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1.

(Bandura and Vroom) When you believe that your effort of


studying hard is going to make the effect of you passing the
board exam, that is an example of…
a. Outcome of Expectation
b. Outcome of Performance
c. Self-efficacy
d. FRN (Feedback-related negativity)

2. (Based in Karen Horney) This is a secondary adjustment


technique wherein the person does not see the discrepancy
between their behavior and their idealized self.
a) Cynicism
b) Blind spots
c) Excessive Self-control
d) Elusiveness
3. (Horney) According to Horney, this is the feeling of being
isolated and helpless in a potentially hostile world
a. Basic Anxiety
b. Neurotic Personality
c. Basic Hostility
d. Real Self

4. (Karen Horney) Peter is a company owner who likes power-


tripping over his employees. Which solution to basic anxiety
is he employing?
a. Moving away from people
b. Moving against people
c. Moving towards people
d. Moving within a group of people
5. This concept of George Kelly asserts that there are various
ways in which the world that surrounds us can be
understood, and there always exist alternative perspectives
for us to choose from.
a. Construct Evaluation
b. Construct Alternative
c. Construct Observation
d. Constructive Alternativism

6. This was a very significant book that was written by B.F.


Skinner
a. Escape from Freedom
b. Our Inner Conflicts
c. Beyond Freedom and Dignity
d. Man’s Search for Meaning
7. This is an analysis of behavior in terms of cause and effect
relationships, where the causes themselves are controllable,
that is, stimuli, deprivations, and so on.
a. Reciprocal determinism
b. Functional Analysis
c. Conditioned stimulus
d. Punishment
8. These are universal thought forms that are the structural
units of the collective unconscious.
a. Feelings
b. Archetypes
c. Personality
d. Consciousness
9. Which one of the following is surely true about the hierarchy
of needs?
a. The higher needs always only come to exist once the lower or
prepotent needs get satisfied.
b. Many of the needs, including the higher needs, are often all
present simultaneously, but the prepotent need is the one that is
felt and influential.
c. All are correct
d. None is correct
10. Which of the following is true about Maslow’s view of
human nature?
a. Psychopathology results from the denial or frustration of the
twisting of man’s essential nature for growth.
b. Psychopathology starts from not satisfying the needs.
c. None is correct
d. All are correct
11. He was the French psychiatrist who used hypnosis for
the treatment of hysteria.
a. Joseph Breuer
b. Jean Charcot
c. Hippocrates
d. Sigmund Freud

12. According to Freud, this is the energy utilized for


psychological activities.
a. Libido
b. Sexual Cathexis
c. Consciousness
d. Psychic Energy
13. Which of the following is true about the superego?
a. It is the internal representative of the traditional values and
ideals of the primary care-giver through the social institutions like
schools and churches and then enforced by a pattern of reward
and punishment.
b. It is the internal representative of the traditional values and
ideals of the society through the parents and then enforced by a
pattern of reward and punishment.
c. None is correct
d. Both are correct
14. According to Erikson it is the image we have of
ourselves as compared with established ideal.
a. Ego Ideal
b. Super Ego
c. Body Ego
d. Ego Identity
15. Which of the following is true about the epigenetic
model of human development?
a. Every system of the body has a pre-determined sequence of
development.
b. The strengths and capacities developed at each stage are
related to the some aspects of the personality and can be affected
by development at any point in one’s life.
c. Both are correct
d. None is correct

16. This construct means shared inner perception?


a. Pakikisama
b. Pakikiramdam
c. Pakikipa-kapwa tao
d. Pakikiayon
17. Who said “perfection, not pleasure, is the goal of life”.
a. Sigmund Freud
b. Abraham Maslow
c. Eric Erickson
d. Alfred Adler

18. This is a sense of incompletion or imperfection.


a. Inferiority
b. Superiority
c. Flexibility
d. Expectancy
19. According to Fromm, this is the need to be an integral
part of the world, to feel that they belong.
a. Need for acceptance
b. Need for belongingness
c. Need for rootedness
d. Need for selflessness
20. What did Carl Rogers first study?
a. Psychiatry
b. Theology
c. Agriculture
d. Econimics

21. Which is true about Freud’s view of human nature?


a. There is the state when the symbolized experiences that
constitute the selffaithfully mirror the experience of the
organism/Organismic Self.
b. All behavior have unconscious but not conscious causes
c. Religion and civilization developed either due to the fear of the
unknown or for protection against inborn aggressive tendencies.
d. People develop hypotheses about the consequences of their
behavior and evaluate the validity of these hypotheses to develop
their ability to predict consequences
22. The region of the personality where we find the root of
the consistency that marks attitudes, intentions, and
evaluations.
a. Identity
b. Ego
c. Propium
d. Temperament

