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FOUNDATION ENGINEERING 2

Mat Foundations (Design Equations)

Design Example
Design the mat foundation for the plan shown below. All column dimensions are 50
cm x 50 cm with the load schedule shown below. The allowable soil pressure is qall =
60 kPa. Use fc’ = 24 Mpa and fy = 275 MPa

4.25 m 8m 4.25 m
y

0.25 m
A M B N C
DL= 200 kN DL = 250 kN DL=250 kN
LL= 200 kN LL = 250 kN LL=200 kN
3.75 m

7m
M N

DL=800 kN DL=800 kN DL=650 kN


7m

D E F
LL= 700 kN LL= 700 kN LL=550 kN
0.44m

21.5 m
Pu 0.1 m
7m

O P x
7m

G DL=800 kN H DL=800 kN DL=650 kN I


LL= 700 kN LL= 700 kN LL=550 kN
7m

Q R
3.75 m

DL=200 kN DL = 250 kN DL=200 kN


LL= 200kN LL = 250 kN LL=150 kN
J O K P L

0.25 m 8m 8m 0.25 m

16.5 m

Plan of Mat Foundation with column loads and dimensions

1 of 9 Foundation Engineering 2
Example on Design of Mat Foundations
Dr. Adnan A. Basma
STEP 1 – CHECK SOIL PRESSURE FOR SELECTED DIMENTION

Allowable load P = !Pi


Ultimate load Piu = ! [1.4DLi + 1.7LLi]
Pu
Ultimate ratio ru =
P

The table below shows the calculations for the loads:

Column DL, kN LL, kN P, kN Pu, kN


A 200 200 400 620
B 250 250 500 775
C 250 200 450 690
D 800 700 1500 2310
E 800 700 1500 2310
F 650 550 1200 1845
G 800 700 1500 2310
H 800 700 1500 2310
I 650 550 1200 1845
J 200 200 400 620
K 250 250 500 775
L 200 150 350 535
Total Loads = 11000 16945
ru = 1.54

Ultimate pressure qu = qa x ru = 60 x 1.54 = 92.4 kPa

Location of the resultant load Pu

In x- direction: !My-axis = 0,

"620 % 2310 % 2310 % 620# $ 8 & "690 % 1845 % 1845 % 535# $ 8


ex '
16945

= 0.44 m

In y- direction: !Mx-axis = 0,

ey '
"620 % 775 % 690#x10.5 % "2310 % 2310 % 1845#x3.5 - "2310 % 2310 % 1845#x3.5 & "620 % 775 % 535#x10.5
16945

= 0.1 m

2 of 9 Foundation Engineering 2
Example on Design of Mat Foundations
Dr. Adnan A. Basma
-P My x Mx y *
Applied ultimate pressure, qu,applied = + u . . (
+A Iy Ix (
, )

Where A = Area = BL = (16.5) x (21.5) = 354.75 m2

Mx = Pu ey = (16945)(0.1) = 1694.5 kN.m

My = Pu ex = (16945)(0.44) = 7455.8 kN.m

1 3 1 3
Ix = BL = (16.5) (21.5) = 13665 m4
12 12

1 3 1 3
Iy = LB = (21.5) (16.5) = 8050 m4
12 12

Therefore,

- 16945 7455.8 x 1694.5 y *


qu,applied = + . . (
,+ 354.75 8050 13665 )(

"
= 47.76 . 0.93 x . 0.124 y #

Point x y Sign for x Sign for y qu,applied, kPa


A 8.25 10.75 + + 56.77
B 0 10.75 + + 49.09
C 8.25 10.75 & + 41.42
J 8.25 10.75 + & 54.10
K 0 10.75 + & 46.43
L 8.25 10.75 & & 38.75

For the dimensions L = 21.5 m and B = 16.5 m,


qu,max = 56.77 kPa < qu = 92.4 kPa

and

qu,min = 38.75 kPa > 0

Therefore, the dimensions are adequate.

3 of 9 Foundation Engineering 2
Example on Design of Mat Foundations
Dr. Adnan A. Basma
STEP 2 – DRAW SHEAR AND MOMENT DIAGRAMS (L - DIRECTION)

The mat is divided into several strips in L-direction (see figure on page 1).

