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Volume XXXVI, Number 5/6 (Published August 2018)

IPM for Cannabis Pests

By William Quarles

Photo courtesy of Professor Whitney Cranshaw

bout 35 million people in
the U.S. use marijuana on a
regular basis. It is the fourth
most popular recreational drug
after caffeine, alcohol, and tobacco
(Ingraham 2017). Marijuana is legal
for medical use in 31 states, and it
has been decriminalized in 13 other
states. Recreational marijuana is
legal for adults in nine states, in-
cluding Alaska, California, Colora-
do, Oregon, Maine, Massachusetts,
Nevada, Vermont, and Washington.
Legalization in Michigan and New
Jersey is expected soon. There are
only four states where it is totally
illegal according to state law (Wiki-
pedia 2018).
Marijuana may be the larg-
est cash crop in the U.S. with an
estimated value of $35.8 billion each
year. Its closest rival is soybeans, Spider mites, Tetranychus urticae, have damaged this bud of Cannabis.
whose value varies with yields, and Biological controls and least-toxic pesticides can control spider mite
recently with tariffs. Hemp also has damage.
a lot of economic potential. About
$688 million of imported hemp
products were sold in the U.S. in products. Reusable hemp bags vomiting after chemotherapy. It is
2016 (Strickler 2018). Cultivation of could replace some of the plastic effective as an appetite stimulant for
both marijuana and hemp is illegal bags at the grocery store. Seeds wasting diseases such as AIDS. It
according to federal law. The feder- produce high quality edible oils con- is an antispasmodic. Some clinical
al government lists Cannabis as a taining unsaturated fatty acids and tests have shown that marijuana
Controlled Substances Act Schedule vitamin E. In blighted rural areas is an analgesic for certain kinds of
I drug and claims it has no medical where coal mine and tobacco jobs pain. It reduces glaucoma. Marijua-
value. The federal fate of marijuana have been lost, hemp could pro- na and especially cannabidiol (CBD)
is uncertain, but a law legalizing the vide economic revitalization (Small (see Box A) is an anticonvulsant.
cultivation of hemp throughout the 2015a; McConnell 2018). There is some evidence marijuana
U.S. was introduced into the U.S.
Senate on April 12, 2018 (McConnell Medical Marijuana In This Issue
2018). The Trump administration
claims that Cannabis has no med-
Hemp ical uses, but Cannabis extracts Cannabis IPM 1
Hemp has been grown for were used in U.S. medicine until Calendar 7
thousands of years. It is a renew- 1941 (Russo 2003). Several studies Global Warming 8
able source of fibers for ropes, bags, have shown that marijuana is an Conference Notes 10
paper, building materials, and other antiemetic, preventing nausea and
may relieve symptoms of bronchi- over the years, and a number of the
al asthma and insomnia (Hollister products can be found in the IPM
2001, Russo 2003). Pharmaceutical Practitioner’s Directory of Least-Toxic
companies have developed strains Pesticide Products (BIRC 2015).
that emphasize individual cannabi-
noids (see Box A) for clinical testing. A Place for IPM
THC may lessen the pain of opiate Because pesticides allowed are
withdrawal. Cannabidiol is an ef- somewhat limited, the situation pro-
fective anticonvulsant with few side vides an ideal opportunity for IPM
effects (Russo et al. 2002; Russo methods. IPM management should
2003). An oral CBD drug, Epi- result in less environmental pollu-
dolex®, has been recently approved tion, fewer pesticide exposures, and
by the FDA. less pesticide contamination of the
product. Less pesticide contamina-
Pest Management tion is important because the Cali-
Problem fornia law requires that commercial
Because federal law prohibits marijuana be tested for pesticide
Cannabis production, there is a pest residues (BCC 2018).
management problem in the states This article is not intended to
where it is legal. The EPA will not provide a complete IPM program
register a pesticide with marijua- for each and every Cannabis pest.
na or Cannabis listed on the label. Rather to provide basic guidelines
Thus, most EPA registered pesti- and followup to relevant literature
cides cannot be applied. Yet many
states allow marijuana to be grown,
sold, and consumed. To make the
best of a bad situation, cooperation
between state and federal agencies
has led to lists of approved pesti-
cides. Pest management agencies
in each state will answer questions
about which pesticides are allowed
(Cranshaw 2015; CA DPR 2018; WA
2018; OR 2018).
For instance, EPA registered
pesticides with broad labeling that
are also exempt from food tolerance
requirements can be used in Califor-
nia. And 25b exempt materials such
as clove oil are allowed. Pesticides
not registered for food use, restricted
pesticides such as the insecticides
bifenthrin, fipronil, and cyfluth-
rin, pesticides on the Groundwater Parasitoids killed these aphids.
Protection list such as imidacloprid,
and pesticides labeled Danger can- (McPartland et al. 2000; Clarke and
not be used (CA DPR 2018). Merlin 2016, Pertwee 2016; Rosen-
thal and Imbriani 2012, Stitch and
Least-Toxic Pesticides Rosenthal 2008).
Many of the pesticides al-
lowed are biopesticides, soaps, and Pests of Cannabis
oils. Oregon and Washington have According to McPartland
extensive lists of brandname for- (1996), nearly 300 insect pests have
mulations that include pyrethrins. been associated with Cannabis, but
California provides a list of generic very few cause economic losses. At
active ingredients. By coincidence, the seedling stage, pests are cut-
many of the pesticides allowed for worms, birds, hemp flea beetles,
use on Cannabis are the least-toxic crickets, slugs and rodents. Flower
pesticides that BIRC has researched and leaf pests outdoors are hemp

