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Activity 1

A dietetics student wants to look at the relationship between calcium intake and knowledge about calcium in sports science students. Also, she wants
to know if knowledge about calcium can be used to predict calcium intake of the students. Table 1 shows the data she collected.

Research question: How can knowledge about calcium predict calcium intake in sports science students?

In this example, there is a single predictor variable (knowledge about calcium) for one response variable (calcium intake).

1.) Plot the scatter diagram for the given data.

Dietetics Study Data Between Calcium Intake and Knowledge About Calcium
1200
1000
Calcium Intake

800
600
400
200
0
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55
Knowledge about calcium in sports science students

2.) Find the equation of the regression line.  What is the test statistic to be used?
^y =a+bx Σ xy =497 , 143 Sx √ n−1(b−β 0)
t=
Σ x =592 Σ y 2=12 ,905 , 468 Se
Σ y=15 , 702 Σ x 2=¿ 19, 852  What is the appropriate critical region?
t >t a ,n−2
nΣxy−ΣxΣy
b= t >t 0.05,18
n Σx 2−( Σx) 2 t >1.734
20 ( 497 , 143 )−(592)(15,702)
¿  What is the actual value of the test statistic?
20 ( 19,852 )−(592) 2 n Σ x 2−(Σ x )2 S y 2=n Σ y 2−¿ ¿
2
b=13.89 ≈ 13.90 Sx =
n(n−1)
Σ x 592 ¿ 20 ( 19,852 )−¿ ¿
x́= = =29.6 ¿ 20 ( 12,905,468 )−¿ ¿
n 20 S x 2=122.57 Sx=11.07
Σ x 15,702
ý= = =785.1
n 20 n−1
Se 2 = (sy 2−b2 sx 2 )
a= ý−b x́ n−2
¿ 785.1−( 13.90 ) ( 29.6 ) 19
a=373.66 ¿ ¿
18
2
^y =373.66+
Se 13.90 x
=7,104.14 S e =84.29
3.) Find the point estimate of the calcium where the knowledge
is 40.
s x √ n−1(b−β 0 )
^y =a+bx t=
¿ 373.66+13.90 x Se
¿ 373.66+13.90( 40) 11.07 ( √ 19 ) ( 13.90−0 )
¿ 373.66+556 ¿
^y =929.66 ≈ 930 84.29
4.) Conduct a hypothesis test on β . t=7.96
 What is the null hypothesis?
H 0 : β=0  What is the statistical decision?
t >1.734
 What is the alternative hypothesis?
H1: β ≠ 0
Narsico, Franchezka C. Monday and Thursday (9 AM – 2:30 PM)

Activity 2
1.) What is the relationship between the student’s GPA and Motivation? Compute r ∧r 2 and interpret the results.
n Σ xy−Σ x Σ y
r=
√¿ ¿ ¿
14 ( 2915.2 ) −( 959 ) (40)
r=
√¿ ¿ ¿

r =0.64 ( moderate ¿good relationship )


r 2=0.41≈ 41%
2.) Suppose we wish to test H 0 : ρ=0.70 against H 1 : ρ≠ 0.70 at 0.05 level of significance, refer to the problem below.
Student Student GPA Motivation xy x2 y2
Joe 2.0 50 100 2500 4
Lisa 2.0 48 96 2304 4
Mary 2.0 100 200 10,000 4
Sam 2.0 12 24 144 4
Deana 2.3 34 78.2 1,156 5.29
Sarah 2.6 30 78 900 6.76
Jennifer 2.6 78 202.8 6,084 6.76
Gregory 3.0 87 261 7,569 9
Thomas 3.1 84 260.4 7,056 9.61
Cindy 3.2 75 240 5,625 10.24
Martha 3.6 83 298.8 6,889 12.96
Steve 3.8 90 342 8,100 14.44
Jamell 3.8 90 342 8,100 14.44
Tammie 4.0 98 392 9,604 16
40 959 2,915.2 76,031 121.5

 What is the null hypothesis?


H 0 : ρ=0.70
 What is the alternative hypothesis?
H 1 : ρ≠ 0.70
 What is the test statistic to be used?
z r−z ρ
z=
σ^ ρ
 What is the appropriate critical region?
z ← z α /2 ∨z > Z α ∕ 2
z ←1.960∨z >1.96 0
 What is the actual value of the test statistic?
1+ ρo 1 z r−z ρ
1 1+r 1 σ^ρ =
z r= ln ⁡
2 ( )
1−r
z ρ = ln ⁡
2 ( ) 1− ρ o √ n−3
1
z=
σ^ ρ
1 1+0.64 1 1+.70 σ^ρ= 0.76−0.87
z r= ln ⁡
2 ( )
1−0.64
z ρ = ln ⁡
2 ( 1−.70 ) √ 14−3 z=
0.30
z r=0.76
 What is the statistical decision?
z ← z α /2 ∨z > Z α ∕ 2
−0.37←1.960∨0.37>1.960
False or False, Fail to reject H0
 What is the statistical conclusion?
Therefore, ρ=0.7 0.
Activity 3
Suppose you are interested in the use of technology in the classroom. We do an experiment in which we teach each of three sections of a
Psychological Statistics class in a different way. One section of six students receives the standard lecture format (blackboard & discussion), a second
section of six students receives the same lectures but presented with Microsoft Powerpoint, and for the third section, the lectures are available on the
web. Do an analysis of variances for the differences of the means on the performance on a standardized exam. Use 0.05 level of significance.
Group
Subject
Lecture PowerPoint Web
1 65 85 92
2 72 74 80
3 64 64 78
4 85 85 96
5 59 65 85
6 78 81 82
Total 423 454 513
Mean 70.5 75.67 85.5
1.) What is the null hypothesis?
H 0 :μ L =μ P=μW
2.) What is the alternative hypothesis?
H 1 : At least two of the means are not equal .
3.) What is the test statistic to be used?
s 12
f=
s 22
4.) What is the appropriate critical region?
f >f (a , v , v ) v1 =k−1 v 2=k ( n−1 )
1 2

f >f (0.05 ,2 ,15) ¿ 3−1 ¿ 3 ( 6−1 )


f >3.63 v1 =2 v 2=15
5.) What is the actual value of the statistic?
2 T ..2 1 2 T ..2 SSE=SST −SSC
SST =ΣΣ x ij − SSC= ΣTi −
nk n nk ¿ 1877.11−696.78
SSE=1180.33
1932100 1 df 1932100 SS
¿ 109216−
S of V ¿ ( 648214 )− MS Computed f
6(3)
Column Means 6 2 6( 3) 696.78 348.39 4.43
Error 15 1180.33 78.69
Total 17 1877.11

6.) What is the statistical decision?


f >3.63
4.43> 3.63
True, reject H 0
7.) What is the statistical conclusion?
Therefore, atleast two of the means are not equal.

Least Significant Difference

x́ L =70.5 LSD=t ( α , v ) ( sd́ )


2
Absolute Mean
x́ P =75.67 ¿ t (0.05 ,15 ) ( 5.12 ) Groups
Difference
LSD Conclusion
x́ W =85.5 ¿ t (1.753) (5.13 ) L,P 5.17 NSD
L,W 15 8.98 SD
2 s2
sd́ =
√ n
P,W 9.83 SD
2 ( 78.69 )
¿

sd́ =5.12
6