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Methodology adopted for the project consists of the following activities:


SURVEY is also called as feasibility analysis or the initial business study. It

begins with a request from the user for a new system. It involves the following:

a) Identify the responsible user for the system.

b) Identify deficiencies in the current system.
c) Establish goals and objective for the new system.
d) Determine feasibility for the new system.
e) Prepare a project charter that will be used to guide the remainder of the


The objective of system analysis activity is to develop structured system

specification for the proposed system. The structured system specification
should describe what the proposed system will do, independent of the
technology which will be used to implement these requirements. This activity
includes making list of the components needed in the project. Thus, this step
also includes the designing of circuits according to need. For example, for an op
amp in inverting mode with a required gain of 100, values of resistances should
be chosen accordingly.


The objective of this activity is to search the components present in the
component list and other apparatus, which will be required during the project.
Once the components are arranged the apparatus required for PCB
manufacturing is arranged.


The primary objective of this step is to transform the functional specification of

the user requirement into the physical specification. The physical specification
of the system defines the appearance of the system for the user. This step also
includes the testing of the given i.e. designed circuit on breadboard.


This activity involves PCB manufacturing and component mounting on that

PCB. Thus this involves soldering; integration of various components. The
output of this activity is the complete integrated system.


The objective of this activity is to check whether the desirable output is

produced for given set of inputs. Thus this test aims at ensuring that the
functional requirements of the user are being met. Thus the output of this system
is the accepted system. The new system will be acceptable only if it produces
satisfactory result on test data.


The objective of this activity is to produce a manual, which may be used as a
guide for using or operating the system. In fact, there may be several manuals
catering to the needs of different types of person. A manual should describe the
manual procedures as well as the interface with the automated portion of the


It means installing the new system in place of old system. Thus there is a
switching from an old system to a new one. Different change over techniques
like direct change over, phased change over, pilot run or parallel run may be
used for switching from the existing system to the new one.

8. Printed circuit board

PCBs are boards whereupon electronic circuits have been etched. PCBs are
rugged, inexpensive, and can be highly reliable. They require much more layout
effort and higher initial cost than either wire-wrapped or point-to-point
constructed circuits, but are much cheaper and faster for high-volume
production. Much of the electronics industry's PCB design, assembly, and
quality control needs are set by standards that are published by the IPC

8.1. The inventor of the printed circuit was the Austrian engineer Paul Eisler (1907–
1995) who, while working in England, made one circa 1936 as part of a radio
set. Around 1943 the USA began to use the technology on a large scale to make
rugged radios for use in World War II. After the war, in 1948, the USA released
the invention for commercial use. Printed circuits did not become commonplace
in consumer electronics until the mid-1950s, after the Auto-Sembly process was
developed by the United States Army.

8.2. Before printed circuits (and for a while after their invention), point-to-point
construction was used. For prototypes, or small production runs, wire wrap or
turret board can be more efficient.

8.3. Originally, every electronic component had wire leads, and the PCB had holes
drilled for each wire of each component. The components' leads were then
passed through the holes and soldered to the PCB trace. This method of
assembly is called through-hole construction. In 1949, Moe Abramson and
Stanislaus F. Danko of the United States Army Signal Corps developed the
Auto-Sembly process in which component leads were inserted into a copper foil
interconnection pattern and dip soldered.

8.4. With the development of board lamination and etching techniques, this concept
evolved into the standard printed circuit board fabrication process in use today.
Soldering could be done automatically by passing the board over a ripple, or
wave, of molten solder in a wave-soldering machine. However, the wires and
holes are wasteful since drilling holes is expensive and the protruding wires are
merely cut off. In recent years, the use of surface mount parts has gained
popularity as the demand for smaller electronics packaging and greater
functionality has grown.

