides some examples of...
C The author thinks that…
D The paper suggests approaches to understanding...

48
4. Какое из данных ниже предложений можно описать с помощью
следующей модели аннотирования:
А All living organisms move.
B Movement usually involves muscles pulling on a skeleton.
C In some invertebrates, such as insects, the skeleton is outside the
body.
D Joints give the skeleton flexibility.

Text 28. What is Evolution?


Evolution is a gradual change in living things that happens over a
long time, often millions of years. Evolution happens because organisms
compete for food, and mates. Although organisms may belong to the same
species, they still have differences. Some give an organism a better chance
of survival, and so these favorable characteristics can be passed on to its
offspring. Other individuals without these characteristics might die before
reproducing. This weeding-out process is called natural selection.

1. Составьте второе предложение с предложенным словом таким


образом, чтобы оно имело тот же смысл, что и первое предложе-
ние.
1. Evolution is a gradual change in living things that happens over a
long time.
known
Evolution …………..a gradual change in living things that happens
over a long time.
2. Evolution happens because organisms compete for food and ma-
tes.
due
Evolution happens ………………….…… organisms for food, and
mates.
3. Natural selection is the process when an organism has a better
chance of survival but another one dies before reproducing.
called
A process resulting in the survival of those individuals from a popu-
lation of animals or plants that are best adapted to the prevailing environ-
mental conditions…………….

2. Дополните таблицу по памяти.

49
What is Evolution? Что такое эволюция?
Evolution is a … in living things Эволюция – это постепенные
that happens over a long time, often изменения живой природы, ко-
millions of years. торые происходят в течение дли-
тельного периода времени, часто
миллионов лет.
Although organisms may belong to Хотя организмы могут принад-
the same species, they ... лежать одному и тому же виду,
тем не менее у них есть разли-
чия.
Some give an organism a …, and so Некоторые из них дают организ-
these favorable characteristics can му больше шансов на выжива-
be passed on to its offspring. ние, и такие благоприятные ха-
рактеристики могут передавать-
ся их потомству.
This weeding-out process is Такой процесс исключения жи-
called… вых организмов называется есте-
ственным отбором.

3. Какая из предложенных ниже моделей больше подходит для


описания следующей мысли: Evolution is a gradual change in living
things that happens over a long time, often millions of years.

А The author discusses the phenomenon of...


B The author provides some examples of...
C We can make a conclusion that…
D In conclusion I can say…

4. Какое из данных ниже предложений можно описать с помощью


следующей модели аннотирования: Most scientists think that…
А Evolution happens because organisms compete for food, and ma-
tes.
B Although organisms may belong to the same species, they still
have differences.
C This weeding-out process is called natural selection.
D Other individuals without these characteristics might die before
reproducing.

50
Раздел III. ПУБЛИЦИСТИЧЕСКИЕ И НАУЧНО-
ПОПУЛЯРНЫЕ ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ АННОТИРОВАНИЯ

Общие задания к текстам:


1. Изучить фразы, используемые для аннотирования текста (даны
ниже).
2. Прочитать и перевести текст.
3. Выделить главную мысль текста.
4. Выписать ключевые слова (не более 9), определить их конкрет-
ность/абстрактность.
5. Обозначить ключевые понятия текста конкретными лексемами,
расположить понятия в схеме, отражающей их взаимосвязи.
6. Обозначить взаимосвязи понятий, связав их в рамках предложе-
ния.
7. Распределить полученные предложения по этапам аннотирова-
ния текста.
8. Дополнить предложения подходящими фразами для аннотиро-
вания.
9. Сделать вывод по тексту (вывод может представлять собой
обобщение информации текста, следствия из обозначенных в тексте
посылок или личное мнение, касающееся представленной информа-
ции – ее качеств: истинности/ложности, достаточно-
сти/недостаточности, достоверности, логичности; в том числе и обо-
значение возможной сферы применения данной информации).

Фразы для аннотирования текста


Задание: изучите данные ниже фразы, дополните таблицу перево-
дом.
1. Headline of the article (text), title of the newspaper or the
magazine, date of publication, the author
The title (the headline) of the article Заголовок статьи…
is… The article is entitled…
The chapter suggests some informa-
tion on...
The book (article) begins (opens) with
a detailed examination of..
I have just read (3) a part of the story
(the story, the passage of the text)
written by…

51
It’s pity; I don’t know the name of the
author.
The passage is taken from the book….
by…
It’s a description of how people…
The subject of the article is (text is) (тема статьи)
The main idea of the article is… (главная идея)
The aim of the article is to provide the Цель статьи – вооружить чита-
reader with some material (data) on… теля данными по…
The purpose of the article is give the (цель статьи)
reader some information on…
The article is written by… Статья написана (кем)
The article describes (presents)...
The introduction is to tell us that….

2. Main topic (idea)


The article consists of an introduc- Статья состоит из введения и
tion and three parts. трех частей.
The book under review covers such
points as...
The author starts with a brief account
of...
The aim of the article is to explain...
The story, I am going to speak about,
deals with the events, taking place
(where and when)…
At the beginning of the novel the au-
thor describes (smb)…
The writer attracts our attention to the
main idea, theme, events…
In addition to his analyses, results the
author tells us about…..
Besides that in the article we may
find information about…………
The article is devoted to the problem Статья посвящена пробле-
of… ме…
It touches upon… Она касается…
The subject of the article is… Тема статьи (предмет описа-
ния)…

52
The author gives us some informa- Автор дает нам некоторую
tion about… информацию о…
The author discusses an important Автор обсуждает важную
problem of… проблему (чего)…

3. Main contents
The author emphasizes the fact Автор подчеркивает, что…
that…
He analyses how… Он анализирует, как…
He examines why… Он исследует, почему…
It’s necessary (important, interest- Необходимо (важно, инте-
ing) to note (to report) that… ресно) отметить (сообщить),
что…
The paper suggests approaches to un-
derstanding...
In examining the problem the author Рассматривая проблему, автор
points out that… отмечает, что…
The author discusses the phenomenon
of...
The author determines the nature of...
The author provides some examples
of...
The author thinks (points out, states)
that...
Later (on)
Then
A bit later
The author
underlines…
stresses…
devotes some attention to…
gives us a chance to (possibility to)
think
The author (the abstract (отрывок),
the passage, the text)…
concentrates on сосредотачивает внимание на
views рассматривает
reviews делает обзор
examines how (why) исследует как (почему)

53
stipulates that утверждает, что
mentions упоминает
outlines выделяет
In summing up the author… (подводя итоги, автор…)
In the opinion of the author… (по мнению автора,)
According to the author… В соответствии с тем, что го-
ворит автор…
At the beginning of the text the author
describes… (описывает)
…dwells on (подробно останавливается на)
…touches upon… (касается)
…explains (объясняет)
…introduce (знакомит с)
…mentions (упоминает)
…recalls (вспоминает)
…characterizes (дает характеристику)
…analyses (анализирует)
…comments on (комментирует)
…points out (указывает)
…stresses (подчеркивает)
…criticizes (критикует)
…reveals (раскрывает)
…blames (обвиняет)
…condemns (осуждает)
…praises (восхваляет)
…gives a summary of (суммирует, кратко излагает)
…passes on to… (переходит к)
…goes on to say that… (продолжает говорить, что)
…gives a detailed (дает подробный)
…brief (краткий)
…thoroughgoing (радикальный)
description
analysis
The author starts by telling the reader …(начинает с того, что гово-
about… рит)
Further the author says that.. (далее автор…)
This article tells us about…..
This article is devoted to the analyses,
description, investigation of such

54
(question, problem, theory) as ….
The author analyses, describes, inves-
tigates such (question, problem, the-
ory, points of view) as ….
He tries to find answers (solutions)….
One of the most interesting question,
problem, theory, point of view is…
The theory, point of view belongs to
His conclusions (results) based on…..
He illustrates his theory with…
He compares different theories, points
of view, results ………….
The author
warns that… (предупреждает, выражает
тревогу)
…concerned with… (deals with…) (имеет дело с)
… reports (сообщает)
…provides much information on… (содержит информацию о)
…speaks in details about… (подробно сообщает о)
…touches on the problem of… (затрагивает проблему)
…covers the events of… (охватывает события)
…takes into account… (принимает во внимание)
…gives figures illustrating (приводит цифры, иллюстри-
рующие)
…voice the protest against (выражает протест против)
…gives a detailed account of (дает подробный отчет о)
…carries a photograph of (содержит фотографию)
The first part is devoted to… Первая часть посвящена…
The second part is about… Во второй части говорится о…
In the last part the author describes… В последней части автор описы-
вает…
Further he says… Далее он говорит…
He mentions… Он упоминает…
According to the author… По мнению автора,…
He calls attention to the fact that… Он привлекает наше внимание
к тому факту, что…

4. Conclusions of the author


The author comes to the conclusion Автор приходит к выводу,

55
that… что…
The concluding part contains notes
on...
Finally, the author suggests… В заключении автор предлага-
ет…
The author summarize that...
In conclusion the author says that… (в заключении автор говорит,
что)
The author concludes that (comes to (приходит к выводу)
the conclusion)
In conclusion we may say that…
In conclusion the author gives us
summary of his results
So we may see that……
In summing up the author… В заключение автор…
At the end of the article the author В конце статьи автор подво-
sums up… дит итоги…
Evaluating the situation the conclu- Оценивая ситуацию, можно
sion can be drawn that… прийти к такому заключению,
что…

5. Your attitude towards the article


The text might be interesting for… Текст может быть интересен
для…
The language of the article is… Язык статьи…
There are a lot of … (special, techni- В тексте много (специальных,
cal, economical, architectural) terms технических, экономических,
in the text, for example… архитектурных) терминов, на-
пример…
As for me… Я считаю…
To my mind… По моему мнению,…
We can make a conclusion that… Мы можем сделать заключе-
ние (вывод), что…
As far as I understood… Насколько я понял, …
I’d like to quote… Я бы хотел процитировать…
On reading the article we (I) Читая статью, мы (я) осозна-
realize the fact that… ем тот факт, что…
In conclusion I can say… В заключение я могу сказать…
I find the article useful Я считаю, что статья полезна

56
informative (информативна,
interesting интересна,
up-to-date актуальна,
disputable, because… спорная), потому что…
The reader will find this book useful
(interest)...
The idea of... appears (seems) to have
practical interest.
The book is highly recommended to
all those working on.
The paper includes only the minimum
of material.
The reasoning in the paper is very dif-
ficult to follow.
As far as understand the author want-
ed to show his attitude to …
To my opinion…
I think…
I (quite) agree with the author on the
point that…
The author is right, underlining
smth…

Образец аннотации
The article “To protect our Earth” was published in the journal “Sci-
ence and religion” in 2006. It includes a rather interesting interview with
professor Zaycev. He speaks about general capacity to create special de-
fense from space objects. The author underlines that scientists are ready to
create such kind of system. Acceding to our mind the most interesting part
of this discussion is the structure of this system. It consists of three parts:
the fist one – system of detecting and following the object; the second one
– system of control; and the third one – system of capture and destruction.
The most important thing is that equipment has been already created and it
is possible to build a system of space security right now. But there are
some financial problems. In conclusion the author tells about importance of
solution of this problem as soon as it possible because the Earth could be
found in a danger any time.

57
Тексты для анализа и аннотирования

Text 29. What is Stress?


(1) It is different things to different people. To a mountaineer it is the
challenge of pushing physical resources to the limit by striving to achieve a
demanding goal. To the homeward bound motorist it can be heavy traffic
and exhaust fumes. To the student it can be exam pressure.
Take a piece of paper and write the word stress at the top. Now write
down all the words and images that come to your mind as you think about
this word.
Most people respond to the word stress in negative ways. They see it
as a destructive force. However, not all stress is negative. The word eus-
tress has been coined to describe positive stress. Eustress is the type of
stress you are likely to experience when you inherit a large amount of
money or receive an unexpected promotion or reward. Eustress is the stress
of winning and achieving.
Negative stress is distress. It is the stress of losing, failing, overwork-
ing and not coping. Distress affects people in a negative often harmful
manner. We all experience distress from time to time. It is a normal, un-
avoidable part of living.
(2) Stressors Cause Stress
Stress results from failure to adequately cope with stressors. Stress-
ors could be loud noise, uncomfortable air-conditioning, debts, ringing tel-
ephones, broken relationships, unrealistic deadlines, discouragement, fear,
pain and thousands of other things that impact upon us in the normal
course of life.
It is impossible to avoid stressors. The only totally stress-free state is
death! Stressors will always be there because we live in an imperfect and
unpredictable world which is going to cause us to frequently get stressed.
We experience stress as the body adjusts to the external demands placed
upon it. Our body constantly seeks to maintain stability and stress is usu-
ally sensed as the body readjusts to too much pressure.
We need to assist our bodies to cope with being stressed because our
natural biological stress-adjustors are not ideally suited to the demands of
modern living. Our bodies are well suited to cope with the distressing
events faced by our primitive ancestors. The stressors faced by humans
conditioned to a nomadic hunter-gatherer lifestyle are obviously different
to the distressing lifestyle of today.
Our distant ancestors needed chemical responses that are inappropri-

58
ate today. If you physically ran away from your workplace whenever
things got on top of you then this would not enhance your standing in the
Organisation. Conversely if you punch the boss on the nose when he/she
gives you a tough time then the resulting dismissal and assault charges will
generate considerably greater levels of distress. Consequently we need to
develop special skills to deal with special stressors.
(3) The Consequences of Stress
One of the pioneers of stress research, Dr. Hans Selye wrote that
"...stress is essentially reflected by the rate of all the wear and tear caused
by life."
His research convinced him that the body has only a finite reserve of
adaptation energy to apply to the stressors of life. Selye likened this reserve
to a bank account upon which we can make withdrawals from time to time
but into which we cannot make deposits. It is a non-renewable reserve of
energy which we draw on throughout life until eventually it is consumed
and death results.
Over a long period of time the stress response begins to take a toll on
the body.
A weakened immune system makes us vulnerable to infection and
this is why people under stress often experience regular attacks of colds
and flu.
We can do ourselves a great deal of harm by stressful thinking. We
can flood our body with stress hormones and this can create a vicious circle
making us more and more stressful.

1. Продолжите предложение: According to the passage, stress is…


A the reaction of our body to some stressors.
B a destructive force.
C a renewable reserve of energy.
D stressful thinking.

2. Определите, какое утверждение соответствует содержанию тек-


ста.
A Stress results when a person cannot adequately cope with stress-
ors.
B Our perfect world causes us to frequently get stressed.
C Nowadays we need chemical responses to deal with special
stressors.
D People under stress never experience attacks of colds and flu as

59
constant stress helps them to develop immunity.

3. Определите, какое утверждение не соответствует содержанию


текста.
A Eustress is the stress of winning and achieving.
B Distress is the stress of losing, failing, overworking and not cop-
ing.
C Distress is an unavoidable part of living.
D It is easily to avoid stressors.

4. Ответьте на вопрос.
What is stress for you?

5. Укажите, в какой части текста (1, 2, 3) содержится ответ на во-


прос.
How did our forefathers cope with stress?

6. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3) соответствует следующая


идея.
People have to know how to cope with stress as it is impossible to
avoid it.

7. Какая из предложенных ниже моделей больше подходит для


описания следующей мысли: "...stress is essentially reflected by the
rate of all the wear and tear caused by life."
А It’s pity; I don’t know the name of the author.
B I’d like to quote Dr. Hans Selye’s thought…
C The subject of the article is
D The author determines the nature of...

8. Какое из данных ниже предложений можно описать с помощью


следующей модели аннотирования: Evaluating the situation the con-
clusion can be drawn that…
А We can do ourselves a great deal of harm by stressful thinking.
B A weakened immune system makes us vulnerable to infection and
this is why people under stress often experience regular attacks of colds
and flu.
C It is impossible to avoid stressors.
D Most people respond to the word stress in negative ways.

60
Text 30. Body Language
(1) Body language is a broad term for forms of communication using
body movements or gestures instead of, or in addition to, sounds, verbal
language, or other forms of communication. It forms part of the category of
paralanguage, which describes all forms of human communication that are
not verbal language.
Paralanguage (параязык (передача информации за счет опреде-
ленной манеры говорить (напр., при помощи темпа речи, тембра и
громкости голоса, тона, его модуляции и др., а также за счет таких не-
вербальных средств, как жесты, мимика и т. п.))), including body lan-
guage, has been extensively studied in social psychology. In everyday
speech and popular psychology, the term is most often applied to body
language that is considered involuntary, even though the distinction be-
tween voluntary and involuntary body language is often controversial. For
example, a smile may be produced either consciously or unconsciously.
(2) Voluntary body language refers to movement, gestures and poses
intentionally made by a person (i.e., conscious smiling, hand movements
and imitation). It can apply to many types of soundless communication.
Generally, movement made with full or partial intention and an under-
standing of what it communicates can be considered voluntary.
Involuntary body language quite often takes the form of facial ex-
pression, and has therefore been suggested as a means to identify the emo-
tions of a person with whom one is communicating.
(3) The relation of body language to animal communication has often
been discussed. Human paralanguage may represent a continuation of
forms of communication that our non-linguistic ancestors already used, or
it may be that it has been changed by co-existing with language. Body lan-
guage is a product of both genetic and environmental influences. Blind
children will smile and laugh even though they have never seen a smile.
Iraneus Eibl-Eibesfeldt claimed that a number of basic elements of body
language were universal across cultures and must therefore be fixed action
patterns under instinctive control.
(4) Some forms of human body language show continuities with
communicative gestures of other apes, though often with changes in
meaning. More refined gestures, which vary between cultures (for
example the gestures to indicate «yes» and «no»), must be learned or
modified through learning, usually by unconscious observation of the
environment.
Body language is important in one-on-one communications, and

61
may be even more important in group communications. In group situ-
ations, often only one person at a time is speaking, while non-verbal
communication is coming from each individual in the group. The lar-
ger the group, the more impact body language may have.