IPM Practitioner, XXXVI (5/6) Published August 2018 2 Box 7414, Berkeley, CA 94707
Box A.
Biology and Chemistry of Cannabis
Cannabis contains more than skunk, lemon, and mint. Changing
60 substances called cannabinoids. the anthocyanin content leads to
Major components are delta 9-tetra- purple Cannabis (Small 2015a).
hydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol Plants are usually either male
(CBD), and cannabinol (CBN). THC or female, but stress can produce
is the major component causing plants with both flower types.
euphoria or hashish activity. Canna- Commercial marijuana comes
bidiol is an anticonvulsant and has from the female plant. Unfertilized
much medical promise. It has no flower buds, or sensemilla are the
hashish activity and can moderate preferred product. Enough resin to
the central effects of THC. Cannabis produce euphoria also occurs in the
strains showing equal amounts of leaves, but stems, roots, and seeds
THC and CBD are often preferred are inactive (Small 2015a).
for medical marijuana use. Can- According to Lewin (1964) the
nabinol is inactive centrally, and is name Cannabis may have come
an oxidation product of THC. These from the old East Iranian name
cannabinoids are secreted by the konaba, which became the Greek
plant in the form of resins (Quarles word konabos. Hemp is ancient
et al. 1973; Mechoulam 1975, Small and there are words for it in many
2015a; Russo 2003; McPartland et languages. In Hebrew, the word
al. 2006; Pertwee 2016). is kaneh, sometimes linked with
Two kinds of Cannabis have bosm, meaning aromatic. In Arabic
economic value—hemp and mari- the word is kannab, which leads
juana. Linneaus had access only to easily to the Greek kannabis (Small
hemp and classified what he saw as 2015b). Hashish comes from an Ara-
Cannabis sativa in 1753. Hemp has bic word meaning hay grass, garden
been grown for thousands of years Male and female Cannabis plants weed, or “the herb.” The slang term
throughout the world, and was grass may have evolved from the
grown in early America by Thomas Although hemp is Cannabis association with hemp, which was
Jefferson and others. According to sativa, some strains are high in THC known as “hempe, neckeweede, or
current botanical thinking, hemp content and produce high quality gallow grasse.” Hemp rope was used
should still be called Cannabis sati- marijuana. Cannabis indica accord- to hang medieval criminals (Lewin
va. It typically grows 3-5 meters (10- ing to Schultes (1975), is a short 1964; Rosenthal 1971; Dodoens
16 ft) high, and is characterized by plant, less than 6 feet (1.8 m) high 1578).
fibrous stalks, long, narrow leaves with broad leaves and a bush like Cannabis along with hops and
and less than 0.3% THC (Schultes growth profile. It is grown only for a few other plants are members of
1975, Small 2015a; Small and Mar- marijuana. Hybrids of Cannabis the Cannabaceae. Cannabis grows
cus 2003). sativa and Cannabis indica may also best in heavily fertilized, permeable,
Although there is general agree- contain large concentrations of THC. well drained soil. Seeds and roots
ment that hemp is Cannabis sati- Commercial marijuana contains will rot if drainage is inadequate. It
va, the plant has been extensively about 5-10% THC, but some strains thrives between 14-27°C (57-81°F)
modified, and there is a controversy may exceed 20%. Marijuana of the and likes sunlight. Flowering occurs
whether domesticated Cannabis is 1960s and 1970s was much less 4-6 months after planting. It is an
one species with several subspecies potent. For instance “Acapulco Gold” annual and reproduction can be by
or varieties, or two species with sev- contained about 2.6% THC (Quarles seeds or cloning. Due to its illegal
eral subspecies or varieties. Schul- et al. 1973; Schultes 1975, Small nature, many growth operations are
tes (1975) identified three species, 2015ab; Clarke and Merlin 2016). indoor hydroponics. Successful cul-
Cannabis sativa (hemp), Cannabis Plant breeders have produced tivation depends on sanitation and
indica (hashish activity), and a wild, many variants and strains of the proper nutrient balance (Stitch and
scraggly form called Cannabis ruder- two species. Variable terpene con- Rosenthal 2008; Small et al. 2003).
alis (Schultes 1975; Small 2015ab). tent gives the plants odors such as

Box 7414, Berkeley, CA 94707 3 IPM Practitioner, XXXVI (5/6) Published August 2018
borers, budworms, leafminers, and

Photo courtesy of Professor Whitney Cranshaw

green stink bugs. Stalks and stems
are attacked by borers and beetle
grubs. Roots are attacked by grubs,
root maggots, termites, ants, fungus
gnats and wireworms. Frequent and
sometimes serious pests include
aphids, whiteflies, mealybugs, mites,
and chewing bugs (McPartland et al.

Pests of Cannabis Inside

Cannabis can be grown indoors
in greenhouses or grow rooms, or
outside as a field crop. Cannabis
grown inside has a different spec-
trum of pests and diseases than
that grown outside. Plants are often
grown hydroponically, which can
predispose them to Pythium root Aphids can be serious pests of Cannabis. This is a mixed infestation of
rot and algae. High humidity in the winged forms and clones of the cannabis aphid, Phorodon cannabis.
grow rooms can encourage powdery
mildew, botrytis and other foliage The grow room should be Plants can be monitored visual-
diseases. Most insect pests can be isolated physically from the rest of ly and with sticky traps. Physical
excluded, but spider mites, fungus the structure. Ventilation systems controls such as fences and barriers
gnats and other small arthropods should have filters to exclude insects can be used for vertebrate pests
may make their way inside. Flow- and disease spores. When working such as deer. Infested plants can be
er and leaf pests inside are spider with plants, clean clothes free of pruned. Caterpillars and similar in-
mites, aphids, whiteflies, thrips and spores and possible insects should sects can be removed by hand pick-
leafhoppers. Mealybugs, scales, be used. Water should be purified by ing. Insectary plants grown around
and true bugs can infest marijuana filtration or treatment with peroxide the perimeter can provide bene-
greenhouses. Thrips can be prob- or UV light (Rosenthal and Imbriani ficial insects. And state approved
lems in rockwool growing rooms 2012). least-toxic pesticides can be used
(McPartland 1996). for spider mites, diseases, whiteflies,
Pests of Cannabis caterpillars and other pest insects
Photo courtesy of Whitney Cranshaw

Outside (CA DPR 2018; OR 2018; WA 2018).

