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Lesson 3

Inflection

ἡ χώρᾱ the country (n)


ὦ χώρᾱ O country (v)
τῆς χώρᾱς of the country (g)
τῇ χώρᾳ to the country (d)
τὴν χώρᾱν the country (a)
τὼ χώρᾱ the (pair of) countries (n, v, a)
τοῖν χώραιν of, to the (pair of) countries (g, d)
αἱ χῶραι the countries (n, v)
τῶν χωρῶν of the countries (g)
ταῖς χώραις to the countries (d)
τὰς (ᾱ) χώρᾱς the countries (a)

Vocabulary

ἀγορά (ᾱ), ᾶς, ἡ market-place


ἡμέρᾱ, ᾱς, ἡ day
θύρᾱ, ᾱς, ἡ door
οἰκίᾱ, ᾱς, ἡ house
στρατιά (ᾱ), ᾶς, ἡ army
χώρᾱ, ᾱς, ἡ place, land, country
μακρά (ᾱ) (adj) long
μῑκρά (ᾱ) (adj) small, little
ἐν (prep+dat) in
ἦν he, she, it, there was
ἦσαν they, there were
ἔχει he, she, it has
ἔχουσι they have

Exercises

οἰκίαι μῑκραί.
Small houses.
ἐν ταῖς ἀγοραῖς.
In the market-place.
ἐν οἰκίᾳ μῑκρᾷ.
In a small house.
ἡ οἰκία θύρᾱν ἔχει.
The house has a door.
ἡ ἡμέρᾱ μακρὰ (ᾱ) ἦν.
The day was long.
στρατιὰς (ᾱ) μῑκρὰς (ᾱ) ἔχουσι.
They have a small army.
αἱ οἰκίαι θύρᾱς ἔχουσι.
The houses have doors.
ἐν τῇ χώρᾳ οἰκίαι ἦσαν.
There were houses in the country.
αἱ οἰκίαι μῑκραὶ ἦσαν.
The houses were small.
μῑκραὶ ἦσαν αἱ θύραι τῶν οἰκιῶν.
The doors of the houses were small.
Of a long day.
ἡμέρᾱς μακρᾶς.
For small armies.
στρατιαῖς μῑκραῖς.
In the market-place.
ἐν τῇ ἀγορᾷ.
The country was small.
ἡ χώρᾱ μῑκρὰ (ᾱ) ἦν.
He has a small house.
οἰκίᾱς μῑκρὰς (ᾱ) ἔχει.
ἡ χώρᾱ = the country (n)
ὦ χώρᾱ = O country (v)
τῆς χώρᾱς = of the country (g)
τῇ χώρᾳ = to the country (d)
τὴν χώρᾱν = the country (a)
τὼ χώρᾱ = the (pair of) countries (n, v, a)
τοῖν χώραιν = of, to the (pair of) countries (g, d)
αἱ χῶραι = the countries (n, v)
τῶν χωρῶν = of the countries (g)
ταῖς χώραις = to the countries (d)
τὰς (ᾱ) χώρᾱς = the countries (a)

ἀγορά (ᾱ), ᾶς, ἡ = market-place


ἡμέρᾱ, ᾱς, ἡ = day
θύρᾱ, ᾱς, ἡ = door
οἰκίᾱ, ᾱς, ἡ = house
στρατιά (ᾱ), ᾶς, ἡ = army
χώρᾱ, ᾱς, ἡ = place, land, country
μακρά (ᾱ) = (adj) long
μῑκρά (ᾱ) = (adj) small, little
ἐν = (prep+dat) in
ἦν = he, she, it, there was
ἦσαν = they, there were
ἔχει = he, she, it has
ἔχουσι = they have

οἰκίαι μῑκραί. = Small houses.

ἐν ταῖς ἀγοραῖς. = In the market-place.

ἐν οἰκίᾳ μῑκρᾷ. = In a small house.

ἡ οἰκία θύρᾱν ἔχει. = The house has a door.

ἡ ἡμέρᾱ μακρὰ (ᾱ) ἦν. = The day was long.

στρατιὰς (ᾱ) μῑκρὰς (ᾱ) ἔχουσι. = They have a small army.

αἱ οἰκίαι θύρᾱς ἔχουσι. = The houses have doors.

ἐν τῇ χώρᾳ οἰκίαι ἦσαν. = There were houses in the country.

αἱ οἰκίαι μῑκραὶ ἦσαν. = The houses were small.

μῑκραὶ ἦσαν αἱ θύραι τῶν οἰκιῶν. = The doors of the houses were small.
Of a long day. = ἡμέρᾱς μακρᾶς.

For small armies. = στρατιαῖς μῑκραῖς.

In the market-place. = ἐν τῇ ἀγορᾷ.

The country was small. = ἡ χώρᾱ μῑκρὰ (ᾱ) ἦν.

He has a small house. = οἰκίᾱς μῑκρὰς (ᾱ) ἔχει.


Lesson 4

Inflection

ἡ κώμη the village (n)


ὦ κώμη O village (v)
τῆς κώμης of the village (g)
τῇ κώμῃ to the village (d)
τὴν κώμην the village (a)
τὼ κώμᾱ the (pair of) villages (n, v, a)
τοῖν κώμαιν of, to the (pair of) villages (g, d)
αἱ κῶμαι the villages (n, v)
τῶν κωμῶν of the villages (g)
ταῖς κώμαις to the villages (d)
τὰς (ᾱ) κώμᾱς the villages (a)

ἡ καλὴ σκηνή the fine tent (n)


ὦ καλὴ σκηνή O fine tent (v)
τῆς καλῆς σκηνῆς of the fine tent (g)
τῇ καλῇ σκηνῇ to the fine tent (d)
τὴν καλήν σκηνήν the fine tent (a)
τὼ καλὰ (ᾱ) σκηνά (ᾱ) the (pair of) fine tents (n, v, a)
τοῖν καλαῖν σκηναῖν of, to the (pair of) fine tents (g, d)
αἱ καλαὶ σκηναί the fine tents (n, v)
τῶν καλῶν σκηνῶν of the fine tents (g)
ταῖς καλαῖς σκηναῖς to the fine tents (d)
τὰς (ᾱ) καλὰς (ᾱ) σκηνάς (ᾱ) the fine tents (a)

ἡ μῑκρὰ (ᾱ) σκηνή the little tent (n)


ὦ μῑκρὰ (ᾱ) σκηνή O little tent (v)
τῆς μῑκρᾶς σκηνῆς of the little tent (g)
τῇ μῑκρᾷ σκηνῇ to the little tent (d)
τὴν μῑκρὰν (ᾱ) σκηνήν the little tent (a)
τὼ μῑκρὰ (ᾱ) σκηνά (ᾱ) the (pair of) little tents (n, v, a)
τοῖν μῑκραιν σκηναῖν of, to the (pair of) little tents (g, d)
αἱ μῑκραὶ σκηναί the little tents (n, v)
τῶν μῑκρῶν σκηνῶν of the little tents (g)
ταῖς μῑκραῖς σκηναῖς to the little tents (d)
τὰς (ᾱ) μῑκρὰς (ᾱ) σκηνάς (ᾱ)the little tents (a)

Vocabulary

κραυγή, ῆς, ἡ outcry, uproar


κώμη, ης, ἡ village
μάχη, ης, ἡ battle, fight
σκηνή, ῆς, ἡ tent
σφενδόνη, ης, ἡ sling
κακή (adj) bad
καλή (adj) beautiful, fine
φοβερά (ᾱ) (adj) frightful, fearful
καί and, also

Exercises
ἐν τῇ κώμῃ ἦσαν μῑκραὶ σκηναί.
There were small tents in the village.
αἱ μῑκραὶ οἰκίαι κακαὶ ἦσαν.
The small houses were bad.
αἱ σκηναὶ καλαὶ ἦσαν.
The tents were beautiful.
ἐν τῇ κώμῃ μάχη φοβερὰ (ᾱ) ἦν.
There was a frightful battle in the village.
ἡ κραυγὴ τῆς στρατιᾶς φοβερὰ (ᾱ) ἦν.
The outcry of the army was frightful.
ἐν ταῖς καλαῖς κώμαις ἦσαν οἰκίαι.
There were houses in the fine village.
σφενδόνην ἔχει ἐν τῇ σκηνῇ.
He has a sling in the tent.
κραυγὴ φοβερὰ (ᾱ) ἐν ταῖς κώμαις ἦν.
There was a frightful outcry in the villages.
ἐν ταῐς σκηναῖς ἦσαν αἱ σφενδόναι.
The slings were in the tents.
ἡ οἰκίᾱ μῑκρὰ (ᾱ) ἦν καὶ ἡ σκηνὴ κακή.
The house was small, and the tents were bad.

