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The pavement
Rigid Pavement & Flexible may be reinforced or
Pavement unreinforced, depending on
the designed traffic load.
• Pavements are designed in • Flexible pavement consists
many different types of of a layer system of materials
texture and pattern. The which distribute the wheel-
differences between loads to the sub-grade. The
pavements determine the thickness of individual layer
different location of must be such as to distribute
implementation such as road, the loads without permanent
street, walkway, pathway deformation of the material,
rural area and urban area. thereby presenting an
Some pavements are uneven running surface.
designed to cater human
need but some of it designed
as an art and attraction. The FOUR BASIC PHASES OF
role of pavement is to be STRUCTURAL DETERIORATION
known as the convenient FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT
hardscape of the users for
walking and provide spaces 1. When a new/strengthened
for human outdoor activities. pavement is reaching
• There are different types of stability, at which point its
pavements designed load spreading ability is still
according to the factors and improving.
function of the place itself. 2. Load spreading ability is
Each of it obtains the quite even and the rate of
material’s quality that is structural deterioration can
needed to be considered in be calculated with some
construction which is confidence.
physical, mechanical, 3. This is the investigatory
thermal and electrical of phase. A pavement entering
materials. It is essential as it this phase should be
contribute to the legibility monitored in order to
and durability of the ascertain what if any
pavement. remedial action is required to
be carried out on it.
TYPES OF PAVEMENT 4. In this phase the pavement
• Rigid pavement consists has deteriorated to failure.
essentially of a concrete slab Strengthening can only be
resting on thin granular base. achieved by total
The loads and the stress are reconstruction.
distributed over a wide area
of subgrade by the rigidity MATERIALS WITHIN FLEXIBLE
and strength of the PAVEMENTS
mm below its initial point is
 Bitumen known as its softening point.
It is produced artificially from
crude oil within the petroleum Surface Dressing and Modified
refining process. It is a basic Binders
constituent of the upper layer in
pavement construction. It can It involves the application of a thin
resist both deformation and layer of bituminous binder to the
changes in temperature. Two basic surface of the pavement slab
types: followed by the spreading and
a.) Tar rolling into it of single sized stone
b.) Bitumen chippings.
Two such binder modification
Tests to Ensure Correct Binder used during surface dressing are:
Properties a.) Cutback Bitumen
b.)Bitumen Emulsion
 Penetration Test- involves
a standard steel needle Cutback Bitumen
applying a vertical load of
100 to the top of a standard • Bitumen is ‘cutback’ by
sample of bitumen at adding controlled amounts of
temperature of 25°C. The petroleum distillates such as
depth to which the needle kerosene. This is done to
penetrates into the sample reduce the viscosity of the
within 5 seconds is bitumen temporarily so it can
measured. The answer is penetrate pavements more
recorded in units of 0.1 mm. effectively or to allow
The lower the penetration the spraying at temperatures
more viscous and therefore that are too cold for
the harder the sample. successful sprayed sealing
with neat bitumen. The
 Softening test- The materials used to cutback
softening point test involves bitumen will evaporate after
taking a sample of bitumen application to leave the
which has been cast inside a remaining material similar in
15 mm diameter metal ring hardness to the original
and placing it inside a water bitumen.
bath with an initial
temperature of 5°C. As the
temperature is raised the
sample softens and therefore Bitumen Emulsifier
sags under the weight of the
steel ball. The temperature at • Bitumen Emulsions have
which the weakening binder being developed and
reaches the bottom of the 25 exponentially increased sinned
they were created in
1900. Estimated presently at 20%
of the global bitumen
use, bitumen emulsions are
basically an O/W – Oil on
Water solution – A dispersion of
bitumen particles on
water, stabilized with the addiction
of surfactants –
Surface active agents – or most
commonly known as
emulsifiers, that will permit the
bitumen to de diluted in
water. They are primarily used for
tack coats for use in
between hot mix asphalt layers and
prime coats for thin
hot mix surfacing layers or a chip
seal pavements.

