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ACTS REVIEW CENTER – ILOILO 1

SEPTEMBER 2018

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY
1. What organ-disease has 5x increase in ALP: BONE

Pronounced elevation Moderate elevation Slight elevation


(≥5 times) (3-5 times) (up to 3 times)
Bile duct obstruction Granulomatous or infiltrative Viral hepatitis
Biliary cirrhosis disease of liver Cirrhosis
Paget's disease Infectious mononucleosis Healing fracture
Osteogenic sarcoma Metastatic tumors of the bone Pregnancy
Hyperparathyroidism Metabolic bone disease Normal growth patterns in
(rickets, osteomalacia) children

2. What enzyme decreases in liver Cholicesterase


disease?
3. Lamp used in UV Deuterium lamp and Mercury Arc lamp
spectrophotometry
Visible spectrophotometry: tungsten lamp
Atomic absorption spectrophotometry: hollow cathod
lamp
4. NFPA hazard symbols (4 items) 0 - No hazard
1 - Slight
2 - Moderate
3 - Serious
4 - Extreme

No SMS Ex
5. Complication of phlebotomy? A. Dermatological
B. Neurological
C. Cardiovascular
D. All of the above
6. Cell separation for glucose test is 30 minutes
done within how many minutes
Gray tube (sodium fluoride) - prevents glycolysis by
inhibiting enolase
7. What disease is associated with S. pyogenes
group A Streptococcus
8. Causes of hyponatremia (Morse 1-Metabolic acidosis
type) 2-Cushing disease
3-Addison’s disease
4-Metabolic alkalosis

9. Causes of increase anion gap Methanol


(Morse type) Uremia
Diabetic ketoacidosis
Paraldehyde
Intoxication, iron, inhalants
Lactic acidosis
Ethanol
Salicylate
10. What electrolyte maintains Chloride
neutrality?
Sodium - counter-ion of chloride
Potassium - countercurrent ion of chloride
11. If vacutainer is stored at low Increase in draw volume
temperature, what will be the
effect to the draw volume? If vacutainers are stored at low temperature, pressure
of the gas inside will decrease. This will lead to

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ACTS REVIEW CENTER – ILOILO 2
SEPTEMBER 2018

increase draw volume


Altitude ↑ altitude = ↓ draw volume
Humidity Affects plastic vacutainers only
Affects lyophilized additive duw to m
igration of water vapor inside the tube
12. Order of draw Yellow - blood culture (SPS)
Light blue - coagulation (Sodium citrate)
Red - serum
Green - blood gas (heparin)
Lavender - most hematology studies (EDTA)
Gray - blood glucose (NAF)
13. What is the effect of the a. increases
hemoglobin and bilirubin to ACP b. decreases
c. unaffected
d. Indeterminate
Only ALP will be falsely elevated by high Hb and
bilirubin
Only TRAP (not total ACP) falsely decreases due to high
bilirubin
14. Effect of cryogenic material (Morse 1- Thermal burns
type) 2- Vasoconstriction
3- Pressure build-up

Cryogenic materials - used for certain medical


treatment at temp -67 C
15. What is an enzyme? Enzymes are biological catalysts that lowers the
activation energy
16. Analytical Sensitivity and Analytical Specificity

Analytical Sensitivity Analytical Specificity


lowest concentraction of substance that measure only one analyte
can be detected by the test method no interference from other analyte
Less false negative Less false positive and cross reaction
for screening test for confirmatory test
17. Diagnostic Sensitivity and Diagnostic Specificity

Diagnostic Sensitivity Diagnostic Specificity


% of population w/ disease that test % of population w/o disease that test
positive (TRUE POSITIVE) negative (TRUE NEGATIVE)
TP x 100 / (TP + FN) TN x 100 / (TN + FP)

18. Ability to repeat test sample a. Accuracy


yielding close results b. Precision
c. Sensitivity
d. Reproducibility

Accuracy - closeness to the true value (control)