In the villages were tents.


ἐν ταῖς κώμαις ἦσαν σκηναί.
They have slings in the tents.
ἐν ταῖς σκηναῖς σφενδόνᾱς ἔχουσι.
The battles were fearful.
αἱ μάχαι φοβεραὶ ἦσαν.
There was a small house in the village.
ἦν μῑκρὰ (ᾱ) οἰκίᾱ ἐν τῇ κώμῃ.
They have tents and slings.
σκηνὰς (ᾱ) καὶ σφενδόνᾱς ἔχουσι.
Lesson 5

Inflection

λύω (ῡ) I loose


λύεις (ῡ) thou loosest
λύει (ῡ) he looseth
λύετον (ῡ) ye two loose
λύετον (ῡ) they two loose
λύομεν (ῡ) we loose
λύετε (ῡ) ye loose
λύουσι (ῡ) they loose

βουλεύω I plan
βουλεύεις thou plannest
βουλεύει he planneth
βουλεύετον ye two plan
βουλεύετον they two plan
βουλεύομεν we plan
βουλεύετε ye plan
βουλεύουσι they plan

πέμπω I send
πέμπεις thou sendest
πέμπει he sendeth
πέμπετον ye two send
πέμπετον they two send
πέμπομεν we send
πέμπετε ye send
πέμπουσι they send

ἁρπάζω I rob
ἁρπάζεις thou robbest
ἁρπάζει he robbeth
ἁρπάζετον ye two rob
ἁρπάζετον they two rob
ἁρπάζομεν we rob
ἁρπάζετε ye rob
ἁρπάζουσι they rob

Vocabulary

ἄγω (v) lead


ἁρπάζω (v) seize, rob, plunder
βουλεύω (v) plan, plot
ἔχω (v) have, hold
λύω (ῡ) (v) loose, destroy, break
πέμπω (v) send
Ἑλληνική (adj) Greek (fem. form)
πύλη, ης, ἡ gate
φυλακή, ῆς, ἡ guard, garrison
ἐξ, ἐκ (prep+gen) out of, from (2 forms, +vow., +cons.)
οὐ, οὐκ, οὐχ (adv, proc.) not (3 forms, +cons., +smooth, +rough)
Exercises

βουλεύει.
He plans.
λύουσι (ῡ).
They loose.
ἔχεις.
You have.
πέμπεις.
You send.
ἔχετε.
Ye have.
βουλεύομεν.
We plan.
ἄγω.
I lead.
ἁρπάζει.
He plunders.
ἁρπάζετε.
Ye plunder.
πέμπουσι.
They send.

He plunders.
ἁρπάζει.
We lead.
ἄγομεν.
They plan.
βουλεύουσι.
You send.
πέμπεις.
I loose.
λύω (ῡ).

ἄγω στρατιὰν (ᾱ) Ἑλληνικήν.


I lead a Greek garrison.
τὰς (ᾱ) καλὰς (ᾱ) σκηνὰς (ᾱ) λύουσι (ῡ).
They destroy the fine tents.
οὐχ ἁρπάζω τὰς (ᾱ) κώμᾱς.
I do not plunder the village.
τὴν φυλακὴν ἄγουσιν ἐκ τῶν σκηνῶν.
They lead the garrison out of the tents.
ἔχουσιν οἰκίᾱς καλάς (ᾱ).
They have fine houses.
αἱ κῶμαι πύλᾱς οὐκ ἔχουσιν.
The villages do not have gates.
οὐ πέμπομεν τὴν φυλακήν.
We do not send the garrison.
ἁρπάζετε τὴν χώρᾱν;
Do you plunder the country?
ἐκ τῶν κωμῶν πέμπει τὴν στρατιάν (ᾱ).
He sends the army out of the villages.
ἐκ τῆς ἀγορὰς (ᾱ) ἄγεις τὴν Ἑλληνικὴν φυλακήν;
Do you lead the Greek garrison out of the market-place?
Has he a Greek guard?
ἔχει Ἑλληνικὴν φυλακήν;
We are not destroying the gates.
οὐ λύομεν (ῡ) τὰς (ᾱ) πύλᾱς.
I am sending a garrison.
πέμπω φυλακήν.
You have a beautiful house.
ἔχεις οἰκίᾱν καλάν (ᾱ).
He is not plundering the houses in the village.
οὐ ἁρπάζει τὰς (ᾱ) οἰκίᾱς ἐν τῇ κώμῃ.
Lesson 6

Inflection

ἡ γέφῡρα the bridge (n)


ὦ γέφῡρα O bridge (v)
τῆς γεφύρᾱς (ῡ) of the bridge (g)
τῇ γεφύρᾳ (ῡ) to the bridge (d)
τὴν γέφῡραν the bridge (a)
τὼ γεφύρᾱ (ῡ) the (pair of) bridges (n, v, a)
τοῖν γεφύραιν (ῡ) of, to the (pair of) bridges (g, d)
αἱ γέφῡραι the bridges (n, v)
τῶν γεφῡρῶν of the bridges (g)
ταῖς γεφύραις (ῡ) to the bridges (d)
τὰς (ᾱ) γεφύρᾱς (ῡ) the bridges (a)

ἡ θάλαττα the sea (n)


ὦ θάλαττα O sea (v)
τῆς θαλάττης of the sea (g)
τῇ θαλάττῃ to the sea (d)
τὴν θάλατταν the sea (a)
τὼ θαλάττᾱ the (pair of) seas (n, v, a)
τοῖν θαλάτταιν of, to the (pair of) seas (g, d)
αἱ θάλατται the seas (n, v)
τῶν θαλαττῶν of the seas (g)
ταῖς θαλάτταις to the seas (d)
τὰς (ᾱ) θαλάττᾱς. the seas (a)

ἡ μάχαιρα ἀγαθή the good sabre (n)


ὦ μάχαιρα ἀγαθή O good sabre (v)
τῆς μαχαίρᾱς ἀγαθῆς of the good sabre (g)
τῇ μαχαίρᾳ ἀγαθῇ to the good sabre (d)
τὴν μάχαιραν ἀγαθήν the good sabre (a)
τὼ μαχαίρᾱ ἀγαθά (ᾱ) the (pair of) good sabres (n, v, a)
τοῖν μαχαίραιν ἀγαθαῖν of, to the (pair of) good sabres (g, d)
αἱ μάχαιραι ἀγαθαί the good sabres (n, v)
τῶν μαχαιρῶν ἀγαθῶν of the good sabres (g)
ταῖς μαχαίραις ἀγαθαῖς to the good sabres (d)
τὰς (ᾱ) μαχαίρᾱς ἀγαθάς (ᾱ) the good sabres (a)

Vocabulary

ἅμαξα, ης, ἡ wagon


γέφῡρα, ᾱς, ἡ bridge
θάλαττα, ης, ἡ sea
μάχαιρα, ᾱς, ἡ knife, sabre
πέλτη, ης, ἡ shield, target
τράπεζα, ης, ἡ table
ἀγαθή (adj) good, brave (fem. form)
στενή (adj) narrow (fem. form)
εἰς (prep +acc, proc) into, to
ἐπί (prep +gen) on (top of), upon
ἐπί (prep +dat) on, by, at
ἐπί (prep +acc) upon, to, against

Exercises

ἡ θάλαττα στενὴ ἦν.


The sea was narrow.
ἔχει οἰκίᾱς ἐπὶ τῇ θαλάττῃ;
Has he houses upon the sea?
τραπέζᾱς ἐπὶ τῶν ἁμαξῶν ἄγετε.
You bring tables upon the wagons.
εἰς τὴν ἀγορὰν (ᾱ) πέμπουσι ἁμάξᾱς.
They send wagons into the market-place.
ἐπὶ τῇ γεφύρᾳ (ῡ) φυλακὴν ἔχει ἀγαθήν.
He has a brave guard at the bridge.
πέλτᾱς ἔχομεν καὶ μαχαίρᾱς ἀγαθάς (ᾱ).
We have good shields and sabres.
ἐπὶ τὴν θάλατταν οὐκ ἄγω τὴν φυλακήν.
I do not lead the garrison to the sea.
πέμπεις μαχαίρᾱς τῇ στρατιᾷ;
Do you send sabres to the army?
ἐπὶ τὴν γέφῡραν οὐκ ἄγει τὴν στρατιάν (ᾱ).
He does not lead the army against the bridge.
τὴν χώρᾱν ἁρπάζεις ἐκ θαλάττης εἰς θάλατταν.
You plunder the country from sea to sea.