Cannabis grown outside may
have vertebrate pests, borers, Biological Controls
grubs, leafhoppers, budworms, Biological controls can be used
stinkbugs and others. Flower and both inside and outside. Predatory
leaf pests are spider mites, aphids, mites can be used for pest mites,
whiteflies, thrips and leafhoppers. fungus gnats, and thrips. The mite
Borers such as the European corn midge, Feltiella sp. is a mite preda-
borer, Ostrinia nubilalis and the tor. Parasitoids such as Aphelinus
hemp borer, Grapholita delineana, abdominalis and Aphidius spp.
can be serious pests. Other serious can be used for aphids. The aphid
caterpillar pests are budworms such
midge, Aphidoletes aphidimyza,
as Helicoverpa armigera (McPartland
Two-spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae can also be effective. Lacewings
1996; McPartland et al. 2000;
are effective predators for aphids,
McPartland 2002). According to
Whitney Cranshaw (2018), the hemp thrips and whiteflies. Ladybugs will
IPM methods include monitor- consume aphids, mealybugs, mites,
ing, sticky traps, pruning of infested russet mite, Aculops cannabicola,
and the corn earworm, Helicoverpa scale, and whiteflies. Parasitoids
material, biological controls, and ap- such as Trichogramma spp. will
plication of state approved least-tox- zea, are among the most serious
pests of Cannabis in Colorado. attack caterpillar eggs. Parasitoids
ic pesticides. Possible pest entry-
Because pesticides are limited, such as Dacnusa sibirica can reduce
ways such as cracks and crevices
physical, biological and microbial leafminer damage. Nematodes can
should be sealed (Quarles 2006a;
controls have increased importance. be applied for beetle grubs, fungus
Murray 2016).

IPM Practitioner, XXXVI (5/6) Published August 2018 4 Box 7414, Berkeley, CA 94707
gnats, and root borers. Species and

Photo courtesy of Professor Whitney Cranshaw

suppliers can be found in the IPM
Practitioner’s 2015 Directory of Least
Toxic Pest Control Products (BIRC

Sucking Pests
Pesticides for mealybugs,
aphids, scale, whiteflies, and spi-
der mites are similar. Application
of soaps or oils can reduce popu-
lations. Neem oil containing aza-
dirachtin can be effective. Essential
oil sprays of clove, cinnamon, or
rosemary can provide relief. But es-
sential oil pesticides should be mon-
itored for phytotoxicity (Rosenthal
and Imbriani 2012; Quarles 2005).
Biocontrols are discussed above.

IPM for Mites

Two kinds of mites can be
serious pests of Cannabis—the The Eurasian hemp borer, Grapholita delineana, can be a serious pest of
two-spotted mite, Tetranychus field grown Cannabis. IPM solutions are parasitoids, cultural methods, and
urticae, and the hemp russet mite, least-toxic pesticides.
Aculops cannabicola. Since plants
grown inside are packed close to- sp. and Phytoseiulus sp. The neem 400 eggs on leaves and stalks of
gether, mite infestations can quickly oil will not kill the predatory mites Cannabis plants. The caterpillars
spread through the whole crop. so they can be applied at the same first attack the leaves, then bore into
These mites can be controlled by time. Neem is best applied to foliage, stalks, forming galls. Larvae reach
application of neem oil containing but predatory mites can be applied 9-10 mm (0.4 in) in length. Larvae
azadirachtin, and by application of to mite populations in flowers. Pred- pupate within the stems. The adult
predatory mites such as Neoseiulus atory mites are also effective for the can fly 20 km (12 mi). Parasitoids,
occasional infestation of greenhouse BT, pheromone monitoring traps,
thrips or western flower thrips burying crop debris, deep plowing,
(Quarles 2006b; Bernardi et al. and early harvesting are IPM mea-
2013; McPartland and Hillig 2003). sures. Neem with azadirachtin can
provide control if applications are
Chewing Pests timed with egg laying. Pyrethrins
Budworms such as Heliothis can also be effective at this stage
can be controlled by handpicking, (BA 2010; McPartland et al. 2000).
biological controls, soap sprays, Root borers can be controlled with
applications of the microbial nematodes. Treatment of seeds or
pesticide Bacillus thuringiensis soil with Metarhizium anisopliae
(BT), or application of neem oil may help with wireworm attacks.
containing azadirachtin (Olkowski The European corn borer can be
et al. 1991; 2013). Egg parasitoids controlled with BT and biological
Trichogramma and caterpillar egg
such as Trichogramma can help with controls such as Trichogramma,
caterpillar control. Stink bugs and lacewings and ladybugs (Olkowski et
flea beetles can be managed with al. 1991; 2013).
row covers or state approved least
toxic pesticides such as pyrethrins Diseases
or neem with azadirachtin Common diseases, especially
(McPartland et al. 2000). for plants grown inside, are pow-
dery mildew caused by Podosphaera
Borers macularis, and gray mold caused by
The hemp borer, Grapholita Botrytis cinerea. Good ventilation
delineana, is a moth that lays 300- should be provided, and humidity
The aphid midge kills aphids. maintained below 70%. Strict sani-

Box 7414, Berkeley, CA 94707 5 IPM Practitioner, XXXVI (5/6) Published August 2018
tation protocols should be followed, percentage of the population taking Conclusion
including dedicated clean room prescription psychoactive drugs to Cannabis can be grown and
clothing. Powdery mildew and botry- relieve depression, anxiety and pain consumed responsibly. It does
tis will respond to oils, potassium has more than doubled in the last not have to be destructive. Hemp
bicarbonate, and induced systemic 30 years. About 98 million people in can provide renewable products to
materials such as potassium phos- the U.S. (30%) are habitual users of replace some of the plastics that
phate. Microbial controls such as antidepressants (10.7%), anxiolytics are contaminating the land and the
compost tea, Bacillus subtilis, and (5.3%), analgesics (9.1%), and anti- oceans. Cannabis can contribute to
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens can be convulsants (4.9%). Many of these society through taxes, and produc-
used for diseases (Quarles 2013). drugs are addictive and can have tion of jobs in blighted rural areas
Root diseases such as Pythium serious withdrawal symptoms (US and elsewhere.
2017: Lembke et al. 2018; Comer- Marijuana and hemp may
Photo courtesy of Whitney Cranshaw