8.5. How to Make Printed Circuit Boards (PCB's)

There are two main methods for the hobbyist to make PCB's. The first is how
most people start; by laying down special etch resistant transfers onto clean
copper board and then etching the board in a bath of ferrous chloride solution.
The second is to produce the artwork (foils) for the PCB layout using a PC
software application, and then to transfer the track pattern to the copper board
using a technique similar to developing and printing a photograph. Both
methods are quite straightforward, but the latter method, which is more
expensive but quicker, produces better results and allows more dense population
of the PCB.

a. I will only provide a summary of the steps involved in making the PCB on this
site, but will make available a document for download in due course that will
provide more details of each stage of the process.

b. Method: here are six main steps to making a PCB, which are shown in the
graphic below. Clicking on each of the steps will provide more information. At

the foot of this page is a downloadable version of these pages.

i. Preparing the Artwork

Using PCB Layout Software: There are a large number of suppliers of PCB
layout applications, which run on a PC, who regularly advertise each month in
magazines such as Elektor. These range in price considerably depending on the
functions and complexity (i.e.: number of layers, pads and size of library)
available. I have always used Proteus (Ares and Isis) from Lab center

a. The method is usually to open the layout application and using the library of
packages provided, select all the component packages to be used in the layout
(i.e.: DIL_8, TO_92, RES_30, DIL_20, CAP_20, CONN_SIL4 etc). These
packages are then placed in their rough positions on the board area and their pins
connected together as required by clicking and dragging using the mouse.

b. The screen shot on the right shows the Ares Layout Software Tool in use.

c. This can be time consuming, and you have to be very careful to connect the pins
together correctly as there is no checking mechanism. Alternatively, the circuit
can be entered in an accompanying schematic capture application and the pcb
layout can be laid out automatically using the supplied auto-router. I have never
been able to justify the expense of this luxury and have always used the manual

d. When the artwork is finished, the layers (usually top and bottom) are printed
onto either acetate film (if you can afford it) or good quality tracing paper
available from art shops (70gsm - A4 sheets usually). It is better NOT to reverse
(mirror) the image for the bottom layer as I will explain under 'Developing'.
When using tracing paper, I leave the ink to dry for an hour or so, then
sandwich between several sheets of A4 paper with some heavy books (such as
electronic component catalogues) on top, to flatten the artwork, over night.

e. Using transfers: This is a very slow method, which I used for many years and
good quality results can still be obtained, using etch resistant transfers available
from many electronic component suppliers.

f. The general method is to create the layout on a piece of paper (using different
colored pens for the layers) and then to trace the holes and tracks (including the
board edge) onto tracing paper for each layer. After taping the artwork to the
thoroughly cleaned copper board a centre punch is used to mark the position of
the holes. If there are both top and bottom layers, four of the marked holes can
be drilled through (one near each corner) at this stage, to line up the layers

g. With a lot of patience, it should now be possible to 'join the dots' with the etch
resist transfers, until the artwork is completed. Great care should be taken to
keep finger marks off of the copper surface and to complete this process as soon
as possible, before the copper oxidizes.


Developing the Artwork

Pre-Sensitized boards: These are relatively expensive, but you get what you pay
for and results can be excellent and quick. The boards are supplied with black
plastic covering the surfaces to protect the Ultra-violet (UV) sensitive surfaces
and this covering is removed immediately prior to using.

a. If the board is to be doubling sided, then before removing the plastic, four pilot
holes can be drilled, as mentioned before, to assist lining up the layers. Tip! :- If
the bottom foil was NOT reversed when printing (as recommended), the printed
side of the artwork will now be as close as possible to the copper surface. This
will result in sharper and better resolution for thin tracks, because the UV light
has less opportunity to 'spread' within the thickness of the plastic film or tracing
paper used for the foil.

b. The foils are affixed to the board with small pieces of adhesive tape. Tip! :- At
this stage the artwork and pcb should be cut larger than the finished board by
(say) 5mm all round. The board is then placed in the UV exposure box for an
appropriate amount of time to allow the pcb pattern to be transferred to the
board. Each side of the board is usually exposed separately when using non -
professional equipment. The photo' shows my light box with the Parallel Port
Development Board Foil ready to be used.