We are destroying the tables.


λύομεν (ῡ) τὰς (ᾱ) τραπέζᾱς.
They are not plundering the wagons.
οὐχ ἁρπάζουσι τὰς (ᾱ) ἁμάξᾱς.
The bridges were long and narrow.
αἱ γέφῡραι μακραὶ καὶ στεναὶ ἦσαν.
Is he bringing the sabres on the wagon?
ἄγει τὰς (ᾱ) μαχαίρᾱς ἐπὶ τῆς ἁμάξης;
He does not lead the garrison from the villages to the sea.
οὐκ ἄγει τὴν φυλακὴν ἐκ τῶν κωμῶν εἰς τὴν θάλατταν.
Lesson 7

Inflection

ἔλῡον I was loosing


ἔλῡες you were loosing
ἔλῡε he was loosing
ἐλύετον (ῡ) ye two were loosing
ἐλῡέτην they two were loosing
ἐλύομεν (ῡ) we were loosing
ἐλύετε (ῡ) ye were loosing
ἔλῡον they were loosing

ἐβούλευον I was planning


ἐβούλευες you were planning
ἐβούλευε he was planning
ἐβουλεύετον ye two were planning
ἐβουλευέτην they two were planning
ἐβουλεύομεν we were planning
ἐβουλεύετε ye were planning
ἐβούλευον they were planning

ἔπεμπον I was sending


ἔπεμπες you were sending
ἔπεμπε he was sending
ἐπέμπετον ye two were sending
ἐπεμπέτην they two were sending
ἐπέμπομεν we were sending
ἐπέμπετε ye were sending
ἔπεμπον they were sending

ἥρπαζον I was plundering


ἥρπαζες you were plundering
ἥρπαζε he was plundering
ἡρπάζετον ye two were plundering
ἡρπαζέτην they two were plundering
ἡρπάζομεν we were plundering
ἡρπάζετε he was plundering
ἥρπαζον they were plundering

εἶχον I was having


εἶχες you were having
εἶχε he was having
εἴχετον ye two were having
εἰχέτην they two were having
εἴχομεν we were having
εἴχετε ye were having
εἶχον they were having

Vocabulary

(none)

Exercises
ἡ οἰκίᾱ θύρᾱς καλὰς (ᾱ) εἶχε.
The house had beautiful doors.
τὴν φυλακὴν ἔπεμπεν εἰς τὴν κώμην.
He was sending the garrison to the village.
ἐν ταῖς κώμαις καλὰς (ᾱ) εἶχεν οἰκίᾱς.
He had fine houses in the villages.
ἥρπαζες τὰς (ᾱ) σκηνάς (ᾱ);
Were you plundering the tents?
ἐκ τῆς οἰκίᾱς οὐκ ἦγες τὴν φυλακήν.
You were not leading the guard out of the house.
οὐχ ἡρπάζομεν τὰς (ᾱ) μῑκρὰς (ᾱ) κώμᾱς.
We were not plundering the small villages.
ἁμάξᾱς ἐν τῇ ἀγορᾷ εἶχετε.
You had wagons in the market-place.
ἐπὶ τὴν θάλατταν ἦγον τὴν Ἑλληνικὴν φυλακήν.
You were leading the Greek garrison to the sea.
μαχαίρᾱς καὶ σφενδόνᾱς ἐπὶ τῆς ἁμάξης ἦγεν.
He was bringing sabres and slings upon the wagon.
φυλακὴν Ἑλληνικὴν ἐπέμπομεν εἰς τὴν ἀγοράν (ᾱ).
We were leading a Greek garrison to the market-place.

He was destroying the tents.


ἔλυε τὰς (ᾱ) σκηνάς (ᾱ).
We did not send the garrison to the bridge.
οὐκ ἐπέμπομεν τὴν φυλακὴν εἰς τὴν γέφῡραν.
They plundered the wagons.
ἥρπαζον τὰς (ᾱ) ἁμάξᾱς.
They did not lead the army from he village.
οὐκ ἦγον τὰς (ᾱ) στρατιὰς (ᾱ) ἐκ τῆς κώμης.
You led the guard from the houses to the sea.
ἦγες τὴν φυλακὴν ἐκ τῶν οἰκιῶν εἰς τὴν θάλατταν.
Lesson 8

Inflection

ὁ λόγος the word (n)


ὦ λόγε O word (v)
τοῦ λόγου of the word (g)
τῷ λόγῳ to the word (d)
τὸν λόγον the word (a)
τὼ λόγω the (pair of) words (n, v, a)
τοῖν λόγοιν of, to the (pair of) words (g, d)
οἱ λόγοι the words (n)
τῶν λόγων of the words (g)
τοῖς λόγοις to the words (d)
τοὺς λόγους the words (a)

ὁ ἀγαθὸς ἄνθρωπος the good man (n)


ὦ ἀγαθὲ ἄνθρωπε O good man (v)
τοῦ ἀγθαθοῦ ἀνθρώπου of the good man (g)
τῷ ἀγαθῷ ἀνθρώπῳ to the good man (d)
τὸν ἀγαθὸν ἄνθρωπον the good man (a)
τὼ ἀγαθὼ ἀνθρώπω the (pair of) good men (n, v, a)
οἱ ἀγαθαοὶ ἄνθρωποι to, from the (pair of) good men (g, d)
τῶν ἀγαθῶν ἀνθρώπων the good men (n)
τοῖς ἀγαθοῖς ἀνθρώποις to the good men (d)
τοὺς ἀγαθοὺς ἀνθρώπους the good men (a)

τὸ καλὸν δῶρον the fine gift (n)


ὦ καλὸν δῶρον O fine gift (v)
τοῦ καλοῦ δώρου of the fine gift (g)
τῷ καλῷ δώρῳ to the fine gift (d)
τὸ καλὸν δῶρον the fine gift (a)
τὼ καλὼ δώρω the (pair of) fine gifts (n, v, a)
τοῖν καλοῖν δώροιν to, of the (pair of) fine gifts (g, d)
τὰ καλὰ δῶρα the fine gifts (n)
τῶν καλῶν δώρων of the fine gifts (g)
τοῖς καλοῖς δώροις to the fine gifts (d)
τὰ καλὰ δῶρα the fine gifts (a)

Vocabulary

ἄνθρωπος, ου, ὁ man, human being


ἵππος, ου, ὁ horse
λόγος, ου, ὁ word, speech
πόλεμος, ου, ὁ war
σύμμαχος, ου, ὁ ally
δῶρον, ου, τό gift
πεδίον, ου, τό plain
χωρίον, ου, τό small place, place, spot
καὶ… καί both… and

Exercises

δῶρα ἔπεμπε τῇ στρατιᾷ;


Was he sending gifts to the army?
ἐν τῷ χωρίῳ ἦσαν οἰκίαι.
There were houses in the place.
ὁ πόλεμος φοβερὸς ἦν.
The war was frightful.
εἰς τὸ πεδίον ἔπεμπεν ἀνθρώπους.
He was sending men into the plain.
τοὺς ἵππους ἄγομεν ἐκ τοῦ χωρίου.
We are leading the horses out of the place.
ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ ἦσαν καὶ ἵπποι καὶ ἄνθρωποι.
There were both horses and men on the plain.
δῶρα πέμπομεν τοῖς συμμάχοις.
We are sending gifts to the allies.
οἱ σύμμαχοι ἐν πολέμῳ κακοὶ ἦσαν.
The allies were cowardly in war.
οἱ τῶν συμμάχων λόγοι καλοὶ ἦσαν.
The words of the allies were beautiful.
ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ ἦσαν οἱ τῶν ἀνθρώπων ἵπποι.
The horses of the men were on the plain.

The allies had bad horses.


