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NOVEMBER 2001

GCE ADVANCED SUBSIDIARY LEVEL

MARK SCHEME

MAXIMUM MARK : 50

SYLLABUS/COMPONENT : 8700/2
BIOLOGY
(STRUCTURED QUESTIONS)

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Page 1 of 3 Mark Scheme Syllabus Paper
AS Level Examinations – November 2001 8700 2

1 (a) xylem vessel, transport of, water / ions; 1

(b) no cross walls;


wide lumen / AW;
strengthened / lignified / thick cell wall;
no, cytoplasm / cell contents / organelles / hollow / empty;
pits; 3 max

(c) companion cell;

movement of sucrose / other named substance;


into / out of, sieve tubes / loading / unloading;
through plasmodesmata;
provides energy;
active transport; 3 max

[Total: 7]

2 (a) elastin / elastic fibres; 1

(b) no recoil / alveoli do not recoil; (A) contract


air not forced out;
air not refreshed in alveoli;
concentration of oxygen, falls / not maintained;
less oxygen diffuses into the blood; 3 max

(c) epidemiological evidence

increase in cigarette smoking, increase in cases / deaths from lung


cancer ~ 20 years later;
more men than women smoked in the past, linked to greater number of
cases / deaths among men; (A) anything similar to this
lung cancer rare / unknown, before cigarette smoking became common;
most people with lung cancer, smoke / have smoked;
lung cancer very rare in non-smokers;
lower incidence in smokers who do not inhale; (e.g. pipe and cigar
smokers)
ref to national differences in smoking and cancer / ref to developing
countries;
ref to studies involving British doctors;
ref to evidence from passive smoking;
AVP; 2 max

experimental evidence

experimental animals develop tumours similar to human lung tumours;


carcinogens have been isolated from tar;
when painted on animal skin induce tumours; 1 max

[Total: 7]
Page 2 of 3 Mark Scheme Syllabus Paper
AS Level Examinations – November 2001 8700 2

3 (a) (i) amino acid; 1

(ii) lose its shape / disrupted / uncoils / becomes straight chain;


denature;
hydrogen bonds break; 2 max

(b) disulphide / sulphur bridges;


van der Waals / A/W;
hydrogen ;
ionic; 3 max

(c) may be branched;


glycosidic links;
no R groups;
repeating unit structure / one monomer;
AVP; 2 max

(d) (i) three polypeptides twisted around each other;


hydrogen bonds between polypeptides;
covalent links between chains;
every third amino acid glycine, small so tight coil;
lay parallel to form fibrils;
ends staggered / fibrils overlap, so strong; 2 max

(ii) many –OH groups;


hydrogen bonds within the molecule;
hydrogen bonds between molecules;
straight chain (not helix) / unbranched / linear;
60-70 chains / associated to form microfibrils;
arranged in bundles to form, macrofibrils / fibres; 2 max

[Total: 12]

4 (a) (i) serine; 1

(ii) UAG; 1

(iii) codon; 1

(iv) phenylalanine, not isoleucine as next amino acid; 1

(b) secondary structure / alpha helix / pleated sheet;


further folding / tertiary structure;
ref named bond(s);
transported in ER;
Golgi;
packaged / sugars added / trimmed;
vesicles;
exocytosis; 4 max

[Total: 8]
Page 3 of 3 Mark Scheme Syllabus Paper
AS Level Examinations – November 2001 8700 2

5 (a) A nucleus;
B mitochondrion;
C phagosome / vacuole;
D lysosome;

half mark each 2

(b) lower resolution in light microscope;


ref wavelength of light;
maximum is half wavelength;
200 nm;
many organelles / named example, smaller than this; 3 max

(c) attachment to cell membrane;


receptors;
role of antibodies / opsonins;
folding inwards of cell membrane / endocytosis;
formation of vacuole / phagosome;
lysosomes fuse with vacuole;
toxins kill bacteria;
enzymes digest bacteria; 4 max

[Total: 9]

6 (a)
statement cholera malaria HIV/AIDS TB
causative
organism is a ü û û ü
bacterium
causative
organism is ü û û û
water-borne
transmitted
by an insect û ü û û
vector
sexually
û û ü û
transmitted

one mark per row


4

(b) people who are heterozygous / carriers;


resistant to malaria;
children of heterozygotes;
1 in 4 chance of inheriting sickle cell anaemia;
further detail of inheritance (e.g. Punnet square);
only attacks HbAHbA / healthy R.B.Cs; 3 max

[Total: 7]

Total mark for paper = 50