19. Instrument for identifying and MS/GC (gold standard)
quantitating drugs
Mass spectrometry - identification
Gas chromatography - quantitation
Fluorometry - used in drug and hormone measurement
Nephelometry - quantitation of ab-ag reaction
20. TREND OF MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION
Elevation Peak Duration/Decline
Myoglobin 1-3 h 6-9 h 24 h
Troponin I 3-8 h 24-48 h 3-5 days
Troponin T 3-8 h 2-3 days 5-10 days

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ACTS REVIEW CENTER – ILOILO 3
SEPTEMBER 2018

CK-MB 4-6 h 12-24 h 2-3 days


AST 6-12 h 24-48 h 4-6 days
LD 8-12 h 4-6 days 8-14 days
21. Patient has increase BNP, what to Decrease in sodium level (inverse relationship)
expect with the patient's electrolyte Effects of BNP: vasodilation, natriuresis, inhibition of
panel? RAA
22. Sources of error in ABG
Hyperventilation/ specimen exposed to air ↓ PCO2 ↑ pH ↑ PO
Specimen at RT for >30 mins ↓ PO2 ↓ pH ↑ PCO2
23. Formula for anion gap (Na+ + K+) - (Cl- + HCO3-) or Na+ - (Cl- + HCO3-)
Osmolality =
2Na + (Glucose/20) + (BUN/3)
1.86 Na + (Glucose/18) + (BUN/2.8) + 9
24. What is an enzyme Enzymes are biological catalysts that lowers the
activation energy for a reaction to occur
25. Of the total serum osmolality, A. 8
sodium chloride, and bicarbonate B. 45
ions normally contribute approx C. 75
what percent? D. 92
26. Criggler Najjar defect Deficiency of the enzyme system required for
conjugation of bilirubin
CALCULATION
3 mL of serum is added to 12 mL saline
1. What is the dilution of the solution? 3/15

2. What is the ratio of serum to 3/12


saline?

3. What is the ratio of the total 15/3


volume to serum?

There are 3 tubes with 9 mL NSS. In the 1st


tube, 1 mL of the 0.1 N NaOH was added.
From the 1st tube, 1 mL was transferred to
the 2nd tube. The 2nd tube was mixed and 1
mL of solution
4. What is the dilution of the 1st tube? 1:10
5. What is the dilution of the 2nd tube? 1:100
6. What is the final concentration of 0.0001 N NaOH
NaOH in tube 3?

MICROBIOLOGY AND PARASITOLOGY


1. Ova found in concentrated sputum Paragonimus westermani

Larva - Ascaris lumbricoides


Cyst - G. lamblia
2. Use to differentiate Oxidase
Stenotrophomonas and S. maltophila Burkholderia
Burkholderia Oxidase NEG POS
Catalase POS NEG
Gelatin liq NEG POS
DNAse POS NEG
3. QC for sterilization Biological QC (B. stearothermophilus)

Dry heat - Bacillus subtilis

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ACTS REVIEW CENTER – ILOILO 4
SEPTEMBER 2018