23. This is a neuropsychic structure having the capacity to


render many stimuli functionally equivalent, and to initiate
and guide equivalent.
a. Neurosis
b. Mood
c. Identity
d. Trait
24. Which of the following statements is true about the
dynamic lattice?
a. Attitudes are subsidiary to sentiments, which are subsidiary to
ergs.
b. Integration learning is the highest type of learning.
c. Sentiments are subsidiary to ergs, which are subsidiary to
attitudes.
d. All of the above
25. Andres defined this as the principle of reciprocity that is
incurred when an individual helps another
a. Pakikisama
b. Pakikipag kapwa tao
c. Pakikiisa
d. Utang na loob
26. According to _____ this implies a code of behavior
through which the person possessing it is evaluated.
a. Gordon Allport
b. Hans Eysenk
c. Karen Horney
d. Victor Frankl
27. You just received your NEO-PI R results today. You
received a high rating on Neuroticism, a low rating in
Extraversion and Average on the rest of the factors. Thus,
you may be described as a person who is:
a) Easily guilty, extremely shy and often anxious
b) Assertive, sociable and very rational
c) Moody, easily depressed but mostly carefree
d) Sociable, very dominant and does not feel emotional
in the face of trying times
28. Comparing Sigmund Freud and Melanie Klein’s theory
about the human personality are almost similar, with little
differences when it comes to some minute details. Only one
of the following is true about the two:
a) Klein agreed with Freud that the Id drives most of
the person’s unconscious desires
b) Similar to Freud’s concept on the Oedipus complex,
Klein agreed that boys and girls do not differ in
handling their crises.
c) More than sexual pleasure, Klein believed that a
person’s ego is developed through social contact
d) Klein mostly believed in Freud’s paternalistic view of
the human personality.
29. With Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, which of
the following persons follow the typical direction of
addressing needs?
a) Mike chooses to meet his friends despite having only
slept about 2 hours after his shift
b) Riley prefers to do an extra credit homework on the
weekend instead of attending his high school
reunion
c) Joshua is late for class, but on the way out he shoves
crackers in his mouth before opening his notebook
to review
d) Jim opts to ride his motor without a helmet because
it makes his hair look too tangled up for his date
30. This pivotal interpersonal value for Filipinos is also
called a shared inner perception. It is usually seen in
nonverbal interactions and has both external and internal
aspects.
a) Kapwa
b) Pakikisama
c) Pakikiramdam
d) Kagandahang-Loob
31. Horney proposed that our neurotic needs can be
classified into three broad categories. Of the following
people, which of them follows the ‘Moving Against Others’
trend?
a) Kylie tries so hard to achieve the top spot in a course
her parents chose for her
b) Lily chose to make her project on her own despite
being encouraged by her teacher to choose a
partner.
c) Opal joins an internet dating site to find someone
who matches her standards.
d) In order to succeed in her business, Darren often
promises to regularize underpaid employees if they
agree to work overtime without pay
32. Filipino Psychology stresses that one’s idea of the self
encapsulates the ideals, aspects and different variables
surrounding others. With this concept of the individual, who
among the following theorists would most likely believe in
Enriquez’ idea about Kapwa?
a) Adler
b) Jung
c) Horney
d) Fromm
33. Being a believer of Carl Rogers, which concept would
most likely come to mind when remembering a film where
the main character learns only to look at herself in a mirror
only if she has learned to be brave in the face of danger?
a) Ideal Self
b) Conditional Positive Regard
c) Unconditional Positive Regard
d) Conditional Positive Self-Regard
34. Jason then brings out an envelope with his personality
test results from 2 years ago. He shared it you and
continued by saying that he does not believe the results. He
believes in some of the traits mentioned about him like being
a warm and friendly person, but does not believe that he
tends to be suspicious. Knowing Allport’s definition of the
human personality, what can be said about his results?
a) He should believe in them because almost all traits
remain stable over time.
b) Even if he takes the personality test for a second time,