1. Определите основную идею текста.


A Nonverbal elements in speech that may affect the meaning of an
utterance are very important in communication.
B Body language forms part of the category of paralanguage.
C Body language refers to movement, gestures and poses.
D The relation of body language to animal communication has often
been discussed.

2. Определите, какое утверждение соответствует содержанию тек-


ста.
A The distinction between voluntary and involuntary body language
is obvious.
B Body language is a product of both genetic and environmental in-
fluences.
C Body language is not so important in group communications.
D The reaction of body language to animal communication has often
been discussed.

3. Ответьте на вопрос.
Why will blind children smile and laugh even though they have nev-
er seen a smile?

4. Укажите, в какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) содержится ответ на


вопрос.
What science deals with the forms of communication?

5. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует следую-


щая идея.
Emotions of a person with whom you are communicating are easily
identified by his facial expression.

6. Определите, является ли утверждение: «Some gestures should be


learned by unconscious observation of the environment» ложным / в тек-
сте нет информации / истинным.

62
7. Какая из предложенных ниже моделей больше подходит для
описания следующей мысли: Body language is important in one-on-
one communications, and may be even more important in group communi-
cations.
А The language of the article is…
B There are a lot of special terms in the text, for example…
C We can make a conclusion that…
D Finally, the author suggests…

8. Какое из данных ниже предложений можно описать с помощью


следующей модели аннотирования: The author underlines that…
А More refined gestures, which vary between cultures (for example
the gestures to indicate «yes» and «no»), must be learned or modified
through learning, usually by unconscious observation of the environment.
B Paralanguage, including body language, has been extensively stud-
ied in social psychology.
C Generally, movement made with full or partial intention and an
understanding of what it communicates can be considered voluntary.
D It forms part of the category of paralanguage, which describes all
forms of human communication that are not verbal language.

Text 31. Difference between Animals and Humans


(1) If you pick up a starving dog and make him prosperous, he will
not bite you. This is the principal difference between a dog and a man.
The term Animal as described in the dictionary means a living organ-
ism other than humans which feeds and usually has sense organs and a
nervous system and can move. Animals include a vast majority of species.
Humans belong to Homo Sapiens and are bipedal species. This means that
the humans walk around using their two rear limbs.
(2) Animals would normally only include multi cells and complex
organisms. Organisms like the bacteria will not be included in the animal
kingdom. In most animals the dietary habits are very limited which means
that they would either be vegetarians or non-vegetarians. The Humans on
the other hand are omnivorous which means that they are able to consume
both vegetarian and non-vegetarian foods.
Animals cannot talk or communicate with each other. In some spe-
cies that the skills have been found these are very basic and undeveloped.
Humans on the other hand are the only known species with highly devel-
oped communication skills.

63
Animals merely feed to survive and reproduce. They have not devel-
oped any skills that go beyond their survival needs. The Humans are
known for their curiosity to understand and to try and influence and change
their environment. It is this curiosity in the Humans that has lead to the de-
velopment of advanced tools, technology and science. The human behavior
is much different from the animals as we have set purposes in life that go
beyond the survival needs of day today.
(3) The Humans are highly social beings and live in large colonies.
The Humans are the only known species that has the ability to domesticate
animals and engage in agriculture. With the invention of advanced tech-
niques and technology the Humans have been able to colonize all the con-
tinents. Through this colonization the humans have infringed on the land
where these animals once survived and created a problem of existence for
them.
(4) Summary
1. Animals may cover a lot of species whereas Humans belong to
Homo Sapiens.
2. Most animals walk on all four legs or crawl (ползать) whereas
Humans are bipeds (двуногие).
3. Animals tend to be either herbivorous (травоядный) or carnivo-
rous (плотоядный) and stick to their diets whereas the Humans are om-
nivorous (всеядный).
4. Animals are unable to communicate like Humans do.
5. Animals are endangered (находящийся под угрозой
исчезновения (о виде)) due to the Human influence on their environment.
6. Whereas Animals simply survive in their environment, Humans
have developed technology & science to change their environment.

1. Ответьте на вопрос.
What is the motive power of Human evolution?
2. Укажите, в какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) содержится ответ на
вопрос.
What helped the Humans to colonize the continents?

3. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует следую-


щая идея.
The Humans set goals in their lives which go beyond the physiologi-
cal needs.

64
4. Определите основную идею текста.
A The Humans can talk or communicate with each other unlike ani-
mals.
B Animals merely feed to survive and reproduce.
C Animals would either be vegetarians or non-vegetarians.
D The Humans are able to influence and change their environment.

5. Определите, какое утверждение соответствует содержанию тек-


ста.
A Most animals walk or crawl.
B Animals belong to bipedal species.
C Bacteria are not included in the animal kingdom.
D The human behavior has much in common with the animals.

6. Определите, является ли утверждение: «The humans are hot-


blooded while animals are cold-blooded. » ложным / в тексте нет инфор-
мации / истинным.

7. Какая из предложенных ниже моделей больше подходит для


описания следующей мысли: Animals may cover a lot of species
whereas Humans belong to Homo Sapiens.
А The author warns that…
B The author points out that…
C The author concerned with…
D The author provides much information on…

8. Какое из данных ниже предложений можно описать с помощью


следующей модели аннотирования: The author points out the main
difference between Animals and Humans:
А Most animals walk on all four legs or crawl whereas Humans are
bipeds.
B The Humans are highly social beings and live in large colonies.
C Animals cannot talk or communicate with each other.
D Animals include a vast majority of species.

Text 32. An American Invention


(1) The cacao tree (Theobroma cacao) is a native of Central and
South America. Today, it is cultivated around the equator, and can be
found in the Caribbean, Africa, South-East Asia, and even in the South Pa-

65
cific Islands of Samoa and New Guinea.
There are three main varieties of cacao trees. The most common is
Forastero, which accounts for nearly 90% of the world's production of ca-
cao beans. Rarest and most prized are the beans of the Criollo variety.
Their aroma and delicacy make them sought after by the world's best choc-
olate makers. Finally, there is the Trinitario variety of cacao, which is a
cross between Criollo and Forastero.
(2) The spread of the cacao tree started during the age of Colonial-
ism, as did the spread of cacao beans, and of chocolate itself. Christopher
Columbus was the first European to come in contact with cacao. On Au-
gust 15, 1502, on his fourth and last voyage to the Americas, Columbus
and his crew encountered a large dugout canoe near an island off the coast
of what is now Honduras. The canoe was the largest native vessel the
Spaniards had seen. It was "as long as a galley," and was filled with local
goods for trade – including cacao beans. Columbus had his crew seize the
vessel and its goods, and retained its skipper as his guide.
Later, Columbus' son Ferdinand wrote about the encounter. He was
struck by how much value the Native Americans placed on cacao beans,
saying:
"They seemed to hold these almonds [referring to the cacao beans] at
a great price; for when they were brought on board ship together with their
goods, I observed that when any of these almonds fell, they all stooped to
pick it up, as if an eye had fallen."
What Ferdinand and the other members of Columbus' crew didn't
know at the time was that cocoa beans were the local currency. In fact, in
some parts of Central America, cacao beans were used as currency as re-
cently as the last century.
While it is likely that Columbus brought the cacao beans he seized
back to Europe, their potential value was initially overlooked by the Span-
ish King and his court. Twenty years later, however, Spanish conquistador
Hernando Cortez is said to have brought back three chests full of cacao
beans. This time the beans were recognized as one treasure among the
many stolen from the conquered Aztecs.
(3) By the beginning of the sixteenth century, the Aztecs had an ad-
vanced and powerful civilization located in what is now central Mexico.
Many people believe that the Aztecs first developed chocolate. However,
chocolate goes back much farther. The ancient Maya, who inhabited what
is now parts of southern Mexico and Central America, certainly consumed
chocolate. In fact, the word "cacao" is Mayan: as early as 500 A.D., the

66
Mayans were writing about cacao on their pottery. Some think chocolate
may be even older, dating back to the Olmec civilization that preceded the
Maya.
The chocolate of these Mesoamerican civilizations was consumed as
a bitter-tasting drink made of ground cacao beans mixed with a variety of
local ingredients. An officer serving with Cortez observed Motecuhzoma,
the ruler of the Aztecs, drinking fifty flagons of chocolate a day. The frothy
beverage, which was sometimes made with water, and sometimes with
wine, could be seasoned with vanilla, pimiento, and chili pepper. It was
thought to cure diarrhea and dysentery, and was believed to be an aphrodi-
siac. Cortez is said to have tried the beverage, but found it too bitter. He
did, however, write to King Carlos I of Spain, calling "xocoatl" a "drink
that builds up resistance and fights fatigue."
(4) For many Europeans, drinking chocolate (especially before it was
sweetened) was an acquired taste. Spanish missionary Jose de Acosta, who
lived in Peru in the late 1500s, described it this way: "Loathsome to such
as are not acquainted with it, having a scum or froth that is very unpleasant
to taste. Yet it is a drink very much esteemed among the Indians, where
with they feast noble men who pass through their country. The Spaniards,
both men and women, that are accustomed to the country, are very greedy
of this Chocolate. They say they make diverse sorts of it, some hot, some
cold, and some temperate, and put therein much of that 'chili'; yea, they
make paste thereof, the which they say is good for the stomach and against
the catarrh."
Soon chocolate would make its way across the Atlantic – first to
Spain, and then to the rest of Europe. The first official shipment was made
in 1585 from Veracruz to Seville.

1. Продолжите предложение: According to the passage, the “an Ameri-


can invention” is (a) …
A chocolate tree
B cacao bean
C chocolate beverage
D chocolate

2. Определите, какое утверждение соответствует содержанию тек-


ста.
A Christopher Columbus was the first to come in contact with cacao.
B The Aztecs first developed chocolate.

67
C The cacao beans of the Criollo variety are highly appreciated by
the world's best chocolate makers.
D The spread of the cacao tree started during the age of Colonialism
from Spain to America.

3. Определите, какое утверждение не соответствует содержанию


текста.
A Forastero is a widespread cacao tree.
B Cacao beans were seized by Christopher Columbus.
C Cacao beans are used as currency.
D The word "cacao" is Mayan.

4. Ответьте на вопрос.
What did the King of Spain write about a cacao beverage?

5. Укажите, в какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) содержится ответ на


вопрос.
What drink was used to treat dysentery?

6. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует следую-


щая идея.
In the 16th century, cacao beans were of great importance in some
parts of Central America.

7. Определите, является ли утверждение: «The Spaniards adore


chocolate.» ложным / в тексте нет информации / истинным.

8. Дополните перевод по памяти.


The cacao tree (Theobroma cacao) is a Дерево какао (теоброма ка-
native of Central and South America. као) …Центральной и Юж-
Today, it is cultivated around the equa- ной Америки. Сейчас его …:
tor, and can be found in the Caribbean, его можно встретить на Ка-
Africa, South-East Asia, and even in the рибах, в Африке, Юго-
South Pacific Islands of Samoa and восточной Азии и … Самоа
New Guinea. и Новая Гвинея.
There are three main varieties of cacao Существуют три …. Самая
trees. The most common is Forastero, распространенная – Фора-
which accounts for nearly 90% of the стеро, … 90% всех собран-
world's production of cacao beans. Rar- ных в мире какао-бобов.

68
est and most prized are the beans of the …называется Криолло.
Criollo variety. Their aroma and deli- …заставляют лучших миро-
cacy make them sought after by the вых производителей шоко-
world's best chocolate makers. Finally, лада буквально охотиться за
there is the Trinitario variety of cacao, ними. … – Тринитарио, ко-
which is a cross between Criollo and торый появился путем скре-
Forastero. щивания Криолло и Фора-
стеро.

9. Какая из предложенных ниже моделей больше подходит для


описания следующей мысли: The first official shipment was made in
1585 from Veracruz to Seville.
А A bit later the author stresses…
B Then the author devotes some attention to…
C The author stipulates that…
D The author starts by telling the reader about…

10. Какое из данных ниже предложений можно описать с помо-


щью следующей модели аннотирования: The author gives brief de-
scription of…
А By the beginning of the sixteenth century, the Aztecs had an ad-
vanced and powerful civilization located in what is now central Mexico.
B There are three main varieties of cacao trees.
C Many people believe that the Aztecs first developed chocolate.
D The cacao tree (Theobroma cacao) is a native of Central and South
America.

Text 33. Secrets of the Brain: the Mystery of Memory


(1) Even though science continues to give us ever increasing insights
into what memory is much of it remains a mystery. Researchers consider
memory a process, and when you remember you are actually reconstructing
the event from bits of information stored in various parts of the brain. But the
mystery is, what initiates the reconstruction? Is it, as some suggest, directed
from outside the physical body, from the energy body? That remains to be
seen.
(2) The Location of Memory. In the past, it was thought that all memory
was in the brain. However, Gazzaniga (1988) reports that memory occurs
throughout the nervous system. So every thought you have is “felt” throughout

69
your entire body because the receptors for the chemicals in your brain are
found on the surfaces of cells throughout your body. Thus when the chemicals
are activated in the brain, the message is communicated to every part of your
body that allows cells to communicate by remote travel using blood and cere-
brospinal fluid [спинно-мозговая жидкость].
(3) Stress Erodes Memory. Excessive stress and obesity produce an
over-production of a complex set of stress hormones that damage and destroy
neurons in the brain’s region critical to learning and memory. One really good
way to burn off excess stress hormones is through exercise. So for those ex-
periencing particularly high stress levels exercise is not only beneficial, it is
necessary.
(4) What are the Characteristics of Memory? Sensory – we remember
things that involve our five senses. So, the more senses that get activate, the
easier it will be to recall.
Intensity – when something is more intensely funny, sexual, absurd, etc.
it tends to stand out in our memories.
Outstanding – things that are dull and unoriginal are more difficult to
remember because there is nothing to distinguish them from all the other
memories.
Emotional – when something happens that has high emotional con-
tent – positive or negative – we tend to remember it more easily.
Survival – anything we perceive as important to survival we will re-
member more easily. It’s not just physical survival. Survival can include
emotional survival, psychological survival and financial survival.
Personal importance – we naturally remember things that interest us
and that have some personal importance.
Repetition – the more often we recall information, the better we get
at recalling on demand.
First and last – the brain most easily recalls things from the begin-
ning and the ending of any session or lecture.
(5) What are the Keys to Memory? Pay attention – often times the
biggest problem is that people’s minds are not focused in the moment. Instead,
they are thinking about something in the past of future.
Visualization – create a visual in your mind because the brain thinks in
pictures and concepts, not paragraphs.
Association – find something to connect the information to…similar to
word association. Ask, “What does this remind me of?”
Imagination – get creative when visualizing or making associations.
(6) Why do we forget? It could be that we never stored the information

70
properly in the first place. It could be because there was not enough emotion or
personal importance connected to the information to make it stick. It could be
that it was so emotionally traumatic that the mind suppressed it in order to
maintain normalcy.
Why do we remember negative events? Whenever emotions are acti-
vated, especially strong emotions, the information or experience is entrenched
into memory. Often times we tend to dwell on it, thereby rehearsing it and en-
trenching it even further. It is also easier to recall negative memories when we
are in a bad mood. Why? Because we remember things in the state that we
learned them so whenever you are feeling angry you will more easily recall
other situations in which you were angry.
The subconscious remembers everything. If we were to compare the
conscious mind with the subconscious, the conscious would measure about
one foot long and the subconscious would be the length of a football field. The
potential is enormous. So everything we experience can be stored. However,
the conscious mind would get overloaded trying to process all the incoming
bits of data on a daily basis. Instead, all the information goes into the subcon-
scious for storage and we may never deal with it, except if the mind chooses to
process it at night through dreams. Or, if we go for clinical hypnosis, through
which a therapist assists in accessing information or memories the conscious
mind has “forgotten” or repressed.

1. Продолжите предложение: According to the passage, memory is…


A a process of remembering important information.
B a process of reconstructing the event from bits of information
stored in various parts of the brain.
C a process of focusing on an object while thinking.
D a process of creating visuals in our mind.
2. Определите, какое утверждение не соответствует содержанию
текста.
A Memory occurs throughout the nervous system.
B Overeating destroys memory.
C Boring things are difficult to remember.
D Everything we experience is hardly to be stored.