4. Safest method which no living Moist heat/ autoclaving


organism/ infectious organism can
survive Incineration - destruction of prions
5. Nontuberculous, noncultivable M. leprae
Mycobacterium infecting mucous
membranes, skin, and nervous
system
6. M protein is associated with what S. pyogenes
organism
7. What organism causes blue-green Pseudomonas aeruginosa
pus
8. What organism is motile at 25℃ Yersinia enterolitica (nonmotile at 37℃)
Yersinia pestis - non-motile
9. K/A H2S with gas
A/A K/A K/A, gas K/A, gas, H2S
Klebsiella Shigella Morganella Salmonella
E. coli Providencia Proteus mirabilis
Enterobacter Serratia Edwarsiella
P. Vulgaris (H2S)
KEEPS SPS SaME
10.Aside from Shigella, what causes Campylobacter jejuni
watery diarrhea, electrolyte loss,
and bloody stool? (from Harr)
11.Causes of food spoilage in Lactobacillus - anaerobic
unopened bacon slices in plastic
bag
12.Beta hemolytic gram positive cocci Bacitracin test - for S. pyogenes (Group A)
is identified, what test must be CAMP - for S. agalactiae (Group B)
further done?
13.Storage temperature of serum for -70 degree Celcius
longer storage
4 C - shorter time of storage
14.Why is serum tested again after 1 Check for rise of titer (four-fold)
week? (2) Detect acute infection due to rise of titer
15.False about indirect bilirubin?
Indirect bilirubin Direct bilirubin
Structure Unconjugated Conjugated with
glucuronide
Bound to protein Yes (albumin) No
Type of compound Nonpolar Polar
Soluble in water No Yes
Present in urine No Yes
Reaction with diazotized sulfanilic acid Indirect (needs accelerator) Direct
Affinity for brain tissue High Low
16.Gauge for pediatric venipuncture Frequently, smaller-gauge (23 gauge or 25 gauge)
needles are used. Syringes or butterflies may be
advantageous with some infants' vein (Rodaks)
The 23-gauge needle is preferred for pediatric draws,
hand veins, or veins that appear fragile or problematic
(Dennis)
17.Venipuncture site if pattient has a fistula in right arm - draw at the left arm

Situations Appropriate Course of Action


IV Use opposite arm or perform fingerstick, if possible
Have nurse turn off IV for 2 min, collect below the IV line (but
disgard the first 3-5 mL of blood)
Fistula, mastectomy Draw at opposite arm

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ACTS REVIEW CENTER – ILOILO 5
SEPTEMBER 2018

Indwelling lines & catheters, Usually not drawn by lab


heparin locks, cannulas First mL is discarded
May draw below the heparin lock id nothing is being infused
Sclerosed veins, edema, scars, Select other site
burns, tattoos
Hematoma Draw below
Streptokinase/ TPA Minimize pucture sites
Hold pressure until bleeding stopped
Patient refuses Try to persuade. If unsuccessful, notify the nurse
Unidentified patient Ask nurse to ID befor drawing
18.Stain for quantitaing parasitic Giemsa stain
infection
19.If the stool specimen is small, what Kato-Katz and Kato thick (semi-quantitative)
technique you will use for ova
quantification In the choices
NSS - for motility, not the best method for ova count
Iodine - for qualitative only
20. Medium for Vibrio spp APW - enrichment medium
TCBS - selective medium
21.What is detected in Slide Coagulase Bound coagulase/ clumping factor
test
Tube Coagulase - free coagulase
22.E.coli Diarrhereic Group

EHEC Hemorrhagic colitis, HUS Undercooked meat, raw milk, RBCs in stool but no
Most common cause of renal apple cider polyps
failure in children
Vertoxin/Shiga toxin
E.coli 0157:H7
ETEC Traveller’s diarrhea/ watery Contaminated food/water No polyps or RBCs
diarrhea
Toxins
EIEC Bloody diarrhea/ Dysentery Contaminated water/foode
like
Polyps, RBCs, mucus
EPEC Diarrhea in infants (major Contaminated formula/food No polyps/RBCs
pathogen in infants)
Adherent-attachement
EAEC Chronic diarrhea in HIV- Nosocomial/community No polyps/RBCs
infected patients acquired
Adherent-attachement
DAEC Diarrhea and UTI No current studies No current studies
Adherent-attachement
23.Egg is flattened at one side and E. vermicularis
bulging at the other side
24.Patient suffering from gallbladder C. sinensis adult resided at the bile ducts, gallblader,
obstruction, is positive for brown and pancreatic ducts (high probability for obstruction)
ova with opercular shoulder.
25. Earliest form seen in blood picture Trophozoite (immature)/ ring form
in malaria infection

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ACTS REVIEW CENTER – ILOILO 6
SEPTEMBER 2018

