Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 18

European Journal of Scientific Research

ISSN 1450-216X Vol.31 No.1 (2009), pp. 88-105


© EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. 2009
http://www.eurojournals.com/ejsr.htm

The Effect of Development and Land Use Change on


Rainfall-Runoff and Runoff-Sediment Relationships Under
Humid Tropical Condition: Case Study of Bernam
Watershed Malaysia

Alansi. AW
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering
Universiti Puta Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor
E-mail: wahab159@yahoo.com
Tel: +603-894675750; Fax: +603-86566061

M.S.M. Amin
Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering
Faculty of Engineering and Smart
Farming Technology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology
Universiti Puta Malaysia
Serdang 43400, Selangor

G. Abdul Halim
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering
Universiti Puta Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor

Shafri, H.Z.M
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering
Universiti Puta Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor

Thamer A.M
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering
Universiti Puta Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor

A.R.M, Waleed
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering
Universiti Puta Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor

W. Aimrun
Smart Farming Technology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology
Universiti Puta Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor

M. H. Ezrin
Smart Farming Technology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology
Universiti Puta Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor
The Effect of Development and Land Use Change on Rainfall-Runoff and Runoff-Sediment
Relationships Under Humid Tropical Condition: Case Study of Bernam Watershed Malaysia 89

Abstract

Study of the land use changes and their effects on runoff and sediment patterns for
the watershed level are essential in water resource planning and management. This study
provides an approach to identify the effects of land-use changes on rainfall-runoff and
runoff-sediment relations in humid tropical region. For this purpose Bernam watershed
located in Selangor state of Malaysia which is subjected to rapid land-use changes to
residential and agriculture has been selected. The study was based on the comparison of the
effect of land-use changes during two periods, 1980s and 1990s. The study objectives were
to identify the change of land-use in the years of 1989 and 1998 and analyze its effects on
rainfall-runoff and runoff-sediment relationships. In this study, double mass curve with
trend curve have been used to examine the effect of land use changes on rainfall-runoff and
runoff-sediment relationships. The results showed that the land-use change can be
considered as main reason for increased runoff and sediment in tropical regions where the
change in rainfall amount can be neglected. Land use changes altered the rainfall-runoff
and runoff-sediment relationships and lead to higher slope for the trend (STC) of annual
rainfall-runoff mass curve and runoff-sediment mass curve in 1990s than those in 1980s. It
is implied that more runoff and sedimentation occurred in 1990s. Hence in order to reduce
flood occurrence and sediment increases due to land-use changes, planners should consider
tighter and straight control measures to be part of any watershed development plan in the
future.

Keywords: Double Mass Curve, Land-use Change, Rainfall-Runoff, Runoff-Sediment,


Slope of Trend Curve (STC)

1. Introduction
Deforestations, urbanization, and other land-use activities can significantly alter the seasonal and
annual distribution of stream flow within a watershed (Dunne and Leopold, 1978). It is likely that such
changes can also affect the distribution and pattern of sedimentation (Kasai et al., 2005). Land use
change is expected to have a greater impact on gully erosion than climate change (Walling and Fang,
2003; Valentin et al., 2005) which therefore represents an important sediment source in a range of
environments and an effective links for transferring runoff and sediment (Poesen et al., 2003).
Land use change impacts on water, sediment, solutes and nutrients can be evaluated
(Slaymaker, 2003). Understanding how land use changes has influenced stream flow pattern may
enable planners to formulate strategies to minimize the undesirable effects of future land-use changes.
In 1900, only 15 % of the world’s population lived in the cities, however nowadays more than 50% do
so, with the United Nations forecasting that between 1990 and 2050, the urban population will rise to
over 5 billion (Maksimovic and Tucci, 2001).
According to Chan (1996), the flood risks and community vulnerability have increased in
Malaysia since 1985 due to the onslaught of urban development in river corridors. Urbanization and
other land use directly or indirectly affects hydrological processes, through change in total runoff or
stream flow, alteration of peak flow characteristics, decline in water quality and changes in river’s
amenities. A mapping and modeling approach is shown to be a useful tool for predicting sites at risk of
flooding (Boardman et al., 2003). Hanges of land use exert a significant influence on the relations of
rainfall-runoff and/or runoff-sediment (Yang and Yu, 1998,) and alter soil and water loss accordingly
(Kim, 2002).The information on changing land-use within a watershed is vital for evaluating the
hydrological impacts. Stankoviansky and Brierley (2003) reviewed nine papers on assessing the effect
of geomorphic responses to land use changes in time and space. A wide spectrum of specific
90 Alansi. AW, M.S.M. Amin, G. Abdul Halim, Shafri, H.Z.M, Thamer A.M,
A.R.M, Waleed, W. Aimrun and M. H. Ezrin

geomorphic responses to land use changes in various areas over differing time spans, using different
approaches and methods has been discussed.