3. Ответьте на вопрос.
What are the keys to Memory?
4. Укажите, в какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) содержится ответ
на вопрос.

71
Why is it easier to recall negative memories when we are in a bad
mood?

5. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) соответствует сле-


дующая идея.
The potential of the subconscious is limitless.

6. Определите, является ли утверждение: «The more we repeat, the


better we memorize.» ложным / в тексте нет информации / истинным.

7. Составьте второе предложение с предложенным словом таким


образом, чтобы оно имело тот же смысл, что и первое предложе-
ние.
1. The more senses that get activate, the easier it will be to recall.
on
Remembering things ………………. sensory perception.
2. We tend to remember things more easily when they have high
emotional content.
the
…………………..things, the better we remember them.
3. The conscious mind would get overloaded trying to process all the
incoming data, so all the information goes into the subconscious for stor-
age.
to
All the incoming data goes into the subconscious for storage
…………… the conscious mind.

8. Какая из предложенных ниже моделей больше подходит для


описания следующей мысли: … create a visual in your mind because
the brain thinks in pictures and concepts, not paragraphs.
А The author gives us an advise to…
B The author gives a detailed analysis of…
C He illustrates his theory with…
D According to the author…

9. Какое из данных ниже предложений можно описать с помощью


следующей модели аннотирования: The concluding part contains
notes on...
А The subconscious.

72
B The night dreams.
C The clinical hypnosis.
D The memories.
Text 34. Fairness and Inequality
(1) In most societies there are certain broadly shared beliefs about
what is socially just and unjust, what is fair and unfair. Here is the basic
problem: we observe some empirical case of social inequality – some peo-
ple are better off than others or their lives are more fulfilling than others or
they are healthier than others. These are observations. And we ask: is the
observed inequality just or fair? Does the inequality violate some principle
of justice? Now, some inequalities are simply cases of bad luck – one per-
son gets hit by lightening, another does not.
There is a dramatic inequality in their fates. And there is a sense, of
course, in which one could say (as kids do): that’s not fair; the person who
got hit by lightening “didn’t deserve it.” Such expressions reflect a deep
moral intuition that most people have: people should get what they deserve
and deserve what they get. This is why when someone gets struck by light-
ening we say “that’s so unfair, they didn’t deserve that.”
(2) When we talk about a social injustice – not just the unfairness of
bad luck – what we mean is that there is an inequality which is unfair and
which could be remedied if our social institutions were different. Some-
thing could in principle be done about it. When we say that it was a social
injustice for African-Americans to be denied admission to all-white univer-
sities before the end of racial segregation in America what we mean is that
it was not just “bad luck” to be born black and thus denied admission, but
that this grossly unfair inequality in educational opportunity could have
been remedied by a change in social institutions. This does not mean, of
course, that it was politically possible to remedy that injustice in the 1920s
or 1930s. Racial segregation was always a profound social injustice, as was
slavery before it, but the social forces supporting segregation were so pow-
erful and cohesive that until the 1950s and 1960s they were able to suc-
cessfully repress struggles against segregation and maintain those institu-
tions. The claim that an inequality is unjust, therefore, can be seen as an
indictment of the way in which existing configurations of power block the
social changes needed to reduce or eliminate the inequality in question.
(3) Discussing problems of social justice quickly becomes really
complicated, since a diagnosis of injustice really requires two judgments:
first, a moral judgment that an inequality is unfair, and second, a sociologi-
cal judgment that this unfairness could be remedied by a social change. It’s

73
not fair that some children are born with physical disabilities – they don’t
“deserve it”. But it is not in and of itself necessarily a social injustice.
What becomes a social injustice is if there are things we could do to mini-
mize the effects on people’s lives of the unfairness of such “bad luck” and
fail to do so. The lack of curb cuts in sidewalks is an injustice for people in
wheelchairs. The lack of affordable prosthetic limbs is an injustice for am-
putees. To insure that curb cuts exist requires a change in rules governing
urban planning. To insure that everyone who needs a prosthetic limb can
afford one requires a change in the rules governing access to medical ser-
vices. Both of these constitute social changes. And since remedies such as
these involve changes in the uses of resources, they almost inevitably trig-
ger resistance and conflict from those who stand to lose from the social
change.
When there is an inequality that is also an injustice – that is, an unfair
inequality that could be remedied – we can expect there to be a set of pow-
er relations operating in the situation which block the necessary remedies.
Injustices do not continue just because of some law of inertia; they con-
tinue because people are unwilling to pay the costs to remedy the injustice
and they have sufficient power to avoid doing so. This combination of ine-
quality, injustice, and power is what we will call oppression.
1. Продолжите предложение: According to the passage, oppression is…
A bad luck.
B racial segregation.
C resistance and conflict.
D a combination of inequality, injustice, and power.
2. Определите, какое утверждение соответствует содержанию тек-
ста.
A Injustices do not continue when people are unwilling to pay the
costs to remedy the injustice.
B A social injustice could be remedied if our social institutions were
different.
C Slavery was repressed when the power blocked the social changes.
D If we could do something to minimize the effects on people’s
lives of the unfairness of such “bad luck” and fail to do so, it would be a
moral injustice.
3. Определите, какое утверждение не соответствует содержанию
текста.
A It was a social injustice for African-Americans to be denied admis-

74
sion to all-white universities.
B The lack of curb cuts in sidewalks is an injustice for people in wheel-
chairs.
C The lack of affordable prosthetic limbs is an injustice for amputees.
D The lack of affordable medicine is an injustice for the sick.

4. Ответьте на вопрос.
What could be done about a social injustice?
5. Укажите, в какой части текста (1, 2, 3) содержится ответ на во-
прос.
What remedies cause conflict from those who stand to lose from the
social change?
6. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3) соответствует следующая
идея.
When there is an inequality that is also an injustice.

7. Определите основную идею текста.


A People should get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
B Social institutions are able to rectify an inequality.
C Politicians can remedy a social injustice.
D Inequality, injustice, and power taken together lead to oppression.

8. Определите, является ли утверждение: «Segregation is the prac-


tice or policy of creating separate facilities within the same society for the use
of a minority group.» ложным / в тексте нет информации / истинным.

9. Какая из предложенных ниже моделей больше подходит для


описания следующей мысли: When there is an inequality that is also
an injustice.
А The author stipulates that…
B The author reviews…
C The author examines how…
D The author concentrates on…

10. Какое из данных ниже предложений можно описать с помо-


щью следующей модели аннотирования: The author discusses the
phenomenon of...
А There is a dramatic inequality in their fates.

75
B … of inequality, injustice, and power is what we will call oppres-
sion.
C In most societies there are certain broadly shared beliefs about
what is socially just and unjust, what is fair and unfair.
D The lack of curb cuts in sidewalks which is an injustice for people
in wheelchairs.

Text 35. How to Let Go of Stress


(1) Kate was almost relieved when the school term started. She no
longer had to get up at 6 a.m. to prepare packed lunches before driving the
children to their various courses and rushing to work. Now she dashes
home to pick them up from their after-school activities before taking work
calls amid the noise of squabbling over supper. She’s often up till midnight
working and doing laundry. She can just about hold everything together,
until her boss asks her to come in for a 9 a.m. meeting. At home and work
we have become increasingly more demanding as we have more choices to
make than ever before.
(2) Increasingly, research shows that so much choice and opportunity
leaves us feeling needy and incomplete. The harder we work, the more
stuff we want to accumulate, the more we consume, the hungrier we seem
to get. Much of the time, we’re concentrating on resolving crises instead of
preventing them. Many of us are exhausted, but only realize it when an ap-
parently small problem floors us.
It is estimated that 100,000 Britons have chronic fatigue. Many more
feel wiped out or physically and mentally depleted. Dr Frank Lipman, au-
thor of Spent? End Exhaustion & Feel Great Again, has identified the con-
dition in hundreds of his patients. He believes feeling spent is an under-
standable response to the times we live in. Katherine, 36, a graphic de-
signer, was ‘spent’ four years before she realised what was causing her
constant run of infections and illnesses and her inability to concentrate at
work or at home. ‘I went from feeling out of sorts to being drained beyond
anything I’d known,’ she says. ‘My exhaustion wasn’t just physical – my
work was sedentary, and I took moderate exercise. But I couldn’t work. I
couldn’t concentrate. “Spent” is a good word for it. I felt as though I had
nothing left to give.’
(3) Madeleine Bunting, author of Willing Slaves, an analysis of our
culture of overwork, puts it simply. ‘We live in a world where nothing is
enough,’ she says. ‘Debt drives us to work harder, the overwork puts strain
on our relationships and without the support of those we love we become

76
more insecure and exhausted – which makes us less efficient at our jobs,
which, in turn, makes us more insecure, and so on.’ In our heads, we’re al-
ways thinking about the future rather than enjoying the present. ‘We are
out of the now,’ she says, ‘which is an exhausting place to be.’
(4) What’s the solution? When Katherine’s doctor couldn’t find any-
thing clinically wrong with her, he prescribed antidepressants. This, says
Lipman, fails to address the root of the problem. He prescribes remedies
that don’t require more time and planning.
Turn off all technology by 10 p.m.
Restorative, rather than exhausting exercise. Focus on yoga and sim-
ple programmes, such as alternating a minute’s brisk walking with three
minutes of relaxed walking for half an hour.
Take ‘breathing breaks’ throughout the day – five minutes of eyes-
closed meditation, go for a short walk or listen to some relaxing music.
Lipman also stresses the importance of friends and family to our
wellbeing. But for those caring for elderly parents and children, this is part
of the problem.
‘People who are stress-prone always feel they ought to be doing
something,’ says psychotherapist Sue Cowan-Jenssen. ‘They are driven by
tasks: they can’t let things go or relax if there’s stuff to be done. You have
to look at what you can realistically do. This can be very difficult: if
you’ve got an aged parent, where do you draw the line?’ Jenssen suggests
us:
Figure out what’s really important.
Remember that we are all entitled to a boundary.
Concentrate on what you have done rather than what you haven’t.
(5) ‘Some of us are more prone to worry,’ says Cowan-Jenssen. ‘Per-
fectionists put themselves under huge levels of stress. Parents worry that
their children have to have freshly cooked, organic food, the house has to
be clean and stylish… But you have to ask yourself, does it really matter?
Think about the imperatives you live by, and ask yourself: where’s the evi-
dence? What makes you think you’ll lose your job if you make one mis-
take, or that your lover will leave you if you don’t lose weight?’
The prospect of making changes sometimes feels more exhausting
than leaving things the way they are. Being told to look after yourself, and
make an appointment at a spa requires time and money, and if you’re al-
ready stressed it can feel impossible. ‘People who are really stressed can’t
make changes because they’d feel like a failure,’ says Cowan-Jenssen.
‘The main thing is to get some perspective. If you’re under stress you treat

77
each task as though it’s life or death and has to be done. If you don’t get an
overview, you’re just waiting for the next thing to hit.’

1. Продолжите предложение: According to the passage, ‘spent’


means…
A paid out.
B physically and mentally depleted.
C demanding.
D insecure.

2. Определите, какое утверждение соответствует содержанию тек-


ста.
A Sedentary work is the best antidepressant.
B Overwork puts strain on our relationships.
C Our friends and family depend on our wellbeing.
D Psychotherapists are driven by tasks: they can’t let things go or re-
lax if there’s stuff to be done.

3. Определите, какое утверждение не соответствует содержанию


текста.
A Much of the time, we’re concentrating on resolving crises instead
of preventing them.
B We are all entitled to a boundary.
C The prospect of making changes sometimes feels more exhausting
than leaving things the way they are.
D Make an appointment at a spa requires time and money, if you’re
already stressed.

4. Укажите, в какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) содержится ответ на


вопрос.
Why do people become more and more insecure and exhausted?

5. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) соответствует сле-


дующая идея.
Exhaustion causes infections and illnesses.

6. Определите основную идею текста.


A The harder we work, the more stuff we want to accumulate.
B Feeling spent is an understandable response to the times we live

78
in.
C You have to ask yourself, does it really matter?
D We’re always thinking about the future rather than enjoying the
present.

7. Определите, является ли утверждение: «Doing exercises is one of


the solution of the problem in question.» ложным / в тексте нет информа-
ции / истинным.

8. Составьте второе предложение с предложенным словом таким


образом, чтобы оно имело тот же смысл, что и первое предложе-
ние.
1. Many of us are exhausted, but only realize it when an apparently
small problem floors us.
of
Realization ………………. appears when an apparently small problem
floors us.
2. Your exhaustion makes you feel as though you have nothing left
to give.
are
If you ……………….………. you feel as though you have nothing
left to give.

3. People who are really stressed can’t make changes because they’d
feel like a failure.
under
……………………. can’t make changes because they’d feel like a
failure.

9. Сопоставьте свой перевод с предложенным ниже и оцените ка-


чества переводов.
At home and work we have become Наши запросы и дома, и на ра-
increasingly more demanding as we боте растут, мы никогда не
have more choices to make than ever удовлетворены полностью, по-
before. тому что сейчас у нас гораздо
больше выбора, чем раньше.
Increasingly, research shows that so Исследования показывают, что
much choice and opportunity leaves наличие большого количества
us feeling needy and incomplete. возможностей и выбора ведет к

79
The harder we work, the more stuff тому, что нам кажется, как буд-
we want to accumulate, the more we то нам чего-то не хватает. Чем
consume, the hungrier we seem to больше мы работаем, тем
get. Much of the time, we’re concen- больше мы хотим приобрести,
trating on resolving crises instead of чем больше мы получаем, тем
preventing them. Many of us are ex- больше нам хочется еще чего-
hausted, but only realise it when an то. Большую часть времени мы
apparently small problem floors us. думаем о том, как разрешать
сложные ситуации, вместо того
чтобы предотвращать их. Силы
многих из нас просто истоще-
ны, но мы понимаем это только
тогда, когда довольно малень-
кая проблема станет последней
каплей и добьет нас.
It is estimated that 100,000 Britons По последним оценкам, в Бри-
have chronic fatigue. Many more тании около 100000 человек
feel wiped out or physically and страдают синдромом хрониче-
mentally depleted. Dr Frank Lipman, ской усталости. И еще больше
author of Spent? End Exhaustion & людей чувствуют себя постоян-
Feel Great Again, has identified the но вымотанными и физически,
condition in hundreds of his patients. и морально, не хватает сил ни
He believes feeling spent is an un- на что. Доктор Фрэнк Липман,
derstandable response to the times автор книги «Силы на исходе?
we live in. Положи конец усталости и по-
чувствуй себя снова великолеп-
но», заявляет, что несколько со-
тен его пациентов страдали
именно от этого состояния. Он
считает, что это вполне объяс-
нимо, учитывая времена, в ко-
торые мы живем.

10. Какая из предложенных ниже моделей больше подходит для


описания следующей мысли: Turn off all technology by 10pm.
А The author prescribes remedies that don’t require more time and
planning.
B He tries to find answers (solutions)….
C The author analyses such points of view as ….

80
D According to the author it is necessary to…

11. Какое из данных ниже предложений можно описать с помо-


щью следующей модели аннотирования: He calls attention to the fact
that…
А Concentrate on what you have done rather than what you haven’t.
B If you’re under stress you treat each task as though it’s life or
death and has to be done.
C ‘People who are stress-prone always feel they ought to be doing
something,’ says psychotherapist Sue Cowan-Jenssen.
D Figure out what’s really important.