c. After exposure, the foils are carefully removed and the board placed in a solution
of developer for a couple of minutes and the tracks and pads will magically
appear, similar to developing a photograph. Caustic Soda can be used with the
pre-sensitized boards and this is available from most hardware stores for
cleaning drains etc. It should be used in a well ventilated area.

d. As soon as the developing is complete, the board must be washed under cold
running water but with care taken to avoid damaging the etch resist on the board
surfaces, which will be very soft at this stage. Etching should now be
undertaken as soon as possible, but keeping the developer solution to one side
for use again shortly.

e. Coated Boards: A cheaper method is to use plain copper board and to apply a
UV sensitive coating to it (after cleaning). Electro lube sells such a coating
which is applied from an aerosol spray under low light conditions.

f. I have found this to be a very hit and miss process, where good results are hard
to obtain. If this method is used, it is important for the same manufacturer’s
developer to be used if the process is to work successfully.

iii. Etching the Board

Great care should be taken with the Ferric Chloride while preparing, using and
disposing of it. This chemical (and to a lesser extent) the caustic soda developer
solution, should be used in a well ventilated area.

a. Before etching begins, the artwork on the PCB should be inspected for damaged
tracks and hairline cracks, which should be corrected using a 'Dalo' etch resist
pen or similar. If this is necessary, the board should first be dried off, as soon as
possible after developing, with a hair ryer, for example.

b. I have found etching is best completed with the chemical heated to a little above
room temperature, using a hot water- bath. Etching should then take little more
than 15 to 20 minutes with constant agitation of the board. Leaving the etching
bath floating in the hot water-bath makes agitation easy, but be careful not to
splash the chemical about.

c. When the PCB looks ready, it should be carefully removed from the chemical,
using plastic gloves and thoroughly rinsed in a cold water bath. After
inspection, if it is finished then it should be returned to the caustic soda solution,
to soften the resist, which can then be removed with a soft abrasive (e.g.: fine
wet and dry paper).

d. However, I prefer to remove the resist at the end, after all other stages have been

e. The photo on the left shows some of the materials required for making your own
PCB's. Caustic Soda for developing the artwork, FCC - Ferrous Oxide (etchant)
and a tin of drills.

iv. Cleaning the PCB

Cleaning the PCB, is perhaps easiest to do at this stage, as the etch resist is soft,
but I prefer to complete the drilling and cutting of the board to size, first.
Otherwise, a further, final session of cleaning will be needed later.

a. Transfers and etch resist is fairly easily removed with a medium density,
waterproof, abrasive paper, that can be used under running water. Only light
pressure is needed, to avoid damaging the thinner copper tracks. This can be
followed by use of a very fine paper to give a better finish.

b. If an etch resist pen (such as a 'Dalo' marker pen) has been used, this is easily
removed by using a solvent, such as nail polish remover! However, this can
stain the pcb, if you are not careful to clean up the residue quickly.

c. The picture, right, shows from top clockwise, the original art work, (printed on
good quality tracing paper). Then the exposed design before etching and
finally, the etched layout ready for drilling and finishing.

v. Drilling the PCB

Most PCBs these days, contain a few IC's as a minimum, and this can quickly
multiply the number of holes that need to be drilled.

a. It is important, especially with dual sided boards, that the holes are drilled with
the drill 'upright' so that the holes are lined up in the middle of the pads on both
sides. This is easy if you have a small bench drill which will fit into a pillar
stand, but if you don't, what can you do?

b. I use a 12 volt modeler’s drill, which I hold in two hands above the board, and
rest both wrists on the table surface. I can then use the weight of both hands to
hold the copper board down tight at the same time. In this way I manage to hold
everything rigid and am able to use light pressure to ease the drill through the

c. A soft material should be placed under the board for the drill to pass into, such
as a spare piece of cork or an old 'jiffy' bag! Whatever method is used, it is
important NOT to allow any sideways movement of the PCB (or the drill) if
breakage of the drill bit is to be avoided.

d. The drills used, should be the Tungsten Carbide type (which usually have a larger
shank) as these will not blunt as quickly as the ordinary metal HSS drills. These
are about three times as expensive, but if breakages are avoided, will work out at
better value in the long run.