ci et al. 2018). People taking these eventually legalized throughout the

drugs may look with favor to a legal U.S. Meanwhile, in states where
alternative with less addictive po- Cannabis is legal, IPM methods can
tential and mild withdrawal effects protect against pests. IPM methods
(Hollister 1978; Russo 2002). can reduce pesticide residues and
environmental pollution. An Eco or
IPM Certified Cannabis IPM label for Cannabis would insure
Colorado entomologist Whitney attention to good environmental
Cranshaw calls the era of totally practices.
illegal Cannabis the Wild West stage.
Growers could use toxic pesticides
and many of them did. Pre-harvest William Quarles, Ph.D., is an IPM
rules may not have been followed, Specialist, Executive Director of the
Powdery mildew, Podosphaera and pesticide residues may have Bio-Integral Resource Center (BIRC),
macularis been extensive. Pest management and Managing Editor of the IPM Prac-
information could not be obtained titioner. He can be reached by email,
may be controlled by sanitation of from state agencies and sourc-
the rooting medium with peroxide birc@igc.org
es were hearsay and the internet
(Stitch and Rosenthal 2008; Rosen- (Cranshaw 2015).
thal and Imbriani 2012). Illegal marijuana operations References
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included rodenticide poisoning of 160 pp.
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solarized before planting. Compost Department of Consumer Affairs, Sacramento,
provides an opportunity to reduce CA. bcc.ca.gov
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urticae and its compatibility with predatory
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IPM Practitioner’s 2015 Directory of Least
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IPM Practitioner, XXXVI (5/6) Published August 2018 6 Box 7414, Berkeley, CA 94707
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New York. 471 pp. Stitch, J.C. 2008. Marijuana Garden Saver: net
Mechoulam, R. 1973. Marijuana: Chemistry, Handbook for Healthy Plants. ed. E. Rosenthal,
Pharmacology, Metabolism and Clinical Effects. Quick American Publishing, Oakland, CA. 172 January 6-9, 2019. Annual Meeting, Soil
Academic Press, New York. pp.
Science Society of America. San Diego,
Murray, K. 2018. BMPs for Medical Marijuana Strickler, J. 2018. Growing potential, hemp could
Management. Maine Dept. Agriculture, CA. Contact: www.soils.org
be game changer for American farmers. Acres
Conservation and Forestry. 63 slide USA 48(4):22-26.
presentation. Maine.gov/ipm U.S. Dept. Health and Human Resources, CDC, January 23-26, 2019. 39th Annual
Olkowski, W., S. Daar and H. Olkowski. 1991. Natl. Center for Health Statistics. 2017. EcoFarm Conference. Asilomar, Pacific
Common Sense Pest Control. Taunton Press, Health, United States, 2016. With Chartbook Grove, CA. Contact: Ecological Farming
Newtown, CT. 721 pp. on Longterm Trends in Health. DHHS Pub. No. Association, 831/763-2111; info@eco-
Olkowski, W., S. Daar and H. Olkowski. 2013. 2017-1232, May 2017. 476 pp. Table No. 80. farm.org
Gardener’s Guide to Common Sense Pest WA (Washington State Department of
Control. ed. S. Ash. Taunton Press, Newtown, Agriculture). 2018. Pesticide and Fertilizer Use February 11-14, 2019. Annual Meeting
CT. 391 pp. for the Production of Marijuana in Washington.
Weed Science Society of America. New
OR (Oregon Department of Agriculture). 2018. 25 pp. April 13, 2018. agr.wa.gov
Guide list for pesticides and Cannabis. 22 pp. Wikipedia. 2018. Legality of Cannabis by U.S.
Orleans, LA. Contact: www.wssa.net
June 27, 2018. www.oregon.gov jurisdiction. wikipedia.org
Pertwee, R. 2016. Handbook of Cannabis. Oxford February 21-23. 2019. 30th Annual Moses
University Press, New York. 784 pp. Organic Farm Conference. La Crosse,
Quarles, W., G. Ellman and R.T. Jones. 1973. WI. Contact: Moses, PO Box 339, Spring
Toxicology of marijuana: conditions for Valley, WI 54767; 715/778-5775; www.
conversion of cannabidiol to THC upon mosesorganic.org
smoking. Clin. Toxicol. 6(2):211-216.

Box 7414, Berkeley, CA 94707 7 IPM Practitioner, XXXVI (5/6) Published August 2018
Global Warming and Water Pollution
By William Quarles
that is protected by the Clean Water recent, as GMOs often require more

he Trump administration has Act. Then, they have to apply for fertilizer than conventional culti-
launched an unprecedented, a National Pollutant Discharge vars. In 133 streams sampled from
amazingly comprehensive Elimination System (NPDES) permit 1992-2004, nitrogen and phospho-
attack on the environment. Glob- (Hribar 2010). rus levels were 2-10 times greater
al warming has been denied, the CAFO lagoon overflows con- than levels known to affect wildlife.
endangered species act has been tain human pathogens such as Nearly 30% of agricultural streams
targeted, oil drilling offshore and in Salmonella and E. coli. As a result, had nitrate levels higher than the
the Arctic wildlife refuge is moving crops can become contaminated by MCL (Maximum Contaminant Lev-
forward, GMOs and neonicotinoid irrigation water. Cases of pathogen- els)(Fox et al. 2007; Dubrovsky and
pesticides have been approved ic produce have been increasing in Hamilton 2010; Quarles 2017).
for wildlife refuges (Rosane 2018; frequency and severity. Fresh pro- Fertilizer pollution can be
Greshko et al. 2018). Many other duce was involved in 0.7% of food reduced by regenerative agriculture
changes were engineered by Scott poisoning cases in 1970 and 6% in and IPM methods. Cover crops can
Pruitt, who resigned from the EPA 1997 (Sivapalasingam et al. 2004). provide fertilizer. Microbials can re-
July 5, 2018 in a cloud of scandal. In 2007 fresh produce caused 14% duce fertilizer and pesticide applica-
When EPA scientists recommended of commodity related food poison- tions. Buffer vegetation along field
a ban on chlorpyrifos because of its ing (Boore 2010). Salmonella and edges can reduce polluted runoff.
toxic effects on the brains of chil- E. coli can enter plant tissues, and Hedgerows can also provide crop
dren, Pruitt refused to implement may not be removed by washing biocontrol (Quarles 2018ab).
the EPA scientific recommendation (Schikora et al. 2012; Brandl 2006;
(Greshko et al. 2018). Because Golberg et al. 2011). Harmful Algae Blooms
Pruitt ignored the EPA’s regulato- This year Romaine lettuce (HABs)
ry duty, the Ninth Circuit Court of grown in Arizona contaminated Because of increased fertilizer
Appeals in San Francisco recently with E. coli O157 sickened 210 runoff and increasing tempera-
ordered the EPA to ban chlorpyrifos people in 36 states causing 96 tures, harmful algae blooms (HABs)
(Elliott 2018). hospitalizations and 5 deaths. are contaminating both fresh water
Pruitt rolled back fuel emis- According to the CDC, the patho- and seawater, releasing deadly tox-
sion standards for automobiles and gen came from contaminated canal ins that kill fish and make swim-
trucks, which will lead to more air water. The pathogen was resistant ming dangerous (Zhu et al. 2017;
pollution and increased numbers of to chloramphenicol, streptomycin, Chapra et al. 2017).
respiratory deaths. He narrowed the sulfioxazole, tetracycline, and tri- According to the CDC (2018b),
scope of toxics monitoring for the 10 methoprimsulfamethoxazole. Mul- HABs are increasing in severity and
most hazardous industrial chemi- tiple antibiotic resistance suggests frequency because of “farming prac-
cals, ignoring 68 million pounds of feedlot origin of the pathogen (CDC tices, stormwater runoff, wastewa-
toxic emissions in air and water. He 2018a; Lefebvre et al. 2008). ter overflows, and increasing tem-
repealed the 2015 WOTUS Rule ex- CAFO pollution is unneces- perature.” In 2016, 43 states had
tending Clean Water Act protection sary, because runoff remediation illness and death associated with
(Greshko et al. 2018). methods are available, and patho- HABs. Outflows from U.S. rivers are
Trump administration actions gens can be killed by composting carrying so much pesticide, fertil-
will increase global warming and (Thapa et al. 2016). izer, and CAFO nutrient contam-
water pollution. The Clean Water Act ination that thousands of square
applies to navigable waterways. The Agricultural Water miles of the oceans are developing
WOTUS rule extended Clean Water Pollution dead zones due to depletion of
protection to tributaries, wetlands, The Trump administration is oxygen. The entire U.S. coastline
and adjacent waters. These second- not responsible for pollution from is peppered with dead zones (CDC
ary waterways may now see more normal farming operations, but 2018b).
pollution from confined animal feed- its actions will encourage global Lake Okeechobee in Florida
ing operations (CAFOs) and other warming and that will make this recently had 90% of its 730 mi2
sources (Fed Reg 2015). . pollution worse (see below). Many area covered by Microcystis algae.
streams are polluted by pesticides The algae flowed outward, con-
CAFO Contamination and fertilizer. Nitrogen fertilizers taminating waterways, leading the
Currently, CAFOs are unreg- have increased 7-fold and pesti- Governor to declare an emergency
ulated unless they intentionally cides 3-fold in the last 40 years. (Gomez 2018).
release waste into surface water Much of the increase has been