2. Previous Research
Most of the knowledge on the effects of land use change on catchment runoff comes from experimental
catchment studies, statistical methods and hydrological modes. The three approaches to study the
effects of land use change have been discussed. Yu et al. (2008) used fifteen experimental plots on the
hills in Yingtan of Jiangxi Province, southern China to evaluate the efficiency of the different land use
scenario in regulating rainwater and controlling flood. Lorup et al. (1998), Schreider et al. (2002) and
Hundecha and Bardossy (2004) used hydrological models to study the effect of land use change in
hydrology. They implemented trend analysis to the bias between the modeled and the observed runoff
to investigate changes in the catchment runoff that might arise due to land use changes. Fohrer et al.
(2001) used SWAT model for the predication of the impact of land use changes.
In another approach, Wooldridge et al. (2001) assessed the influence of land use change on the
hydrologic response of a catchment through a simple model for forest and non-forest land use
classification and different climate regions. A few more attempts to implement hydrological models to
investigate the impact of land use change have been reported in De Roo et al. (2001), Burns et al.
(2005), Verstraeten and Prosser (2005), Siriwardena et al. (2006), Shi et al. (2007) and Podwojewski et
al. (2008). On the other hand Lorup et al. (1998) used both hydrological models and statistical tests to
assess long-term impacts of land use change on catchment runoff in semi-arid Zimbabwe.
Other studies have examined the effects of the land-use change on rainfall-runoff and runoff-
sediment using statistical methods. Gallart and Llorens (2001) performed a preliminary analysis to
investigate the relationships between land cover change and decrease in water flow in a sample of
catchments in Spain. They concluded that, the relationships between change in forest cover and water
flow decrease for these catchments were found similar to the relationships described elsewhere as
experimental results. Lu et al. (2003) used the Spearman test, a nonparametric tool to measure the
association between the seasonal hydrological variables (monthly or extreme daily and sediment load)
and its responses to land use changes and human activity in the year they occurred. The results showed
that, that most of these changes were caused by human activities such as deforestation, water use, and
construction of reservoirs rather than by decadal climatic variations. The changes identified in water
flow and sediment flux in both wet and dry seasons for some tributaries had significant implications
with respect to flooding and water shortages. In another study by Zhao et al. (2004) double mass curve
analysis was used to study the effect of land use change in semi-arid Zichang watershed of the Loess
Plateau of China.
Many studies have been carried out on the effects of land use change on watershed hydrology
and of their effects on the rainfall-runoff and runoff-Sediment relationships under Arid and Semi-Arid
condition (e.g. Wei et al., 2007), Mediterranean condition (e.g. Kosmas et al., 1997; Bellot et al., 2001;
Taillefumier and Piegay, 2003; Wang et al., 2005) and continental condition (e.g. Karvonen et al., 1999
and Juckem, 2008), tropical and subtropical condition (e.g. Moraes et al., 1998; Rubiano, 2000; Giertz
et al., 2005; Cotler and Ortega-Larrocea, 2006; Shi, 2007) while so far there is no studies been carried
out to analysis rainfall-runoff and runoff-sediment relationships under humid tropical rainforest
specially within southeast Asia region although, some studies have discussed the effects of land-use
change on sediment load in tropical area. (e.g. Balamurugan et al., 1991; Voon and Teh, 1992; Hashim
et al., 1995; Chaplot et al., 2002; Gregersen et al., 2003).
In this study double mass curve analysis was used to examine the effect of land-use changes on
rainfall-runoff and runoff-sediment relationship under humid tropical watershed in Bernam watershed,
Malaysia. The objectives were to identify the change of land use pattern in two periods, 1980’s and
The Effect of Development and Land Use Change on Rainfall-Runoff and Runoff-Sediment
Relationships Under Humid Tropical Condition: Case Study of Bernam Watershed Malaysia 91

1990’s through two land use maps for the years 1989 and 1998 representing each period, then
to examine the effects of that change on rainfall-runoff and runoff-sediment relationships.

3. Methodology
3.1. Study Area
The study area shown in Figure1, is about 200 km2, located in the south part of Upper Bernam River
Basin which is southeast Perak and northeast Selangor, Malaysia, between 30º 36´ 23´´ to 30º 47´ 55´´
North and 101º 30´ 53´´ to 101º 39´ 33´´East.

Figure 1: Location of the study area

The area is like any humid tropical area characterized by high temperature and high humidity
with relatively small seasonal variations. The mean relative humidity is about 77%, while the minimum
and maximum temperatures are 26º C and 32º C, respectively. The average annual rainfall ranges from
2000 mm to 3500 mm. The mean annual evaporation ranges from 1200 mm to 1650 mm and the mean
annual runoff ranges from 800 mm to 1850 mm. The average daily sunshine hour is 6.2 hours. The
average daily wind speed is 89 km/day. About 80 % of the basin is steep mountainous terrain rising to
a height of 1830 m above the mean sea level in the northern and eastern direction. Six soil types are
found in the study area. At the upper main range, which consists of steep land, perennial granite
predominantly coarse grained mega crystic granite is found. Soils mainly consist of Munchong-
Seremban and Rengam series. These sedimentation soils contain generally fine to coarse quartz sand
set in a clay matrix. Local Alluvium-Colluviums and soils derived from riverine alluvium such as
Kedah-Batu. Anam-Durian association also can be found along the river bed. Most of the soils
92 Alansi. AW, M.S.M. Amin, G. Abdul Halim, Shafri, H.Z.M, Thamer A.M,
A.R.M, Waleed, W. Aimrun and M. H. Ezrin

mentioned above are well drained. Textural classes mostly lie between loams to clay with moderate to
average soil moisture holding capacity. The dominant vegetation cover in the river basin consists of
tropical hill rainforests, forest and lowland plantation, rubber and oil palm. Other land covers that can
be found are grassland, tin mining area, orchards, shrubs and urbanized built up areas.