the results would be identical
c) Jason should make necessary changes in his life in order
to be true to his results
d) His traits would probably reflect fluctuations to a certain
degree because of the dynamic nature of one’s
personality
35. As Filipinos, we subscribe to our inking sociopersonal
values. Much similar to Fromm’s idea of Agape, we manifest
such a value through generosity without any expectation for
anything in return. Such a value is called?
a) Katarungan
b) Kabutihan
c) Kalayaan
d) Kagandahang-loob
36. The interviewer then asked about dialects or other
languages that Anna knows how to speak. Although her job-
to-be may often limit her interaction to unconscious patients,
she may likewise be asked to conduct neurological
interviews with locals of the place. For Anna to succeed in
this task, she must put into practice which of the following
principles of Enriquez in his study of the Filipino personality?
a) That one’s manner of speaking minimally affects how to
interact given a very technical nature of a job
b) Embedded in one’s language are meaningful concepts
absent in popular culture
c) Connecting with others mostly requires nonverbal
communication, since actions do speak louder than
words
d) More than language, genuine thoughts have more
weight in interaction
37. What makes Adler and Existentialists similar is their
belief in a future-oriented concept of the human personality.
Such is the nature of which concept discussed by these
theorists?
a) Freedom
b) Dualism
c) Responsibility
d) Teleology
38. As an advocate of feminine psychology, Horney agreed
with Adler that many women possess a masculine protest.
Which of the following statements are true?
1. There is a pathological belief that men are superior to
women
2. Penis envy is basically a desire to be anatomically
male
3. Womb envy is an expression of a man’s desire to bear
children
4. There is a neurotic aversion for qualities regarded as
feminine
a) 1 only
b) 2 and 4
c) 1 and 3
d) all except 2
39. The following statements about Filipino Psychology are
true except:
1- Emic emphasizes on an inward to outward study of
personality, while etic takes a universal perspective toward an
indigenous one
2- Metaphoric language are central in the study of the Filipino
Personality
3- Personal dignity is valued over smooth interpersonal
relationships
4- Hiya, Utang na Loob and Pakikisama are Confrontative
Surface Values
5- Karangalan and Katarungan are Societal Values
a) 4 only
b) 3 & 5
c) 3 & 4
d) 1, 2 & 4
40. Which of the following statements most describes the
relationship between Freud and the Person-Centered view
of the human personality?
a) Person-Centered theorists accepted Freud’s
deterministic view of development
b) Being context-based, Freud agreed with notions of
personal awareness in terms of personality
development
c) Both put value into catching a person’s area of
resistance with regard to therapy and making them
aware of it
d) Unlike Freud, Person-Centered theorists put much
value into capacities that are positive and more
conscious in nature
41. Filipino Psychology would seem to mostly reject which
of these theorists because of their position on a shared
humanity, almost ignoring the capacity for evil?
a) Jung
b) Maslow
c) Rogers
d) Adler
42. Albert Bandura established his principle of vicarious
learning. From the following people, whose behavior would
be less attributed to this principle?
a) Marcus takes the exam because he knows he can
do it.
b) Emerson refuses to cross the street during a red
light since someone else was reprimanded a
block away.
c) Angel drinks beer because she sees her parents
doing it on a daily basis.
d) Mimi scolds her daughter by saying that when
she was her age, her mother forbade her from
doing the same thing.
43. Normality is defined by Erikson as being able to resolve
different crises at some point of life. Of the following people,
who follows the typical Psychosocial pattern?
a) A four year-old boy who mentions about his
crush in school
b) A fifty year-old woman who accepted help from
her son to manage her money
c) A 30 year-old man who became industrious
upon reurning high school
d) A 25 year old lady who just had her first
boyfriend
SITUATION (44-45): Andrew is looking for the true meaning of
love. From all of his readings, he managed to whittle down his
concept of love based on the different psychological theorists.