IPM Practitioner, XXXVI (5/6) Published August 2018 8 Box 7414, Berkeley, CA 94707
Southwest Florida is plagued and saxitoxin. For example, when Gomez, M. 2018. Algae Bloom in Florida Prompts
with red tides of marine algae such Fears about Harm to Health and Economy. New
13 species of Arctic marine mam- York Times, July 10, 2018, p. A16.
as Karenia brevis that secrete dead- mals were examined, saxitoxin Grattan, L.M., C.J. Boushey, Y. Liang et al. 2018.
ly brevetoxins. Recently, nearly 300 was found in 10 of 13 species. All Repeated dietary exposure to low levels of
sea turtles were killed by brevetox- 13 species contained domoic acid. domoic acid and problems with everyday memo-
ins. Red tides are caused by ocean ry: research to public health outreach. Toxins
Highest prevalence was in bowhead 10:103.
warming and increased offshore whales (68%) and harbor seals Greshko, M., L. Parker and B. Clark. 2018. A
nutrients. Red tides have increased (67%). Pacific walruses had levels running list of how Trump is changing the
in frequency, duration, and abun- high enough to cause seizures. environment. Nationalgeographic.org
dance in the last few years (Pierce Sublethal amounts of domoic acid Hribar, C. 2010. Understanding concentrated
and Henry 2008; Chow 2018). animal feeding operations and their impact on
cause nerve damage and memo- communities. M. Schultz, ed., National Associ-
The Finger Lakes in New York ry loss and lead to stranded and ation of Local Boards of Health, Bowling Green,
and Lake Erie have also seen toxic beached animals. Domoic acid OH. 22 pp.
algae outbursts. The algae can con- crosses the placental barrier and Lefebvre, B., M.S. Diarra, K. Giguere et al. 2008.
taminate drinking water, and water Antibiotic resistance and hypermutability of
was found in fetuses of whales, Escherichia coli O157 from feedlot cattle treated
cannot be purified by boiling (Car- porpoises and sea lions (Lefebre et with growth promoting agents. J. Food Prot.
michael et al. 2016; Gomez 2018). al. 2016). 68(11):2411-2419.

Trump administration ac- Lefebvre, K.A., L. Quakenbush, E. Frame et al.