3.2. Data Collection


Rainfall, runoff and sediment data for the periods of 1980-2000 were collected from the Department of
Irrigation and Drainage, Kuala Lumpur, which are related to the land-use map 1989 and 1998. Land
use classification has been performed using landsat TM images (30 m resolution) for the years 1989
and 1998 provided by the Malaysian Center for Remote Sensing (MACRES).

3.3. Data Analyses


Precipitation is a major factor controlling the hydrology of a region. The macroclimate is characterized
by a regime of two rainy seasons per year occurring in April to May and in September to November.
To show the rainfall and runoff pattern in the study area, the mean monthly rainfall and stream flow
data were plotted. The stations that had missing data were filled using ‘Series mean’ method provided
by the SPSS statistical software. Nine rainfall gauging stations (Table1 and figure2) were selected
based on their spatial distribution in the area. Annual rainfall and runoff of the watershed for the period
1980 to 2000 is shown in Table 2.

Table 1: Rainfall Stations

Station number Station name Station type


3615001 Ldg. ESCO - Selangor Manual
3615002 Ldg. Sg. Gumut - Selangor Manual
3615151 Hospital Tg. Malim (K.C) - Perak Manual
3714152 Ldg. Katoyang-Tg. Malim-Perak Manual
3714153 Ldg. Sg. Behrang -Perak Manual
3516023 Hospital K. Kubu Bahru -Selangor Manual
3515027 Ldg. Sg. Belata - Selangor Manual
3717052 Lln. Sempan - Pahang Manual
3615003 Pekan Tanjung Malim- Perak Automatic

Figure 2: Locations of the rainfall stations

3714153
b #
3717052

#
3714152
#
36151513615001
# 3615002

3515027 3516023
# #
0 2.5 5 10 Kilometers
The Effect of Development and Land Use Change on Rainfall-Runoff and Runoff-Sediment
Relationships Under Humid Tropical Condition: Case Study of Bernam Watershed Malaysia 93

Table 2: Annual Rainfall and Runoff

Runoff Runoff Runoff Runoff


Year Rainfall Year Rainfall
(mm) Coefficient % (mm) Coefficient %
1980 2331.53 1348.29 0.58 1991 2524.68 1255.53 0.5
1981 2359.38 1326.25 0.56 1992 2149.53 1174.72 0.55
1982 2629.19 1251.68 0.48 1993 2853.12 1624.28 0.57
1983 2062.86 830.46 0.4 1994 2530.58 1888.79 0.75
1984 2915.93 1475.7 0.51 1995 2974.8 2158.11 0.73
1985 2521.18 1554.87 0.62 1996 2647.74 1850.67 0.7
1986 2285.75 1163.88 0.51 1997 3073.87 2220.91 0.72
1987 2404.86 1242.43 0.52 1998 2846 2181.1 0.77
1988 2792.75 1444.3 0.52 1999 2518.07 1705.41 0.68
1989 2668.34 1403.11 0.53 2000 2942.25 1800.92 0.61
1990 2043.81 1272.81 0.62

A double mass curve is a plot of cumulative values of one variable against the cumulative of
another quantity during the same time period (Searcy and Hardison, 1960). The theory behind double
mass curves is that by plotting the accumulation of two quantities the data will plot as a straight line,
and the slope of this line will represent the constant of proportionality between the two quantities. A
break in slope indicates a change in the constant of proportionality (Searcy and Hardison1960,
Wigbout, 1973; Kalra and Kumar, 1989, Zaho et al., 2004). Double mass curves can be applied to
numerous types of hydraulic and hydrological data.
The purpose of these curves is to check the consistency of data over time and to identify
changes in trends by changes in the slope. Mass and double mass analysis are often used to adjust
precipitation records. Precipitation data can be very inconsistent due to non-representative factors, such
as change in location or exposure of the rain gage (Chow, 1964).
Even though the double mass analysis is typically performed on precipitation data, this type of
analysis can be performed on many types of data such as sediment transport (Hindall, 1991), reservoir
sedimentation (Yang et al., 2002), and aquifer drawdown (Ruteledge, 1985).
Applying double mass analysis (DMA) provides useful information about the history of the
rainfall, runoff and sediment in Bernam watershed and provides information regarding how the river’s
runoff and sediment trends have changed over time. This technique was used to study the effect of land
use change in rainfall-runoff and runoff-sediment relationship.
The study by Zhao et al. (2004) used double mass curve to study the effect of land-use change
for agricultural watershed within semi arid region. Zichang Watershed consists of five types of land
use viz. farmland, woodland, grassland, water body and urban land; however water body and urban
land were omitted in the analysis because of small area. In this study the double mass curve was used
to examine the effects of land use change on rainfall-runoff and runoff-sediment relationship in mixed
agriculture and urban watershed, within a tropical humid region where urban and agriculture are
considered the main reasons for land-use change.
To perform the double mass curve analysis, the procedure involved plotting of successive
cumulative annual rainfall collected with the cumulative annual runoff. For monthly double mass curve
analysis, the successive cumulative average monthly rainfall for the same period of years collected was
plotted with cumulative runoff. The change in the proportionality between the measurements on the
periods of 1980’s and 1990’s are reflected in a change in the slope of the trend of plotted points. For
this purpose and in order to compare the change of relationships in different periods, linear trend curve
for each double mass curve was made and the slope of trend curve (STC) was used to reflect the
increased speed of runoff or sediment concentration based on rainfall or runoff. If the double mass
curve reveals a change in trend slope that is statistically significant that means there is an increase in
runoff that occurred during the period with high trend slope than the other period.
94 Alansi. AW, M.S.M. Amin, G. Abdul Halim, Shafri, H.Z.M, Thamer A.M,
A.R.M, Waleed, W. Aimrun and M. H. Ezrin