26.Which of the following is a normal Corynebacterium amycolatum


flora Most frequently recovered Corynebacterium spp from
human clinical material but part of the normal skin
microbiota
27.Anaerobes’growth requirement 5-10% CO2, 5-10% H2 and 80-90% nitrogen
28.Biosafety cabinet
HEPA filtered exhaust air Recirculated HEPA filtered air Velocity (FPM)
BSC I 100% 0%
BSC II A1 30% 70% 75

BSC II A2 30% 70% 100

BSC II B1 70% 30% 100

BSC II B2 100% 0% 100


BSC III 100% HEPA filtered supply 0%
and exhaust air

CLINICAL MICROSCOPY
1. Positive color of bilirubin in reagent strip Purple

Purple (+): bilirubin and leukocyte esterase


False (-) due to ascorbic acid: BB LNG (blood,
bilirubin, leukocyte esterase, nitrite)
False (-) due to nitrite: BB U (blood, bilirubin,
urobilinogen)
False (-) due to high SG: B(l)NG (blood, nitrite,
glucose
False (+) due to highly pigmented urine: PLUNK Bi
(pH, leukocyte esterase, urobilinogen, nitrite,
ketones, bilirubin)
2. Imparts orange brown color in urine, and Urobilin
produce red fluorescence in UV
Urobilinogen - colorless
3. Meaning of E in RACE Rescue Pull pin
Alarm Aim at the bottom
Contain Squeeze
Extinguish/evacuate Sweep from side to side
4. Sperm count calculation (per ejaculation) 1 million cells/ejaculation
Volume: 2 mL
Dilution: 50
5 RBC squares: 200
5. CSF cell ount 11, 800 cells/ mm3
2 WBCs squares: 58 and 60
Dilution: 1:20
6. Urine grading: few particles , print seen and no distortion

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ACTS REVIEW CENTER – ILOILO 7
SEPTEMBER 2018

Clear Transparent
Hazy Few particles, print easiliy seen
Cloudy Many particles, blurred print
Turbid Print cannot be seen
Milky Precipitated/clotted
7. SSA protein grading: Turbidity with granulation with no flocculation

Neg No increase in turbidity (<6 mg/dl)


Trace Noticeable turbidity (6-30 mg/dl)
1+ Distinct turbidity (30-100 mg/dl)
2+ Turbidity with granulation (100-200 mg/dl)
3+ Turbidity with granulation and flocculation (200-400 mg/dl)
4+ Clumps of protein (>400 mg/dl)
8. What solution preserves sperm cell in the Formalin
sperm diluting fluid?
Other diluting fluids: 10% NAHCO3, cold/chilled
water, tap water, saline
9. Most common round cells seen in sperm 1. Spermatid
count 2. WBC
10. What happens in RBCs in diluted urine? Swell/ becoems ghost cells

11. What cell exhibit brownian movement? Neutrophil/ Segmenter

12. What type of urine which glitter cells are Diluted urine
seen?
13. What causes blue-green color urine? Pseudomonas

14. True in POCT POCT uses the principle of


immunochromatography and gives qualitative
results
15. What bacteria can reduce nitrate to Escherichia coli, Proteus spp., Klebsiella
nitrite (2 questions) pneumoniae
Can’t reduce nitrate: Enterococci, Staphylococci,
or Adenovirus
16. Effect of excessive phenol in urine? Decrease in urine pH/ urine becomes acidic

17. Most common cause of negative urine Exposure to light


bilirubin
18. 4th tube of CSF Microbiology

1st tube: Chemistry/ serology


2nd tube: Microbiology
3rd tube: Hematology/Cell count
19. What tube for bacteriological studies in 1st tube: Chemical examination (1-3 mL)
synovial fluid is used of 3 tubes are 2nd tube: Microscopic examination (2-5 mL)
collected? 3rd tube: Microbiological studies (3-10 mL)
20. What microscope is used for cast? Phase-contrast microscope (Brunzel)