2016. Prevalence of algal toxins in Alaskan
Kinds of Algae tions on global warming and water marine mammals foraging in a changing arctic
Algae that grow in freshwater pollution in Washington can have and subarctic environment. Harmful Algae
have different toxins from those consequences that reach across the
world, even into remote areas of the Peacock, M.B., C.M. Gibble, D.B. Senn et al.
that thrive in salt water. Microcystis 2018. Blurred lines: multiple freshwater and
sp. grows in fresh water, releas- Arctic. marine algal toxins at the land-sea interface of
ing microcystins and other toxins. San Francisco Bay, California. Harmful Algae
These toxins can cause gastrointes- References Pierce, R.H. and M.S. Henry. 2008. Harmful algal
tinal upset and damage to the liver. toxins of the Florida red tide (Karenia brevis):
Boore, A., K.M. Herman, A.S. Perez et al. 2010.
Dogs swimming in contaminated Surveillance for foodborne disease outbreaks, natural chemical stressors in South Florida
water can be killed. Drinking water U.S. 2007. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly coastal ecosystems. Ecotoxicol. 17(7):623-631.
must be purified by water treat- Report 59(31):973-979. Quarles, W. 2017. Glyphosate, GMO soybean
yields, and environmental pollution. IPM Practi-
ment plants to prevent widescale Brandl, M.T. 2006. Fitness of human enteric
tioner 35(11/12):1-8.
pathogens on plants and implications for food
poisoning (Chapra et al. 2017). safety. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 44:367-392. Quarles, W. 2018a. Regenerative agriculture
Pseudo-nitzschia grows in salt Carmichael, W.W. and G.L. Boyer. 2016. Health can reduce global warming. IPM Practitioner
water, releasing the neurotoxins impacts from cyanobacteria harmful algae 36(1/2):1-8.
domoic acid and saxitoxin. Domoic blooms: implications for the North American Quarles, W. 2018b. Farming with microbes,
Great Lakes. Harmful Algae 54:194-212. microbial seed treatments. IPM Practitioner
acid causes memory loss, and saxi- 36(3/4):1-8.
CDC (Centers for Disease Control). 2018a. Mul-
toxin can produce paralysis. Domo- tistate outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 linked to Roseane, O. 2018. Trump administration reverses
ic acid from algae periodically shuts Romaine lettuce. Final Update. June 28, 2018. ban on bee killing pesticides in National Wildlife
down crab fishing in the Pacific Cdc.gov Refuges. Ecowatch, August 6, 2008.
Ocean when shellfish become con- CDC (Centers for Disease Control). 2018b. Harm- Schikora, A., A.V. Garcia and H. Hirt. 2012. Plants
ful Algal Blooms, cdc.gov. July 9, 2018 as alternative hosts for Salmonella. Trends Plant
taminated (Zhu et al. 2017; Grattan Sci. 17(5):245-249.
Chapra, S.C., B. Boehlert, C. Fant et al. 2017. Cli-
et al. 2018). mate change impacts on harmful algal blooms Sivapalasingam, S., C.R. Friedman, L. Cohen et al.
In San Francisco Bay and in U.S. freshwaters: a screening level assess- 2004. Fresh produce: a growing cause of out-
other estuaries, where fresh water ment. Environ. Sci. Technol. 51:8933-8943. breaks of foodborne illness in the United States,
1973 through 1997. J. Food Prot. 67(10):2342-
streams meet ocean water, both Chow, L. 2018. Nearly 300 sea turtles died as
red tide plagues southwest Florida. Ecowatch
marine and freshwater algae can be August 6, 2018 Thapa, A., S. Rahman and C.W. Lee. 2016.
present (Peacock et al. 2018). Dubrovsky, N.M. and P.A Hamilton. 2010. Nutri- Remediation of nutrients runoff from feedlot
ents in the Nations Streams and Groundwater: by hydroponic treatment. AgricEngInt: CIGR J.
Marine Mammals Affected National Findings and Indications. U.S. Geologi-
cal Survey Fact Sheet 2010-3078. Sept. 2010. Zhu, Z., P. Qu, F. Fu et al. 2017. Understanding
Domoic acid has caused signif- Elliott, S. 2018. Western IPM Newsletter, August the blob bloom: warming increases the harmful
icant poisoning of marine mammals 14, 2018. bloom diatom Pseudo-nitzchia in California
coastal waters. Harmful Algae 67:36-43.
along the West Coast in the last Fed Reg. 2015. Clean water rule: definition of
20 years. Saxitoxin, which causes “Waters of the United States.” Federal Register
80(124):37054-37127. June 29, 2015.
paralytic shellfish poisonings, has
caused human illness and deaths Fox, J.E., J. Gulledge, E. Engelhaupt et al.
2007. Pesticides reduce symbiotic efficiency of
in the Aleutians and the Gulf of nitrogen fixing rhizobia and host plants. PNAS
Alaska. Oceans are becoming so 104(24):10282-100287,
contaminated that marine mam- Golberg, D.,Y. Kroupitski, E. Belausov et al. 2011.
Salmonella typhimurium internalization is vari-
mals even in the Arctic are seeing able in leafy vegetables and herbs. Int. J. Food
higher tissue levels of domoic acid Microbiol. 145:250-257.

Box 7414, Berkeley, CA 94707 9 IPM Practitioner, XXXVI (5/6) Published August 2018
Conference Notes
ESA 2017 Meeting Highlights
By Joel Grossman Netting Versus Neonics populations rebounded to higher
Flea beetles, so named be- levels than no treatment.
These Conference Highlights cause they are small like fleas (1.5-
were selected from the Denver, Colora- 5 mm = 0.06-0.2 in) with enlarged Powerful Microbes
do (Nov. 5-8, 2017) Entomological So- femurs enabling flea-like jumps, are “Several field, greenhouse, and
ciety of America (ESA) annual meeting. “critical economic pests of vegeta- laboratory studies conducted from
The next ESA annual meeting, Novem- bles, particularly cabbage and egg- 2010-2016 in California evaluated
ber 11-14, 2018 in Vancouver, British plant,” said James Mason (Virginia the microbial control potential and
Columbia (BC), Canada is a joint meet- Polytech, 216 Price Hall, Blacks- endophytic and mycorrhiza-like role
ing with the Entomological Societies of burg, VA 24061; jmason91@vt.edu). of entomopathogenic fungi (EPF)
Canada and BC. For more information Adult flea beetles, Phyllotreta spp. to promote sustainable strawber-
contact the ESA (3 Park Place, Suite leaf feeding in cabbage and Epitrix ry and vegetable production,” said
307, Annapolis, MD 21401; 301/731- spp. in eggplant, reduce photosyn- Surendra Dara (Univ California
4535; http://www.entsoc.org). thesis, resulting in indirect crop Coop Ext, 2156 Sierra Way, Ste.
loss. Insecticide treated mosquito C, San Luis Obispo, CA 93401;
nets, long used to exclude malaria skdara@ucdavis.edu). Trichoder-
Herbal Miticides ma, Pseudomonas, Streptomyces,
Worldwide, 80 acaricides are mosquitoes, were the inspiration for
treated row covers to stop cabbage Bacillus, Azobacter, Rhizobius and
applied against spider mites and re-
and eggplant flea beetles. Untreated Rhizophagus are among the micro-
lated pests, creating pest resistance bial genera that increase nutrient
and health risks from pesticide ex- screen row covers are common, but
tiny pests like aphids and whiteflies absorption and plant growth, and
posures, said Bilal Khan (Univ Ag- are antagonists of insect pests and
ric, New Insectary Bldg, Faisalabad, often slip through the mesh; and
pests such as flea beetles pupating plant pathogens.
Pakistan; dr.bilal.saeed@uaf.edu. Holistic microbes appeal to
pk). Pakistan’s economy employs in the soil can emerge as adults
farmers when they are effective,
46% of its 200 million population in under plants and be trapped under
compatible with current farming
agriculture. Pakistan’s small farm- the netting.
practices, not overly costly and
ers by financial necessity delegate Comparisons were made
do not need repeated applications
pest spraying chores to their young between untreated row covers and
like chemical pesticides. Beauveria
children, who lack protection and deltamethrin-incorporated ZeroFly®
bassiana can work as an endophyte
bear the brunt of exposure. netting (Vestergaard Frandsen; Lau-
(living inside plants) interacting
Botanical oils such as neem, sanne, Switzerland). Mesh screen with herbivores, or it can be applied
Azadirachta indica; eucalyptus, bioassays exposed flea beetles for as a foliar spray to reduce pests
Eucalyptus globulus; lemon, Citrus 10 seconds and evaluated mortal- such as green peach aphid (GPA),
limon; and peppermint, Mentha ity one hour later. Mortality was Myzus persicae. By boosting plant
piperita, minimize environmental 0% with untreated screens, versus quality, B. bassiana also allows
risk and child applicator exposure 100% for treated netting. plants to support or tolerate slightly
to pesticide residues. Essential oils Deltamethrin-incorporated higher green peach aphid popula-
of neem, eucalyptus, lemon and ZeroFly® row covers are long-last- tions.
peppermint were tested in serial ing, and can be removed, stored
and used again. Two-year field
dilution (2.5%, 5%, 10%, 20%) leaf- Spray Drift Reduced 87%
dip bioassays against adult female studies and six week trials on 30
“Current pesticide spray
Tetranychus urticae, two-spotted small plots with cabbage and egg-
technologies frequently result in
mite. Toxic effects increased with plant transplants compared: 1) soil
over-application and excessive
dosage and post-exposure time applications of a neonicotinoid, di-
off-target losses and spray drift,”
intervals (24-96 hours) for neem, notefuran; 2) untreated screens; 3)
prompting development of “a con-
lemon, eucalyptus and peppermint black deltamethrin-treated screens;
cept-proven precision air-assisted
oil. Maximum rates of neem oil were 4) yellow deltamethrin-treated
sprayer for ornamental nurseries,
most potent, killing 49% of mites screens; 5) control (no treat-
orchards and vineyards,” said
in 24 hours and 99% in four days. ment). Yellow and black deltame-
Heping Zhu (USDA-ARS, 1680
Field tests will evaluate essential oil thrin-treated row covers worked
Madison Ave, Wooster, OH 44691;
formulation, stability and degrada- best, with zero flea beetles. Dinote-
heping.zhu@ars.usda.gov). The
tion. furan was initially equal to treated
sprayer is equipped with a high-
row covers; but the neonic benefits
speed laser sensor and variable
wore off over time, and flea beetle
rate nozzles, and can control the