The following strips are considered: AMOJ, MNPO and NCLP

The following calculations are performed for every strip:

q u, Edge 1 % qu edge 2
a) The average uniform soil reaction, qu =
2

Refer to table on page 3 for pressure values

Strip AMOJ: Edge 1 is point A and Edge 2 is point J

Strip MNPO: Edge 1 is point B and Edge 2 is point K

Strip NCLP: Edge 1 is point C and Edge 2 is point L

b) Total soil reaction Qi = qu x (Bi x L)


Strip AMOJ: B1 = 4.25 m
Strip MNPO: B2 = 8.00 m
Strip NCLP: B3 = 4.25 m
For all strips L = 21.5 m

c) Total Column loads Pu, total = !Pui

Q i % Pu,total
d) Average load Pu, avg =
2
Pu, avg
e) Load multiplying factor F =
Pu, total

f) The modified loads on this strip P'ui = (F) x (Pui)

- Pu, avg *
g) Modified Average soil pressure qu, modified = qu x + (
+, Q i ()

h) The pressure distribution along the length of the strip

qu, L =
/ P' ui
L

4 of 9 Foundation Engineering 2
Example on Design of Mat Foundations
Dr. Adnan A. Basma
The following table presents the calculations for the selected strips:

qu, qu,avg Q, Total Pu, Pu, avg, qu, mod


Strip Bi, m Point F
kPa kPa kN kN kN kPa
A 56.77
AMOJ 4.25 55.44 5065.37 5860.00 5462.69 59.47 0.932
J 54.10
B 49.09
MNPO 8.00 47.76 8214.72 6170.00 7192.36 40.97 1.166
K 46.43
C 41.42
NCLP 4.25 40.09 3662.77 4915.00 4288.88 45.94 0.873
L 38.75

Based on table above, the adjusted column loads and the pressure under
each is strip are:

Strip Column DL, kN LL, kN P, kN Pu, kN P'u, kN qu,L, kN/m


AMOJ A 200 200 400 620 577.84 254.02
F=0.932 D 800 700 1500 2310 2152.92
G 800 700 1500 2310 2152.92
J 200 200 400 620 577.84
Total = 2000 1800 3800 5860 5461.52

MNPO B 250 250 500 775 903.65 334.61


F=1.166 E 800 700 1500 2310 2693.46
H 800 700 1500 2310 2693.46
K 250 250 500 775 903.65
Total = 2100 1900 4000 6170 7194.22

NCLP C 250 200 450 690 602.37 199.57


F=0.873 F 650 550 1200 1845 1610.685
I 650 550 1200 1845 1610.685
L 200 150 350 535 467.055
Total = 1750 1450 3200 4915 4290.795

Total Loads = 5850 5150 11000 16945

The shear and bending moment diagrams for the selected strip in L-
direction are shown below.

5 of 9 Foundation Engineering 2
Example on Design of Mat Foundations
Dr. Adnan A. Basma
Strip AMOJ (B' = 4.25 m)

577.8 kN 2152.9 kN 2152.9 kN 577.8 kN

0.25 m 7m 7m 7m 0.25 m
A D G J

254.02 kN/m

1500
1265.4
1000 888.1

510.8
500
63.4
+ 0
V(kN) 0 5 10 15 20 -63.4
& -500 -510.8

-1000
-888 .1
-1265.4
-1500

Max. moment between columns


3000 Steel at the bottom
2660.5 2660.5
2500

2000

1500

1000
1106.3
500
+ 7.9 7.9
M(kN.m) 0
& 0 5 10 15 20
-500
-503.0 - 503.0
-1000 Max. moment under columns
Steel at the top

Moment drawn on compression side

6 of 9 Foundation Engineering 2
Example on Design of Mat Foundations
Dr. Adnan A. Basma
Strip MNPO (B' = 8.0 m)