4. Results and Discussion


In the study area, the rainfall pattern is subject to great spatial and temporal variations. The
macroclimate gives a regime of two rainy seasons per year, the short rainy season occurring during
April and May and the long rainy season during the period of September to November.
Many factors are affecting runoff. These include land-use, topography, rainfall, drainage
network patterns and so on. In Bernam watershed, results showed that land-use change is considered as
the main factor that affect rainfall-runoff relationship since the watershed is facing a rapid change in
land use in the 1990’s than in 1980’s (Figs. 2 and 3 and Table1)

4.1. Changes of Land use Pattern from 1989 to 1998


From Figures 3 and 4 and Table3 it can be shown that from1989 to 1998, the increased area of urban
and oil palm from 3.3 % to 9.5%, and from 4.9% to 10.8%, respectively. There was decreased area of
rubber and forest from 21.5% to 13.6% and 69.7% to 65.7%, respectively. The area of rubber is more
than that of oil palm in 1989 (rubber 21.5%, oil palm 4.9 %, while the area of oil palm is the most in
1998 (oil palm 10.8 %, rubber 13.6%) and the area of forest in 1989 was a bit less compared in 1998.

Figure 3: Land use map for the year 1989.


The Effect of Development and Land Use Change on Rainfall-Runoff and Runoff-Sediment
Relationships Under Humid Tropical Condition: Case Study of Bernam Watershed Malaysia 95

Figure 4: Land-use map for the year 1998

Table 3: Percentage of land-use areas

Land-use 1989 1998


Built-up area 3.3 9.5
Oil palm trees 4.9 10.8
Rubber trees 21.5 13.6
Forest 69.9 65.7
Mining area 0.4 0.4

4.2. Effect of Land-use Pattern on Rainfall-Runoff Relationship


Precipitation is a major factor controlling the hydrology of a region. For this purpose annual and
average monthly rainfall and runoff data from 1980 to 2000 were plotted to analyze the rainfall-runoff
relationship in the study area. From Figure 5, it can be shown that annual rainfall-runoff relationship
was considered liner during 1980’s while in the 1990’s there was an increase in runoff amount from
almost the same amount of rainfall this emphasized the fact that runoff amount has increased due to
land use change with constant rainfall amount during the same period. As for average monthly rainfall
and runoff in Figure 6, it is clear that the highest values of rainfall and runoff occurred during
September, October and November.
96 Alansi. AW, M.S.M. Amin, G. Abdul Halim, Shafri, H.Z.M, Thamer A.M,
A.R.M, Waleed, W. Aimrun and M. H. Ezrin

Figure 5: Annual rainfall and runoff for the period 1980-2000

3500

Rainfall and Runoff (mm) 3000

2500

2000

1500

1000
Annual Runoff (mm)
500
Annual Rainfall (mm)
0
1980

1982

1984

1986

1988

1990

1992

1994

1996

1998

2000
Year

Figure 6: Average Monthly rainfall and runoff for the period 1980-2000

350

300
Rainfall and Runoff (mm)

250

200

150

100
Avg.Monthly Runoff (mm)
50
Avg.Monthly Rainfall (mm)
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Month

For the annual double mass curves and the trend curves of rainfall and runoff in Figures 7 based
on the regression coefficients of linear equation, the slope of trend curve (STC) was obtained. It is clear
that the annual STC in 1990’s are more than that in 1980’s. This means that comparing the
accumulative annual runoff increase more rapidly from 1990 to 1998 than that from 1980 to 1989 and
more runoff yield in 1990’s than that in 1980’s with similar rainfall. The average monthly double mass
curve and the trend curve of rainfall and runoff of the six months with the heaviest rainfall is shown in
Figure 8. The trend shows the greater increase of runoff in 1990’s than those in 1980’s.
The Effect of Development and Land Use Change on Rainfall-Runoff and Runoff-Sediment
Relationships Under Humid Tropical Condition: Case Study of Bernam Watershed Malaysia 97