IPM Practitioner, XXXVI (5/6) Published August 2018 10 Box 7414, Berkeley, CA 94707
Conference Notes
outputs of each individual nozzle at 45-48°C (113-118°F). But to ter than other tested compounds
independently to match tree cano- account for heat loss and reach bed in stand count,” but “this stand
py size, shape and leaf density as bug refuges, higher temperatures increase did not lead to a high-
well as travel speeds. Compared to must be delivered. Heat chambers er yield,” suggesting corn plants
commonly used conventional con- and new steam equipment able to compensated for early rootworm
stant-rate air-blast sprayers, the la- quickly distribute 71-82°C (160- damage, said Alford. “It is clear
ser-guided sprayer is able to reduce 180°F) steam heat in whole rooms that neonicotinoid seed treat-
airborne spray drift by up to 87%, provide 100% control. At 61-72°C ments can provide root protection
and spray loss onto the ground by (142-162°F), control is 80%. A and provide the same increase as
68% to 93%.” 2-bedroom apartment requires 6-8 previous chemistries under heavy
hours. The success rate is 98%. pest pressure. However, their use
PCO steam heat concerns include
New York School Soccer is usually redundant given they
propane fires; and heat damage to
Field IPM fragile materials and fabrics, which
are often deployed in concert with
New York State’s 2010 Child another insecticide.”
are best removed pre-treatment.
Safe Playing Fields Act bans most
Even with steam heat, IPM
pesticides from school grounds,
approaches may use residual
Neonics Go Aquatic
presenting “a unique challenge “Neonicotinoid insecticides
chemical barriers to slow new in-
for turfgrass managers” trying to vasions. Freezing bed bugs is only (neonics) are the most widely
maintain safe and attractive school used when people refuse pesticides, used class of insecticides in the
athletic fields, said Maxwell Helm- heat, alcohol and everything else. world,” and being “water-soluble
berger (Cornell Univ, 630 W North Alaska is the only USA locale using they readily move away from crop
St, Geneva, NY 14456; msh326@ building-wide freezes; i.e. opening fields,” said Sarah McTish (Penn
cornell.edu). Insect-killing, entomo- doors in winter to expose furniture State Univ, 101 Merkle Lab, Uni-
pathogenic nematodes (EPNs), are and everything to the cold in areas versity Park, PA 16802; stm5283@
predators rather than chemicals, with no PCO service access. “You psu.edu). “We collected water from
are not considered pesticides by are good to go for control” with lysimeter plots planted with thia-
the EPA and can be used on school -24°C (-11°F) to -30°C (-22°F) for 2 methoxam-coated corn seed to
soccer fields. However, EPNs are days, said Kells. determine when and how (surface
sensitive to soil properties, which Non-chemical physical remov- or groundwater) neonics leave crop
vary across soccer fields and are al tools include Climbup® Insect fields. Thiamethoxam concentra-
influenced by foot traffic, which is Interceptor Bed Bug Traps, bean tions were higher in surface runoff
heavier mid-field and near goals. leaves, sticky tape and vacuuming. versus ground runoff (leaching).
The nematodes Steinernema “Which are better than DIY (Do It However, water flow was greater
feltiae and Heterorhabditis bac- Yourself) home pesticide use,” said in groundwater, causing a dilution
teriophora were watered into two Kells. The insect-killing fungus effect.”
Geneva, New York soccer fields with Beauveria bassiana needs 60% rel- “Thiamethoxam clearly leaves
loam soils to combat grubs of the ative humidity; and is dormant half crop fields, possibly with greater
Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica. the year in Minnesota when winter concentrations in surface flow,”
The nematodes provided modest relative humidity drops to 10%. said McTish. “Concentrations
control of 3rd instar grubs, work- decrease quickly within a week fol-
ing best in soils with higher sand Corn Neonics Redundant lowing planting.” Only 5% of neonic
content and larger pore spaces “Bt has largely controlled corn active ingredient applied to corn
allowing more nematode movement. rootworm but has led to an insur- and other seeds enters the seed-
Steinernema scarabaei, which is ance-based approach to maize pest ling. Thus, 95% of the water-solu-
being commercialized and is better management,” with “neonicotinoid ble neonic active ingredient re-
against white grubs, is likely to be seed treatments the newest tool mains in the soil. How much active
the New York school soccer field in the insurance approach,” said ingredient enters lakes and other
EPN of choice in the future. Adam Alford (Purdue Univ, 901 aquatic systems is still unknown.
West State St, West Lafayette, IN
Steam Heat Kills Bed Bugs 47907; adammalford@gmail.com). Sunflower Neonics
Steam, dry heat, freezing and “All conventional USA maize is Sunflower extra-floral nectar
physical removal are among the treated despite no evidence of pest (EFN) is a neonicotinoid ecological
non-chemical bed bug controls be- damage or threat increase.” Howev- transmission pathway reducing
coming mainstream, said Stephen er, resistance to Bt, crop rotations, natural enemy populations that
Kells (Univ Minnesota, 1980 Folwell and conventional pesticides make provide biological pest control, said
Ave, Rm 219, St Paul, MN 55108; the corn rootworm worrisome. Michael Bredeson (South Dako-
kells002@umn.edu). Bed bug eggs “Overall, neonicotinoid seed ta State Univ, SNP Box: 2140B,
are killed at 50°C (122°F); adults treatments only performed bet- Brookings, SD 57007; michael.bre-