Recipe Specifications

Some of the most important

bituminous materials used in
highway pavements in UK are:
 Coated Macadam
(dense, high density,
 Asphalt (mastic, hot-
Bituminous Material Location in Pavement
Dense Bitumen Roadbase, Basecourse, wearing
Macadam course
High Density Macadam Roadbase, Basecourse
Pervious Macadam Wearing course
Mastic Asphalt Wearing course
Hot-rolled Asphalt Roadbase, Basecourse, wearing

Coated Macadams porous macadam is an open

graded material containing a
 Dense Bitumen high proportion of voids
Macadams- It is well graded whose primary function is to
and is the most common allow the rapid drainage of
material used in the water.
roadbase and basecourse of
major roadways (truck roads/
motorways) within the UK.
 Heavy Duty Macadams- It
is used in roadbases and
bascourses for major Asphalts
highways with high traffic
loadings. It contains more of
the finer material and uses a  Hot Rolled Asphalts- It is
harder bitumen grading than similar to a coated macadam.
DBM. The result is a stiffer It is a dense material with
mixture that will provide low air voids content,
greater protection against consisting of a mixture of
cracking and deformation aggregate, fines, binder and
over the life of the pavement. a filler material, but in this
case the grading is far less
 Porous Macadam- Known continuous with a higher
as porous asphalt, unlike proportion of both fines and
conventional bituminous binder present in the mix.
materials which provide an
impermeable layer and  Mastic Asphalt- Is a very
protect the underlying layers durable, heavy duty, weather
from ingress of rainwater, proof wearing course
material. It contains a the surface of the
mixture of asphaltic cement, material.
fine aggregate, and filler in
proportions which result in a RIGID PAVEMENT
low-void impermeable mass.

Aggregates Failure is defined as having

occurred in an unreinforced
The maximum nominal aggregate concrete pavement if one of the
size is determined from both the following defects is present:
required thickness of the material • A medium or wide crack
when put in place and the surface crossing the bay of the
texture called for. concrete slab longitudinally
• Wearing Course or transversely
– 14 mm dense wearing
course macadam • A medium longitudinal and
– 10mm or 6mm medium transverse crack
pervious macadam intersecting, both exceeding
200mm in length and starting
from the edge of the
• Base Course pavement.
– 40, 28 or 20mm dense • A wide corner crack, more
macadam than 200mm in radius,
• Roadbase centered on the corner.
– 40, 28mm dense
Construction of Bituminous PAVEMENTS
Road Surfacing
 General
A rigid pavement consists of
The production of a successful a subgrade/subbase foundation
bituminous road surfacings covered by a slab constructed of
depends not just on the design of pavement quality concrete. The
the individual constituent layers concrete must be of sufficient
but also on the correctness of the depth so as to prevent the traffic
construction procedure employed load causing premature failure. The
to put them in place. These steps portions within the concrete will
are: determine should be taken to
– Transporting and prevent damage due to other
placing causes.
– Compaction of the
mixture Concrete Slab and Joint Details
– If required,The
spreading and rollingof Pavement quality concrete
coated chippingsinto generally has a 28-day
characteristic strength of 40 d. Construction joints-
N/mm², termed C40 concrete. The no relative movements is
cement content for C40 concrete permitted across the joint.
should be a minimum of 320 kg/m³.
Air content of up to 5% may be  B. Longitudinal joints- deal
acceptable with a typical maximum with induced stresses most
water cement ratio of 0.5 for C40 evident across evident across
concrete. the width of the pavement.

 Types of concrete slab Reinforcement

– CRC(continuous
reinforced concrete) Reinforcement can be in form of a
– JRC(jointed reinforced prefabricated mes or a bar-mat.
concrete) The function of the reinforcement is
– URC(unreinforced to limit the extent of surface
concrete) cracking in order to maintain the
particle interlock within the
 Joints in concrete aggregate.
Construction of Concrete Road
Joints are provided in a Surfacings
pavement slab in order to
allow movement caused by There are number of key issues
changes in moisture content that must be addressed in order to
and slab temperature. Types properly construct a concrete
include: pavement. These include the
positioning of reinforcement in the
 A. Transverse joints- concrete, the correct forming of
permit the release of both joints and slabs and the
shrinkage and temperature chosen method of construction.
stresses. Types of transverse
joints are: Curing and Skid Resistance

a. Contraction joints- allow Concrete curing is an

induced stresses to be released by essential step in achieving a good
permitting the adjacent slab to quality finished product. It requires
contract. that both the temperature and the
moisture content of the mix be
b. Expansion joints- permit maintained so that it can continue
the adjacent concrete to expand. to gain strength with time.
c. Warping joints- Immediately after curing, the
permits small angular surface should be textured in order
movements to occur between to give it adequate wet-road
adjacent concrete slabs. skidding resistance. Good skid
resistance requires sufficient
microtexture and macrotexture.
within the mix. it must have
• Macrotexture- permits most abrasion-resistance
of rainwater caught between properties such that the
the tires and the surface of particles of sand stand proud
the highway to drain rapidly of the matrix of the hardened
and depends on grooves cement paste while subject
being developed on the to traffic loading.
surface of the mix in order to
texture it.

• Microtexture- depends on
the use of fine aggregate