44. Kagandahang-loob for Filipinos was one of the


significant findings from Andrew’s readings. Of the following
theorists, whose concept of a love expecting nothing in
return is most similar to this Filipino construct:
a) Rollo May
b) Erik Erikson
c) Ludwig Binswanger
d) Erich Fromm
45. According to Rogers, Love may be displayed by an
individual when this is absolved:
a) Ideal Self
b) Real Self
c) Conditions of Worth
d) Congruence
46. With regard to dreams, Skinner and Freud agreed at
some point. Which of the following statements would prove
this notion:
a) Dreams are overt forms of behavior
b) Dream behaviors are reinforced when sexual
stimuli are suppressed
c) Dreams may serve a wish-fulfillment purpose
d) Dreams are dependent on one’s persona
47. Which of the following would constitute a normal
personality based on the Personal Construct Theory?
a) Standing firm even when situations seek to
invalidate personal constructs
b) Using the anticipatory function as the primary
basis of behaving
c) Surrendering one’s personal constructs when
validation does not occur
d) Being extremely flexible about one’s personal
constructs
48. The Personal Construct Theory proposes that in
therapy, the ultimate goal in relation to one’s actualization
tendency is:
a) Making the unconscious conscious
b) Compromising one’s beliefs when needed
c) To be a fully functioning person
d) Assuming a forward-thinking attitude
49. Everytime DJ meets a girl, he always says to himself,
“You conceited idiot! What makes you think you can get a
date with the best-looking woman in town?” Of the following
Horney’s concepts , this is an example of:
a) Merciless Self-accusation
b) Relentless demands on oneself
c) Tyranny of the should
d) Self-contempt
50. Horney believes that women can behave in
psychologically healthy ways if they give up their
__________ acceptance of an ideology of _________.
a) Conscious; male superiority
b) Unconscious; male superiority
c) Unconscious; male inferiority
d) Conscious; inferiority
51. Jake went to psychologist to discuss about the nature
of his dreams. He reported that his dreams were recurring
and disturbing. Jung would interpret his dreams as:
a) devoid of meaning
b) were disgusted attempts at wish fulfilment
c) are attempts at resolving current conflicts
d) almost always have sexual content
52. According to Adler, compensation
a) refers to one's belief about one's ability to
perform behaviors that should lead to expected
outcomes
b) involves bolstering self-esteem by forming an
imaginary or real alliance with some person or
group
c) involves efforts to overcome imagined or real
inferiorities by developing one's abilities
d) refers to largely unconscious reactions that
protect a person from unpleasant emotions
53. One primary criticism of behavioral theories of
personality is that the theories
a) are unrealistically optimistic about human
nature
b) overgeneralize from animal behavior to human
behavior
c) generally lack scientific or empirical support
d) suggest that unconscious forces influence
behavior
54. Each of the following is one of the propositions central
to all psychodynamic theories EXCEPT ________.
a) Our mental representations of ourselves, of others,
and of our relationships tend to guide our
interactions with other people
b) Much of mental life is unconscious
c) Mental processes such as emotions, motivations,
and thoughts operate in parallel and thus may lead
to conflicting feelings
d) Stable personality patterns do not form until young
adulthood
55. Which of the following best exemplifies Horney’s
concept of drive towards vindictive triumph?
a) Rey may direct his neurotic ambition toward
being the best student in school
b) Jaime ordinarily channels his energies into those
activities that are most likely to bring success
c) Elmer always strives toward an imaginary picture
of perfection
d) Mila may put others to shame or defeat them in
order achieve success
56. The following statements are TRUE about Jung’s
archetypes. Point the exception.
a) To come to grips with the darkness within
ourselves is to achieve the “realization of the
shadow.”
b) The process of gaining acquaintance with his
anima was Jung’s second test of courage
c) Political, religious, and social prophets who
appeal to reason as well as emotion are guided
by wise old man archetype
d) Identifying too closely with our persona helps us
attain our individuality and self-realization
57. The following statements are false about Fromm’s
Exploitative Character Orientation. Point the exception.
a) Hans always tries to possess the loved one and to
preserve the relationship rather than allowing it to
change and grow
b) Jake may make others believe that he is skilful and
salable
c) JV is always in constant demand of soliciting
attention and affection coming from her loved one.
d) Paolo may appear to “fall in love” with a very rich
married woman, but not really in love with her.
58. Which of the following statements is LEAST likely true
about Allport’s Central Disposition?
a) Everyone has several central dispositions
b) Most people, Allport believed, have 5 to 10 central
dispositions that their friends and close
acquaintances would agree
c) Those that would be listed in an accurate letter of
recommendation written by someone who knew the
person quite well
d) They are less conspicuous but far greater in number
59. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs in relation to child
development stresses that out of the five categorical needs,
these four must be met in order to effect proper growth:
a) B-needs
b) D-needs
c) Self-Esteem Needs, Physiological Needs, Safety
Needs, Self-Actualization Needs
d) Love and Belongingness, Self-Actualization
Needs, Physiological Needs, Self-Esteem Needs
60. Aside from her boyfriend problems, Michelle also added
that she was not too fond about her job, despite sticking with