Text 36. The Mysteries of Dreams


(1) It’s a universal human experience. You rest your head against the
pillow at night and slowly drift off to sleep. Soon you enter a weird and
wonderful – and sometimes frightening – world. It’s a world in which you
might find yourself walking around school in your pajamas or chasing the
school bus after you missed it. You could be flying under your own power
or talking with a long-deceased relative. You’ve entered the world of
dreams.
People have always dreamed, and dreamers have always wondered
what their mysterious nighttime visions meant. Some philosophers in an-
cient times believed that dreams were important messages from the gods or
visions of things to come. As the centuries rolled by, many other philoso-
phers, as well as average people, developed their own theories about the
purpose of dreams and what dreams mean. And finally, dreams became a
subject of scientific inquiry.
(2) Freud and Jung Interpret Dreams. In his 1900 book, Freud de-
scribed how he asked his patients to tell him everything they could remem-
ber from their dreams. Freud believed that dreams were “the royal road to
the unconscious.” He concluded, on the basis of his talks with the patients,
that dreams are caused by disturbing [беспокоящий] wishes, such as sex-
ual desires or aggressive impulses that a person represses in waking life.
These unacceptable thoughts, according to Freud, are often disguised as
symbolic elements in dreams. For example, fire may symbolize feelings of
hostility, while water may stand for sexuality. The symbolism in dreams,
Freud maintained [отстаивать], needs to be decoded, or interpreted, in or-
der to be understood. Freud believed that symbolism is necessary in
dreams, because straightforward thoughts about unacceptable desires and

81
feelings would arouse anxiety and awaken the dreamer. Thus, Freud pro-
posed, dreams are the guardians of sleep.
Freud’s questioning of his patients led him to believe that dreams are
usually brief and that dreaming itself is rare during sleep. Furthermore, he
concluded, a dream usually incorporates some minor, unresolved event
from earlier in the day – a piece of “unfinished business” of some kind. But
at a deeper level, Freud theorized, dreaming is a unique state of conscious-
ness that is prompted by such urges [побуждение] as hunger, thirst, and
sexuality that arise during the night.
(3) Doubts about Freud’s explanations for dreaming led the Swiss
psychiatrist Carl Jung to develop his own theory between 1912 and 1920.
Jung rejected Freud’s idea that dreams are related to wish fulfillment. He
believed that dreams can express spiritual and moral concerns as often as
they express sexual or emotional preoccupations [предрассудки]. Jung’s
main conclusion was that dreams express aspects of the personality that are
not fully developed in waking life. For example, people who neglect their
spiritual needs may experience strong religious feelings in their dreams.
In order to understand what their dreams mean, Jung suggested,
dreamers need to become familiar with the kinds of symbols used in
myths, fairy tales, and religious rituals. For instance, as in tales involving
the “big, bad wolf,” a dangerous animal may symbolize some person or
event that poses a threat to the dreamer. And, as in Christian theology,
wine may represent blood or salvation. Jung claimed that people in modern
Western civilization often ignore such symbolic language, and so they need
help in understanding what their dreams are trying to say to them.
Although most psychiatrists disagreed with some of the ideas of
Freud or Jung, many accepted the central conclusion of their theories – that
dreams have symbolic meanings.
(4) Sleep Laboratories. Between 1953 and 1957, physiologist Na-
thaniel Kleitman of the University of Chicago and two students discovered
that sleep is characterized by four different levels of brain activity. The sci-
entists found that during the first hour or so of sleep, the activity of the
brain steadily decreases. Then it begins to increase until it reaches a high
level similar to that of the waking state. The researchers named this men-
tally active stage of sleep Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep because of
the eye movements that are one of its most noticeable characteristics. Four
or five distinct periods of REM sleep occur at intervals of about 90 minutes
during a typical eight-hour sleep period. Each REM period is longer than
the previous one, ranging in length from about 5 to 10 minutes to half-an-

82
hour or more. Occurring between the REM periods are intervals of lower
brain activity called non-REM (NREM) sleep. Each period of NREM sleep
occurs at a higher stage of brain activity than the previous one.
(5) Do Dreams Have any Meaning? Taking the idea that dreams have
meaning, but rejecting the explanations of Freud and Jung, many scientists
have developed their own theories of dreams. For example, several re-
searchers have proposed that dreams have a problem-solving function,
suggesting possible solutions to emotional problems. Other researchers,
however, point out that few dreams seem to provide even a hint of a solu-
tion to such problems.
The inability of investigators to develop a widely accepted theory to
explain the meaning of dreams led sleep-lab researchers J. Alan Hobson
and Robert W. McCarley of Harvard Medical School in Boston to suggest
in 1977 that dreams have no function or purpose. The theory proposes that
the brain uses stored memories and established thought patterns to try to
bring some order to the random signals, thus producing dreams. Many
dream researchers, however, doubt this theory, because it incorrectly im-
plies that dreaming is strictly a product of REM sleep.
Some sleep researchers claim that dreaming may be the accidental
by-product of two evolutionary developments – complex brains and sleep.
According to this view, the evolution of complex brains in humans gave
rise to dreaming because, during sleep, there is no external world to help
organize the vast amount of brain activity. Thus, dreams are the brain’s
purposeless response to this mental activity. Despite this theory, most
dream researchers maintain that there must be at least some meaning in
dreams, because so many elements in dreams relate to waking thoughts and
concerns.
In order to answer the question, “What do my dreams mean?” we
may have to wait for further advances in the study of dream content and
breakthroughs in the study of brain function. In the meantime, when you
go to bed at the end of a long day and close your eyes, you might simply
look forward to the fascinating show that your brain will be putting on for
you.

1. Дополните предложение: According to the passage, our dream is …


A an important message from the gods.
B a royal road to the unconscious.
C an unfinished business.
D brain activity which is to be studied.

83
2. Определите, какое утверждение соответствует содержанию тек-
ста.
A When dreams became a subject of scientific inquiry, scientists ex-
plained the phenomenon.
B Unacceptable thoughts, according to Freud, are often disguised as
symbolic elements in dreams.
C Freud concluded that dreams express aspects of the personality.
D During the first hour of sleep, the brain activity steadily grows.

3. Определите, какое утверждение не соответствует содержанию


текста.
A Dreams have a problem-solving function.
B Dreams are caused by disturbing wishes.
C Dreams have no function or purpose.
D Carl Jung developed his own theory of dreams relation to wish
fulfillment.

4. Ответьте на вопрос.
Why is symbolism necessary in dreams according to Freud?

5. Укажите, в какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) содержится ответ на


вопрос.
What is REM?

6. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) соответствует сле-


дующая идея: Myths, fairy tales, and religious rituals help to understand
what dreams mean.

7. Определите основную идею текста.


A If you ignore symbolic language, you need help in understanding
your dream.
B Although dreams are not definitely understood, it is known they
occur in mind during certain stages of sleep.
C Eye movements are the most noticeable characteristics of sleep.
D People should sleep about eight hours to be able to have dreams.

8. Определите, является ли утверждение: «Sleep timing is controlled


by the inner timekeeping, temperature-fluctuating, enzyme-controlling de-
vice.» ложным / в тексте нет информации / истинным.

84
9. Составьте второе предложение с предложенным словом таким
образом, чтобы оно имело тот же смысл, что и первое предложе-
ние.
1. Some sleep researchers claim that dreaming may be the accidental
by-product of complex brains and sleep.
to
Some sleep researchers …………….……………… the accidental
by-product of complex brains and sleep.
2. Freud believed that symbolism is necessary in dreams.
be
Freud believed ……………………………. in dreams.
3. The brain uses stored memories and established thought patterns to
try to bring some order to the random signals, thus producing dreams.
for
The brain uses stored memories and established thought patterns to
try to bring some order to the random signals …………………………… .

10. Какая из предложенных ниже моделей больше подходит для


описания следующей мысли: The brain uses stored memories and es-
tablished thought patterns to try to bring some order to the random signals,
thus producing dreams.
А He analyses how…
B The theory proposes that…
C The paper suggests approaches to understanding...
D The author provides some examples of…

11. Какое из данных ниже предложений можно описать с помо-


щью следующей модели аннотирования: The Freud’s theory states
that…
А Although most psychiatrists disagreed with some of the ideas of
Freud or Jung, many accepted the central conclusion of their theories – that
dreams have symbolic meanings.
B Freud’s questioning of his patients led him to believe that dreams
are usually brief and that dreaming itself is rare during sleep.
C Dreaming is a unique state of consciousness that is prompted by
such urges as hunger, thirst, and sexuality that arise during the night.
D Most dream researchers maintain that there must be at least some
meaning in dreams, because so many elements in dreams relate to waking
thoughts and concerns.

85
Text 37. What's So Funny?
The Psychology Behind Jokes and Laughter
(1) Laughter is universal. It has nothing to do with what language we
speak, which culture we were raised in, or what our religious faith is. We
all laugh. Psychologists have compared laughter to speaking in tongues
(говорение на (незнакомых) языках; глоссолалия – нарушение арти-
куляции или речи у психически больных): we can't control what we
laugh at, or the sounds that come out of our mouth. All we know is that we
laugh, and that laughter transcends all of our differences.
Scientists have studied laughter by going out into public places and
observing people in social settings, by searching for "the perfect joke" and
studying its effect on the brain of its recipient, and by hooking people up to
an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging – получение изображений мето-
дом ядерного магнитного резонанса) machine and studying brain activ-
ity as they listen to both real and "fake" (jokes not meant to funny) jokes.
What they've discovered about laughter is a bit surprising. And it may ex-
plain why certain people make us laugh easier than others can.
(2) Four Facts About Laughter
1. Laughter varies by age and gender. Children laugh 400 times per
day, as opposed to adults, who only laugh 15 times per day. Any parent has
experienced this. Kids laugh at the weirdest things. But laughter is part of
their cognitive development (когнитивное развитие). Kids who tell and
listen to jokes are learning about language, connections, and irony. Those
who have a well-developed sense of humor have a better outlook on life
and an easier time interacting with their peers.
Women laugh more than men: about 126% more, according to an ar-
ticle published in Psychology Today.
Men are the biggest laugh-getters, a trait that starts early in child-
hood. Most likely, if you think back to the class clown in elementary or
middle school, it was a boy. What makes women the laughers and men the
comedians? That question is still up in the air. As we learn more about the
science of laughter, hopefully the answer will unfold.
2. Laughter is a social phenomenon. Ever notice that you laugh more
when watching a funny movie with your pals than you do when you watch
the same movie by yourself? Psychologists have studied this phenomenon,
as well as the phenomenon known as "contagious laughter" to determine
why it is that we laugh more with others. It comes down to communica-
tion. Laughter is a wordless, un-fakeable demonstration of human emotion.
It binds us as maybe no other force on Earth can. Television producers of

86
the 1950's understood this before anyone studied it – they started setting
sitcoms to laugh tracks to make the home audience laugh and enjoy the
show more. It's also why Leno, Letterman, and Conan tape before a live
studio audience. The audience laughs, and we find ourselves laughing
along with them.
3. Different types of jokes affect different parts of the brain. The part
of the brain that reacts to jokes is the medial ventral (внутренний, вен-
тральный) prefrontal (префронтальный; предлобный) cortex (кора го-
ловного мозга), which is where cognitive development, personality devel-
opment, and determining correct social behavior occurs. However, differ-
ent types of jokes trigger different parts of the brain as we process them.
Puns (игра слов; каламбур) take one path to the prefrontal cortex, for ex-
ample, while story jokes take a completely different neurological path.
This explains why people who have experienced brain trauma may find
one type of joke funny, but find absolutely no humor in an equally funny
joke of a different genre, or why they may lose their sense of humor all to-
gether.
4. Laughter has very little to do with the joke itself. In studying
laughter in social settings, scientists observed an interesting phenomenon:
the joke itself was the least important factor in instigating laughter. In fact,
statements like "well, hello yourself," or "yeah, that's what I thought" were
more likely to get a laugh than an actual joke was. The larger the group, the
more each person in the group laughed. Women tend to laugh more heart-
ily in the presence of men they are attracted to than they do in the presence
of other women or men who don't attract them. What this tells us is that
while a joke can be a great icebreaker, what matters more is the interaction
and relationship between people. This also explains that one guy you know
who tells the dumbest (глупейший) jokes but never fails to be the life of
the party.
(3) The Great Unifier
All of the research boils down (to boil down to – сводиться к (чему-
л.)) to this inescapable (неизбежный, неминуемый, неотвратимый) fact:
humans are, and are designed to be, social beings. Laughter is a reflex, just
like the startle (испуг; страх; вздрагивание (от неожиданного действия,
страха)) reflex, gag (рвотные движения) reflex, of the reflex of automati-
cally pulling your hand away from a hot stove. Laughter is irresistible, con-
tagious, and binds us through its universality. It transcends (выходить за
пределы) the issues and differences that divide us. In the end, we're all the
same, laughing at the same dumb knock-knock joke as the next guy. May-

87
be that's really the reason laughter is the best medicine.

1. Определите, какое утверждение соответствует содержанию тек-


ста.
A Grown-ups laugh only four hundred times per day.
B Men tend to laugh more heartily in the presence of women they
are attracted to.
C Women laugh more than men.
D When psychologists studied the phenomenon of “contagious
laughter”, television producers started setting sitcoms.

2. Определите, какое утверждение не соответствует содержанию


текста.
A We cannot control what we laugh at.
B People laugh more with others.
C The joke itself is the least important factor in instigating laughter.
D Joke can be a great icebreaker.

3. Ответьте на вопрос.
Why is laughter the best medicine?

4. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3) соответствует следующая


идея.
People who have a good sense of humor have a better outlook on
life.

5. Определите основную идею текста.


A Laughter is a sincere demonstration of human emotion.
B Different types of jokes affect different parts of the brain.
C Laughter is the great unifier.
D Certain people make us laugh easier than others can.

6. Определите, является ли утверждение: «Laughing is the reaction to


certain stimuli.» ложным / в тексте нет информации / истинным.

7. Составьте второе предложение с предложенным словом таким


образом, чтобы оно имело тот же смысл, что и первое предложе-
ние.
1. In a larger group each person laughs more.
the
…………………………….. more each person in the group laughs.

88
2. Different types of jokes trigger different parts of the brain as we
process them.
by
Different parts of the brain …………………………… different
types of jokes as we process them.
3. It is know that laughter is a reflex.
to
Laughter …………………………..a reflex.

8. Какая из предложенных ниже моделей больше подходит для


описания следующей мысли: Different types of jokes affect different
parts of the brain.
А The author points out that...
B A bit later the author devotes some attention to…
C The author concentrates on…
D At the beginning of the text the author dwells on…

9. Какое из данных ниже предложений можно описать с помощью


следующей модели аннотирования: All of the research boils down to
the inescapable fact.
А The joke itself was the least important factor in instigating laugh-
ter.
B All we know is that we laugh, and that laughter transcends all of
our differences.
C Humans are, and are designed to be, social beings.
D The audience laughs, and we find ourselves laughing along with
them.

Text 38. Ghost


(1) A ghost is said to be the apparition [видение; привидение, призрак]
of a dead person. They are usually seen to be similar in appearance to that
person, and are often encountered in places he or she frequented [часто
посещать, бывать], or in association with the person's former belongings.
The word "ghost" may also refer to the spirit or soul of a deceased person,
or any spirit or demon. Ghosts are often associated with hauntings [жить,
обитать; являться (о привидении)], which is, according to the Parapsy-
chological Association, "the more or less regular occurrence of paranormal
phenomena associated with a particular locality (especially a building) and
usually attributed to the activities of a discarnate [бестелесный] entity; the

89
phenomena may include apparitions, poltergeist disturbances [волнения,
беспорядки], sounds of footsteps and voices, and various odors [запах
(обычно неприятный)]."
Ghosts are a controversial [спорный, сомнительный] anomalous phe-
nomenon. According to a poll conducted in 2005 by the Gallup Organiza-
tion, about 32% of Americans believe in the existence of ghosts. The term
ghost has been replaced by apparition in parapsychology, because the word
ghost is deemed [думать; полагать, считать] insufficiently precise.
(2) Historical background.
The belief in ghosts as souls of the departed is closely related to the an-
cient concept of animism [анимизм (одушевление явлений природы;
вера в существование душ и духов)], which attributed souls to every-
thing in nature, including human beings, animals, plants, rocks, etc. As the
nineteenth century anthropologist James Frazer explained in his classic
work, The Golden Bough [сук], souls were seen as the creature within that
animated body:
"If a man lives and moves, it can only be because he has a little man or
animal inside, who moves him. The animal inside the animal, the man in-
side the man, is the soul. And as the activity of an animal or man is ex-
plained by the presence of the soul, so the repose [отдых] of sleep or death
is explained by its absence; sleep or trance being the temporary, death be-
ing the permanent absence of the soul... "
Although the human soul was sometimes symbolically or literally de-
picted in ancient cultures as a bird or other animal, it was widely held that
the soul was an exact reproduction of the body in every feature, even down
to clothing the person wore. This is depicted in artwork from various an-
cient cultures, including such works as the Egyptian Book of the Dead,
which shows deceased people in the afterlife appearing much as they did
before death, including the style of dress.
Another widespread belief concerning ghosts is that they were composed
of a misty, airy, or subtle [тонкий; едва уловимый] material. Anthropolo-
gists speculate that this may also stem from early beliefs that ghosts were
the person within the person, most noticeable in ancient cultures as a per-
son's breath, which upon exhaling in colder climates appears visibly as a
white mist. This belief may have also fostered [благоприятствовать] the
metaphorical meaning of "breath" in certain languages, such as the Latin
spiritus and the Greek pneuma, which by analogy became extended to
mean the soul. In the Bible, God is depicted as animating Adam with a
breath.