Figure 7: Double mass curves of annual rainfall and runoff for the period 1980-1989 & 1990-1998

18000

16000 y (1990-1998) = 0.6734x - 652.07


Accumulated Annual Runoff (mm). 14000 y (1980-1989) = 0.5161x + 101.29

12000

10000

8000

6000

4000 Double Mass Curve 1980-1989

2000 Double Mass Curve 1990-1998

0
0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000
Accumulated Annual Rainfall (mm)

Figure 8: A to F double mass curves of monthly rainfall and runoff for the months with the heaviest rainfall in
1980-1989 & 1990-1998

1600 A
1400 y (1990-1998) = 0.5995x - 119.93

1200 y (1980-1989) = 0.3598x + 6.7647


Accumulated April Runoff (mm).

1000

800

600

400
Double Mass Curve 1980-1989
200
Double Mass Curve 1990-1998
0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
Accumulated April Rainfall (mm)

1800 B
1600 y (1990-1998) = 0.6439x - 116.27
y (1980-1989)= 0.4756x - 70.417
Accumulated May Runoff (mm)..

1400

1200

1000
800

600

400
Double mass Curve 1980-1989
200
Double Mass Curve 1990-1998
0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
Accumulated May Rainfall (mm)
98 Alansi. AW, M.S.M. Amin, G. Abdul Halim, Shafri, H.Z.M, Thamer A.M,
A.R.M, Waleed, W. Aimrun and M. H. Ezrin

1800 C
Accumulated September Runoff (mm). 1600 y (1990-1998) = 0.8826x - 271.75

1400 y (1980-1989) = 0.4674x - 21.95

1200

1000

800

600

400
Double Mass Curve 1980-1989
200
Double Mass Curve 1990-1998
0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
Accumulated September Rainfall (mm)

2200 D
2000 y (1990-1998) = 0.7881x - 161.07
Accumulated Ocrober Runoff (mm)..

1800
y (1980-1989) = 0.5573x - 19.556
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
Double Mass Curve 1980-1989
400
200 Double Mass Curve 1990-1998
0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
Accumulated October Rainfall (mm)

2200 E
2000 y (1990-1998) = 0.7035x - 28.327
Accumulated November Runoff (mm)

1800 y (1980-1989) = 0.6437x - 45.769


1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400 Double Mass Curve 1980-1989
200 Double Mass Curve 1990-1998
0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
Accumulated November Rainfall (mm)
The Effect of Development and Land Use Change on Rainfall-Runoff and Runoff-Sediment
Relationships Under Humid Tropical Condition: Case Study of Bernam Watershed Malaysia 99

2200 F
2000

Accumulated December Runoff (mm).


y (1990-1998)= 0.9283x - 150.95
1800
1600 y (1980-1989) = 0.7915x + 157.3
1400
1200
1000
800
600
Double Mass Curve 1980-1989
400
200 Double Mass Curve 1990-1998

0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
Accumulated December Rainfall (mm)

4.3. Effect of Land use Pattern on Runoff-Sediment Relationships


Runoff and sediment load relationship is complex. Many factors can influence it such as topography,
soil type, rainfall, landuse and so on. The long term land-use and rainfall are the only factors
considered because other factors are assumed to be constant. Based on that, annual runoff and sediment
load data from 1980 to 2000 were plotted to analyze the runoff-sediment relationship in the study area.
From Figure 9, it can be shown that runoff-sediment relationship is quiet different from that in rainfall-
runoff.
It is clear that during 1990’s there was a marked increase in sediment load amount than in
1980’s. This emphasized the fact that sediment load amount has increased due to land use change with
constant rainfall during the same period
For the annual double mass curves and the trend curves of runoff and sediment in Figure10 it is
clear that the annual STC in 1990’s are more than that in 1980’s. This means that annually
accumulative sediment has increased more rapidly from 1990 to 1998 than that from 1980 to 1989 and
more sediment yield in 1990’s than that in 1980’s with similar rainfall. The average monthly double
mass curve and the trend curve of runoff and sediment is shown in Figure 11. It shows greater increase
of sediment load in 1990’s than those in 1980’s.

Figure 9: Annual runoff and sediment for the period 1980 to 1998

2500 500000
Annual Runoff (mm)
Annual Sediment load (tonnes)

Sediment load (tonnes ) 450000


2000 400000
Annual Runoff (mm)

350000
1500 300000
250000
1000 200000
150000
500 100000
50000
0 0
1980

1982

1984

1986

1988

1990

1992

1994

1996

1998

Year
100 Alansi. AW, M.S.M. Amin, G. Abdul Halim, Shafri, H.Z.M, Thamer A.M,
A.R.M, Waleed, W. Aimrun and M. H. Ezrin

Figure 10: Double mass curves of annual runoff and sediment for the period 1980-1989 and 1990-1998

Accumulated Annual Sediment (tonnes).