it for almost a year. She said that she often does not feel
genuine and describes herself as “plastic” when dealing with
her co-workers. Depending on who she’s in front of, she
usually acts differently. Michelle’s experience at work would
best be dealt with what sort of framework?
a) Adlerian
b) Jungian
c) Freudian
d) Eriksonian
61. After finishing her cigarette, Michelle then says that it
might have something to do with his troubled past, since her
boyfriend was beaten up by his father as a kid. And that’s
probably why he had almost gotten physical with her the
other day while arguing. From a Horneyian perspective, it is
safe to say that:
a) Michelle’s boyfriend is probably envious of her
mothering capacity
b) Her boyfriend has learned to be aggressive toward her
by virtue of basic hostility
c) Because of basic anxiety, Michelle’s boyfriend probably
feels lonely and helpless often
d) Due to his neurotic need to be loved, he tends to adopt
physical ways to get to Michelle
62. Your younger brother is watching a movie, The Hobbit,
on TV. After the movies, he comes to you and says that he
is very impressed with one of the protagonists in the story,
Tauriel, a she-elf, and tries to demonstrate some of her bow
and arrow moves to you animatedly. Knowing Carl Jung,
your brother is most probably perpetuating which archetype:
a) The Great Mother
b) The Hero
c) The Animus
d) The Anima
63. Jung believed that past experiences, even those of your
ancestors, are very much important in analyzing an
individual’s personality. Such a concept is most similar to
which of the following Freudian concepts:
a) Collective Unconscious
b) Phylogenetic Endowment
c) Libido
d) Ego
64. We research theories of personality to
a. agree with all theorists on their own personality theories.
b. describe their use for real-world problems.
c. show how personality theories are superior to any other
theories.
d. generalize that all people are the same across cultures.
65. Understanding and knowing your own personality
a. will help you to diagnose others that are different from you.
b. will help you find compatible people in your life.
c. will help you to avoid people who are not perfect for your life.
d. will help determine your success and life fulfillment.
66. We ________ personality in order to better understand
ourselves and others.
a. correct c. judge
b. exaggerate d. ignore
67. Your personality can be shaped by
a. organic reflex reactions.
b. the number and variety of your social situations and
interactions with others.
c. hypnosis.
d. adult neurosis.
68. Wundt and others created the study of psychology but
believed the subject was also linked to
a. the study of physics and chemistry.
b. the analysis of basic elements as they pertain to our mind.
c. culture and the variety of our interactions with people.
d. all of the above.
69. Watson was a psychologist who focused on
___________ in the United States.
a. behaviorism c. existentialism
b. psychoanalysis d. cognitive processes
70. _______________ presents a mechanistic picture of
human beings.
a. Psychoanalysis c. Medication
b. Education d. Behaviorism
71. Freud based his theory of personality on
a. the laboratory setting.
b. cognitive processing.
c. clinical observation of his patients.
d. behaviorism.
72. Learned habits and response systems are attributed to
a. Jung. c. Skinner.
b. Watson. d. Freud.
73. Behaviorism, according to __________, perceives
human beings as well-ordered machines.
a. Skinner c. Jung
b. Watson d. Freud
74. Neo-psychoanalysts focus on
a. their own interpretations of behavior.
b. behaviorism.
c. learned responses and habits.
d. the whole person in how they function in the real world
75. __________ is generally considered to have formalized
the study of personality.
a. Freud c. Jung
b. Allport d. Skinner
76. Personality can be summed up by which of the
following phrases?
a. Personality is how we perceive ourselves and also how others
perceive us.
b. Personality shows that we are deterministic, mechanical and
don’t change throughout our lives.
c. Personality involves the interpretations of fantasies and past
recollections of repressed memories.
d. Personality is entirely based on how we were treated during
childhood.
77. Persona is
a. a person’s mechanistic behavior. c. like a mask used by actors
in a play.
b. predictable and automatic. d. only what others think about us.
78. Your personality can be
a. rigid and inflexible.
b. constantly changing.
c. based on traits and behavior.
d. all of the answers
79. Social networking sites, such as Facebook, can
a. increase an idealized self-image.
b. help a person pretend they are someone else.
c. be as accurate as face-to-face interactions in determining
personality.
d. all the answers
80. In research, those who have a high level of social
network use
a. are more extroverted.
b. are more introverted.
c. are more anxious.
d. score higher on tests of emotional stability.
81. In research, shy American college students who use
text messages were more likely to experience
a. a reduction in their feelings of loneliness.
b. an increase in their fears of loneliness.
c. no change in their feelings of loneliness.
d. an increase in emotional instability
82. In the past, ____ ____were more likely to be used in
research on personality theory.
a. white women c. white men
b. Latino men d. black men
83. Children who are exposed to vastly different
environments
a. have vastly different personalities.
b. are equally the same in personality.
c. are more isolated and lonely.
d. are likely to be more introverted than extroverted.
84. Girls and boys are still reared according to
a. the norms of the neighborhood where they were raised.
b. the explicit wishes of the grandparents.
c. books on parenting.
d. traditional stereotypes.
85. A research study from 1940 showed that those with
more “masculine” jobs
