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# Método de Interpolation

Spline
Spline
 un spline es una curva diferenciable
definida en
porciones mediante polinomios.

2
¿Porqué Splines ?
1
f ( x) 
1  25 x 2
Table : Six equidistantly spaced points in [-1, 1]
1
x y
1  25 x 2

-1.0 0.038461

-0.6 0.1

-0.2 0.5

0.2 0.5

0.6 0.1

## 1.0 0.038461 Figure : 5th order polynomial vs. exact function

3
¿Porqué Splines ?
1.2

0.8

0.4
y

0
-1 -0.5 0 0.5 1
-0.4

-0.8
x
19th Order Polynomial f (x) 5th Order Polynomial

## Figura : Polinomios de mayor Orden no es una buena opción.

4 http://numericalmethods.eng.usf.edu
Interpolación Lineal
Given  x0 , y0 , x1 , y1 ,......, x n 1 , y n 1  x n , y n  , fit linear splines to the data. This simply involves
forming the consecutive data through straight lines. So if the above data is given in an ascending
order, the linear splines are given by  yi  f ( xi ) 
Figure : Linear splines

5 http://numericalmethods.eng.usf.edu
Linear Interpolation (contd)
f ( x1 )  f ( x 0 )
f ( x )  f ( x0 )  ( x  x 0 ), x 0  x  x1
x1  x 0

f ( x 2 )  f ( x1 )
 f ( x1 )  ( x  x1 ), x1  x  x 2
x2  x1

.
.
.
f ( x n )  f ( x n 1 )
 f ( x n 1 )  ( x  x n 1 ), x n 1  x  x n
x n  x n 1

## Note the terms of

f ( xi )  f ( x i1 )
xi  x i 1

## in the above function are simply slopes between xi 1 and x i .

6
Example
Determinar la velocidad en t=16 segundos
utilizando splines lineal.

función del tiempo

## t (s) v(t ) (m/s)

0 0
10 227.04
15 362.78
20 517.35
22.5 602.97
30 901.67
7
Interpolación Lineal
t 0  15, v (t 0 )  362.78 550
517.35

## t1  20, v (t1 )  517.35

v(t )  v (t 0 )
500

v (t )  v(t 0 )  1 (t  t 0 )
t1  t 0 ys

f ( range)
450
517.35  362.78 fx 
 362.78  (t  15) de sire d
20  15
v (t )  362.78  30.913( t  15)
400

At t  16,
362.78 350
10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
v (16)  362.78  30.913(16  15) x s  10
0
x s  range x de sire d x s  10
1

 393.7 m/s

8
Given  x0 , y0 ,  x1 , y1 ,......, x n 1 , y n 1 ,  x n , y n  , fit quadratic splines through the data. The splines
are given by
f ( x )  a1 x 2  b1 x  c1 , x 0  x  x1

 a 2 x 2  b2 x  c2 , x1  x  x 2
.
.
.
 a n x 2  bn x  cn , x n 1  x  x n

Find a i , bi , ci , i  1, 2, …, n

9
(cont.)
Each quadratic spline goes through two consecutive data points
a1 x 0  b1 x 0  c1  f ( x0 )
2

a1 x1  b1 x1  c1  f ( x1 )
2
.
.
.
a i xi 1  bi xi 1  ci  f ( xi 1 )
2

a i xi  bi xi  c i  f ( xi )
2
.

.
.
a n x n 1  bn x n 1  c n  f ( xn 1 )
2

a n x n  bn xn  cn  f ( x n )
2

## This condition gives 2n equations

10
(cont.)
The first derivatives of two quadratic splines are continuous at the interior points.
For example, the derivative of the first spline
a1 x 2  b1 x  c1 is 2 a1 x  b1
The derivative of the second spline
a 2 x 2  b2 x  c 2 is 2 a2 x  b2
and the two are equal at x  x1 giving
2 a1 x1  b1  2a 2 x1  b2
2 a1 x1  b1  2a 2 x1  b2  0

11
(cont.)
Similarly at the other interior points,
2a 2 x 2  b2  2a3 x 2  b3  0
.
.
.
2ai xi  bi  2ai 1 xi  bi 1  0
.
.
.
2a n 1 x n 1  bn 1  2a n x n1  bn  0

We have (n-1) such equations. The total number of equations is (2n)  (n  1)  (3n  1) .
We can assume that the first spline is linear, that is a1  0