903.7 kN 2693.5 kN 2693.5 kN 903.7 kN

0.25 m 7m 7m 7m 0.25 m
B E H K

334.6 kN/m

2000

1500 1524.9
1169.8
1000 814.7

500
83.6
+ 0
V(kN)
0 5 10 15 20 -83.6
& -500
-814.7
-1000

-1500 -1169.8 -1524.9

-2000
Max. moment between columns
Steel at the bottom
3000
2496.2 2496.2
2500

2000

1500

1000

500
+ 10.5 449.1 10.5
M(kN.m) 0
& -500
0 5 10 15 20

-1000
-982.4 Max. moment under columns -982.4
-1500 Steelon
Moment drawn atcompression
the top side

Moment drawn on compression side

7 of 9 Foundation Engineering 2
Example on Design of Mat Foundations
Dr. Adnan A. Basma
Strip NCLP (B' = 4.25 m)

602.4 kN 1610.7 kN 1610.7 kN 467.1 kN

0.25 m 7m 7m 7m 0.25 m
C F I L

199.6 kN/m

1000
845.0
632.6
500 420.4

+ 50.1
V(kN) 0
& 0 5 10 15 20 -49.7

-500
-554.4

-1000 -766.6 -978.8

-1500

1500
Max. moment between columns
1023.5 Steel at the bottom
1000
554.7
500
+ 6.3 6.3
M(kN.m) 0
& 0 5 10 15 20
-500
-446.6
-1000 -762.3

-1500 -1842.1
Max. moment under columns
Steel at the top
-2000

Moment drawn on compression side

8 of 9 Foundation Engineering 2
Example on Design of Mat Foundations
Dr. Adnan A. Basma
STEP 3 – DEPTH OF CONCRETE, d'
The table below was prepared for the columns and d’ was estimated using
Structural Depth of Concrete table for punching shear failure (fc' = 24 MPa).

Column Punching p', m Pu, kN d', m


A&J 2 1.00 620 0.29
B&K 3 1.50 775 0.27
C 2 1.00 690 0.31
D&G 3 1.50 2310 0.62 Maximum
E&H 4 2.00 2310 0.54 Use d' = 0.65 m
F&I 3 1.50 1845 0.53
L 2 1.00 535 0.25

STEP 4 – REINFORCEMENT
L-direction Reinforcement: The table below is prepared by selecting the
appropriate moments for each strip and estimate the moment per meter
by Mui/m = Mu/Bi or Li . Using Mui/m, d' = 0.65, fc' = 24 MPa and fy = 275
MPa*, p (percent steel) and thus As can be estimated by Percent Steel
Tables.
+
Strip B', m Location Mu, kN.m Mu, kN.m/m p, % AS (cm2/m) Reinforcement
AMJO 4.25 0-5 m / top 503 118.4 0.11** 33.2 030@25 cm c-c
5-17 m / bottom 2660.5 626.0 0.62.. 40.3 030@20 cm c-c
17-21.5 m / top 503 118.4 0.11** 33.2 030@25 cm c-c

MNPO 8 0-5 m / top 982.4 122.8 0.11** 33.2 030@25 cm c-c


5-16.5 m / bottom 2496.2 312.0 0.30** 33.2 030@25 cm c-c
16.5-21.5 m / top 982.4 122.8 0.11** 33.2 030@25 cm c-c

MNPO 4.25 0-6 m / top 762.3 179.4 0.18** 33.2 030@25 cm c-c
6-9 m / bottom 1023.5 240.8 0.24** 33.2 030@25 cm c-c
9-13 m / top 446.6 105.1 0.10** 33.2 030@25 cm c-c
1314.5 m / bottom 554.7 130.5 0.12** 33.2 030@25 cm c-c
14.5-21.5 m / top 1842.1 433.4 0.43** 33.2 030@25 cm c-c
* For fc' = 24 MPa and fy = 275 MPa, p(min) = 0.51%, and p(max) = 2.99%
** p < p(min) so use p(min) = 0.51%
+ AS = p x d' x 1 = (p/100) x (65) x (100)

B-direction Reinforcement: The same can be done for the B-direction


moments (step 2) by considering (refer to page 1) strips: ACNM (B' = 3.75
m), MNPO (B' = 7 m), OPRQ (B' = 7m) and QRLJ (B' = 3.75 m).

9 of 9 Foundation Engineering 2
Example on Design of Mat Foundations
Dr. Adnan A. Basma