90
Although the evidence for ghosts is largely anecdotal, the belief in
ghosts throughout history has remained widespread and persistent.
In many historical accounts [сообщение], ghosts were thought to be de-
ceased people looking for vengeance [месть], or imprisoned on earth for
bad things they did during life. Most cultures have ghost stories in their
mythologies. Many stories from the Middle Ages and the Romantic era re-
ly on the macabre [жуткий] and the fantastic, and ghosts are a major theme
in literature from those eras.
Ghost stories date back to ancient times, and can be found in many dif-
ferent cultures.
Many Eastern religious traditions also subscribe to
[присоединяться к] the concept of ghosts. The Hebrew Torah and the
Bible contain few references to ghosts, associating spiritism with for-
bidden occult activities. In the New Testament, Jesus has to persuade
the Disciples that he is not a ghost following the resurrection. In a
similar vein [подобным образом], Jesus' followers at first believe
him to be a ghost when they see him walking on water.
(3) Critics of "eyewitness ghost sightings" suggest that limitations
of human perception and ordinary physical explanations can account
for such sightings; for example, air pressure changes in a home caus-
ing doors to slam, or lights from a passing car reflected through a
window at night. Pareidolia [парейдолические иллюзии (зрительные
иллюзии фантастического содержания)], an innate tendency to rec-
ognize patterns in random perceptions, can cause people to believe
they have seen ghosts. Reports of ghosts "seen out of the corner of the
eye" may be accounted for by the sensitivity of human peripheral vi-
sion. According to skeptical investigator Joe Nickell: ...peripheral vi-
sion is very sensitive and can easily mislead, especially late at night,
when the brain is tired and more likely to misinterpret sights and
sounds.
Sound is thought to be another cause of supposed sightings. Fre-
quencies lower than 20 hertz are called infrasound and are normally
inaudible, but scientists Richard Lord and Richard Wiseman have
concluded that infrasound can cause humans to experience bizarre
feelings in a room, such as anxiety, extreme sorrow or even the chills.
Carbon monoxide [угарный газ] poisoning, which can cause chang-
es in perception of the visual and auditory systems, was recognized as
a possible explanation for haunted houses as early as 1921.
Another potential explanation of apparitions is that they are hypna-

91
gogic [гипногогический (относящийся к состоянию засыпания,
напр. о галлюцинациях)] hallucinations.
The traditional perception of ghosts wearing clothing is considered
illogical by some researchers, given the supposed spiritual nature of
ghosts, suggesting that the basis of what a ghost is said to look like
and consist of is quite dependent on preconceptions made by society.
Skeptics also say that, to date, there is no credible scientific evidence
that any location is inhabited by spirits of the dead.

1. Продолжите предложение: According to the passage, ghosts are…


A persons within the persons.
B deceased people looking for vengeance.
C hypnagogic hallucinations.
D anomalous phenomena.

2. Определите, какое утверждение соответствует содержанию тек-


ста.
A In ancient cultures the body was an exact reproduction of its soul
in every feature.
B Sleep, trance or death are the temporary absence of the soul.
C They say ghosts in colder climates appear visibly as a white mist.
D Ghosts were thought to be deceased people imprisoned on earth
for bad things they did during life.

3. Определите, какое утверждение не соответствует содержанию


текста.
A In ancient cultures the human soul was symbolically or literally
depicted as a bird or other animal.
B Ghosts are composed of a misty, airy, or subtle material.
C Ghosts are often associated with hauntings.
D The term “ghost” is rather precise as it means “spiritus”.

4. Ответьте на вопрос.
What is animism?

5. Укажите, в какой части текста (1, 2, 3) содержится ответ на во-


прос.
What is pareidolia?

92
6. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3) соответствует следующая
идея.
Belief in ghosts is widespread as ghost stories can be found in many
different cultures.

7. Определите, является ли утверждение: «About one third of Ameri-


cans believe in the existence of ghosts.» ложным / в тексте нет инфор-
мации / истинным.

8. Какая из предложенных ниже моделей больше подходит для


описания следующей мысли: There is no credible scientific evidence
that any location is inhabited by spirits of the dead.
А His conclusions based on…..
B In the last part the author describes…
C The author summarize that...
D In the conclusion the author gives us summary of his results.

9. Какое из данных ниже предложений можно описать с помощью


следующей модели аннотирования: The author takes into account
that…
А...peripheral vision is very sensitive and can easily mislead, espe-
cially late at night, when the brain is tired and more likely to misinterpret
sights and sounds.
B Many Eastern religious traditions also subscribe to the concept of
ghosts.
C A ghost is said to be the apparition of a dead person.
D In the Bible, God is depicted as animating Adam with a breath.

Text 39. Globalization (Глобализация)


(1) Globalization is a process of interaction (взаимодействие) and inte-
gration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations, a
process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information
technology. This process has effects on the environment, on culture, on politi-
cal systems, on economic development and prosperity, and on human physical
well-being in societies around the world.
Globalization is not new, though. For thousands of years, people – and,
later, corporations – have been buying from and selling to each other in lands
at great distances, such as through the famed Silk Road across Central Asia
that connected China and Europe during the Middle Ages. Likewise, for centu-

93
ries, people and corporations have invested in enterprises in other countries. In
fact, many of the features of the current wave of globalization are similar to
those prevailing before the outbreak of the First World War in 1914.
But policy and technological developments of the past few decades
(десятилетия) have increased cross-border trade, investment, and migration so
large that many observers believe the world has entered a qualitatively new
phase in its economic development.
(2) In the years since the Second World War many governments have
adopted free-market economic systems, vastly increasing their own productive
potential and creating new opportunities for international trade and investment.
Governments also have negotiated dramatic reductions in barriers to commerce
and have established international agreements to promote trade in goods, ser-
vices, and investment. Taking advantage of new opportunities in foreign mar-
kets, corporations have built foreign factories and established production and
marketing arrangements with foreign partners. A defining feature of globaliza-
tion, therefore, is an international industrial and financial business structure.
Technology has been the other principal driver of globalization. Ad-
vances in information technology, in particular, have dramatically transformed
economic life.
(3) Globalization is deeply controversial (спорный, противоречивый,
дискуссионный), however. Proponents (защитники, сторонники) of global-
ization argue that it allows poor countries and their citizens to develop eco-
nomically and raise their standards of living, while opponents of globalization
claim that the creation of an unfettered international free market has benefited
multinational corporations in the Western world at the expense of local enter-
prises, local cultures, and common people. Resistance to globalization has
therefore taken shape both at a popular and at a governmental level as people
and governments try to manage the flow of capital, labor, goods, and ideas that
constitute the current wave of globalization.
To find the right balance between benefits and costs (доходы и
издержки) associated with globalization, citizens of all nations need to under-
stand how globalization works and the policy choices facing them and their so-
cieties.

1. Определите, какое утверждение соответствует содержанию тек-


ста.
A Information technology is the driving force of globalization.
B Since the First World War the world has entered a quantitative
new phase of globalization.

94
C Nowadays a defining feature of globalization is an international
industrial and financial business structure.
D Globalization is a process of investing money in local corpora-
tions.

2. Определите, какое утверждение не соответствует содержанию


текста.
A Supporters of globalization say that this process can raise their
standards of living.
B Opponents of globalization claim that this process works for
Western multinational corporations.
C Production and marketing arrangements with foreign partners is a
characteristic feature of globalization.
D Citizens of all nations should accept principles of globalization.

3. Ответьте на вопрос.
What is globalization?

4. Укажите, в какой части текста (1, 2, 3) содержится ответ на во-


прос.
How did people interact with each other centuries ago?

5. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3) соответствует следующая


идея.
Globalization influences all spheres of human life.

6. Определите основную идею текста.


A To lead happy life people should trade with each other.
B Globalization is the consequence of people integration.
C Only technological progress can increase cross-border trade and
investment.
D Globalization is deeply controversial.

7. Определите, является ли утверждение: «The term globalization is


derived from the root word “globalize”, which refers to the emergence of
an international network of social and economic systems.» ложным / в
тексте нет информации / истинным.

8. Составьте второе предложение с предложенным словом таким

95
образом, чтобы оно имело тот же смысл, что и первое предложе-
ние.
1. Governments have established international agreements to promote
trade in goods, services, and investment.
by
To promote trade in goods, services, and investment, international
agreements ……………………………….. governments.
2. Advances in information technology have dramatically trans-
formed economic life.
caused
Advances in information technology ……………………………….
in economic life.
3. Globalization allows poor countries and their citizens to develop
economically.
due
………….…………. poor countries and their citizens can develop
economically.

9. Какая из предложенных ниже моделей больше подходит для


описания следующей мысли: In the years since the Second World War
many governments have adopted free-market economic systems, vastly
increasing their own productive potential and creating new opportuni-
ties for international trade and investment.
А The author recalls…
B The author criticizes…
C The author condemns…
D The author passes on to…

10. Какое из данных ниже предложений можно описать с помо-


щью следующей модели аннотирования: The author starts by telling
the reader about…
А Globalization is a process of interaction and integration among
the people, companies, and governments of different nations, a proc-
ess driven by international trade and investment and aided by informa-
tion technology.
B Globalization is not new, though.
C Globalization is deeply controversial, however.
D Technology has been the other principal driver of globaliza-
tion.

96
Text 40. Terrorism
(1) The word «terrorism» is controversial. Definitions of «terrorism»
generally involve some or all of the following: 1) a terrorist act is generally
unlawful; 2) it is violent and may be life threatening; 3) the violence is po-
litically motivated; 4) the direct targets are civilians; 5) the direct targets
may not be the main targets; 6) the main targets may be one or more na-
tion-states, governments, or societies; or a political, ethnic, or religious
group, or an industry or commercial operation, within those societies; 7)
the objective is usually to frighten the main targets; 8) there may or may
not be a claim of responsibility.
(2) Terrorism expert A. P. Schmid of the United Nations Office for
Drug Control and Crime Prevention has proposed a short legal definition
for use by the UN, namely that an act of terrorism is «the peacetime equiv-
alent of a war crime». The words «terrorism» and «terror» originally re-
ferred to methods employed by regimes to control their own populations
through fear, a tactic seen in totalitarian regimes such as Nazi Germany
and Soviet Russia. The current use of the term relies more on the example
of the 19th-century revolutionaries who used the technique of assassina-
tion, particularly the anarchists and Narodniks (populists) in Tsarist Russia,
whose most notable action was the assassination of Alexander II.
(3) In response to the September 11, 2001 attacks, political leaders
from Europe, North America, Asia, and the Middle East have placed the
phenomenon of terrorism within the context of a global struggle against
systems of government perceived by those accused of using terrorist tactics
as harmful to their interests. Acts of terrorism can be carried out by indi-
viduals or groups. The most common image of terrorism is that it is carried
out by small and secretive cells, highly motivated to serve a particular
cause. Terrorists often seek to demoralize and paralyze their enemy with
fear, using their acts as a form of blackmail to apply pressure on govern-
ments to achieve goals the terrorists could not achieve by other means.
(4) Recent developments have seen a divergence in social and politi-
cal responses to terrorism between the United States and Western Europe.
The September 11, 2001 attacks were carried out by foreigners who en-
tered the country for that purpose, on behalf of a foreign organization, op-
erating from bases in a remote country. Western European countries, on the
other hand, are now confronted with a domestic terrorism based within a
domestic religious minority, some recent immigrants, but many native-
born citizens.

97
1. Определите, какое утверждение не соответствует содержанию
текста.
A A terrorist act is generally unlawful and politically motivated.
B The direct targets of terrorists may not be the main targets.
C Terror is a method employed by regimes to control their own pop-
ulations through fear.
D Terror is technique of association in totalitarian regimes.

2. Ответьте на вопрос.
What are the responses to terrorism in America and Europe?

3. Укажите, в какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) содержится ответ на


вопрос.
What are the objectives of terrorists?

4. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует следую-


щая идея.
Terrorists are highly motivated to serve a particular cause.

5. Определите, является ли утверждение: «Modern instances of ter-


ror include red terror or white terror.» ложным / в тексте нет информа-
ции / истинным.

6. Составьте второе предложение с предложенным словом таким


образом, чтобы оно имело тот же смысл, что и первое предложе-
ние.
1. A. Schmid defined an act of terrorism as «the peacetime equivalent
of a war crime».
by
An act of terrorism …………………………as «the peacetime
equivalent of a war crime».
2. Terrorists often seek to demoralize and frighten their enemy.
and
………………………………………………. are the means of terrorists.
3. Western European countries are now confronted with a domestic
terrorism.
against
Western European countries ……………………………….. a do-
mestic terrorism.

98
7. Какая из предложенных ниже моделей больше подходит для
описания следующей мысли: Recent developments have seen a diver-
gence in social and political responses to terrorism between the United
States and Western Europe.
А The author voices the protest against …
B The author gives figures illustrating …
C The author provides much information on…
D The author gives a detailed account of …

8. Какое из данных ниже предложений можно описать с помощью


следующей модели аннотирования: I (quite) agree with the author on
the point that…
А The most common image of terrorism is that it is carried out by
small and secretive cells, highly motivated to serve a particular cause.
B Definitions of «terrorism» generally involve some or all of the fol-
lowing…
C Western European countries are now confronted with a domestic
terrorism based within a domestic religious minority, some recent immi-
grants, but many native-born citizens.
D A terrorist act is generally unlawful.

Text 41. UFO


(1) A UFO is an Unidentified Flying Object (неопознанный
летающий объект) which has been identified as a possible or actual
alien spacecraft. Such objects include meteors, disintegrating satel-
lites, flocks of birds, aircraft, lights, weather balloons, and just about
anything moving within the visible band of electromagnetism.
There are as many photographs of UFOs and they are of equal
quality: blurs and forgeries. Other physical evidence, such as alleged
debris from alien crashes, or burn marks on the ground from alien
landings, or implants in bodies of alien abductees, have turned out to
be quite terrestrial, including forgeries. The main reasons for believ-
ing in UFOs are the testimony of many people, the inability to distin-
guish science fiction from science, the willingness to trust men tell-
ing fantastic stories, the ability to distrust all contrary sources as be-
ing part of a conspiracy to withhold the truth, and a desire for contact
with the world above. Belief in aliens in UFOs is akin to belief in su-
pernatural beings.
(2) UFOlogy is the mythology of the space age. Rather than an-

99
gels... we now have... extraterrestrials (инопланетяне). It seeks to
give man deeper roots and bearings in the universe. It is an expres-
sion of our hunger for mystery... our hope for transcendental mean-
ing. The ancient gods have been transformed into space voyagers.
It seems reasonable to believe that the only reason we cannot
explain these sightings by conventional means is because we do not
have all the evidence – not because these sightings are probably due
to alien visitations. If we had all the evidence, we would probably be
able to explain the sightings by some conventional means.
(3) It is assumed by UFOlogists that the government, especially
the CIA (Central Intelligence Agency – Центральное
разведывательное управление, ЦРУ), is lying and covering up alien
landings and communication. However, there is no evidence for this
other than a general distrust of the government and the fact that many
government officials have lied, distorted the truth and been mistaken
when reporting to the general public.
Most unidentified flying objects are eventually identified as
hoaxes (обман, ложная тревога, "утка") or astronomical events, air-
craft, satellites, weather balloons, or other natural phenomena. In
studies done by the Air Force, less than 2 % of UFO sightings remain
unidentifiable. It is more probable that with more information those 2
% would be identified as meteors, aircraft, etc., than that they are al-
ien spacecraft.

1. Продолжите предложение: According to the passage, UFOlogy is…


A an Unidentified Flying Object.
B science fiction.
C the mythology of the space age.
D Central Intelligence Agency.

2. Ответьте на вопрос.
Why do people believe in UFOs?

3. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3) соответствует следующая


идея.
There is no scientific evidence that UFOs exist.

4. Определите основную идею текста.


A The main reasons for believing in UFOs are the testimony of

100
many people.
B Most unidentified flying objects are just natural phenomena.
C People need to believe in something.
D The CIA is lying and covering up alien landings.

5. Определите, является ли утверждение: «Unidentified flying ob-


jects include everything moving within the visible band of electromagnet-
ism.» ложным / в тексте нет информации / истинным.

6. Составьте второе предложение с предложенным словом таким


образом, чтобы оно имело тот же смысл, что и первое предложе-
ние.
1. Belief in aliens in UFOs is akin to belief in supernatural beings.
common
Belief in aliens in UFOs …………………………. belief in super-
natural beings.
2. We cannot explain these sightings by conventional means.
be
These sightings …………………………… by conventional means.
3. It is more probable that with more information those 2 % would be
identified as meteors, aircraft, etc., than that they are alien spacecraft.
had
…………………………………. those 2 % would be identified as
meteors, aircraft, etc., than that they are alien spacecraft.

7. Какая из предложенных ниже моделей больше подходит для


описания следующей мысли: There are as many photographs of UFOs
and they are of equal quality: blurs and forgeries.
А The reasoning in the paper is very difficult to follow.
B The paper includes only the minimum of material.
C As far as understand the author wanted to show his attitude to …
D On reading the article we realize the fact that…

8. Какое из данных ниже предложений можно описать с помощью


следующей модели аннотирования: We can make a conclusion that…
А The ancient gods have been transformed into space voyagers.
B A UFO is an Unidentified Flying Object which has been identified
as a possible or actual alien spacecraft.
C Most unidentified flying objects are eventually identified as hoaxes

101
or astronomical events, aircraft, satellites, weather balloons, or other natu-
ral phenomena.
D Belief in aliens in UFOs is akin to belief in supernatural beings.

Text 42. What Is Fashion?