12
(cont.)
This gives us ‘3n’ equations and ‘3n’ unknowns. Once we find the ‘3n’ constants,
we can find the function at any value of ‘x’ using the splines,

f ( x)  a1 x 2  b1 x  c1 , x0  x  x1

 a 2 x 2  b2 x  c 2 , x1  x  x 2
.
.
.
 a n x 2  bn x  c n , x n 1  x  x n

13
(cont.)
Determinar la velocidad a t=16 segundos
a) Determinar la aceleración a t=16 segundos

segundos

tiempo

## t (s) v(t ) (m/s)

0 0
10 227.04
15 362.78
20 517.35
22.5 602.97
30 901.67

14
Solución
v(t )  a1t  b1t  c1 , 0  t  10
2

 a2 t  b2 t  c2 , 10  t  15
2

 a3t  b3t  c3 , 15  t  20
2

 a4 t  b4 t  c4 , 20  t  22.5
2

 a5t  b5t  c5 ,
2
22.5  t  30

15
puntos consecutivos.
v(t )  a1t  b1t  c1 , 0  t  10
2

a1 (0)  b1 (0)  c1  0
2

## a1 (10)  b1 (10)  c1  227.04

2

16 http://numericalmethods.eng.usf.edu
puntos consecutivos.
a2 (10) 2  b2 (10)  c2  227.04
t v(t)
a2 (15) 2  b2 (15)  c2  362.78
s m/s
0 0 a3 (15)  b3 (15)  c3  362.78
2

## 10 227.04 a3 (20)  b3 (20)  c3  517.35

2

15 362.78
a4 (20)  b4 (20)  c4  517.35
2

20 517.35
a4 (22.5) 2  b4 (22.5)  c4  602.97
22.5 602.97
30 901.67 a5 (22.5)  b5 (22.5)  c5  602.97
2

## a5 (30) 2  b5 (30)  c5  901.67

17
los puntos Interiores de los datos
v(t )  a1t 2  b1t  c1 , 0  t  10
 a2 t  b2 t  c2 ,10  t  15
2

d
dt
a1t  b1t  c1
2
 
d

dt
a2t  b2t  c2
2

t 10 t 10

## 2a1t  b1  t 10  2a2t  b2  t 10

2a1 10  b1  2a2 10  b2
20a1  b1  20a2  b2  0
18
los puntos Interiores de los datos
At t=10
2a1 (10)  b1  2a2 (10)  b2  0
At t=15
2a2 (15)  b2  2a3 (15)  b3  0
At t=20
2a3 (20)  b3  2a4 (20)  b4  0
At t=22.5
2a4 (22.5)  b4  2a5 (22.5)  b5  0
19
Ultima Ecuación (primer Spline)

a1  0

20
Conjunto Final de Ecuaciones
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  a1   0 
100 10 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  b1  227.04
0 0 0 100 10 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 
0 c1
227.04
    
0 0 0 225 15 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 a2  362.78
0 0 0 0 0 0 225 15 1 0 0 0 0 0 0  b2  362.78 
0 0 0 0 0 0 400 20 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 c2
  517.35
    
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 400 20 1 0 0 0  a3  517.35 
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 506.25 22.5 1 0 0 0  b3   602.97 
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 506.25 22.5 1   c3  602.97 
    
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 900 30 1  a 4  901.67 
 20 1 0  20  1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  b4   0 
0 0 0 30 1 0  30  1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  c4   0 
    
 40 1 0  a5 
0 0 0 0 0 0 40 1 0 0 0 0
  0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 45 1 0  45  1 0  b5   0 
 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  c5   0 

21
Coeficientes de los Spline
i ai bi ci
1 0 22.704 0
2 0.8888 4.928 88.88
3 −0.1356 35.66 −141.61
4 1.6048 −33.956 554.55
5 0.20889 28.86 −152.13

22
Solución
v(t )  22.704t , 0  t  10
 0.8888t 2  4.928t  88.88, 10  t  15
 0.1356t 2  35.66t  141.61, 15  t  20
 1.6048t 2  33.956t  554.55, 20  t  22.5
 0.20889t 2  28.86t  152.13, 22.5  t  30

23
Velocidad en el punto en particular
v(t )  22.704t , 0  t  10
 0.8888t 2  4.928t  88.88, 10  t  15
 0.1356t 2  35.66t  141.61, 15  t  20
 1.6048t 2  33.956t  554.55, 20  t  22.5
 0.20889t 2  28.86t  152.13, 22.5  t  30

## v16  0.135616  35.6616  141.61

2

 394.24 m/s

24
Aceleración utilizando el perfil de

d
a(16)  v(t ) t 16
dt
vt   0.1356t 2  35.66t  141.61, 15  t  20
d
a(t )  ( 0.1356t  35.66t  141.61)
2

dt
 0.2712t  35.66, 15  t  20
a(16)  0.2712(16)  35.66  31.321m/s
2

25
Distancia utilizando el perfil de
16
S 16  S 11   v(t )dt
11

## vt   0.8888t 2  4.928t  88.88, 10  t  15

 0.1356t 2  35.66t  141.61, 15  t  20
16 15 16
S 16  S 11   vt dt   vt dt   vt dt
11 11 15

   
15 16
  0.8888t 2  4.928t  88.88 dt    0.1356t 2  35.66t  141.61 dt
11 15

 1595.9 m
26
Fin

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