e. I have found that it is best to use a range of drill sizes - 0.8mm for IC pads and
most other components, 1.0mm for thicker component leads (diodes and
regulators) and 1.2mm for some larger components. The normal practice of
drilling a pilot hole and then the final size later should not be tried, as this will
result in the snapping of the brittle Pcb drills, which tend to 'snatch' as they enter
a pilot hole. Therefore, drill each hole only once, with the correct sized drill.

vi. Finishing the PCB

At last, the etching has been done, the holes have been drilled and the last task
before soldering the components is to finish the PCB so that it looks as
professional as possible. First, the oversize board can be cut to size, using a
hacksaw or similar. Make the saw cut just outside the copper board edge, to
allow for filing/smoothing of the rough cut pcb edge. Take care not to rub
fingers and hands against the rough PCB edges, as the glass fibers are so fine,
they can enter the body! Similarly, do not breathe in dust generated when
drilling, cutting or filing the board. The board should now be cleaned as
described in the earlier page, but if this has already been completed, then a light
rub over with a fine, waterproof, abrasive paper should be carried out.

a. The board, with shiny copper tracks, is now ready for assembly and soldering.
After this has been completed, and basic functional testing carried out (to spot
the stupid mistakes), the bottom surface should be coated with a protective
lacquer, to prevent oxidization of the tracks, over time. This should be done as
soon as possible after component assembly.

b. A better approach (which does not always look so good!), is to 'tin' the copper
tracks before component assembly. This takes some practice, if a messy result
is to be avoided, but the key to success is heat and flux!

c. Smear a THIN layer of plumbers flux across the surface to be tinned, then using
the soldering iron and the minimum possible solder, work the solder across the
pads and along tracks as quickly as possible. Avoid using too much heat on
thinner tracks to avoid damaging them. Finally, inspect the board for solder
bridges between tracks and pads - a small magnifier may be useful for this task

d. The flux is messy and this is best removed using cellulose thinners, in a well
ventilated area. Followed by a wash with soapy water. A protective lacquer is
not needed with tinned boards, but will enhance appearance, if applied to the
finished board after components have been assembled and soldered.

e. The picture here shows a tinned pcb ready for cutting and cult board

8.6. Printed circuit board guidelines

Printed circuit board (PCB) is a component made of one or more layers of

insulating material with electrical conductors. The insulator is typically made on
the base of fiber reinforced resins, ceramics, plastic, or some other dielectric
materials. During manufacturing the portions of conductors that are not needed
are etched off, leaving printed circuits that connect electronic components.

Currently the main generic standard for printed circuit board design, regardless
of materials is IPC-2221A. Whether PCB board is single-sided, double-sided or
multilayer, this standard provides rules for manufacturability and quality such as
requirements for material properties, criteria for surface plating, conductor
thickness, component placement, dimensioning and tolerance rules, and
more. For a specific technology the designer can then choose the appropriate
sectional standard from the IPC-2220 series. For power conversion devices
additional parameters are recommended by IPC-9592.

The width of the circuit conductors should be chosen based on maximum

temperature rise at rated current and acceptable impedance. The spacing between
the PC traces is determined by peak working voltage, the coating and the
product application. The minimum possible width of the traces and spacing
between them are limited by the manufacturing capabilities of your fabricator
and should not be less then 2 mils. Typical minimum values are 6/6 mils.
Depending on the application, other standards may also apply. For example, for
mains-powered or battery-powered information technology equipment, the creep
age and clearance requirements of IEC/UL 60950-1 shall take precedence over

IPC and other standards do not tell you how to properly route the board. Good
PCB layout techniques require understanding of the effects of non-zero trace
impedance and coupling of signals from one circuit to another through parasitic
capacitances and radio transmission, as well as basic understanding of circuit
operation. Auto-routing may be done for most parts of control circuits, but
power, ground and high di/dt circuits should be routed by hand.