κακοὺς ἵππους ἔχουσιν οἱ σύμμαχοι.
I led the horse into the village.
ἦγον τοὺς ἵππους εἰς τὴν κώμην.
The place was narrow.
τὸ χωρίον στενὸν ἦν.
The man was cowardly in war.
ὁ ἄνθρωπος κακὸς ἦν ἐν πόλεμῷ.
He sent horses to the allies.
ἔπεμπεν ἵππους τοῖς συμμάχοις.
Lesson 9

Inflection

ὁ οἶνος the wine (n)


ὦ οἶνε O wine (v)
τοῦ οἴνου of the wine (g)
τῷ οἴνῳ to the wine (d)
τὸν οἶνον the wine (a)
τὼ οἴνω the (pair of) wines (n, v, a)
τοῖν οἴνοιν of, to the (pair of) wines (g, d)
οἱ οἶνοι the wines (n, v)
τῶν οἴνων of the wines (g)
τοῖς οἴνοις to the wines (d)
τοὺς οἴνους the wines (a)

ἡ στενὴ ὁδός the narrow road (n)


ὦ στενὴ ὁδέ O narrow road (v)
τῆς στενῆς ὁδοῦ of the narrow raod (g)
τῇ στενῇ ὁδῷ to the narrow road (d)
τὴν στενὴν ὁδόν the narrow road (a)
τὼ στενὰ (ᾱ) ὁδώ the (pair of) narrow raods (n, v, a)
τοῖν στεναῖν ὁδοῖν of, to the (pair of) narror raods
αἱ στεναὶ ὁδοί the narrow roads (n, v)
τῶν στενῶν ὁδῶν of the narrow roads (g)
ταῖς στεναῖς ὁδοῖς to the narrow roads (d)
τὰς (ᾱ) στενὰς (ᾱ) ὁδούς the narrow roads (a)

τὸ πλοῖον μακρόν the long boat (n)


ὦ πλοῖον μακρόν O long boat (v)
τοῦ πλοίου μακροῦ of the long boat (g)
τῷ πολίῳ μακρῷ to the long boat (d)
τὸ πλοῖον μακρόν the long boat (a)
τὼ πολίω μακρώ the (pair of) long boats (n, v, a)
τοῖν πλοίοιν μακροῖν of, to the (pair of) long boats (g, d)
τὰ πλοῖα μακρά the long boats (n, v)
τῶν πλοίων μακρῶν of the long boats (g)
τοῖς πλοίοις μακροῖς to the long boats (d)
τὰ πλοῖα μακρά the long boats (a)

Vocabulary

Κῦρος, ου, ὁ Cyrus


ὁδός, οῦ, ἡ road, way
οἶνος, ου, ὁ wine
ποταμός, οῦ, ὁ river
στρατηγός, οῦ, ὁ general
φανερός, ά, όν (adj) in plain sight, visible, evident
θηρίον, ου, τό wild beast
ὅπλον, ου, τό implement
ὅπλα, ων, τά arms
πλοῖον, ου, τό boat
πλοῖον μακρόν ship of war, war ship
τόξον, ου, τό bow
ὁ, ἡ, τό (art) the
ὦ (interj +voc) O
δέ (conj, post) but, and

Exercises

στενὴ ἦν ὁ ὁδός.
The road was narrow.
ἐν τῷ πεδιῳ ἦν θηρία.
There were wild beasts in the plain.
τὰ πλοῖα μακρὰ ἦν.
The boats were long.
ἐπὶ τῷ ποταμῷ ἦν ὁ στρατηγός.
The general was at the river.
τόξα δὲ, ὦ Κῦρε, οὐκ ἔχομεν.
But we do not have bows, O Cyrus.
ὁδὸς φανερὰ (ᾱ) ἄγει εἰς τὰς (ᾱ) τοῦ Κύρου κωμᾱς.
A clear path leads to the villages of Cyrus.
εἰς τὸ πεδίον ὁ στρατηγὸς ἔπεμπε τοὺς ἵππους.
The general was leading the horses into the plain.
τῷ στρατηγῷ οἶνον Κῦρος ἔπεμπε.
Cyrus was giving wine to the general.
ἡ ὁδὸς, ὦ Κῦρε, ἄγει εἰς πεδίον καλόν.
The road leads to the beautiful plain, O Cyrus.
ἦγον οἱ ἵπποι καὶ οὺς στρατηγοὺς καὶ τὰ ὅπλα.
The horses were bringing both the generals and the arms.

Cyrus sent gifts to the generals.


τοῖς στρατηγοῖς ἔπεμπεν ὁ Κῦρος δῶρα.
He led the horse into the river.
ἦγε τὸν ἵππον εἰς τὸν ποταμόν.
The general had ships of war.
ὁ στρατηγὸς πλοῖα μακρὰ εἶχεν.
We are sending the wine to Cyrus.
πέμπομεν τὸν οἶνον τῷ Κύρῳ.
The generals sent horses to Cyrus.
οἱ στρατηγοὶ ἵππους ἔπεμπον τῷ Κύρῳ.
Lesson 10

Inflection

λύσω (ῡ) I shall loose


λύσεις (ῡ) you will loose
λύσει (ῡ) he will loose
λύσετον (ῡ) ye two will loose
λύσετον (ῡ) they two will loose
λύσομεν (ῡ) we shall loose
λύσετε (ῡ) ye will loose
λύσουσι (ῡ) they will loose

ἔλῡσα I loosed
ἔλῡσας you loosed
ἔλῡσε he loosed
ἐλύσατον (ῡ) ye two loosed
ἐλῡσάτην they two loosed
ἐλύσαμεν (ῡ) we loosed
ἐλύσατε (ᾱ) ye loosed
ἔλῡσαν they loosed

πέμψω I shall send


πέμωεις you will send
πέμψει he will send
πέμψετον ye two will send
πέμψετον they two will send
πέμψομεν we shall send
πέμψετε ye will send
πέμψουσι they will send

ἔπεμψα I sent
ἔπεμψας you sent
ἔπεμψε he sent
ἐπέμψατον ye two sent
ἐπεμψάτην they two sent
ἐπέμψαμεν we sent
ἐπέμψατε ye sent
ἔπεμψαν they sent

πέμψω I shall send


διώξω I shall pursue
ἁρπάσω I shall plunder
λύειν (ῡ) to loose
πέμπειν to send
ἕξω I shall have
ἤγαγον I led
ἐσχον I had

Vocabulary

ἀθροίζω, ἀθροίσω, ἤθροισα (v) collect


διώκω, διώξω, ἐδίωξα (v) pursue
ἐπιβουλεύω, ἐπιβουλεύσω, ἐπεβούλευσα (v +dat) plot against
κελεύω, κελεύσω, ἐκέλευσα (v) command
ἀδελφός, οῦ, ὁ brother
βάρβαρος, ου, ὁ barbarian
μισθός, οῦ, ὁ pay
πολέμιος, ου, ὁ (adj) hostile
πολέμιοι, ων, οἱ enemy
τότε then, at that time

Exercises

οὐ διώξω τοὺς πολεμίους.


I will not pursue the enemy.
τὰ δῶρα ἕξομεν;
Do we have the gifts?
τὰς (ᾱ) σκηνὰς (ᾱ) ἁρπάσουσιν οἱ βάρβαροι.
The barbarians will plunder the tents.
κελεύσει τὸν στρατηγὸν τοὺς ἀνθρώπους λύειν (ῡ).
He will command the generals to destroy the men.
τοὺς συμμάχους ἦγαγεν εἰς τοὺς βαρβάρους.
He led the allies to the barbarians.
Κῦρος ἐπιβουλεύσει τῷ ἀδελφῷ.
Cyrus will plot against his brother.
τοῖς ἀνθρώποις τότε ἔπεμψε Κῦρος μισθόν.
Then Cyrus sent pay to the men.
ὁ δὲ στρατηγὸς τὴν φυλακὴν ἔσχε τὴν Ἑλληνικήν.
But the general had a Greek garrison.
εἰς τὸ πεδίον ἀθροίσει τοὺς Ἑλληνικοὺς συμμάχους.
He will gather the Greek allies on the plain.
καὶ ἐπὶ τὴν γέφῡραν τὸν στρατηγὸν πέμπειν ἐκέλευσε Κῦρος φυλακήν.
And Cyrus will command the general to send a garrison to the bridge.

The barbarians sent the man.