a. report lower job satisfaction. c. report higher rates of
depression.
b. report a higher mortality rate. d. report higher rates of job
burnout.
86. A limiting factor in research of personality is that
subjects
a. come from only cultural and ethnic samples.
b. are paid and easily conform to how the researcher wants them
to respond.
c. are mostly college students.
d. are mostly children and adolescents in treatment.
87. Reliability involves
a. consistent results on multiple administrations of a test.
b. a reliable indicator of the validity of a test.
c. a reliable score for the person taking the test.
d. a valid profile of a person taking a test.
88. Which question best clarifies the meaning of validity?
a. Has the test been taken by many people?
b. Does the student know what is on the test?
c. Does the test measure what it is supposed to measure?
d. Is the test reliable?
89. Types of validity include __________ validity.
a. predictive c. construct
b. content d. all the answers
90. Reliability is
a. the consistency of the responses to a test.
b. when a test measures what the test is supposed to measure.
c. used to validate and predict behavior.
d. the scores from different tests.
91. The most widely used self-report personality test used
today is
a. the Rorschach Inkblot Technique.
b. the MMPI.
c. the Myers-Briggs Indicator.
d. the Thematic Apperception Test.
92. The MMPI, in its different forms, is used with
a. adults only.
b. adults and adolescents only.
c. only children.
d. adults, adolescents and children.
93. The MMPI is NOT appropriate for
a. those with lower intelligence. c. children.
b. those with lower reading skills. d. all the answers.
94. Self-report measures of personality are advantageous
because
a. they are designed to be taken by children, adolescents, and
adults.
b. they are designed for people of all ranges of intelligence.
c. they are designed to be scored accurately.
d. they are designed for people with all ranges of reading ability.
95. When taking a self-report inventory, people may be
more honest with their answers if
a. an online test is given.
b. a paper-and-pencil test is given.
c. a person wants to look “good” on their answers.
d. a person takes a test in the classroom.
96. A projective test of personality
a. clearly describes an objective viewpoint of personality.
b. projects a person’s fears, needs, and values through the test.
c. is based on the behavioral theory of personality.
d. is based on a model created by John Watson.
97. The Rorschach Inkblot Technique is given
a. only to adults.
b. to objectively interpret the values, needs, and fears of a person.
c. only to patients in a psychiatric hospital.
d. to people of a wide range of age.
98. In research for the Rorschach, conclusions on validity
and reliability are
a. mixed.
b. highly accurate and precise.
c. invalidated.
d. considered valid and reliable, since the test is so popular.
99. The Thematic Apperception Test was developed by
a. Sigmund Freud. c. Carl Jung.
b. Morgan and Murray. d. John Watson.
100. The Thematic Apperception Test is a(n) ____________
test.
a. valid and reliable c. projective
b. objective d. multiple-choice
101. The ____ ____ is a widely used technique for
personality assessment.
a. classroom exam c. intelligence test
b. achievement test d. clinical interview
102. In the assessment of personality, research shows
a. a higher level of depression in girls than in boys.
b. a higher rate of depression in women than in men.
c. a gender bias or stereotype for women diagnosed with
depression.
d. all the answers.
103. __________ may affect the results in the assessment
of personality.
a. Maturation c. Living conditions
b. Culture d. Poverty
104. __________ students are more self-critical than
_________ students in assessment of personality.
a. European / American
b. Australian/ American
c. American/ Japanese
d. Japanese / American
105. People from collectivist cultures ___________ than
those from individualistic cultures.
a. tend to be more self-critical c. tend to be about the same in
self-criticism
b. tend to be less self-critical d. tend to exhibit greater optimism
106. Traditional Hispanic and Asian cultures tend to
a. seek therapy more frequently than Whites.
b. seek therapy less often than Whites.
c. not seek therapy at all.
d. keep their distress hidden and only reveal this distress with
close family members.
107. Case study data collected with the clinical method
a. is more objective.
b. reveals the truth about the person.
c. is more precise than correlation methods.
d. is more subjective.
108. A(n) ____________ is a technique for determining the
effect of one or more variables on behavior.
a. experiment c. projective test
b. case study d. clinical observation
109. The _________ variable is manipulated, while the
___________ variable is the measure itself.
a. independent/dependent c. experimental/independent
b. dependent/independent d. control/independent
110. Online or virtual research is advantageous because
a. there are objective and reliable sources such as Wikipedia.
b. users tend to be older and more proficient with this kind of
research.
c. users are younger and more proficient with this kind of
research.
d. results of online research show a significant improvement over
other research methods.
111. The correlational method of research compares
a. the relationship between multiple variables.
b. the relationship between children, adolescents and adults.
c. the relationship between several cultures and ethnic
populations.
d. the relationship between two variables.
112. The primary limitation for the correlation method is
a. multiple regression.
b. using statistical analysis.
c. determining cause and effect.
d. analyzing the variable.
113. The word personality comes from the Latin word
"persona", meaning 
A. that which one truly is.
B. the evil side of people.
C. theatrical mask.
D. soul.