Soldering is one of the most important techniques associated with electronic

circuit assembly. Soldering is defined as "the joining of metals by a fusion of
alloys which have relatively low melting points". Factors which should be
considered before soldering are as follows:

a) Type of solder
b) Flux surface
c) Type of component

9.1. SOLDER:

The solder used in electronic assembly is a fusible alloy consisting of tin and
lead, 60% tin and 40% lead are generally alloyed. More tin improves efficiency

of solder. The essential advantage of solder is that it can be liquefied at ordinary
low temperature and it forms a solid bond.

9.2. FLUX:

All pure metals from an oxide coating on their surface. In order to remove it,
most convenient procedure is using chemical known as flux. The purpose of flux
is to clean the surface to be joined, prevent oxidation and lower the surface
tension of liquid solder. When heated flux becomes chemically active and
removes oxide. Flux does not form a part of soldered connection. Flux can be
prepared or is available readymade. It is non corrosive and non conductive



Soldering requires two main things: a soldering iron and solder. Soldering irons
are the heat source used to melt solder. Irons of the 15W to 30W range are good
for most electronics/printed circuit board work...

Remember that when soldering, the rosin in the solder releases fumes. These
fumes are harmful to your eyes and lungs. Therefore, always work in a well
ventilated area. Hot solder is also dangerous. Be sure not to let is splash around
because it will burn you almost instantly. Eye protection is also advised.


A clean surface is very important if we want a strong, low resistance joint. All
surfaces to be soldered should be cleaned with steel wool and some sort of
solvent. Lacquer thinner works well.

After the component and board have been cleaned, we are ready to place the
component on the board. Bend the leads as necessary and insert the component
through the proper holes on the board. To hold the part in place while we are
soldering, we may want to bend the leads on the bottom of the board at a 45
degree angle. Once we are sure that the component is properly placed, we can
move on to the next step.


Apply a very small amount of solder to the tip of the iron. This helps conduct the
heat to the component and board, but it is not the solder that will make up the
joint. Now we are ready to actually heat the component and board. Lay the iron
tip so that it rests against both the component lead and the board. Normally, it
takes one or two seconds to heat the component up enough to solder, but larger
components and larger soldering pads on the board can increase the time.


Once the component lead and solder pad has heated up, we are ready to apply
solder. Touch the tip of the strand of solder to the component lead and solder
pad, but not the tip of the iron. If everything is hot enough, the solder should
flow freely around the lead and pad. Once the surface of the pad is completely
coated, we can stop adding solder and remove the soldering iron (in that order).
Don't move the joint for a few seconds to allow the solder to cool. If we do move
the joint, we will get what's called a "cold joint".


After we have made all the solder joints, we may wish to clean with steel wool
or solvent to remove all the left over rosin. We may also wish to coat the bottom
of the board with lacquer. This will prevent oxidation and keep it nice and shiny.


A cold joint is a joint in which the solder does not make good contact with the
component lead or printed circuit board pad. Cold joints occur when the
component lead or solder pad moves before the solder is completely cooled.
Cold joints make a really bad electrical connection and can prevent our circuit
from working.

Cold joints can be recognized by a characteristic grainy, dull gray color, and can
be easily fixed. This is done by first removing the old solder with a de-soldering
tool or simply by heating it up and flicking it off with the iron. Once the old
solder is off, we can re-solder the joint, making sure to keep it still as it cools.


Strip board (usually known by the trademark name Vero board of the British
Vero Electronics Company, who invented it) is a type of electronics prototyping
board characterized by a 0.1 inch (2.54 mm) regular grid of holes, with wide
strips running one way all the way along one side of the board. Breaks are
inserted in the tracks, usually around a hole. With care, it is possible to break
between holes to allow for components that have two pin rows only one position

10.1. Vero board is made using printed circuit board techniques generally with
synthetic-resin-bonded paper (SRBP) as the base board type. The 0.1 inch (2.54
mm) spacing allows sockets for DIP ICs (or the ICs directly), some standard
types of connector and other devices with pins on a 0.1 inch spacing to be
directly mounted without any gap between them and the board. The components
are usually placed on the plain side of the board, with their leads protruding
through the holes. The leads are then soldered to the copper tracks on the other
side of the board to make the desired connections, and any excess wire is cut off.