(1) Fashion is something we deal with everyday. Even people who
say they don't care what they wear choose clothes every morning that say a
lot about them and how they feel that day.
One certain thing in the fashion world is change. We are constantly
being bombarded [bom’ba:did ]with new fashion ideas from music, videos,
books, and television. Movies also have a big impact on what people wear.
Ray-Ban sold more sunglasses after the movie Men In Black. Sometimes a
trend is world-wide. Back in the 1950s, teenagers everywhere dressed like
Elvis Presley.
(2) Who dictates fashion?
Musicians and other cultural icons have always influenced what
we're wearing, but so have political figures and royalty. Even folks in the
1700s pored over [разглядывать] fashion magazines to see the latest
styles. Women and dressmakers outside the French court [двор короля]
relied on sketches [набросок] to see what was going on. The famous
French King Louis XIV said that fashion is a mirror. Louis himself was re-
nowned [известный] for his style, which tended towards extravagant laces
and velvets [бархат].
Clothes separate people into groups. Fashion is a language which
tells a story about the person who wears it. "Clothes create a wordless
means of communication that we all understand," according to Katherine
Hamnett, a top British fashion designer. Hamnett became popular when her
T-shirts with large messages like "Choose Life" were worn by several rock
bands.
(3) There are many reasons we wear what we wear.
- Protection from cold, rain and snow: mountain climbers wear high-
tech outerwear [верхняя одежда] to avoid frostbite [обморожение].
- Physical attraction.
- Emotions: we dress "up" when we're happy and "down" when we're
upset.
- Religious expression: Orthodox Jewish men wear long black suits
and Islamic women cover every part of their body except their eyes.
- Identification and tradition: judges wear robes, people in the mili-
tary wear uniforms, brides wear long white dresses.

102
(4) Fashion is big business. More people are involved in the buying,
selling and production of clothing than any other business in the world.
Everyday, millions of workers design, sew [шить], glue [клеить], dye
[красить], and transport clothing to stores. Ads on buses, billboards
[рекламный щит] and magazines give us ideas about what to wear, con-
sciously, or subconsciously.
Clothing can be used as a political weapon. In nineteenth century
England, laws prohibited people from wearing clothes produced in France.
During twentieth century communist revolutions, uniforms were used to
abolish [упразднять] class and race distinctions.
Fashion is an endless popularity contest.
High fashion is the style of a small group of men and women with a
certain taste and authority [авторитет] in the fashion world. People of
wealth and position, buyers for major department stores, editors and writ-
ers for fashion magazines are all part of Haute Couture ("High Fashion" in
French). Some of these expensive and often artistic fashions may triumph
[восторжествовать] and become the fashion for the larger majority. Most
stay on the runway [подиум].
Popular fashions are close to impossible to trace. No one can tell how
the short skirts and boots worn by teenagers in England in 1960 made it to
the runways of Paris, or how blue jeans became so popular in the U.S., or
how hip-hop made it from the streets of the Bronx to the Haute Couture
fashion shows of London and Milan.
(5) Fashion Tips
Lay out your clothes before putting them on and check the propor-
tions. Juggle jackets, scarves & belts to re-arrange the clothes to get the
look you want.
- Thinner fabrics are more slimming.
- Tops and bottoms of one color will make you look thinner.
- Wear clothes that fit.
- Wearing too large clothes will exaggerate your figure not hide it.
- Avoid belts unless you have a slim waist.
- Use accessories carefully.
You can make your wardrobe impressive with mix and match jew-
elry. Shoes depend less on your body shape than you height. Do not buy
clothes on impulse. Plan before you buy a blouse or pants. Be somewhat
scientific about shopping, consider your body type, and colors.
(6) Ask yourself some questions:
- Do you have anything you can mix and match with it? Does it

103
match your lifestyle?
- Will it be comfortable and easy to wear?
- Is it machine wash or dry clean only?
- Will it fit your budget? Is it appropriate?
- Is it a fad, can it be worn more than one season?
- Is it of good quality? Quality counts, it is better to have four or five
mix and match outfits of quality, than 8 or 10 'steals.'
Think in terms of outfits when you shop, and be practical. When you
buy a new dress, be sure you have shoes and other accessories to go with it.
May be a jacket or scarf to wear over it to give it a different look.
(7) Clothes Styles and Body Shapes:
- High collars shorten necks.
- Shoes with straps shorten your legs. The torso can be shortened or
narrowed with seam lines, belts, bows, and collars.
- A short necklace can shorten your neck.
- A scarf or belt that hangs down toward the legs will make the legs
appear longer.
- Thicker vertical lines lengthens and slims.

1. Продолжите предложение: According to the passage, the fashion


is…
A style of dress.
B music.
C video.
D a popular style in clothing, music, videos, books, and television.

2. Определите, какое утверждение соответствует содержанию тек-


ста.
A It doesn’t matter what clothes you wear.
B Styles of dressing are rather predictable.
C Films can dictate fashion.
D It is not necessary to be practical buying things.

3. Определите, какое утверждение не соответствует содержанию


текста.
A Musicians have always influenced what we are wearing.
B Clothes is a means of communication.
C We never choose clothes according to our traditions.
D If people are plump, they should better hide their figures under
large clothes.

104
4. Ответьте на вопрос.
How to make a wardrobe impressive?

5. Укажите, в какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7) содержится от-


вет на вопрос.
How to look fashionable for less money?

6. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7) соответствует


следующая идея.
To look attractive it is not necessary to have a perfect figure.

7. Определите, является ли утверждение: «It is better to have four or


five things of good quality, than ten cheap dresses.» ложным / в тексте
нет информации / истинным.

8. Какая из предложенных ниже моделей больше подходит для


описания следующей мысли: Think in terms of outfits when you shop,
and be practical.
А The author touches upon…
B The author advised the reader…
C The author introduces…
D The author characterizes…

9. Какое из данных ниже предложений можно описать с помощью


следующей модели аннотирования: In examining the problem the au-
thor points out that…
А When you buy a new dress, be sure you have shoes and other ac-
cessories to go with it.
B You can make your wardrobe impressive with mix and match jew-
elry.
C High fashion is the style of a small group of men and women with
a certain taste and authority in the fashion world.
D Shoes depend less on your body shape than you height.

Text 43. Family Relationships


(1) The traditional image of the family in both Britain and the USA is
a stable family unit consisting of a married couple and two or more chil-
dren. As a result of the social changes and changes in legislation in recent
years, the majority of families no longer conform to this image. Family

105
size is decreasing and the average number of children per family is less
than two. Many couples live together without being married and the stig-
ma that used to be associated with illegitimacy is disappearing. The trend
towards early marriage that was evident in the 1960s has been reversed. In
Britain the average age for people marrying for the first time is 26 for men
and 24 for women. Changes in legislation have made it easier to obtain a
divorce. About one in three marriages in Britain and one in two in the USA
end in divorce. Many people marry again after divorce so that a high pro-
portion of children live with a step-parent. The proportion of families, led
by a single parent, normally the mother, has also increased.
(2) People often move to different parts of the country to work, so
that many children have little contact with their grandparents, aunts, uncles
and cousins except at family reunions, held traditionally at Christmas. Stu-
dents often leave home when they go to university and people may leave
home to find work from the age of 16. People may marry at 16 with their
parents' consent and at 18 without it. It is usual for young people to move
away from home once they are adult, and many young single people live
alone, as do many retired people.
Most parents encourage their children to become independent and the
relationship between parents and children is more relaxed than in the past.
Fathers often play a greater part in the care and upbringing of children re-
flecting the changes in the respective role of both parents as more mothers
work outside the home.
(3) Relationships in the family are to a great extent connected with
the role of women in the society. The professional activities of women, es-
pecially from middle class and upper-middle class, tend to be more strenu-
ous. One of the main developments in the present-day life has been the in-
creasing number of women in paid employment. This has come about not
only because of the recognition of the important contributions women can
make, but also as a result of the altered nature of family life. The trend to-
wards later marriage means that women usually work some years before
marrying and having children, and many women combine a job with rais-
ing a young family, although many find it difficult because of a shortage of
child care provision. There is a degree of flexibility in some jobs and some
employers provide help with child care for working mothers but they are
still in a minority. In Britain in the late 1980s about half of all married
women of working age had a job or were looking for one. This is a higher
proportion than anywhere else in Europe except Denmark.
(4) On the whole, possible to say that family, as a social institution is

106
now undergoing major changes which may be ascribed to the altering na-
ture of the people's professional and social activities.

1. Найдите в тексте выражения: традиционный образ, устойчивая


единица, состоять, в результате, уменьшаться, число детей в расчете
на одну семью, клеймо, незаконность, законодательство, заканчивать-
ся разводом, приемный родитель, семейные праздники, уехать из до-
ма, поощрять, забота о детях и воспитание детей, взрослые, пенсио-
неры, изменившийся характер семейной жизни, сочетать работу с за-
ботой о молодой семье, тенденция к более позднему вступлению в
брак, ухудшение условий, быть в меньшинстве.

2. Определите, какое утверждение соответствует содержанию тек-


ста.
A Nowadays the majority of families have two or more children.
B More and more people contract early marriages.
C It is difficult to obtain a divorce.
D It is not uncommon that children live with one parent.

3. Определите, какое утверждение не соответствует содержанию


текста.
A Many people marry again after divorce.
B It is usual for many young people to live alone.
C Fathers often play a greater part in upbringing of their children.
D Young people don’t need their parents' consent to marry.

4. Ответьте на вопрос.
How has family relationships been changed due to the professional
activities of women?

5. Укажите, в какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) содержится ответ на


вопрос.
What is the average age for people marrying for the first time in the
UK?

6. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует следую-


щая идея.
Women pay more attention to their carrier than starting a family.

107
7. Определите основную идею текста.
A Family size is decreasing.
B Family is still a social institution even if its image has been
changed.
C Most parents encourage their children to become independent.
D It is good that some employers provide help with child care for
working mothers.

8. Определите, является ли утверждение: «Many children have little


contact with their relatives.» ложным / в тексте нет информации / ис-
тинным.

9. Какая из предложенных ниже моделей больше подходит для


описания следующей мысли: Family, as a social institution is now un-
dergoing major changes which may be ascribed to the altering nature of the
people's professional and social activities.
А On the whole, possible to say that…
B The paper suggests approaches to understanding...
C The author starts with a brief account of...
D In addition to his analyses, results the author tells us about…..

10. Какое из данных ниже предложений можно описать с помо-


щью следующей модели аннотирования: The aim of the article is to
provide the reader with some material on…
А The traditional image of the family in both Britain and the USA.
B About one in three marriages in Britain and one in two in the USA
end in divorce.
C The trend towards later marriage.
D Relationships in the family.

Text 44. Communication


(1) Communication is a form of human interaction. People cannot
maintain normal life, share experience, work-related and everyday
skills without communicating with, and influencing once another.
Communication enables people to form a view of the world, reach mutual
understanding and find a "common language". However, it is also an ex-
change of actions, acts, thoughts and emotions with others, as well as
drawing on one's own inner world – memories, consciousness and aspira-
tions. The "secret" of communication lies in one's desire and ability to live

108
with other people in harmony and in atmosphere of good will, generously
sharing with them the riches of one's own heart.
(2) Communication is a combination of education and self-education
in which people influence one another without didacticism or moralizing.
This makes the issue of the moral content and cultural forms of communi-
cation very important.
Genuine human communication is a form of creative activity that
helps bring out one's best qualities. Communication is based on respect for
the dignity, of others, for basic universal moral standards.
The spoken work is the most meaningful, embracing and expressive
means of communication. An ability to talk, listen and converse is an es-
sential condition for mutual understanding and a means for checking on the
truth or error of one's own view and ideals.
(3) What might be called the "mute language" of communication of
emotions has in its arsenal the look and the gesture that may be warm or
offensive, nice or vulgar, covering sympathy or antipathy, while posture,
manner in conversation, etc., are also a measure of civilization and breed-
ing.
The manner and means of communication have an ethical, humanis-
tic meaning in that they indicate the extent to which one is able to put one-
self in place of another. Formation and development of the need for com-
munication is a major task of moral education. It is also a guarantee of
proper orientation in the evolution of sociability, of the standards of com-
munication itself.

1. Продолжите предложение: According to the passage, communication


is…
A an exchange of actions, acts, thoughts and emotions with others.
B desire and ability to live with other people.
C a form of human interaction.
D basic universal moral standards.

2. Определите, какое утверждение соответствует содержанию тек-


ста.
A Communication helps people find a "common language".
B Understanding depends on an ability to talk, listen and converse.
C An ability to persuade contributes to better understanding.
D Mute language is based on the look and gestures.

109
3. Ответьте на вопрос.
What is the purpose of communication?

4. Укажите, в какой части текста (1, 2, 3) содержится ответ на во-


прос.
What is the most meaningful means of communication?

5. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3) соответствует следующая


идея.
Communication makes possible for people to form a worldview.

6. Составьте второе предложение с предложенным словом таким


образом, чтобы оно имело тот же смысл, что и первое предложе-
ние.
1. People cannot maintain normal life without communicating with
one another.
should
To maintain normal life ……………………………… one another.
2. Genuine human communication is based on respect for basic uni-
versal moral standards.
the
Respect for basic universal moral standards
……………………………….. genuine human communication.
3. Posture and manner in conversation are a measure of civilization
and breeding.
extent
Posture and manner in conversation are an ………………………….
to which one is able to put oneself in place of another.

7. Какая из предложенных ниже моделей больше подходит для


описания следующей мысли: Communication is a form of human in-
teraction.
А The author determines the nature of...
B The author analyses such question as ….
C Finally, the author suggests…
D At the end of the article the author sums up…

8. Какое из данных ниже предложений можно описать с помощью


следующей модели аннотирования: In addition to his results the au-

110
thor tells us about…
А Communication enables people to form a view of the world.
B The spoken work is the most meaningful, embracing and expres-
sive means of communication.
C Communication is based on respect for the dignity, of others, for
basic universal moral standards.
D Communication is a combination of education and self-education
in which people influence one another.

Text 45. Dead water


(1) Among the dramatic events of World War II three especially
mysterious ones remained unknown or did not attract particular attention.
The first event took place in France. On May 16, 1940, when Nazi
troops were marching on Paris, two French scientists from the Joliot-Curie
laboratory were making their way to the south of France. They had with
them several sealed containers in which there were 185 kilograms of water.
In Bordeaux the containers were loaded onto the British ship Brampark. A
raft was built on the deck and all the containers of water were secured to it.
Had the vessel been destroyed by enemy submarines the containers would
not have been lost. The voyage, however, was successful and the load was
brought safely to Great Britain.
(2) The second mysterious event took place in Denmark, then occu-
pied by German troops. On a rather stormy night Niels Bohr, a well-known
physicist, escaped to Sweden in a small boat. The most precious thing in
his luggage was a beer bottle, which he cherished dearly. The beer bottle,
however, was only a camouflage: it was filled with pure water.
(3) No less mysterious was an event that occurred in Norway. In
1942 the small Norwegian town of Rjukan was raided by British para-
troopers. The object of this enigmatic operation long remained a secret.
Only after the war did it become known that this risky operation had been
undertaken with the purpose of destroying a small plant and a store of four
hundred litres of water kept there.
The real reason for all these incomprehensible events was, in fact,
heavy water. Heavy water was discovered not long ago. Some forty years
ago the American scientist Urey found that, besides ordinary hydrogen,
there exists heavy hydrogen, whose atoms are twice as heavy as those of
ordinary hydrogen. Scientists were so perplexed that they gave the new
hydrogen the name of deuterium, as if it were not hydrogen at all but a
completely different substance.

111
(4) As is known, a water molecule comprises two atoms of hydrogen
and one of oxygen. When atoms of heavy hydrogen are present heavy wa-
ter is formed. It was more recently discovered that an even heavier hydro-
gen exists, called tritium, and that there are two kinds of heavy oxygen.
Molecules of water are made up of various combinations of the atoms of
these substances. Thus, any water is a mixture of eighteen various com-
pounds, seventeen of which are varieties of heavy water.
The proportion of heavy water in ordinary water is negligible. Mole-
cules containing the heaviest oxygen occur at the rate of one thousand per
million, and those containing deuterium, two hundred per million. Heavy
water, which was first-obtained in a pure form just before the war, was es-
sential in the creation of the atomic bomb. For this reason, the Allies took
measures to prevent it from falling into the hands of the Nazis.
(5) What is heavy water like? The water studied best is that contain-
ing deuterium. It cannot be distinguished from ordinary water by its colour,
small or taste, but it is not good for living organisms. In this way popular
legends about live and dead water arose. Heavy water proved to be dead in
the real sense of the word, for it cannot sustain life.
Plant seeds placed in heavy water fail to germinate. Fish and single-
celled organisms and microbes die after a short time. Mice and rats which
are given heavy water to drink do not live long. If the heavy water they are
given is diluted they survive, but suffer from terrible thirst. Heavy water
always brings about death. It has oven been suggested that an, accumu-
lation of heavy water in an organism is responsible for ageing, but there is
still no convincing evidence to support this.
Is the small admixture of heavy water that is always present in ordi-
nary water harmful to us? Obviously, it is not. In fact, small amounts of
heavy water are beneficial for man, as it intensifies certain vital processes,
whereas large quantities retard them. Heavy water is not lethal for living
beings, but any marked retardation of vitally important processes is fatal.
1. Продолжите предложение: According to the passage, dead water is…
A Bordeaux water.
B heavy water.
C live water.
D diluted water.