οἱ βάρβαροι ἔπεμψαν τὸν ἄνθρωπον.
The generals brought horses at that time.
οἱ στρατηγοὶ ἤγαγον τοὺς ἱπους τότε.
Will Cyrus send good wine to the general?
ὁ Κῦρος πέμψει ἀγαθὸν οἶνον τῷ στρατηγῷ;
He will not plot against the allies.
οὐ ἐπιβουλεύσει τοῖς συμμάχοις.
He will command the general to pursue the enemy.
κελεύσει τὸν στρατηγὸν διώκειν τοὺς πολεμίους.
Lesson 11

Inflection

ὁ νεᾱνίᾱς the young man (n)


ὦ νεᾱνίᾱ O young man (v)
τοῦ νεᾱνίου of the young man (g)
τῷ νεᾱνίᾳ to the young man (d)
τὸν νεᾱνίᾱν the young man (a)
τὼ νεᾱνίω the two young men (n, v, a)
τοῖν νεᾱνίαιν of, to the two young men (g, d)
οἱ νεᾱνίαι the young men (n, v)
τῶν νεᾱνιῶν of the young men (g)
τοῖς νεᾱνίαις to the young men (d)
τοὺς νεᾱνίᾱς the young men (a)

ὁ στρατιώτης the soldier (n)


ὦ στρατιώτα O soldier (v)
τοῦ στρατιώτου of the soldier (g)
τῷ στρατιώτῃ to the soldier (d)
τὸν στρατιώτην the soldier (a)
τὼ στρατιώτᾱ the two soldiers (n, v, a)
τοῖν στρατιώταιν of, to the two soldiers (g, d)
οἱ στρατιῶται the soldiers (n)
τῶν στρατιωτῶν of the soldiers (g)
τοῖς στρατιώταις to the soldiers (d)
τοὺς στρατιώτᾱς the soldiers (a)

Vocabulary

Εὐφράτης (ᾱ), ου, ὁ Euphrates


νεᾱνίᾱς, ου, ὁ young man
ὁπλίτης (ῑ), ου, ὁ heavy-armed foot soldier (hoplite)
πελταστής, οῦ, ὁ targeteer (peltast)
Πέρσης, ου, ὁ Persian
στρατιώτης, ου, ὁ soldier
τοξότης, ου, ὁ bowman, archer (toxotes)
δεξιός, ά, όν (adj) right (as opposed to left)
τριᾱκόσιοι, αι, α (plur. adj) three hundred
οὔτε… οὔτε (adv) neither… nor
σύ ν (prep +dat) with, in company with

Exercises

στρατιώτᾱς καὶ ἵππους ἀθροίσω τῷ Κύρω (ῡ).


I will gather soldiers and horses for Cyrus.
ὁ δὲ νεᾱνίᾱς τοῖς στρατιώτοις ἐπεβούλευε.
But the young man was plotting against the soldiers.
ἐπὶ τὸν Εὐφράτην (ᾱ) ποταμὸν ἄξει τοὺς στρατιώτᾱς.
He will lead the soldiers to the Euphrates river.
καὶ τοὺς σὺν τῷ στρατηγῷ ὁπλίτᾱς (ῑ) ἤγαγον εἱς κώμᾱς.
They led the hoplites that were with the general into the village.
τὸν Πέρσην ἤγαγεν εἰς τὴν τοῦ στρατιώτου σκηνήν;
Did he lead the Persian into the tent of the soldier?
οἱ στρατιῶται ἐν φυλακῇ ἔξουσι τοὺς Πέρσᾱς.
The soldiers held the Persians in a garrison.
τὸν Εὐφράτην (ᾱ) ποταμὸν ἐν δεξιᾷ ἔχει.
He had the Euphrates river on his right.
ὁ δὲ στρατηγὸς οὔτε τοξότην εἶχεν οὔτε πελταστήν.
But the general had neither a bowman nor a targeteer.
σὺν τοῖς πελτασταῖς ἐδίωκε τοὺς τοξότᾱς.
He was pursuing the bowmen with the targeteers.
ὁ δὲ στρατηγὸς τριᾱκοσίους ὁπλίτᾱς (ῑ) καὶ πελταστὰς (ᾱ) ἔχει.
But the general has three hundred hoplites and targeteers.

The general was not leading the hoplites.


οὐκ ἦγεν ὁ στρατηγὸς τοὺς ὁπλίτᾱς (ῑ).
Both the targeteers and the bowmen were brave.
καὶ οἱ πελτασταὶ καὶ οἱ τοξόται ἦσαν ἀγαθοί.
The young man was in the village.
ὁ νεᾱνίᾱς ἦν ἐν τῇ κώμῃ.
They sent hoplites and targeteers.
ἔπεμψαν καὶ ὁπλίτᾱς (ῑ) καὶ πελταστάς (ᾱ).
He will send beautiful gifts to the Persians.
πέμψει δῶρα καλὰ τοῖς Πέρσαις.
Lesson 12

Inflection

λέλυκα I have loosed


λέλυκας you have loosed
λέλυκε he has loosed
λελύκατον ye two have loosed
λελύκατον they two have loosed
λελύκαμεν we have loosed
λελύκατε ye have loosed
λελύκᾱσι they have loosed

ἐλελύκη I had loosed


ἐλελύκης you had loosed
ἐλελύκει he had loosed
ἐλελύκετον ye two had loosed
ἐλελυκέτην they two had loosed
ἐλελύκημεν we had loosed
ἐλελύκητε ye had loosed
ἐλελύκεσαν they had loosed

θύω (ῡ) I sacrifice


τέθυκα I have sacrificed
ἐτεθύκη I had sacrificed
στρατεύω I make an expedition
ἐστράτευκα I have made an expedition
ἐστρατεύκη I had made an expedition
ἁρπάζω I plundered
ἥρπακα I have plundered
ἡρπάκη I had plundered
ἔσχηκα I have had
ἐσχήκη I had had
πέπομφα I have sent
δεδιωχα I had pursued
ἐπεπόμφη I had sent
ἐδεδιώχη I have pursued
ἦχα I have led
ἤχη I had led

Vocabulary

διαρπάζω, διαρπάσω, διήρπασα, διήρπακα (v) plunder completely, sack


θύω (ῡ), θύσω (ῡ), ἔθῡσα, τέθυκα (v) sacrifice
στρατεύω, στρατεύσω, ἐστράτευσα, ἐστράτευκα (v) make an expedition
δᾱρεικός, οῦ, ὁ daric (a gold coin)
θεός, οῦ, ὁ god, goddess
Κλέαρχος, ου, ὁ Clearchus
ὅρκος, ου, ὁ oath
φόβος, ου, ὁ fear
γάρ (conj, post.) for
διά (prep +gen) through
διά (prep +acc) on account of
πρός (prep +gen) over against
πρός (prep +dat) at
πρός (prep +acc) to, against, towards

Exercises

τοὺς πολεμίους δεδιώχαμεν διὰ τῶν κωμῶν εἰς τὴν θάλατταν.


We have pursued the enemy through the village into the sea.
καὶ τὰς (ᾱ) ἁμάξᾱς οἱ βάρβαροι διηρπάκεσαν.
The barbarians had completely plundered the wagons.
τριᾱκοσίους δᾱρεικοὺς ἐπεπόμφεμεν τοῖς ὁπλίταις (ῑ).
We had given three hundred darics to the hoplites.
Κλέαρχος δὲ ἐπεβεβουλεύκει τοῖς Πέρσαις.
But Clearchus had plotted against the Persians.
οἱ στρτιῶται τὸν ἄνθρωπον ἤχεσαν πρὸς Κῦρον.
The soldiers had led the man to Cyrus.
οὐκ ἐκεκελεύκει ὁ Κλέαρχος τοὺς στρατιώτᾱς θύειν (ῡ).
Clearchus had not commanded the soldiers to sacrifice.
ἐπὶ τὴν τῶν πολεμίων χώρᾱν ἐστρατεύκατε.
You have made an expedition against the country of your enemy.
λελύκᾱσι τοὺς ὅρκους οἱ στρατηγοί· οὐ γὰρ τεθύκᾱσι τοῖς θεοῖς.
The generals have broken their oaths; for they have not sacrificed to the gods.
ἤθροικας, ὦ Κῦρε, ἐπὶ τοὺς βάρβαρους τοὺς πελταστὰς (ᾱ) καὶ τοὺς τοξότᾱς.
Against the barbarians, O Cyrus, you have gathered the targeteers and the bowmen.
οἱ δὲ στρατιῶται τὰς (ᾱ) ἁμάξᾱς ἐλελύκεσαν διὰ τὸν τῶν πολεμίων φόβον.
But the soldiers had destroyed the wagons because of their fear of the enemy.

We have broken our oaths.


λελύκαμεν τοὺς ὅρκους.
The soldiers had sacrificed to the gods.
οἱ στρατιώται ἐτεθύκεσαν τοῖς θεοῖς.
Have the peltasts sacked the village?
τὴν κώμην οἱ πελτασταὶ διηρπάκᾱσιν;
The soldier has plotted against Cyrus.
ὁ στρατιώτης ἐπεβεβουλεύκει τῷ Κύρῳ.
His brother had ordered Cyrus to send gifts.
ὁ ἀδελφὸς ἐκεκελεύει τὸν Κῦρον δῶρα πέμπειν.
Lesson 13

Inflection

(none)

Vocabulary

ἀρχή, ῆς, ἡ rule, province, satrapy


Δᾱρεῖος, ου, ὁ Darius
δεινός, ή, όν terrible, skillful
ἰσχῡρός, ά (ᾱ), όν strong
χωρίον ἰσχῡρον stronghold
Περσικός, ή, όν (adj) Persian
σατράπης, ου, ὁ satrap, viceroy
υἱός, οῦ, ὁ son
ὥστε (adv) so as, so that, wherefore

Exercises

Κῦρος, ὁ τοῦ Δᾱρείου υἱός, Πέρσης ἦν καλὸς καὶ ἀγαθός.