Box 7414, Berkeley, CA 94707 11 IPM Practitioner, XXXVI (5/6) Published August 2018
Conference Notes
deson@sdstate.edu). Neonicotinoid spora morrowiae, Claroideoglomus pest resistance, said Sarah Hobby
“seed dressings” such as Cruiser® etunicatum, or Rhizophagus intr- (Univ Georgia, 2360 Rainwater Rd,
(thiamethoxam) “has become nearly aradices, said Danielle Rutkows- Tifton, GA 31793; shobby@uga.
ubiquitous within conventional ki (Cornell Univ, Comstock Hall, edu).
row-crop agriculture,” even though Ithaca, NY 14850; dmr279@cornell. “Data show that thrips pop-
prophylactic or “insurance” neonics edu). Half the experimental plants ulations were suppressed when
fail to boost crop yields. Sunflower were also treated with jasmonic planted with a rye cover crop
EFN collected as crystallized sugars acid (JA) once a week for five weeks. compared to no cover,” said Hobby.
in greenhouse studies had 1.23- Regardless of the mycorrhizal “Thrips counts on neonicotinoid
4.83 ppb (parts per billion) thiame- species, JA induced defenses were seed treated seedlings increased
thoxam. After early season peaks, 70% higher; but tomatoes were 5% slightly compared to fungicide only
thiamethoxam and its toxic metab- smaller. Tomato plant growth ben- treated seedlings, while foliar insec-
olite, clothianidin, drop to low levels efits were higher with mycorrhizal ticide applications always decreased
in leaf tissue. species having greater levels of root immature thrips populations. Yield
Lady beetles feeding on thia- colonization. Thus, plants inoculat- differences were relatively small,
methoxam-laden nectar all sea- ed with Rhizophagus intraradices regardless of treatment.” Even
son are less fit and produce fewer had twice the root colonization and without insecticides, fall-planted
progeny. Corn and sunflower IPM were 10% larger than plants grown rye cover crops reduced immature
alternatives include inter-seeding with the other mycorrhizae. thrips 48% and adults 37% in sub-
legumes or cover crops that can sequent cotton crops.
provide natural enemy micro-habi- Rye Cover Retards Thrips “Rye cover provided consis-
tats (refuges) and volatile emissions Southeastern USA cotton tent thrips suppression with less
that confuse pests. Compared to “growers currently rely on neonico- risk than foliar applications,” said
bare ground, corn fields with inter- tinoid (IRAC Group 4A) seed treat- Hobby. “The presence of a cover
row cover crops have several hun- ments” to combat thrips, despite crop with a well-timed foliar spray
dred percent more predators. Some pollinator declines and increasing could replace a neonicotinoid seed
sunflower growers have adopted treatment.”
cover cropping despite a paucity
of scientific studies in sunflowers.
Promising sunflower interplanting
alternatives include flax, a non-
competitive cash crop that does not
reduce yields when used in corn.

Pumping Up Tomato De-

Greenhouse tomatoes inoc-
ulated with field-collected mycor-
rhizal spores had higher resis-
tance to feeding by the cabbage
looper, Trichoplusia ni, said Zoe
Getman-Pickering (Cornell Univ,
Comstock Hall, Ithaca, NY 14850;
zg94@cornell.edu). “It is vital that
studies testing the effect of mycor-
rhizae on plant biomass or herbiv-
ory properly account for nutrient
levels in their growing media,” be-
cause mycorrhizae effects on plant
growth and pest suppression vary
with soil fertility. Mycorrhizal plants
had less cabbage looper damage
than non-mycorrhizal plants, but
higher fertility levels resulted in
plants with more biomass and more
pest damage.
In other experiments, tomato
plants were inoculated with one of
three mycorrhizal species: Acaulo-

IPM Practitioner, XXXVI (5/6) Published August 2018 12 Box 7414, Berkeley, CA 94707
Box 7414, Berkeley, CA 94707 13 IPM Practitioner, XXXVI (5/6) Published August 2018
Control pests with low or no impact on
the environment or hazard to the user.
Promote plant growth and yield.
Controlled release. Attracts preda-
tors/parasites for control of aphids,
mites, leafhoppers, and many others.
Honey Bee Lure
Controlled release dispenser attracts
bees for increased pollination. No
spray. No mess.
Mycostop Biological Fungicide
Insect Traps
Stink Bugs, Oriental Fruit Moth,
Onion Maggot, Cucumber Beetles,
Codling Moth, Peach Tree Borer,
Thrips, Poison-Free Fly Trap and
High Potency. Undiluted.
University Tested.
Since 1990

IPM Practitioner, XXXVI (5/6) Published August 2018 14 Box 7414, Berkeley, CA 94707
Box 7414, Berkeley, CA 94707 15 IPM Practitioner, XXXVI (5/6) Published August 2018
Oakland, CA
Permit #2508

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Shipping from the Northeastern United States
• Beneficial Insects Controlling
• Beneficial Mites plant pests &
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IPM Laboratories Inc

IPM Laboratories