114. Psychologists generally agree that personality 


A. refers mostly to surface traits.
B. is largely inherited.
C. can be explained by several different theories.
D. can best be explained by a single theory.

115. The word "theory" is most closely associated with 


A. philosophy.
B. science.
C. armchair speculation.
D. taxonomy.

116. Theories are built primarily on 


A. scientific observations.
B. philosophical speculation.
C. unique definitions of terms.
D. sociological models.

117. A set of related assumptions from which, by logical


deductive reasoning, testable hypotheses can be drawn is 
A. a philosophy.
B. the definition of theory.
C. the definition of taxonomy.
D. an armchair speculation.
118. Statements formed in an if-then framework are most
likely 
A. taxonomies.
B. philosophies.
C. theories.
D. definitions of personality.

119. What is the proper place of theory within science? 


A. Theories enable scientists to know how they should live
their lives.
B. Theories are tools used by scientists to give meaning to
observations.
C. Theory building is the ultimate aim of science.
D. Theories play no role in scientific pursuits.
120. Which statement best characterizes the relationship
between a theory and a hypothesis? 
A. A theory is narrower than a hypothesis.
B. A theory is directly verifiable, a hypothesis is not.
C. A theory is logically deduced from a specific hypothesis.
D. A theory may generate one or more hypotheses.

121. An educated guess that can be scientifically tested is a


definition of 
A. theory.
B. hypothesis.
C. philosophy.
D. taxonomy.

122. A taxonomy is best defined as 


A. an educated guess.
B. a set of if-then statements.
C. the study of the nature of reality.
D. a classification system.

123. The basic data of science are 


A. observations.
B. facts.
C. theories.
D. hypotheses.

124. What is the relationship between theory and


observation? 
A. They are mutually exclusive.
B. Several theories make up an observation.
C. Several observations make up a theory.
D. There is a mutual and dynamic interaction between them.

125. A theory may be set aside when it 


A. generates testable hypotheses.
B. explains a set of observations.
C. is proven by experimentation.
D. loses its usefulness.

126. The ultimate value of any theory depends on its 


A. usefulness.
B. truthfulness.
C. reliability.
D. simplicity.

127. The personalities, cognitive processes, developmental


histories, and social experiences of personality theorists
help shape their theories. The discipline that deals with
these factors is called 
A. personology.
B. psychology.
C. sociology.
D. the psychology of science.
E. psychobiology.

128. According to the authors of the text, personality


theories 
A. are former principles that have been proven true.
B. originate from the historical, social, and psychological
world of their originators.
C. are useful tools of science to the extent that they are
value free.
D. should not be open to falsification.

129. Descriptive research 


A. is designed to test hypotheses.
B. contributes to expanding a theory.
C. is that which uses an experimental design.
D. is expressed by if-then statements.

130. The two MOST important functions of a theory are its 


A. internal consistency and accuracy.
B. logic and its consistency with established theories.
C. ability to generate research and organize observations.
D. ability to be proven true and to become a doctrine.

131. A useful theory must be falsifiable, which means that 


A. it will eventually be proven false.
B. it must be precise enough to suggest research that may
either support or fail to support its major tenets.
C. it should be flexible enough to encompass opposing data
into its framework.
D. it must be either true or false.

132. Which of these is NOT a function of a useful theory? 


A. It will generate research.
B. It will be consistent with one's philosophy of life.
C. It organizes observations.
D. It serves as a guide to action.

133. Which statement is most nearly true? 


A. A theory can be a practical guide for a psychotherapist.
B. Theory and practice are mutually exclusive.
C. Other things being equal, the more complex a theory. the
better.
D. A good theory gives opposing answers to a single
question.