Cyrus, the son of Darius, was a Persian fine and brave.
σατράπην δὲ αὐτὸν (him) ἐποιησεν (made) ὁ Δᾱρεῖος τῆς Λῡδίᾱς καὶ τῆς Φρυγίᾱς καὶ τῆς Καππαδοκίᾱς.
And Darius made him the viceroy of Lydia, Phrygia and Cappadocia.
χωρία δὲ ἰσχῡρὰ εἶχεν ἐν τῇ ἀρχῇ ὁ Κῦρος καὶ πλοῖα μακρὰ ἐν τῇ θαλάττῃ…
Cyrus had strongholds in his province, and ships of war in the sea.
καὶ (also) στρατιῶται δὲ αὐτῷ (to him) ἐν τῇ χώρᾳ ἦσαν ἀγαθοί, ὁπλῖται Ἑλληνικαὶ καὶ πελτασταὶ καὶ τοξόται Πε
He also had brave soldiers in his country, Greek hoplites, peltasts and toxotes.
Τισσαφέρνης δὲ, ὁ τῆς Κᾱρίᾱς σατράπης, τῷ Κύρῳ πολέμος ἦν…
Tissaphernes, the satrap of Caria, was hostile toward Cyrus,
τότε δὲ οὔτε ἐστράτευεν ἐπ' αὐτὸν οὔτε διήρπαζε τὴν χώρᾱν.
but at that time he neither made an expedition against him nor sacked his country,
Κῦρος γὰρ στρατηγὸς ἐν πολέμῳ δεινὸς ἦν, υἱὸς δὲ τοῦ Δᾱρείου·
because Cyrus was a general in war, and the son of Darius;
ὥστε φόβον εἶχεν ὁ Τισσαφέρνης πρὸς Κῦρον.
so that Tissaphernes was afraid of Cyrus.
ίᾱς καὶ τῆς Καππαδοκίᾱς.

νικαὶ καὶ πελτασταὶ καὶ τοξόται Περσικοί.


Lesson 14

Inflection

(none)
Review the declension of ἄξιος and ἀγαθός.
Note that the feminine ends in -ᾱ when preceded by ε, ι, or ρ, and -η otherwise.

Vocabulary

ἄγριος, ᾱ, ον (adj) wild


ἄξιος, ᾱ, ον (adj) worthy, becoming, right
ἄπορος, ον (adj) without resources, impassable, impractical
Ἀρταξέρξης, ου, ὁ Artaxerxes
ἐπιτήδειος, ᾱ, ον (adj) suitable, fit, deserving
τὰ ἐπιτήδεια provisions, supplies
ὄνος, ου, ὁ ass
ὄρθιος, ᾱ, ον (adj) steep
παίω, παίσω, ἔπαισα, πέπαικα (v) strike, hit, beat
πάνυ (adv) very, altogether, wholly
πιστός, ή, όν (adj) faithful, trustworthy
φίλιος, ᾱ, ον (adj) friendly

Exercises

ὄνοι ἄγριοι καὶ ἵπποι ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ ἦσαν.


There were wild asses and horses on the plain.
ὁ Εὐφράτης (ᾱ) ποταμὸς ἄπορος ἦν.
The Euphrates river was impassable.
ἡ δὲ ὁδὸς στενὴ ἦν καὶ ὀρθίᾱ.
But the road was narrow and steep.
ἕξομεν δέ, ὦ Κῦρε, τὰ ἐπιτήδεια;
But will we have provisions, O Cyrus?
ὁ Ἀρταξέρξης τῷ ἀδελφῷ πολέμιος ἦν.
Artaxerxes was hostile to his brother.
διὰ φιλίᾱς ἀρχῆς ἄξει ὁ σατράπης τοὺς στρατιώτᾱς.
Through a friendly province, the satrap will have soldiers.
τὴν πολεμίᾱν χώρᾱν Δᾱρεῖος διηρπάκει.
Darius had completely plundered the hostile country.
ὥστε τῷ Ἀρταξέρξῃ πάνυ πολέμιος ἦν, Κύρῳ (ῡ) δὲ πιστός.
Wherefore he was very hostile to Artaxerxes, but faithful to Cyrus.
οὐκ ἄξιον ἦν τῷ ὁπλίτῃ (ῑ) παίειν τὸν Περσικὸν τοξότην.
It was not right for the hoplite to strike the Persian bowman.
οἱ Πέρσαι οὔτε φίλιοι οὔτε πιστοὶ ἦσαν.
The Persians were neither friendly nor trustworthy.

The road was impassible.


ἡ ὁδὸς ἀπόρᾱ ἦν.
Cyrus did not send provisions to the garrison.
οὐ ἔπεμψεν ὁ Κῦρος τὰ ἐπιτήδεια τῇ φυλακῇ.
They will lead the men to strongholds.
ἄξουσι τοὺς ἀνθρώπυς χωρίοις ἰσχῡροῖς.
The hoplites were good and faithful soldiers.
οἱ ὁπλίται (ῑ) ἦσαν στρατιώται ἀγαθαὶ καὶ πισταί.
It was right for Cyrus to send the gifts to his soldiers.
ἄξιος ἦν τῷ Κύρῳ πέμπειν τὰ δῶρα τοῖς στρατιώταις.

Κῦρος οὖν σατράπης ἦν τῆς Λῡδίᾱς καὶ τῆς Φρυγίᾱς καὶ τῆς Καππαδοκίας.
ἐπεὶ δὲ ἐτελεύτησε Δᾱρεῖος, Ἀρταξέρξης ὁ τοῦ Κύρου ἀδελφὸς ἐβασίλευσε
τῶν Περσῶν, καὶ Τισσαφέρνης διαβάλλει τὸν Κῦρον πρὸς τὸν ἀδελφόν ὡς
ἐπιβουλεύει αὐτῷ. ὁ δ' Ἀρταξέρξης συλλαμβάνει Κῦρον.

οὐν - "then," continuing the previous narrative.


ἐπεί - "when"
τελευτάω, τελευτήσω, ἐτελεύτησα - "die" (translate as pluperfect)
βασιλεύω - "be king"
διαβάλλει - the tense is historical present
ὡς - "that"
ὡς ἐπιβουλεύει - "of plotting," lit. "that he is plotting"
διαβάλλω - "accuse"
συλλαμβάνω - "arrest"

Cyrus then, was the satrap over Lydia, Phrygia and Cappadocia.
But when Darius had died, Artaxerses, the brother of Cyrus, became
king of the Persians, and Tissaphernes accused Cyrus before his brother
of plotting against him. So Artaxerxes arrested Cyrus.

Cyrus therefore was the satrap of Lydia, Phrygia and Cappadocia.


But when Darius died, Artaxerses, Cyrus' brother, became king of
the Persians. So Tissaphernes slanders Cyrus before his brother,
claiming that he is plotting against him, and Artaxerses has Cyrus arrested.
Lesson 15

Inflection

(none)

Vocabulary

ἄγγελος, ου, ὁ messenger, scout


ἀντί (prep +gen) instead of
ἀπό (prep +gen) off from, from
ἀτῑμάζω, ατῑμάσω, ἠτίμασα (ῑ), ἠτίμακα(v)
(ῑ)dishonor, disgrace
δίκη, ης, ἡ justice
ἐπεί (adv) when, since
ἐπιστολή, ῆς, ἡ letter
θηρεύω, θηρεύσω, ἐθήρευσα, τεθήρευκα (v) hunt, catch
ὄλεθρος, ου, ὁ destruction, loss
οὕτως, οὕτω (adv) thus, so
πάλιν (adv) back, again
φίλος, ου, ὁ friend

Exercises

ὁπλίτᾱς (ῑ) ἤχᾱσιν ἀντὶ τοξοτῶν.