Cholesterol: Polarizing/bright-field
3D images of high contrast and resolution:
1. Modulation contrast (Hoffman)
2. Differential-interference (Nomarski)
3. Bright-field - can be adapted for both methods
21. Urine constituent unique in kidneys Cast
22. Why first morning urine is preffered? (2 First morning urine is the most concentrated
question) urine throughout the day therefore able to detect

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ACTS REVIEW CENTER – ILOILO 8
SEPTEMBER 2018

small abnormal constituents


23. What type of bilirubin reacts with Direct bilirubin
bilirubin strip
Principle: Azo coupling reaction with ___ bilirubin
with diazonium salt in an acid medium to form an
azo dye
24. False negative in bilirubin 1. Old specimen
2. Ascobic acid (>25 mg/dl)
3. High concentrated nitrite
25. Seen in preeclampsia Preeclampsia occurs only in pregnancy and
precludes gestational hypertension
Mild preeclampsi: high blood pressure, water
retention, and proteinuria
Severe preeclampsia: oliguria, upper right
abdominal pain, and tendency to bruise easily
26. In renal tubular acidosis, the pH of urine: Consistenly alkaline
27. Limulus lysate test Gram negative endotoxin
28. Crystals seen in gout Uric acid/ Monosodium urate
Pseudogout: calcium pyrophosphate
29. 2 or more RTE cells indicate Acute renal necrosis
30. Speckled patter in blood reagent strip Hematuria
Homogenous patter: hemoglobinuria
31. Birth defects test Triple test: AFP, HCG, and estriol
Quad test: AFP, HCG, estriol, and inhibin
32. Evaluate urine clarity and color A. Check the urine with a white background
B. Check urine with a newsprint
C. Check the urine with black background
D. Check urine with a polarizing light
NOTE: Read Chemical Test (for cases study analysis)

HEMATOLOGY
1. In the cell cycle, what phase requires 8
hours duration where DNA is synthesized
G0 - resting phase
G1 - gap phase before S phase (accumulates
needed in DNA synthesis
G2 - post DNA synthesis (checking)
2. How long is the neutrophil life span in the 6-10 hours (average 8–12 hours)
circulation? <1 day
3. Time for the last myelocyte mitotic Myelocyte - last dividing cells
division to the emergence of mature
eosinophils from the marrow
4. Associated with giant platelet syndrome  Bernard-Soulier
(Morse type)  Alport Syndrome
 May-Hegglin
5. What is/are increased in compensated Choices:
thrombocytopenia? (Morse type) 1 – Circulating
2 – Resting
3 – Stress

Resting platelets - activated platelets


Stress platelets - produced under conditions of
stimulated platelet production differ from normal
circulating platelets (volume and functional
characteristics
6. Vitamin K dependent factors II, VII, IX, X (and protein C, S, Z)

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ACTS REVIEW CENTER – ILOILO 9
SEPTEMBER 2018

Calcium dependent factors: XII, XI, PK, HMWK


Consumed factors during clot formation: (I, II, V,
VIII, XIII (fibrinogen group except II)
Labile factors: V and VIII
Activated in cold temp: VII and XI
7. Manual-wedge smearing angle 30-45°

Smearing angle for px sample with PCV: 25°


8. What are the characteristics of an immature cell?

Mature Immature
Size smaller larger
N:C ratio low high
Cytoplasm less basophilic basophilic
Nucleus smaller/ extruded (RBC)/ larger
segmented (granulocytes)
Nucleoli absent present
9. Dehydration will cause Hematocrit to TO INCREASE
10. MK I is Megakaryoblast
MK II - promegakaryocyte/ basophilic
megakaryocyte
MK III - mature/ granular megakaryocyte
(Rodaks)
11. Anticoagulant to blood ratio in citrate 9:1
tube
12. Area of 1 square in platelet count 0.04 mm2

Total area for platelet count:


0.04 mm2 x 25 = 1 mm2
WBC count (1 corner square): 1 mm2
RBC count (1 square): 0.04 mm2
13. If the APTT is still prolonged even Presence of inhibitor
correction studies are performed, what Antibodies against Factor VIII
may be the reason for prolonged APTT
14. Target INR in pulmonary embolism 2.0-3.0 (standard dose of coumarin)
treatment
If px have mechanical heart valves: 2.5 - 3.5 (high
dose anticoagulant therapy)
15. If there is presence of oral anticoagulant, a. %
PT is reported as b. ratio
c. INR - standardized manner of reporting
d. seconds
16. Acute myelocytic leukemia (AML)/ acute granulocytic leukemia (AGL)
M0 Myeloid leukemia w/ minimal M4eo Myelomonocytic leukemia w/
differention eosinophilia
M1 Myeloblastic leukemia w/o maturation M5a Monocytic (>30% blast)
M2 Myeloblastic leukemia w/ maturation M5b Monocytic (more mature cells)
M3 ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA M6 Erythroleukemia
M4 Myelomonocytic leukemia M7 Megakaryocytic
17. Erythroleukemia and Acute Lymphocytic PAS (both PAS positive)
Leukemia is differentiated from other
leukemia using what stain?
18. Last stage in RBC maturation wherein Reticulocyte
nucleus is lost Mature RBC (not in the choices)

Orthochromatophilic normoblast - last nucleated


stage in RBC series

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ACTS REVIEW CENTER – ILOILO 10
SEPTEMBER 2018

19. WBC and platelet estimate formula WBC estimated count (HPO): 10 fields
WBC/field x 2,000

Platelet estimated count (OIO): 10 fields


Platelet/field X 20,000

20. Objective used in RBC count HPO (400x)


21. Platelet zone responsible for aggregation a. Sol-Gel
and synthesis of ATP for platelet b. Peripheral
metabolism c. Organelle
d. Open canicular system

Peripheral zone consists of glycocalyx coat


(mucopolysaccharide and Mg2+ dependent
ATPase), cytoskeleton (for aggregation and
adhesion) and platelet membrane (ADP receptor)
Organelle (dense granules) - storage of
nonmetabolic ATP (Harrison IM)
22. WBC that can kill an antigen inside a Neutrophil
phagosome because of presence of
hydrochlorous acid, peroxidase, and
superoxide
23. Result of MPO and SBB are? a. Parallel
b. Opposite
c. Indifferent
d. Indefinite

Both stains myelocytic lineage


24. Pappenheimer bodies can be Prussian blue
demonstrated using?
Wright stain:
 Basophilic stippling
 Howell-Jolly bodies
 Cabot rings
 Pappenheimer bodies
 Polychromatophilic RBC

New Methylene blue: (SHH(a)RP


 Siderotic granules
 Howell-Jolly bodies
 Heinz bodies
 Reticulocytes
 Pappenheimer

Supravital stain:
 Heinz bodies - BCB, methylene blue, crystal
violet
25. Cold agglutinin will cause RBC count to DECREASE
MCV, MCH, MCHC: increases
26. Use to measure variation of size in RBC RDW
27. Use to measure variation of size in PDW
platelets
28. MPV should be based on what age of 4 hours
EDTA specimen
29. Inclusion body composed of ribosomes Basophilic stippling
and RNA, that can be precipitated during
staining?
Heinz bodies: hemoglobin

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ACTS REVIEW CENTER – ILOILO 11
SEPTEMBER 2018

Pappenheimer bodies: iron


Howell Jolly bodies: DNA
30. Nucleus shape of a mature platelet No nucleus (TRICKY QUESTION)
Megakaryocyte: multinucleated
31. Corrected WBC count solving WBC count x 100/ (#nRBC + 100)

32. Centrifuge speed for microhematocrit 10,000 - 15, 000 xg

2, 000 - 2,300 xg : macrohematocrit


33. Cell counted for diff count if WBC>40x10 9
200 cell-count
34. Cell counted for dif count if WBC 300 cell-count
>100x109
35. Centrifugation time of microhematocrit A. 3 minutes
B. 5 minutes
C. 10 minutes
D. 30 minutes - macrohematocrit
36. TIBC test is performed to assess the A. Ferritin
blood level of: B. Hemopexin
C. Iron
D. Transferrin
37. Acute leukemia blast percentage criteria FAB: 30%
WHO: 20%