2. Определите, какое утверждение соответствует содержанию тек-


ста.
A When Nazi troops were marching on Paris, two French scientists

112
were sealing containers in which there were 185 kilograms of water.
B Niels Bohr escaped to Norway with a beer bottle, which he cher-
ished dearly.
C When atoms of heavy hydrogen are present heavy water is
formed.
D Heavy water was discovered by German scientists.

3. Определите, какое утверждение не соответствует содержанию


текста.
A A water molecule comprises two atoms of hydrogen and one of
oxygen.
B There are two kinds of heavy oxygen.
C Any water is a mixture of eighteen various compounds.
D Heavy water contains seventeen compounds of heavy oxygen.

4. Ответьте на вопрос.
Why did the Allies not want the Nazis to obtain heavy water?

5. Укажите, в какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) содержится ответ на


вопрос.
What is the difference between heavy water and ordinary water?

6. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) соответствует сле-


дующая идея.
Heavy water is unfit to drink.

7. Определите основную идею текста.


A Heavy water is responsible for ageing.
B Heavy water is an essential components of the atomic bomb.
C Heavy water is always present in ordinary water.
D Microbes die in heavy water after a short time.

8. Определите, является ли утверждение: «Heavy water is not radio-


active.» ложным / в тексте нет информации / истинным.

9. Составьте второе предложение с предложенным словом таким


образом, чтобы оно имело тот же смысл, что и первое предложе-
ние.
1. Had the vessel been destroyed by enemy submarines the containers
would not have been lost.

113
if
………………………………… been destroyed by enemy sub-
marines the containers would not have been lost.
2. As is known, a water molecule comprises two atoms of hydrogen
and one of oxygen.
to
A water molecule ……………………….. two atoms of hydrogen
and one of oxygen.
3. Heavy water proved to be dead in the real sense of the word, for it
cannot sustain life.
that
……………………… heavy water is dead in the real sense of the
word, for it cannot sustain life.

10. Переведите предложения из текста по памяти, сопоставьте


ваш перевод с текстом.
Что же представляет собой тяжелая вода?
Лучше всего изучена вода, в молекулы которой включен дейте-
рий.
По цвету, запаху, вкусу она ничем не отличается от обычной во-
ды, но совершенно непригодна для живых организмов.
Вот так неожиданно воскресли народные предания о живой и
мертвой воде.
Тяжелая вода в самом прямом смысле этого слова оказалась
мертвой.
Она не способна поддерживать жизнь.

11. Какая из предложенных ниже моделей больше подходит для


описания следующей мысли: Is the small admixture of heavy water
that is always present in ordinary water harmful to us?
А The text deals with such question as…
B In the third one we find information about…
C The aim of the article is to explain...
D The article is devoted to the problem of…

12. Какое из данных ниже предложений можно описать с помо-


щью следующей модели аннотирования: Besides that in the article
we may find information about…
А As is known, a water molecule comprises two atoms of hydrogen
and one of oxygen.

114
B Plant seeds placed in heavy water fail to germinate.
C The proportion of heavy water in ordinary water is negligible.
D Among the dramatic events of World War II three especially mys-
terious ones remained unknown or did not attract particular attention.

Text 46. The problem of the environment


and the development of society's needs
(1) The last three decades in the world's development have been
characterized by the increasingly pressing nature of global problems that
are of concern to the whole of mankind. The accelerated growth of the
productive forces, the increasing physical and economic internationaliza-
tion of the modern world combined with the global scale of world political
processes have generated a whole set of organically intertwined global fac-
tors which are increasingly affecting the shaping of mankind's future.
A place of prominence among these global problems belongs to
preservation of the natural environment on our planet and ensuring the ra-
tional use of its resources, which has for the first time in history come to be
an objective reality.
(2) Several decades ago the Russian scientist V.I. Vernadsky wrote:
«In the twentieth century, for the first time in the history of the Earth, Man
has learned about, and extended his activities to, the whole of the bio-
sphere; he-has completed the Earth's geographical map and has settled
throughout the length and breadth of the globe. In its way of life, mankind
has become a single whole».
Scientific and technological process has equipped mankind with a
previously unheard-of powerful means of harnessing and utilizing the forc-
es of nature. The increasing scale of society's impact on the environment
has, however, created a danger of polluting and destroying it.
(3) The present ecological conflict threatens to deplete the non-
renewable resources of nature and to pollute the biosphere. This is why the
further development of the productive forces will make it increasingly im-
perative to work out special measures to reduce the rapid build-up of the
pressure on the environment on the part of economic system.
The global industrialization of economic activity, the growing popu-
lation of the globe, the unprecedented concentration of the means of pro-
duction and people in the major cities, etc. carry the threat of increasing
pressure on the environment and on the totality of the natural resources.
The resulting ecological conflict is now becoming a recognized factor in
the economic and social development of society. Its consequences are liter-

115
ally being felt in all the links and levels of national economies.

1. Определите, какое утверждение соответствует содержанию тек-


ста.
A Scientific and technological process created a danger of polluting
and destroying mankind.
B The ecological conflict threatens to deplete the non-renewable re-
sources of nature.
C Environmentalism is an attempt to balance relations between hu-
mans and the various natural systems.
D The twentieth century is characterized by undivided attention to
the problems of preserving the environment.

2. Ответьте на вопрос.
What affects the shaping of mankind's future?

3. Укажите, в какой части текста (1, 2, 3) содержится ответ на во-


прос.
What made it possible for mankind to harness the natural forces?

4. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3) соответствует следующая


идея.
Special measures should be worked out to reduce the rapid build-up
of the pressure on the environment.

5. Определите основную идею текста.


A The consequences of the ecological conflict are being felt in all
the links and levels of national economies.
B The growing population influence the environment.
C People should preserve the natural environment and ensure the na-
tional use of its resources.
D Man has settled throughout the length and breadth of the globe.

6. Определите, является ли утверждение: «For the last three decades


mankind has had a concern in global problems.» ложным / в тексте нет
информации / истинным.

7. Переведите предложения из текста по памяти, сопоставьте ваш


перевод с текстом.
Современный экологический конфликт – это угроза истощения

116
невозобновимых ресурсов природы и загрязнения биосферы. По мере
дальнейшего развития производительных сил все более настояте-
льной становится необходимость в проведении специальных меро-
приятий по минимизации стремительно растущей нагрузки на естест-
венную среду со стороны экономических систем.

8. Какая из предложенных ниже моделей больше подходит для


описания следующей мысли: The resulting ecological conflict is now
becoming a recognized factor in the economic and social development of
society.
А The author discusses an important problem of…
B The author emphasizes the fact that…
C The paper suggests approaches to understanding...
D The author provides some examples of...

9. Какое из данных ниже предложений можно описать с помощью


следующей модели аннотирования: The author discusses an important
problem of…
А The present ecological conflict threatens to deplete the non-
renewable resources of nature and to pollute the biosphere.
B «In the twentieth century, for the first time in the history of the
Earth, Man has learned about, and extended his activities to, the whole of
the biosphere; he-has completed the Earth's geographical map and has set-
tled throughout the length and breadth of the globe. In its way of life, man-
kind has become a single whole».
C Its consequences are literally being felt in all the links and levels of
national economies.
D This is why the further development of the productive forces will
make it increasingly imperative to work out special measures to reduce the
rapid build-up of the pressure on the environment on the part of economic
system.

Text 47. Uncrowned Sovereigns of Seas


(1) The sharks of today are one of the most biologically curious and
least studied groups of vertebrates. They are hard to observe in their native
habitat and some of their species are very rare, many of them are very large
in size which makes their investigation difficult. What is more, sharks are
sometimes so bold as to attack people. The reasons for such behavior have
not been adequately studied as yet, and the means of defense against an at-

117
tacking shark are ineffectual.
For centuries these animals have been connected with various leg-
ends and myths, which occasionally have some foundation but frequently
are the fruits of people's imagination.
(2) At the same time, sharks have long been hunted: their meat is
used for food; their teeth for making knives, battle swords or surgical scal-
pels, the most recent application being to make souvenirs. The shark skin
makes excellent material for craftsmen, the fat is a most valuable raw ma-
terial for the medical and pharmaceutical industries.
(3) Systematic study of sharks is relatively recent development,
which began as late as the 1940s. However, in spite of considerable pro-
gress in investigations, these animals are still a puzzle and many of their
biological features lead the scientists into a blind alley. What is most curi-
ous is that in popular literature and occasionally scientific research, one out
of every three or four communications is either out-of-date «sensation», or
just an error. And it is all this that made me take my pen and try to summa-
rize the materials I have collected in the past two decades as well as the
findings of research voyages and expeditions to the North Atlantic, the
Black Sea, the Sea of Japan, the Sea of Okhotsk, the coastal waters of Cuba
and Indonesia.
The paleontological chronicles allow us to trace history of sharks
back more than 350 million years (man's history is almost 100 times short-
er). Throughout a long period sharks have always lived alongside people,
competing with man for food in the ocean and occasionally killing one an-
other.

1. Продолжите предложение: According to the passage, the uncrowned


sovereigns of seas are…
A craftsmen.
B whale sharks.
C sharks.
D tiger sharks.

2. Определите, какое утверждение не соответствует содержанию


текста.
A Sharks are hard to be observed in their native habitat.
B It is impossible to resist an attacking shark.
C Sharks are three times as old as mankind is.
D The shark teeth are used for making battle swords.

118
3. Ответьте на вопрос.
Why have sharks long been hunted?

4. Укажите, в какой части текста (1, 2, 3) содержится ответ на во-


прос.
When did the systematic study of sharks begin?

5. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3) соответствует следующая


идея.
Many scientists fail to investigate sharks’ nature.

6. Определите основную идею текста.


A Sharks are very dangerous for people.
B Sharks are valuable for medical industry.
C Sharks are mysterious creatures.
D Sharks are intelligent.

7. Переведите предложения из текста по памяти, сопоставьте ваш


перевод с текстом.
Самое удивительное, что в популярной литературе, а часто и в
научных работах одно из трех-четырех сообщений либо устаревшая
«сенсация», либо просто ошибка. Все это и послужило причиной
взяться за перо и попытаться обобщить материалы, собранные мной
за последние два десятилетия во время научно-исследовательских
рейсов и экспедиций в Северную Атлантику, Черное, Японское,
Охотское моря, в прибрежные воды Кубы и Индонезии.

8. Какая из предложенных ниже моделей больше подходит для


описания следующей мысли: The sharks of today are one of the most
biologically curious and least studied groups of vertebrates.
А The author mentions…
B The author stipulates that…
C The author outlines…
D The author examines how…

9. Какое из данных ниже предложений можно описать с помощью


следующей модели аннотирования: The author comes to the conclu-
sion that…
А Throughout a long period sharks have always lived alongside peo-

119
ple, competing with man for food in the ocean and occasionally killing one
another.
B The shark skin makes excellent material for craftsmen, the fat is a
most valuable raw material for the medical and pharmaceutical industries.
C The reasons for such behavior have not been adequately studied as
yet, and the means of defense against an attacking shark are ineffectual.
D However, in spite of considerable progress in investigations, these
animals are still a puzzle and many of their biological features lead the sci-
entists into a blind alley.

Text 48. The Substance to Wwhich


Our Planet Owes its Existence
(1) When an astronomer trains his telescope at one of the planets
neighbouring the Earth, he always wonders about the presence of water
and oxygen there. His interest is quite natural: should they exist in any
quantity on the planet, life there might be expected somehow to resemble
ours. It is water that brought our Earth into existence, developed it to its
present state, and created life. Above all else, water is the most wonderful
substance on the Earth and the more we learn about it the more we marvel
at it.
Hardly anybody has ever speculates on the remarkable properties of wa-
ter, and no wonder: we encounter water everywhere; it is a common thing on
our planet. Three quarters of the Earth's surface is covered by water, with about
one fifth of the land covered by solidified water (ice and snow); clouds of water
vapour and tiny drops of water always shroud a good half of that land, where
there are no clouds water-vapour is always present in the air. That's how com-
mon water is on our planet: it constitutes as much as seventy-one per cent of the
human body. And common things are never regarded as wonderful. Its very
commonplaceness, however, is extraordinary. No other substances are more
abundant on the Earth and none occurs in three states at the same time: solid,
liquid and gaseous.
(2) Water has conditioned the Earth's climate. But for water our planet
would have cooled long ago and all life would have disappeared. Water pos-
sesses a high heat capacity. When warmed it absorbs much heat, and cooling it
loses it. Oceans, seas and all other reservoirs on our planet, as well as atmos-
pheric vapour act as heat accumulators: in warm weather they absorb heat, and
when it is cold they give it off, so warming the air and all surrounding space.
The cold of outer space would long ago have penetrated the Earth but for
its warm coat. This coat is the atmosphere which surrounds our planet, the water

120
vapour acting like a layer of cotton wool. Over deserts where water vapour is
scarce the coat is full of holes. Thus unprotected the Earth is fiercely heated by
the Sun in the daytime and cools off completely overnight. That is why tempera-
ture fluctuations in the desert are so great.
Nonetheless the Earth would freeze in the long run if it were not for
another of water's remarkable properties. It is common knowledge that al-
most all substances contract on cooling, but water expands. If it contracted,
ice would be heavier than water and would sink. All the water would grad-
ually turn into ice and the Earth would be left with a very light mantle of a
gaseous atmosphere containing no water vapour.
(3) Water has one more extraordinary characteristic: its latent heat of
melting and evaporation is extremely high; it is only due to this that life is
possible in a hot climate. Only by evaporating water (i.e. giving off a large
amount of heat) can animals and men maintain their body temperature sev-
eral degrees lower than that of the ambient atmosphere.
The role of water in nature is unique because life would be impossi-
ble without it. Life originated in primeval seas from the substances dis-
solved in them. Ever since then chemical reactions have been occurring in
every cell of all animals and plants between the dissolved substances.
(4) Perhaps the least known among the remarkable properties of wa-
ter is its ability to form an extremely strong surface film resulting from the
very powerful mutual attraction of molecules in the uppermost layers. Its
surface tension is strong enough to support things which seemingly should
not float.

1. Определите, какое утверждение не соответствует содержанию


текста.
A Three quarters of the Earth's surface is covered by water.
B Water constitutes as much as seventy-one per cent of the human
body.
C All reservoirs on our planet act as heat accumulators.
D Water is a liquid at 0 C at sea level.

2. Ответьте на вопрос.
What brought our planet to existence?

3. Укажите, в какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) содержится ответ на


вопрос.
What substance can occur in solid, liquid and gaseous states at the
same time?

121
4. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует следую-
щая идея.
Water is a common thing on our planet.

5. Определите основную идею текста.


A Chemical processes in every cell of all animals and plants involve
water.
B The role of water in nature is unique.
C Water can form an extremely strong surface film.
D Water protects our planet from the outer space.

6. Составьте второе предложение с предложенным словом таким


образом, чтобы оно имело тот же смысл, что и первое предложе-
ние.
1. But for water our planet would have cooled long ago.
if
……………………………….. water our planet would have cooled
long ago.
2. It is common knowledge that almost all substances contract on
cooling, but water expands.
well
……………………………….. almost all substances contract on
cooling, but water expands.
3. Its surface tension is strong enough to support things which seem-
ingly should not float.
so
Its surface tension is …………………………………….support
things which seemingly should not float.

7. Переведите предложения из текста по памяти, сопоставьте ваш


перевод с текстом.
Вода занимает совершенно исключительное положение в при-
роде еще и потому, что без нее была бы невозможна жизнь. Живое
вещество образовалось в первобытных морях из растворенных в них
веществ. И с тех пор все химические реакции в каждой клеточке тела
любого животного или растения идут между растворенными вещест-
вами.

122
8. Какая из предложенных ниже моделей больше подходит для
описания следующей мысли: The role of water in nature is unique be-
cause life would be impossible without it.
А Everybody knows that…
B So we may see that…
C At the end of the article the author sums up…
D The language of the article is…

9. Какое из данных ниже предложений можно описать с помощью


следующей модели аннотирования: There are a lot of special terms in
the text, for example…
А That is why temperature fluctuations in the desert are so great.
B Perhaps the least known among the remarkable properties of water
is its ability to form an extremely strong surface film resulting from the
very powerful mutual attraction of molecules in the uppermost layers.
C This coat is the atmosphere which surrounds our planet, the water
vapour acting like a layer of cotton wool.
D Its surface tension is strong enough to support things which seem-
ingly should not float.