They have led hoplites instead of toxotes.
τοῖς συμμάχοις οὕτως ἐπιβουλεύετε.
Thus you plot against the allies.
Κῦρον δὲ ἠτίμακε (ῑ).
But Cyrus you have dishonored.
θηρία ἀπὸ ἵππου τεθήρευκα.
I have hunted wild beasts from horseback.
τὰς (ᾱ) ἐπιστολὰς (ᾱ) πέμψομεν τοῖς φίλοις;
Do we send the letters to our friends?
Κλέαρχος, ὦ στρατιῶται, ἐπεὶ τοὺς ὅρκους λέλυκε, τὴν δίκην ἔχει.
When Clearchus has broken his oaths, O soldiers, he has justice.
τὴν δὲ χώρᾱν ἡρπάκαμεν διὰ τὸν ὄλεθρον τῶν στρατιωτῶν.
We have plundered the country because of the destruction of the soldiers.
τὸν ἄγγελον πέμπει πάλιν ἐπὶ τὸ ἰσχῡρὸν χωρίον.
He sends the messenger back to the stronghold.

οὕτω δὴ (then) ἠτίμαζε (ῑ) τὸν ἀδελφὸν Ἀρταξέρξης. ἡ δὲ μήτηρ (mother)


λύει (ῡ) Κῦρον καὶ ἀποπέμπει πάλιν ἐπὶ τὴν ἀρχήν. Κῦρος δὲ ἐπεὶ ἦκεν
εἰς τὴν Λῡδίᾱν, βουλεύει ὅπως βασιλεύσει (how he will become king)
ἀντὶ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ· πολέμιος γὰρ αὐτῷ ἦν. οἱ δὲ ἐν τῇ ἀρχῇ βάρβαροι Κῦρῳ
φίλιοι καὶ πιστοὶ ἦσαν.

So thus Artaxerxes dishonored his brother. But their mother releases Cyrus
and sends him back to his province. When Cyrus had come to Lydia, he plans
how he will become king instead of his brother, for he was hostile toward him.
But the barbarians in his province were friendly and faithful to Cyrus.
Lesson 16

Inflection

(none)
Review the secondary tenses.

Vocabulary

ἄλλος, ἄλλη, ἄλλο another; (+art) the other, the rest of


δασμός, οῦ, ὁ tax, tribute
ἱκανός, ή, όν (adj) sufficient, able, capable
λοχᾱγός, οῦ, ὁ captain (lochagus)
οὖν (conj, post) therefore, then, so
σπονδή, ῆς, ἡ libation
σπονδαί, ῶν, αἱ truce
συμπέμπω (v) send with (συν + πέμπω)
τοξεύω, τοξεύσω, ἐτόξευσα, ἐτόξευκα (v) use one's bow, shoot
φρούραρχος, ου, ὁ commander of a garrison (phrurarchus)
ὧδε thus, as follows

Exercises

τὸν φρούραρχον ἐπεπαίκεσαν.


They had struck the captain of the garrison.
Κῦρος οὖν τῷ ἀδελφῷ κακὸν ἐβούλευεν.
Therefore Cyrus was planning evil against his brother.
οἱ νεᾱνίαι τόξα μακρὰ ἤχεσαν καὶ σφενδόνᾱς ἀγαθάς (ᾱ).
The young men had good slings and long bows.
καὶ ὁ στρατηγὸς ἐστράτευσεν ἐπὶ τὴν τοῦ σατράπου χώρᾱν.
And the general made an expedition against the satrap's country.
συνεπέμπομεν τῷ στρατηγῷ ἄλλους στρατιώτᾱς ἀγαθούς.
Were sent other good soldiers with the general.
ἐπεὶ ἔλῡσαν τὰς (ᾱ) σπονδάς (ᾱ), τὰς (ᾱ) κώμᾱς διαρπάσομεν.
Since the broke the treaty, we will sack the village.
οἱ δὲ βάρβαροι ἐτόξευσαν ἀπὸ τῶν ἵππων.
But the barbarians hunted from horseback.
τὸν λοχᾱγὸν ὧδε ἦγον πρὸς τὸν Κλέαρχον.
Thus he led the captain to Clearchus.
ὁ γὰρ Ἀρταξέρξς ἐκεκελεύκει τὸν σατράπην δασμοὺς πέμπειν.
For Artaxerxes had commanded the satrap to send a tribute.
στρατιώτᾱς ἐν τῷ ἰσχῡρῷ χωρίῳ εἴχετε ἱκανοὺς τὰς (ᾱ) κώμᾱς διαρπάζειν.
You had soldiers in the stronghold capable of completely sacking the village.

I had collected hoplites and bowmen as follows.


ἤθροικα ὁπλίτᾱς (ῑ) καὶ τοξότᾱς ὧδε.
They planned evil for the others.
ἐβούλευσαν κακὸν τοῖς ἄλλοις.
The hoplites with Cyrus were plundering the wagons.
οἱ ὁπλίται (ῑ) σὺν Κύρῳ (ῡ) ἥρπαζον τὰς (ᾱ) ἁμάξᾱς.
Both generals and captains had sacrificed.
καὶ στρατηγοὶ καὶ λοχᾱγοὶ ἐτεθύκεσαν.
He bade the satrap send gifts.
ἐκέλευσε τὸν σατράπην πέμπειν δῶρα.
τὴν δὲ στραιὰν (ᾱ) τὴν Ἑλληνικὴν ὧδε ἤθροιζε· τοὺς τῶν φυλακῶν
φρουράρχους κελεύει ἀθροίζειν στρατιώτᾱς Πελοποννησίους· ἐνόμιζε
(he thought) γὰρ, ὡς (as) ἔλεγε (he was saying), Τισσαφέρνην ἐπιβουλεύειν
(was plotting) τῇ ἀρχῇ. καὶ ἡ μὲν ἄλλη Ἰωνίᾱ τότε τῷ Κύρῳ (ῡ) φιλίᾱ
καὶ πιστὴ ἦν, Μίλητος (ῑ) δὲ πολεμίᾱ. Κῦρος οὖν τὴν Μίλητον (ῑ)
πολιορκεῖ (πολιοκέω = beseige) καὶ κατὰ (by) γῆν (land) καὶ κατὰ
θάλατταν.

So he gathered his army of Greeks in this manner: He commanded the


garrison captains to gather Peloponesian soldiers, for, as he explained,
he thought that Tissaphernes was plotting against their province. And while
the other Ionians were at that time friendly and faithful to Cyrus, Miletus
was yet hostile. So Cyrus laid seige to Miletus by land and sea.
Lesson 17

Inflection ὅδε this


οὔτως thus
(none) ὧδε as follows
αὐτός, οὗτος and ἐκεῖνος are declined like vowel declension adjectives. ὥστε so, so that, such that
ὅδε is declined like the definite article plus the enclitic suffix δε.

Vocabulary

Ἀρίστιππος, ου, ὁ Aristippus


αὐτός, αὐτή, αὐτό self, same, him, her, it
ἐκεῖνος, η, ο that
ἐπιβουλή, ῆς, ἡ plot, scheme, design
Θετταλός, οῦ, ὁ Thessalian
λέγω, λέξω, ἔλεξα, λέλεχα (?) (v) say, speak, tell, state, report
μετά (prep +gen) with, in company with
μετά (prep +acc) behind, after
ξένος, ου, ὁ stranger, guest friend, guest, host
ὅδε, ἥδε, τόδε this (not yet mentioned)
οὗτος, αὕτη, τοῦτο this (already mentioned)
τέ (conj, post, encl) and, both

Exercises

αὖται αἱ οἰκίαι θύρᾱς ἔχουσι.


The houses themselves have doors.
οὗτοι οἱ στρατιῶται ἔπαιον τὸν ξένον.
Those soldiers were beating the stranger.
Ἀρίστιππος δὲ ὁ Θετταλὸς ξένος ἦν αὐτῷ.
But Aristippus the Thessalian was a stranger to him.
μετὰ δὲ τοῦτον Κλέαρχος αὐτὸς ἔλεξε τάδε.
But after this (just mentioned) Clearchus himself said this (as follows).
καὶ ἤθροιζον τοὺς πελταστὰς (ᾱ) οὕτως οὗτοι.
And thus these were plundering the peltasts.
τὰ αὐτὰ ταῦτα βουλεύουσι.
They plan these same things.
καὶ κελεύει αὐτοὺς λέγειν ταῦτα.
And he commands them to say this.
αὕτη ἡ ἐπιβουλὴ οὐκ ἦν φανερά (ᾱ).
This plan was not evident.
οὗτος δὲ ὁ αὐτὸς κελεύει ἐκείνους ἁρπάζειν τὴν χώρᾱν.
But this same man commands them to plunder the country.
ταῦτα ἔλεξε Κλέαρχος· οἱ δὲ στρατιῶται, οἵ τε αὐτοῦ ἐκείνου καὶ οἱ ἄλλοι, ἐκέλευον αὐτὸν ἄγειν τὴν στρατιάν (ᾱ
Clearchus said this; but the soldiers, both his own and the others, bade him lead the army.
{This said Clearchus; but the soldiers, which both of him that and the others, bade him to lead the army.}

These soldiers were friendly.