2000000 y (1990-1998)= 129.56x - 225502

y (1980-1989) = 36.121x - 30821


1500000

Double Mass Curve 1980-1989


1000000 Double Mass Curve 1990-1998

500000

0
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000
Accumulated Annual Runoff (mm)

Figure 11: A to F double mass curves of monthly runoff and sediment for the period 1980-1989 & 1990-1998

35000 A
Accumulated April Sediment Load (tonnes)

y (1990-1998) = 23.728x + 4476.5


30000
y (1980-1989) = 33.57x - 556.79
25000

20000

15000

10000
Double Mass Curve 1980-1989
5000 Double Mass Curve 1990-1998

0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600
Accumulated April Runoff (mm)

50000 B
45000 y (1990-1998) = 26.384x + 2092.1
Accumulated May Sediment Load (tonnes)

40000 y (1980-1989) = 27.404x - 1745.4


35000
30000
25000
20000
15000
10000 Double Mass Curve 1980-1989
5000 Double Mass Curve 1990-1998
0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800
Accumulated May Runoff (mm)
The Effect of Development and Land Use Change on Rainfall-Runoff and Runoff-Sediment
Relationships Under Humid Tropical Condition: Case Study of Bernam Watershed Malaysia 101

200000 C
y (1990-1998) = 115.22x - 14864

Accumulated September Sediment Load


180000
160000 y (1980-1989) = 36.458x - 3289

140000
Double Mass Curve 1980-1989
120000
Double Mass Curve 1990-1998

(tonnes).
100000
80000
60000
40000
20000
0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800
Accumulated September Runoff (mm)

300000 D
y (1990-1998) = 127.08x - 9881
Accumulated October Sediment load

250000 y (1980-1989) = 33.225x - 3106

200000
Double Mass Curve 1980-1989
(tonnes).

150000 Double Mass Curve 1990-1998

100000

50000

0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000
Accumulated October Runoff (mm)

300000 E
Accumulated November Sediment Load

y (1990-1998) = 133x - 12160


250000
y (1980-1989) = 22.431x - 1683.7

200000 Double Mass Curve 1980-1989


Double Mass Curve 1990-1998
(tonnes)

150000

100000

50000

0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200
Accumulated November Runoff (mm)
102 Alansi. AW, M.S.M. Amin, G. Abdul Halim, Shafri, H.Z.M, Thamer A.M,
A.R.M, Waleed, W. Aimrun and M. H. Ezrin

300000 F

Accumulated December Sediment Load


y (1990-1990) = 130.61x - 18443
250000
y (1980-1989) = 20.181x - 1422.7

200000
Double Mass Curve 1980-1989

(tonnes). 150000 Double Mass Curve 1990-1998

100000

50000

0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200
Accumulated December runoff (mm)

In this study the increasing runoff and sediments for the 1990’s period can be attributed to:
1. Replacement of old oil palm trees with new trees (replanting).
2. Changing most of rubber trees in to oil palm.
3. Deforestation and urbanization that result in open bare land which increases runoff and
sediment load.

5. Conclusions
In the studied area and for the studied period 1989 to1998 land-use pattern has undergone obvious
transformations. The oil palm and urban areas increased, while the same proportion of rubber area
reduced. The change of land-use altered the rainfall-runoff and runoff-sediment relationships. The
STCs of annual and monthly rainfall-runoff mass curves and runoff-sediment mass curves in 1980s are
less than those in 1990s, which means more soil and water loss occurred in 1990s. The reasons of
higher STC of annual rainfall-runoff in 1990s were deforestation and urbanization which increases
runoff and sediment and this attributed to the replacement of old oil palm trees and rubber trees with
new trees. In order to reduce soil loss, more attention should be paid to land-use pattern and some
control measures should be built.

Acknowledgement
The authors would like to thank the Ministry of Science, Technology and the Innovation (MOSTI),
Malaysia for their financial support, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Institute of Advanced
Technology for providing the equipment and facilities, Malaysian Center for Remote Sensing
(MACRES) and Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID) for providing the required data to
complete this study.
The Effect of Development and Land Use Change on Rainfall-Runoff and Runoff-Sediment
Relationships Under Humid Tropical Condition: Case Study of Bernam Watershed Malaysia 103