134. Part of the internal consistency of a theory is 


A. a taxonomy.
B. a set of operational definitions.
C. its agreement with older, more established theories.
D. its empirical validity.

135. A researcher uses the number of times a person smiles


at others as a measure of friendliness. This an example of 
A. an operational definition.
B. hypothesis testing.
C. parsimony.
D. internal consistency.

136. A useful theory should be parsimonious, meaning that it


should be 
A. based on empirical research.
B. complex.
C. simple.
D. verifiable.

137. Which of the following is NOT a dimension used by the


authors to assess a theorist's concept of humanity? 
A. determinism versus free choice
B. order versus disorder
C. pessimism versus optimism
D. conscious versus unconscious

138. The variety of personality theories now is due to 


A. the different personal and philosophical perspectives that
each theorist has of
human nature.
B. the use of different terminology for the same basic
concepts.
C. different translations of theories originally written in other
languages.
D. the reluctance of psychologists to accept any theory
except their own.

139. Personality theorists have evolved different systems


because 
A. they have different conceptions as to the nature of
humanity.
B. they have had a variety of childhood and professional
experiences.
C. they begin with different assumptions concerning
personality.
D. Any or all the above are correct.
 

140. Personality theorists who adopt a teleological approach


generally believe that people's behavior is a function of 
A. early childhood experiences.
B. genetic makeup.
C. environment.
D. people's expectations of future events.
E. a and c

141. A reliable test 


A. is always valid.
B. measures what it purports to measure.
C. correlates positively with its validity.
D. yields consistent results.

142. If scores on an instrument that measures introversion


correlate highly with a number of other measures of
introversion—for example, shyness and inhibition—then that
instrument is said to have 
A. discriminant validity.
B. convergent validity.
C. divergent validity.
D. test-retest reliability.
E. concurrent reliability.

143. A test that can accurately divide extraverts from


introverts is said to have 
A. test-retest reliability.
B. internal consistency.
C. divergent validity.
D. convergent validity.
E. discriminant validity.

144. Any test that correlates with future behaviors is said to


have 
A. test-retest reliability.
B. predictive validity.
C. divergent validity.
D. internal consistency.

TRUE/FALSE
1. John Watson formed the movement called existentialism.
2. Freud is known as the founder of psychoanalysis.
3. Ethnicity and culture are considered widely variable in the study
of personality.
4. Reliability of assessment techniques is intended to measure a
certain test and its scores.
5. The MMPI is considered a projective measure of assessment.
6. The MMPI is not appropriate for people with limited reading
skills.
7. A test-taker tends to make himself appear unacceptable on a
self-report inventory.
8. Self-report inventories remain the most objective approach to
personality assessment.
9. Online testing is less expensive and less time-consuming than
conventional classroom tests.
10. There is a significant difference in scores between online tests
and paper-and-pencil tests.
11. Projective tests are totally accurate and objective in their
ability to describe personality.
12. Projective tests have low reliability and low validity, but are
widely used anyway.
13. The Rorschach Inkblot tests can be widely used for ethnic
minorities rather than the MMPI.
14. Clinical interviews and behavioral assessments are routinely
done for assessment of personality.
15. Men are more often diagnosed with depression than are
women.
ESSAY
1. Watson argued that psychology must be studied by our senses,
while Freud believed we should study the unconscious
mind. Give two real-life examples of the importance of how we
study with our senses as in Watson’s viewpoint, and
two examples in real-life of why we need to focus on the
unconscious.
2. The Internet, Facebook, and other media has increased our
social networking. Give your opinions on how social
networking can (A) increase and (B) decrease the accuracy of
how we can perceive others? Give at least two different
responses for A and B.
3. Until recently, culture and ethnicity were not studied in the
assessment of personality. However, traditional research
studies have been done extensively on family background,
gender differences and life span development. (A) Share at
least three reasons why culture and ethnicity are important
concepts to add to present day research. (B) Now relate
culture and ethnicity to such problems as gangs and turmoil in
public schools.
4. (A) List at least three differences between paper-and pencil
tests and online tests. (B) Provide an example of what kind
or type of personality test would be best-suited for a paper-and
pencil type test and for an online test.
5. The case study or case history is the primary method for
studying a patient’s emotional problems.
(A) What are at least three benefits from studying case studies
and/or case histories?
(B) What are three deficits in studying only case studies?
6. What is the relationship between theory and each of the
following terms:
(a) philosophy, (b) speculation, (c) hypothesis, and (d)
taxonomy?  
7. What is the relationship between theory and observation? 
8. List and briefly discuss six criteria for a useful theory.