10.2. An example of a used strip board External wire connections to the board are
made either by soldering the wires through the holes or, for wires too thick to
pass through the holes, by soldering them to specially made pins called Vero
pins which fit tightly into the holes. Alternatively some types of connector have
a suitable pin spacing to be inserted directly into the board.

15.1. Thus our project on “MOBILE-PHONE CONTROLLED MAN-LESS
MILITARY TANK” is developed with an aim of keeping the interests of our
army and detective agencies in our mind. Our proposed system not only saves
the precious lives of our soldiers but also enables our military technicians to
keep an eye on the offensive activities of the miscreants.

15.2. The system is quite cost-effective as a very basic principle and simple circuitry is
used for the project. The system does not require frequent maintenance and can
work reliably for a long period.

15.3. The only parameter that can become the drawback of the system is the mobile-
bill but that too is not that important while considering someone’s life.

15.4. This system is suitable to the environment and working conditions of all work
places. So we can hope good degree of satisfaction from its application and
possibility of future modification.


16.1. BOOKS:

a) The 8051 Microcontroller Architecture, Programming and

By- K. J. Ayala

b) The 8051 microcontroller and Embedded systems

By- Muhammad Ali Mazidi

Janice Gillispie Mazidi


a) LEDs

b) 8051 Microcontroller Instruction Set


c) www.allatasheet.com


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AM 434MHZ or 418MHZ Transmitter Module

Modulation: ASK


Symbol Parameter Conditions Min Typ Max Unit

Vcc Operating 2.0 - 12 V
Icc Peak Current - - 1.64 mA
Icc Peak - - 19.4 mA
Vin Input High IData=100 Vcc- - Vcc V
Voltage Ua (High) 0.5
Vii Input Low IData=0Ua - - 0.3 V
Voltage (Low)
Fo Absolute 433.7 433. 434. MH
Frequency 2 92 12 z
417.8 418 418. MH
2 z
△FO Relative To +/- +/- KH
433.92MHz 150 200 z
Po RF Out VCC 9V- - 16 - dB
Power Into 12V m
VCC 5V- 14
Modulation External 512 4.8K 200 bps
Bandwidth Encoding K
Tr Modulation - - 100 uS
Rise Time
Tf Modulation - - 100 uS
Fall Time

Notes : ( Case Temperature = +25C+/-2C Test Load Impedance = 50


Mechanical Dimensions and Pin Description

The WZ_T434 or WZ_T418 transmitter output is up to 8mW the

range is approximately 200 foot indoor, The WZ-T4343 transmitter is
based on SAW resonator can operate from 2 to 12 Volts-DC

When operation voltage at 5V - 6V, the emission is about 14dBm.
While the operation voltage at 9V to 12V, the emission is about

AM 434MHZ or 418MHZ Receiver Module


Vc Operating 4.5 5 5.5 V


ITo Operating 3.5 4.5 mA

t Current
V Data Out Data = +200 Vcc- - Vcc V
uA 0.5
D ( High )I
I Data = -10 - - 0.3 V
t ( Low )

Electrical Characteristics
Characteristics SYM Min Typ Max Unit
Operation FC 300 - 434 MHz
Sensitivity Pref -106 dBm
Channel Width +-500 KHz
Noise NEB 4 5 KHz
equivalent BW
Baseboard data 3 Kb/s

Mechanical Dimensions and Pin Description

The receiver WZ-R434 and WZ-R418 has a sensitivity of 3uV.

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antenna length is approximately 17cm long. The typical sensitivity is
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Item Part # Price/ea

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AM 433.92 MHz Receiver Module WZ-R434 $10.00

AM 418 MHz Transmitter Module WZ-T418 $10.00

AM 418 MHz Receiver Module WZ-R418 $10.00

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• 315 Mhz is commonly used for garage gate openers, keyless

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• 418Mhz is used for low data rate telemetry or radio command
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