References
[1] Balamurugan, G., 1991. Sediment balance and delivery in a humid tropical urban river basin:
the Kelang River, Malaysia. Catena 18, 271-287.
[2] Bellot, J., Bonet, A., sanchez, J. R and chirino, E, 2001. Likely effects of land use changes on
the runoff and aquifer recharge in a semiarid landscape using a hydrological model. Landscape
and urban planning 55, 41-53.
[3] Boardman, J., Evans, R. and Ford, J, 2003. Muddy floods on the South Downs, southern
England: problem and responses. Environmental Science & Policy 6, 69-83.
[4] Burns, D., Vitvar, T., McDonnell, J., Hassett, J., Duncan, J., and Kendall, C, 2005. Effects of
suburban development on runoff generation in the croton river basin, New York, USA. Journal
of Hydrology 311, 266–281.
[5] Chan, N.W, 1996. Socio-economic aspects related to flood hazard in Peninsular Malaysia.
National Proceedings of Social Science Study, IRPA - Universiti Malaya, 294-311.
[6] Chaplot, V., Boonsaner, A., Bricquet, J.P., De Rouw, A., Janeau, J.L., Marchand, P.,
Phommassack, T., Toan, T.D and Valentin, C, 2002. Soil Erosion under Land Use Change from
Three Catchments in Laos, Thailand and Vietnam. 12th ISCO Conference, Beijing, China.
[7] Chow, V. T, 1964. Handbook of Applied Hydrology, pp.14-34, McGraw-Hill, New York.
[8] Cotler, H and Ortega-Larrocea, M. P., 2006. Effects of land use on soil erosion in a tropical dry
forest ecosystem, Chamela watershed, Mexico. Catena 65, 107-117.
[9] De Roo, A., Odijk, M., Schmuck, G., Koster, E and Lucieer, A, 2001. Assessing the effects of
land use changes on floods in the Meuse and Oder Catchment. Physics and Chemistry of the
Earth, Part B: Hydrology 26(8), 593-599.
[10] Dunne, T. and Leopold L.B, 1978. Water in environmental planning, W.H. Freeman and Co.,
New York.
[11] Fohrer, N, Haverkamp S and Eckhardt, K, 2001. Hydrologic response to land use changes on
the catchment scale. Phys Chem Earth 26, 577–582.
[12] Gallart, F., and Llorens, P, 2001. Water Resources and Environmental change in Spain. A Key
Issue for Sustainable Integrated Catchment management. Cuadernos de Investigación
Geográfica 27, pp. 7-16.
[13] Giertz, S., Junge, B., Diekkruger, B, 2005. Assessing the effects of land use change on soil
physical properties and hydrological processes in the sub-humid tropical environment of West
Africa. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 30, 485-496.
[14] Gregersen, B., Aalbæk, J., Lauridsen, P.E., Kaas, M., U. Lopdrup, Veihe and van der Keur, A.
P, 2003. Land Use and Soil Erosion in Tikolod, Sabah, Malaysia Asean Review of Biodiversity
and Environmental Conservation (ARBEC). January-March.
[15] Hashim, G.M., Ciesiolka, C. A. A., Abdullah Yusoff, W., Wahab Nafis, A., Radzali, M and
Hindall, S. M, 1991. Temporal Trends in Fluvial-Sediment in Ohio, 1950-1987. Journal of soil
and Water Conservation. 46(4), 311-313.
[16] Hindall, S. M, 1991. Temporal Trends in Fluvial-Sediment in Ohio, 1950-1987. Journal of soil
and Water Conservation. 46(4), 311-313.
[17] Hundecha, Y and Bardossy, A, 2004. Modeling of the effect of land use changes on the runoff
generation of a river basin through parameter regionalization of a watershed model. Journal of
Hydrology 292, 281-295.
[18] Juckem, P. F., Hunt, R.J., Anderson, M. P and Robertson, D.M, 2008. Effects of climate and
land management change on streamflow in the driftless area of Wisconsin. Journal of
Hydrology 355, 123-130.
[19] Kalra, A M and Kumar, S, 1989. Changes in water yield and soil loss from a Himalayan
catchment following afforestation. Journal of Modell Simul Controc C 18(2), 21-29.
[20] Karvonen, T., Koivusalo, H and Jauhiainen, M, 1999. A hydrological model for predicting
runoff from different land use areas. Journal of Hydrology 217, 253-265.
104 Alansi. AW, M.S.M. Amin, G. Abdul Halim, Shafri, H.Z.M, Thamer A.M,
A.R.M, Waleed, W. Aimrun and M. H. Ezrin