Text 49. Rare Flowers in Trans-Baikal Land


(1) East of the Lake Baikal stretches an immense mountainous country,
known in Russia as Zabaikalye, Trans-Baikal Land. Many people know of this
region primarily as a place for exile of the Decembrists, Poland's insurgents
and other «rebels» of the distant and recent past. However, this rich and
blessed land is a residence of not only settlers but also of descendants of the
native population with their own customs and traditions. One of the highlights
in this legacy is the folk healing which had long become known as Tibet medi-
cine. This medicine is rooted in ancient India and China, where sick people had
mainly been treated with medical herbs as early as several thousand years ago
ВС. Phytotherapy came to Tibet concurrently with Budhism, in the 5-6th cen-
turies AD. From Tibet phytotherapy travelled to Mongolia in the 13th century,
and then to Trans-Baikal Land, in the 18th century, to which healing plants
were brought from China and India. Besides, the Trans-Baikal people used
more than 400 kinds of local herbs for making medicines.
(2) In our days, there are only a few experts in old recipes and healing
methods left in the Trans-Baikal land. This means that the century-old experi-
ence of healers who learnt and tested the power of local plants may sink into
oblivion, since almost no written sources are preserved, and because of man's

123
economic activity some of our green friends had already disappeared. So as not
to allow this to happen with the rest of them, it is in this land that we should
collect all the information available on herbs, the composition of medicinal
powders and the particular proper ties of their application. But the first thing
we have to do is save this land's flora. This was the reason for publication of
the Red Book of Buryatia, which includes 133 plant species.
(3) Those who practised Tibetan medicine were able not only to diag-
nose a disease and to find a cure for it but also to strengthen the state of the
human body with the aid of herbs. This is why most medicines they developed
consisted of many components, including 10 to 20 and occasionally 45 – 60
kinds of herbs.

1. Определите, какое утверждение не соответствует содержанию


текста.
A Phytotherapy travelled from Mongolia in the 13th century to In-
dia.
B Many people know of Trans-Baikal Land primarily as a place for
exile of the Decembrists.
C The Trans-Baikal people used more than 400 kinds of local herbs
for making medicines.
D In ancient India and China sick people were mainly treated with
medical herbs.

2. Ответьте на вопрос.
Why was the Red Book of Buryatia published?

3. Укажите, в какой части текста (1, 2, 3) содержится ответ на во-


прос.
What are the components of Tibetan medicines?

4. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3) соответствует следующая


идея.
All the information available on Trans-Baikal land herbs, the compo-
sition of medicinal powders and the particular proper ties of their applica-
tion should be collected.

5. Определите основную идею текста.


A Of paramount importance is saving the Trans-Baikal land’s flora.
B The century-old experience of healers may sink into oblivion.

124
C The state of the human body can be strengthened with the aid of
herbs.
D Trans-Baikal Land people have their own customs and traditions.

6. Переведите предложения из текста по памяти.


Особенно яркое место в этом наследии занимают методы народ-
ного врачевания, издавна получившие название тибетской медицины.
Ее корни уходят в древние Индию и Китай, где за несколько ты-
сячелетий до нашей эры больных лечили в основном лекарственными
травами.
Фитотерапия проникла в Тибет одновременно с буддизмом в V –
VI вв. нашей эры.

7. Какая из предложенных ниже моделей больше подходит для


описания следующей мысли: Most medicines they developed con-
sisted of many components, including 10 to 20 and occasionally 45 – 60
kinds of herbs.
А According to the author…
B Finally, the author suggests…
C At the end of the article the author sums up…
D The author gives a detailed account of…

Text 50. Coming Soon: an Asteroid


(1) This announcement has recently been made at the Chair of As-
tronomy of Kiev University to inform us that the near future will see the
closest approach of our planet to a large asteroid. The announcement came
just when astronomers at Kiev University were getting ready to launch a
station to track comets and carry out various radio-astronomical observa-
tions. Its two, observation towers, accommodating a series of laboratories,
have been erected on a high hill near Kiev. It was a mere chance that the
installation and testing of the two telescopes delivered from Leningrad co-
incided with the time of the «great opposition», with Eros, which moves in
an elliptical orbit. This planet was discovered last century and named after
the mythological god of love.
(2) The astronomical catalogues list over 1,800 asteroids. Why, then,
is that out of this impressive list of «minor planets» Eros should merit the
keen attention of astronomers? It is because of its very unusual orbit and
because it differs from most other asteroids in that its brightness is vari-
able. An analysis of variations in Eros' brightness to be made during this

125
period of maximum approach will enable its outline to be more accurately
determined and thus give better information on the origin of the «flying
stones», which are broken pieces from giant planet surfaces.
The investigations are expected to be carried out under very favor-
able circumstances: after the 20th of January 1975 Eros will be at its clos-
est to the Earth slightly over 20 million kilometers. This rare occasion was
last observed in 1931 but at that time the conditions for observation were
unfavorable. This time it will be different and even the amateur astronomer
will be able to see Eros with the aid of prismatic field-glasses. Besides, the
Kiev astronomers will have a chance to test new optical instruments under
real conditions and develop methods of tracking minor celestial bodies in
space. They will also have the opportunity of continuing work on a theo-
retical interpretation of Eros' configuration which still offers some riddles.
(3) Elucidating these questions will make it possible to open new
pages in the life and nature of minor planets which have been unknown so
far. The gigantic processes of eruptive (i.e. explosive) evolution occurring
on the planets facilitate a better definition of the solid fragments persisting
in the Universe. If such «splinters» are «put together» one can imagine the
portrait of the «unknown lady» or, at least, her major features. This, in
turn, will help enlarge our knowledge of the historical development of the
solar system, and of the Earth in particular.
This is why astronomers have posed themselves two tasks for the
months to come, that of solving the problem of Eros and that of continuing
to study the nature of Io, Jupiter's first satellite which was discovered as
early as 1610 by Galileo. Now this satellite, one of the four which revolve
around Jupiter, behaves in an unusual way. There are grounds for suggest-
ing that deflagration occurs on its surface.
(4) The researcher V. Chmil has just obtained the first pictures of Ju-
piter and its satellites taken with the new telescope. His slides show the
outline of Jupiter, the largest planet of the solar system. In the centre one
can discern dark belts. Other stills, which have been taken with a shorter
exposure, also show Jupiter's satellites.
Now that the laboratory is equipped with more up-to-date technical
facilities the investigations may reveal some behaviourial features of the
giant planet supporting a suggestion that many comets originate within the
planetary system.
The observatory plans to continue its study of the comet Cohoutec
which has received such notoriety due to its brightness, so particularly evi-
dent in the past year. It is still within the field of vision of many telescopes,

126
but is receding from the sun and can be seen as an object of 14-fold stellar
magnitude. Prior to the two new telescopes being installed the University
astronomers could not register so distant an object. Now, however, they
will be able to keep the comet under observation and study in detail this
unusual phenomenon by means of direct analysis as well as by means of
electronic and optical converters which greatly increase the visual acuity of
the human eye.

1. Продолжите предложение: According to the passage, the “unknown


lady” is…
A a minor planet.
B the Earth.
C the Universe.
D Jupiter.

2. Определите, какое утверждение соответствует содержанию тек-


ста.
A In 1931 even the amateur astronomers could see Eros with the aid
of prismatic field-glasses.
B Eros was discovered in the 20th century.
C Brightness of Eros is constant.
D Jupiter has four satellites.

3. Определите, какое утверждение не соответствует содержанию


текста.
A There are over 1,800 asteroids in the astronomical catalogues.
B Io is Jupiter's first satellite which behaves in an unusual way.
C Eros moves in an elliptical orbit.
D The comet Cohoutec is being studied by the astronomers due to its
configuration.

4. Ответьте на вопрос.
What is considered as a merit on Chmil’s part?

5. Укажите, в какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) содержится ответ на


вопрос.
Why does Eros draw keen attention of astronomers?

6. Определите основную идею текста.


A Kiev astronomers have new optical instruments.

127
B Direct analysis, electronic and optical converters make possible to
study comets in details.
C Studying minor planets helps enlarge our knowledge of the his-
torical development of the solar system.
D An asteroid is coming soon.

7. Определите, является ли утверждение: «Kiev University contrib-


utes to astronomy.» ложным / в тексте нет информации / истинным.

8. Составьте второе предложение с предложенным словом таким


образом, чтобы оно имело тот же смысл, что и первое предложе-
ние.
1. The investigations are expected to be carried out under very favor-
able circumstances.
is
…………………………. investigations will be carried out under
very favorable circumstances.
2. Prior to the two new telescopes being installed the University as-
tronomers could not register so distant an object.
of
…………………………………. telescopes the University astrono-
mers could not register so distant an object.
3. They will have the opportunity of continuing work on a theoretical
interpretation of Eros' configuration.
able
They ……………………………their work on a theoretical interpre-
tation of Eros' configuration.

9. Переведите предложения из текста по памяти.


Выяснение этих вопросов позволит открыть доселе неизвестные
страницы жизни малых планет, их природы.
Гигантские процессы эруптивной, то есть взрывной, эволюции
планет помогают точнее охарактеризовать оставшиеся во Вселенной
обломки твердой массы.
Если такие «осколки» «сложить» воедино, можно представить
«портрет» незнакомки или хотя бы ее важнейшие черты.

10. Какая из предложенных ниже моделей больше подходит для


описания следующей мысли: The astronomical catalogues list over

128
1,800 asteroids.
А The author gives us a chance to think about…
B The author devotes some attention to…
C The author stipulates that…
D The author mentions…

11. Какое из данных ниже предложений можно описать с помо-


щью следующей модели аннотирования: It’s necessary to note that…
А Prior to the two new telescopes being installed the University as-
tronomers could not register so distant an object.
B The gigantic processes of eruptive (i.e. explosive) evolution occur-
ring on the planets facilitate a better definition of the solid fragments per-
sisting in the Universe.
C This planet was discovered last century and named after the myth-
ological god of love.
D If such «splinters» are «put together» one can imagine the portrait
of the «unknown lady» or, at least, her major features.

Text 51. What is Glass?


(1) The question in the title may seem strange: everybody should
know the answer to it. This is transparent substance made from mineral
raw material and used in windows, shop windows, cars and greenhouses. It
is also used to make beer glasses and works of art which are displayed at
the arts exhibitions. Without glass we would not have optical instruments,
chemical products, semiconductor devices ... One can go on enumerating,
but it would be simpler to say that we are confronted with this material
everywhere.
Of course, glass comes in different types. No one will take bottle
glass for crystal, however it would take a specialist to tell quartz from bo-
rosilicate glass. But when it comes to varieties of semiconducting and met-
al glass only quite a narrow circle of specialists will be able to sort them
out.
This makes the question «What is glass» not that simple. What are
the features which distinguish it from, say, crystals, quartz or rock crystal.
What matters is the internal structure, but it is not known so far.
(2) The atoms of molecules forming the crystals are arranged in a
regular geometric pattern or, as the specialists say, according to remote or-
der. If we choose some direction in this microarchitecture we shall see that
the same atomic configuration will repeat. In just the same way any plane

129
isolated in the crystal possesses a structure repeated any number of times in
the planes parallel to it and arranged at equal distances. Nothing of the kind
can be seen in glass. It is impossible to find in it any directions or planes in
which atoms repeat with the same regularity.
What, then, is the structural principle underlying the atomic architec-
ture of glass? Since there is no unambiguous answer to this question at the
present time, I would like to make some suggestions on this problem.
Let us first pose a question – is it possible to take some well-known
property of glass to be its basic feature? It turns out that such a choice is
not that simple. Glasses, like crystal, can be transparent and opaque, hard-
melting and light-melting, they can be conductors and dielectrics. Some of
them are capable of magnetization and liable to inelastic deformation, oth-
ers are very brittle... Perhaps, there is only one property in glasses which
distinguishes them from crystals, and that is that crystals melt at a certain
temperature, whereas the state of glasses does not depend so obviously as
that of crystals upon temperature. When heated, a crystal remains hard un-
til it reaches the melting point when it suddenly loses its shape and turns
into a liquid. It is not so with glasses which, when heated, melt not at once
but gradually, while becoming increasingly softer. If the heated glass is put
on an inclined plane, it will slowly flow down off it.
Unfortunately, the feature of «flowing down» cannot be incorporated
into the basis of a definition of glass either. The more so because fiercely
heated crystals also «flow down». Furthermore, when heated, many glasses
start crystallizing before flowing and the crystals formed in this process
melt at a precisely defined temperature. This is the pattern of behaviour in
all metal glasses, for example in nickel. At the same time, molten quartz,
for instance, is very difficult to recrystallize.
Many glasses are known to form during a sharp cooling of melt.
True, a metal glass can be made when the liquid, is cooled down at a rate
of the order of a million degrees per second. Basing their view on this,
some researchers maintain that glass is a hard non-crystal substance which
forms by the above-described method of hardening. A metal glass can also
form when the crystal is subject to intense low temperature deformation.
However, crystal turns into glass and vice versa when these substances are
solid and when they are subject to pressure, slow increase or decrease in
temperature, or, finally, radiations. We also know that glasses can be made
by precipitation of atoms from a gaseous phase.
(3) Thus, neither the ways in which a substance is formed, nor physi-
cal or any other properties can unambiguously tell us what a glass is.

130
Meanwhile we have just approached its main distinguishing feature. No
doubt the atomic structure in glass differs from that in crystals. However, it
is in a very small area (5 – 10 atom spaces) that glass turns out to be simi-
lar to crystal. In this respect it reminds us of a poly-crystal, i.e. a mixture of
fine crystals. Incidentally, some little difference still persists: polycrystals
have interfaces between their fine crystals while glass has no such «parti-
tions». It is this particular feature that helps us gain more insight into the
understanding of the true nature of glass.

1. Определите, какое утверждение соответствует содержанию тек-


ста.
A The atoms of glass molecules are arranged in a regular geometric
pattern.
B When heated, all crystals melt gradually.
C Nickel is metal glass.
D The atomic structure in glass differs from that in crystals.

2. Определите, какое утверждение не соответствует содержанию


текста.
A Glass comes in different types.
B You should be an expert to sort out semiconducting and metal
glass.
C Crystals are characterized by the crystal lattice.
D Crystal turns into glass when these substances are liquid and when
they are subject to pressure.

3. Ответьте на вопрос.
What is the difference between crystals and glasses?

4. Укажите, в какой части текста (1, 2, 3) содержится ответ на во-


прос.
What happens with fiercely heated crystals?

5. Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3) соответствует следующая


идея.
Glass has many applications.

6. Определите основную идею текста.


A There are some features that distinguish glass from crystals.

131
B Glasses can be transparent, opaque, hard-melting, light-melting,
conductors and dielectrics.
C It is difficult to define the true nature of glass.
D It is difficult to overestimate the importance of glass for people.

7. Определите, является ли утверждение: «The term glass developed


in the late Roman Empire.» ложным / в тексте нет информации / ис-
тинным.

8. Составьте второе предложение с предложенным словом таким


образом, чтобы оно имело тот же смысл, что и первое предложе-
ние.
1. It would be simpler to say that we are confronted with glass eve-
rywhere.
put
…………………………………words we are confronted with glass
everywhere.
2. Many glasses are known to form during a sharp cooling of melt.
is
………………………..many glasses form during a sharp cooling of
melt.
3. If the heated glass is put on an inclined plane, it will slowly flow
down off it.
being
………………………………… an inclined plane, the heated glass
will slowly flow down off it.

9. Постарайтесь передать содержание данных ниже предложений


по-английски.
К сожалению, признак «истекания» тоже нельзя положить в ос-
нову определения стекла.
Тем более, что «стекают» и сильно разогретые кристаллы.
Более того, при нагреве многие стекла, еще не начав течь, кри-
сталлизуются, и образующиеся при этом кристаллы плавятся при
строго определенной температуре.
Так ведут себя все металлические стекла, например никель.
В то же время, скажем, плавленый кварц снова выкристаллизо-
вать очень трудно.

132
10. Какая из предложенных ниже моделей больше подходит для
описания следующей мысли: It is this particular feature that helps us
gain more insight into the understanding of the true nature of glass.
А So we may see that…
B The main question, problem is….
C There are a lot of special terms in the text, for example…
D The author investigates such theory as ….

11. Какое из данных ниже предложений можно описать с помо-


щью следующей модели аннотирования: There are a lot of special
terms in the text, for example…
А In just the same way any plane isolated in the crystal possesses a
structure repeated any number of times in the planes parallel to it and ar-
ranged at equal distances.
B No doubt the atomic structure in glass differs from that in crystals.
C Many glasses are known to form during a sharp cooling of melt.
D Some of them are capable of magnetization and liable to inelastic
deformation, others are very brittle...

Библиографический список

1. Мешков, О. Learn to Translate by Translating: практикум по переводу с


русского языка на английский / О. Мешков, М. Ламберт. – М.: НВИ «Тезаурус»,
2005. – 118 с.
2. Изучайте английский язык [Электронный ресурс] ‒ Режим доступа:
http://study-english.info.
3. Изучайте английский [Электронный ресурс] ‒ Режим доступа:
http://englishon-line.ru/chtenie-nauchnii-tekst22.html.
4. Digital entropy [Электронный ресурс] ‒ Режим доступа:
http://www.aip.org/pnu/2000/split/pnu469-1.htm.

133
Учебное издание

И.Н. Ефименко, Е.В. Цупикова, М.В. Цыгулева

АННОТИРОВАНИЕ НАУЧНО-ПОПУЛЯРНЫХ ТЕКСТОВ


И ПОДГОТОВКА УСТНОГО СООБЩЕНИЯ
НА ОСНОВЕ ТЕКСТОВ НАУЧНО-ПОПУЛЯРНОГО ХАРАКТЕРА

Английский язык

Учебно-методическое пособие

***

Редактор И.Г. Кузнецова

***

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