IMMUNOLOGY, SEROLOGY AND BLOOD BANKING


1. Specific test for SLE Anti-dsDNA
2. Test to detect SLE ANA test
2. 2nd most severe cause of HDN Anti-c

D>c>E>C>e
3. Transport temperature of RBC 1-10 degree Celcius
component
4. Storage condition of WBC 20-25 degree Celcius w/o agitation

5. What is passive agglutination Antibody in the patient’s serum reacts with the
antigen attached to a particle
6. Antibody found in population of African Anti-Sm
Americans and Carribeans
7. How to prepare cryoprecipitate Light spin then hard spin
8. Blood antigens that are enhanced by Fya
enzyme except?
Enhanced (enzyme): Rh, Lewis (Lea, Leb), Kidd
(Jka, Jkb)
Destroyed (enzyme): M, N, Duffy (Fya and Fyb)
React at any phase: Lewis
Labile in vivo and in vitro: Kidd (DHTR)
Enhanced (acidification): M
9. Product fragments of papain 1 Fc and 2 Fab’
Pepsin: 1 Fc and 1 Fab(2)
10. Component of rejuvinating solution PIPA (phosphate, inositol, pyruvate, adenine)

Additive solution components:


Adsol (AS ) and Optisol (AS-5): MAGS (mannitol,
adenine, glucose, saline)
Nutricel (AS-3): CPAGS (citrate, phosphate,
adenine, glucose, saline)
11. Purpose of agitation in platelet Transfer of CO2 and O2
components

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ACTS REVIEW CENTER – ILOILO 12
SEPTEMBER 2018

12. SITUATION: RhIg Administration 1. Mother is Rh negative


2. Mother hasn’t produced anti-D
13. Blood Typing (2 items) Anti A Anti B A cells B cells
A + -- -- +
B -- + + --
AB + + -- --
O -- -- + +
14. Type of discrepancies where the Type 1 discrepancy
patient has missing antibodies
Type 2: missing antigens
Type: 3: plasma discrepancies
Type 4: miscellaneous
SITUATIONAL: Blood typing work-up discrepanies
First thing to do: check patient’s history then check for techinical discrepancy
Type 1 Incubate px serum with regeant A1 and B cell at RT and at 4℃ for 15-30 minutes
Type 2 Incubate tets mixture at RT and for at 4℃ for 15-30 minutes
Type 3 Saline dilution/ replacement
For cord cells: 6-8 times (harmening) or 5 times (turgeon)
Type 4 Warm techniquue, DTT treatment
15. Vaccine with the longest deferral HBsIg vaccine (1 year)
16. Deferral for rubella vaccine 1 month (4 weeks)
17. If donor unit seal has been broken, Discard the unit
what should you do?
18. First step of laboratory investigation of Check for clerical errors
transfusion reacktion
19. Blood component with longest expiry Frozen RBCs (10 years)
date
20. Indicates high infectivity in hepatits B HBeg
infection

HISTOPATHOLOGIC TECHNIQUES, CYTOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES, MT LAWS AND ETHICS


1. Stain for collagen Van Gieson/ Trichrome stain
2. PAS stains what substance Glycogen
3. Destruction of all living organism Sterilization
4. Code of ethics is not based on Conscience
5. Factors to consider when selecting a Brand of fixative
good fixative except:
6. Which of the following is not considered Brand of chemical
when during quality control
7. Hazardous chemicals should be labeled 1- Poisonous
with description of their particular 2- Corrosive
hazard such as 3- Carcinogenic
8. Administrative investigation 2 members of the board
1 legal officer
NOTE: MOST QUESTIONS ARE SITUATIONAL AND “A COMPILED VERSION OF ALL SUBJECTS”

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