[21] Kasai, M., Brierley, G.J., Page, M. J., Marutani, T and Trustrum, N. A, 2005. Impacts of land
use change on patterns of sediment flux in Weraamaia catchment, New Zealand. Catena 64, 27-
60.
[22] Kim, Y., Engel, B.A., and Lim, K. J., 2002. Runoff impacts of land-use change in Indian river
lagoon watershed. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering 7(3), 245-251.
[23] Kosmas, C., Danalatos, N and Cammeraat, L.H, 1997. The effect of land use on runoff and soil
erosion rates under Mediterranean conditions. Catena 29, 45–59.
[24] Lorup, J.K., Refsgaard, J. C and Mazvimavi, D, 1998. Assessing the effect of land use change
on catchment runoff by combined use of statistical tests and hydrological modelling: Case
studies from Zimbabwe. Journal of Hydrology 205, 147-163.
[25] Lu, XX., Ashmore, P and Wang, J. F, 2003. Seasonal Water Discharge and Sediment Load
Changes in the Upper Yangtze, China. Mountain Research and Development 23, 56-64.
[26] Maksimovic, C and Tucci, C, 2001. Urban drainage in specific climates. IHP-V. Technical
documents in Hydrology. 40(1). UNESCO, Paris.
[27] Moraes, J.M., Pellegrino., G.Q., Ballester, M. V., Martinelli, L. A., Victoria, R.L and Krusche,
A.V, 1998. Trends In Hydrological Parameters of a Southern Brazilian Watershed And Its
Relation to Human Induced Changes. Water Resources Management 12, 295-311.
[28] Podwojewski, P., Orange, D., Jouquet, P., Valentin, C., Nguyen, V.T., Janeau, J.L and Tran,
D.T, 2008. Land-use impacts on surface runoff and soil detachment within agricultural sloping
lands in Northern Vietnam. Catena 74, 109-118.
[29] Poesen, J., Nachtergaele, J., Verstraeten, G and Valentin, C, 2003. Gully erosion and
environmental change: importance and research needs. Catena 50, 91-133.
[30] Rubiano, J, 2000. Land Use Change in Tropical Hillsides: the Influence of Pattern on Process.
Advances in Environmental Monitoring and Modelling 1 (1), 61-79.
[31] Ruteledge, A.T, 1985. Use of Double Mass Curves to Determine Drawdown in a long term
Aquifer Test in North Central Volusia County. Florida HSSS, Water Resources Investigations
Report 84-4309. pp29.
[32] Schreider, S.Yu., Jakeman, A.J., Letcher, R.A., Nathan, R.J., Neal, B.P and Beavis, S.G,
2002.Detecting changes in stream flow response to changes in non-climatic catchment
conditions: farm dam development in the Murray–Darling basin. Aust. Journal of . Hydrology
262, 84-98.
[33] Searcy, J. K and Hardison C. H, 1960. Double Mass Curves. U.S. Geological Survey, Water-
Supply Paper 1541-B. pp. 66.
[34] Shi, P. J., Yuan, Y., Zheng, J., Wang, J. A., Ge, Y and Qiu, G. Y, 2007. The effect of land
use/cover change on surface runoff in Shenzhen region, China. Catena 69, 31-35.
[35] Siriwardena, L., Finlayson, B.L., and McMahon, T.A, 2006. The impact of land use change on
catchment hydrology in large catchments: The Comet River, Central Queensland, Australia.
Journal of Hydrology 326, 199-214.
[36] Slaymaker, O, 2003. The sediment budget as conceptual framework and management tool.
Hydrobiologia 494, 71-82.
[37] Stankoviansky, M and Brierley, G, 2003. Editorial, Geomorphic responses to land use change.
Catena 51, 173-179.
[38] Taillefumier, F and Piegay, H, 2003. Contemporary land use changes in prealpine
Mediterranean mountains: a multivariate GIS-based approach applied to two municipalities in
the Southern French Prealps. Catena 51, 267-296.
[39] Valentin, C., Poesen, J and Li, Y, 2005. Gully erosion: Impacts, factors and control. Catena 63,
132-153.
[40] Verstraeten, G and Prosser, I.P, 2005. Modelling the impact of land use change and farm dam
construction on the sediment delivery to river channels at the regional scale. A case study of the
Murrumbidgee catchment, Australia. Geophysical Research Abstracts 7, 08029.
The Effect of Development and Land Use Change on Rainfall-Runoff and Runoff-Sediment
Relationships Under Humid Tropical Condition: Case Study of Bernam Watershed Malaysia 105

[41] Voon, P.K and Teh, T. S, 1992. Land Use and the Environment in the South Kinabalu
Highlands, Malaysia. Malaysian. Journal of Tropical Geography 23(2), 103-118.
[42] Walling, D.E and Fang, D, 2003. Recent trends in the suspended sediment loads of the world’s
rivers. Global and Planetary Change 39, 111-126.
[43] Wang, Y., Choi, W and Deal, M. B, 2005. Long-Term Impacts of Land-Use Change on Non-
Point Source Pollutant Loads for the St. Louis Metropolitan Area, USA, Environmental
Management 35(2), 194-205.
[44] Wei, W., Chen, L., Fu, B., Huang, Z., Wu, D and Gui, L, 2007. The effect of land uses and
rainfall regimes on runoff and soil erosion in the semi-arid loess hilly area, China. Journal of
Hydrology 335, 247-258.
[45] Wigbout M, 1973. Limitations in the use of double2mass curves. Journal of Hydrology 12 (2),
132-138.
[46] Wooldridge, S., Kalma, J and Kuczera, G, 2001. Parameterisation of a simple semi-distributed
model for assessing the impact of landuse on hydrologic response. Journal of Hydrology 254,
16–32.
[47] Yang, S., Zhao, Q., and Belkin, I. M, 2002. Temporal Variation in the Sediment Load of the
Yangtze River and the Influences of Human Activities. Journal of Hydrology 263, 56-71.
[48] Yang, T. C., and Yu, P. S, 1998. The effect of land-use change on the design hydrograph.
Journal of Hydrology in a Changing Environment 3, 207-216.
[49] Yu, D. S., Shi, X. Z., Wang, H. J., Zhang, X. Y. and Weindorf, D. C, 2008. Function of soils in
regulating rainwater in southern China: Impacts of land uses and soils. Pedosphere 18(6), 717-
730.
[50] Zaho, W. W., Fu, B. J., Meng, Q. H., Zhang, Q. J and Zhang, Y. H, 2004. Effects of land-use
pattern change on rainfall-runoff and runoff-sediment relations: a case study in Zichang
watershed of the loess plateau of china. Journal of Environmental science 16(3), 436-442.