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Palestine Polytechnic University

Civil and Architectural Engineering Department

Architectural Engineering

Applied Electricity Laboratory

Exp#6

AC Signals and Their Measurements: Phase Shift

Student: Aseel Aburayyan

Supervised by: Eng. Shihda zahida

2019-2020‫م‬
 Objectives:
a. To Learn how to measure the phase shift between two signals with an oscilloscope.

b. Measuring the phase shift in Resistive, Capacitive and Inductive circuits.

 Materials:
1. Resistors
2. Wire.
3. Ground.
4. Capacitor.
5. Signal generator.
6. Oscilloscope.

 Procedures And Results:

A. Phase Shift in Resistive Circuits:


1. Procedures:
1. Set the signal generator frequency to 500 Hz, and the amplitude to 5 Vrms
for a sinusoidal signal.
2. Connect the circuit as shown in figure 2.
3. Vary the input frequency according to table 1 and measure the time
difference between the two signals.
4. Calculate the phase shift according to the following formula:

φ = ƭ ∗ ƒ ∗ 360

Where ƭ represents the measured time difference between the two signals, and ƒ
represent the

frequency. As shown in figure 1.


Table 1:

Input Frequency (Hz) ƭ Phase Shift (ϕ)


500 0 0
2000 0 0
3500 0 0
5000 0 0

Solution:

φ = ƭ ∗ ƒ ∗ 360

=0*500*360

=0

φ = ƭ ∗ ƒ ∗ 360

=0*2000*360

=0

φ = ƭ ∗ ƒ ∗ 360

=0*3500*360

=0
φ = ƭ ∗ ƒ ∗ 360

=0*5000*360

=0

B. Phase Shift in Capacitive Circuits.


1. Connect the circuit as shown in figure 3.
2. Repeat the steps mentioned above and record your results in table 2.

Table 2:

Input Frequency (Hz) ƭ Phase Shift (ϕ)


500 100us= 100*10^-6s 18
2000 70us= 70*10^-6s 50.4
3500 50us=50*10^-6s 63
5000 40us= 40*10^-6s 72
Solution:

ƭ =0.2*500us/Div

=100us

φ = ƭ ∗ ƒ ∗ 360
=100*10^-6*500*360

=18

************

ƭ =.7*100us/Div

=70us

φ = ƭ ∗ ƒ ∗ 360

=70*10^-6*2000*360

=50.4

************

ƭ =.5*100us/Div

=50us

φ = ƭ ∗ ƒ ∗ 360

=50*10^-6*3500*360

=63

************

ƭ =.4 *100us/Div

=40us

φ = ƭ ∗ ƒ ∗ 360

=40*10^-6*5000*360

=72
C. Phase Shift in Inductive Circuits
1. Connect the circuit as shown in figure 4.

2. Repeat the steps mentioned above and record your results in table

Input Frequency (Hz) ƭ Phase Shift (ϕ)


1000 150us= 150*10^-6s 54
2000 50us 36
3000 25us 27
5000 10us 18

Table 3:
Solution:

ƭ =.3 *500us/Div

=150us

φ = ƭ ∗ ƒ ∗ 360

=150*10^-6*1000*360

=54

*************

ƭ =.5 *100us/Div

=50us

φ = ƭ ∗ ƒ ∗ 360

=50*10^-6*2000*360

=36

*************

ƭ =0.5 *50us/Div

=25us

φ = ƭ ∗ ƒ ∗ 360

=25*10^-6*3000*360

=27

*************

ƭ =0.2 *50us/Div

=10us
φ = ƭ ∗ ƒ ∗ 360

=10*10^-6*5000*360

=18

 Conclusion:
1. Resistive case:
a) V(t) is in phase with I(t) when the load is resistive.
b) Phase shift =0
c) ‫الجهد االصلي مطابق لجهد المقاومة‬
d) ‫مهما كانت قيمة التردد تبقى االزاحة صفر‬
2. Capacitive case:
a) V(t) leads I(t) by 90 degree Or I (t) lags V(t) by 90 degree.
b) Phase shift =90
c) ‫الجهد االصلي متقدم على جهد المواسع‬
d) Input frequency directly proportional to phase shift(‫)تناسب طردي‬
3. Inductive case:
a) I(t) leads V(t) by 90 degree Or V (t) lags I(t) by 90 degree.
b) Phase shift =90
c) ‫الجهد الحثي متقدم على الجهد االصلي‬
d) Input frequency revarse proportional to phase shift(‫)تناسب عكسي‬