οὗτοι οἱ στρατιῶται φίλιοι ἦσαν.
Cyrus sent these soldiers their pay.
Κῦρος ἐπέμπε τούτοις τοῖς στρατιώταις τὸν μισθὸν αὐτῶν.
But the general spoke to them as follows.
ὁ δὲ στρατηγὸς ἔλεξεν αὐτοῖς ὧδε.
They conduct him to the same general.
ἄγουσι αὐτὸν τῷ αὐτῷ στρατηγῷ.

οὕτως οὖν ἐπὶ Μίλητον (ῑ) τὴν στρατιὰν (ᾱ) ἤθροιζεν ὁ Κῦρος.
πρὸς δὲ τὸν ἀδελφὸν ἀγγέλους ἔπεμψε καὶ ἔλεξε τάδε· "ἐπιθῡμῶ
(ἐπιθῡμέω = I desire), ὦ Ἀρταξέρξη, καὶ τῆς Ἰωνίᾱς σατραπεύειν,
Τισσαφέρνην δ' ἐκ τῆς χώρᾱς ἐκβάλλειν." καὶ ἡ μήτηρ συμπράττει (ᾱ)
(συμπράττω (ᾱ) = cooperates with to accomplish) αὐτῷ ταῦτα.
ὥστε οὐχ ὑποπτεύει ὁ Ἀρταξέρξης τὴν τοῦ Κύρου (ῡ) ἐπιβουλήν·
ἀπέπεμπε γὰρ αὐτῷ τοὺς δασμοὺς ἐκεῖνος.

Thus Cyrus then gathered the army against Miletus. And he sent a
messenger to his brother, and said this: "I desire, O Artaxerxes, to
be made satrap also over the Ionians, and to cast Tissaphernes out
of the country." And his mother cooperated with him to accomplish
this thing. So Artaxerxes did not suspect Cyrus' plot; for he sent the
the tributes to him.
as follows
so, so that, such that

λευον αὐτὸν ἄγειν τὴν στρατιάν (ᾱ).


him lead the army.
hers, bade him to lead the army.}
Lesson 18

Inflection

εἰμί I am
εἶ you are
ἐστί he is
ἐστόν ye two are
ἐστόν they two are
ἐσμέν we are
ἐστέ ye are
εἰσί they are
ἦ, ἦν I was
ἦσθα you were
ἦν he was
ἦστον, ἦτον ye two were
ἦστην, ἦτην they two were
ἦμεν we were
ἦστε, ἦτε ye were
ἦσαν they were
ἔστι it is possible

Accenting the enclitic εἰμί

Accent on the penult:

ἔστι Κύρῳ at the beginning of a sentence


ἔστι διαβαίνειν when signifying possibility
οὐκ ἔστιν following certain words…
τοῦτο ἔστιν " "
εἰ ἔστιν " "
ὡς ἔστιν " "
καί ἔστιν " "

Accent on the ultima:

φίλος ἐστίν preceded by an acute on the penult of a disyllabic word


ταῦτ' ἐστίν preceded by elision

No accent:

Κῦρός ἐστιν circumflex on the penult


ἄνθρωπός ἐστιν acute on the antepenult
ἀνθρώπῳ ἐστιν acute on the penult
κακός ἐστιν acute on the ultima
στρατηγοῦ ἐστιν circumflex on the ultima
τίς ἐστιν preceded by a proclitic

Vocabulary

βασίλειος, ον (adj) royal


βασίλεια, ων, τά palace
εἰμί, ἔσομαι (fut), ἦν (imp) (v) to be
ἐνταῦθα (adv) there, here, in this place
ἤ (conj) than
Μαίανδρος, ου, ὁ Maeander
μᾶλλον (adv) more, rather
μύριοι (ῡ), αι, α ten thousand
παράδεισος, ου, ὁ park (paradise)
πάροδος, ου, ἡ way by, way along, passage, pass (parade)
πηγή, ῆς, ἡ fountain, head, spring, source

Exercises

εἶ ἐπὶ τῷ ἀδελφῷ.
You are in the poer of your brother.
οὐκ ἄξιόν ἐστι τὰς (ᾱ) σπονδὰς (ᾱ) λύειν (ῡ).
It is not right to break the treaty.
ἐνταῦθα γάρ ἐστιν ἡ πάροδος στενή.
For the narrow passage is at that place.
Κύρῳ (ῡ) μᾶλλον φίλοι ἐστὲ ἣ τῷ ἀδελφῷ.
You are more friends to Cyrus than to his brother.
ἦμεν ἐν τῷ παραδείσῳ.
We were in the garden.
Κλεάρχῳ δὲ μύριοι (ῡ) δᾱρεικοί εἰσι.
But Clearchus has ten thousand darics.
ξένοι ἐσμέν, ὦ Κῦρε, τῷ σατράπῃ.
We are strangers to the satrap, O Cyrus.
αἱ δὲ πηγαὶ τοῦ Μαιάνδρου ποταμοῦ εἰσιν ἐκ τῶν βασιλείων.
But the source of the river Maeander is from the palace.
Κύρῳ (ῡ) ἐστέ, ὦ στρατιώται, καὶ φίλοι καὶ σύμμαχοι.
Cyrus is both a friend and an ally, O soldiers.
ἔστι δὲ Κύρῳ (ῡ) καὶ βασίλεια καὶ χωρίον ἰσχῡρὸν ἐπὶ ταῖς τοῦ ποταμοῦ πηγαῖς.
But of Cyrus both palace and stronghold are upon the source of the river.
But both the palace and the stronghold of Cyrus are upon…

This country is hostile to Artaxerxes.


αὕτη ἡ χώρᾱ πολεμίᾱ ἐστι τῷ Ἀρταξέρξῃ.
The soldiers have arms and horses.
αἱ στρατιῶται ἔχουσι καὶ ὅπλα καὶ ἵππους.
These friends of Cyrus were soldiers.
οὗτοι οἱ φίλοι τοῦ Κύρου (ῡ) ἦσαν στρατιῶται.
For you are in a hostile land.
ἔστε γὰρ ἐν χώρᾳ πολεμίᾳ.
In this place there was a beautiful park.
ἐνταῦθα καλὸς παπάδεισος ἦν.

ἄλλους δὲ στρατιώτᾱς Κύρῳ (ῡ) ἤθροιζε Κλέαρχος ὁ Λακεδαιμόνιος


ἐν Χερρονήσῳ· τούτῳ γὰρ ὡς φίλῳ παρέσχε (παρέχω = provide)
μῡρίους δᾱρεικούς. Ἀρίστιππος δὲ ὁ Θετταλὸς ξένος ἦν αὐτῷ καὶ ἐν
Θετταλίᾳ στρατιὰν (ᾱ) ἤθροιζεν. ἐκέλευσε δὲ καὶ Πρόξενον καὶ Σοφαίνετον
μετὰ τῶν ἄλλων στρατηγῶν στρατεύειν· καὶ ἐποίουν (ποιέω) οὕτως οὗτοι.

But Clearchus the Lacedaemonian was gathering other soldiers for


Cyrus at Cherronesus, because for this man, as for a friend, he provided
ten thousand darics. And Aristippus, the Thessalian stranger, was also
gathering an army for him in Thessaly. And he also commanded both
Proxenus and Sophaenetus, along with other soldiers, to make an expedition,
and thus they did.
Lesson 19

Inflection

παύομαι
παύει
παύεται
παύεσθον
παύεσθον
παυόμεθα
παύεσθε
παύονται

παύσομαι
παύσει
παύσοται
παύσεσθον
παύσεσθον
παυσόμθα
παύσεσθε
παύσονται

ἐπαυόμην
ἐπαύου
ἐπαύετο
ἐπαύεσθον
ἐπαυέσθην
ἐπαυόμεθα
ἐπαύεσθε
ἐπαύοντο

Vocabulary

ἀγοράζω, ἀγοράσω, ἠγόρασα, ἠγόρακα frequent the market-place, buy


ἀλήθεια, ᾶς, ἡ truth
βαρβαρικός, ή, όν barbarian, barbaric
τὸ βαρβαικόν the Persian force of Cyrus
ἔτοιμος, η, ον ready, prepared
μεταπέμπομαι send for, summon
πείθω, πείσω, ἔπεισα, πέπεικα persuade
πείθομαι (v +dat) obey
πέρᾱν across, beyond
πιστεύω, πιστεύσω, ἐπίστευσα, πεπίστευκα? (v + dat) put faith in, trust
πορεύομαι, πορεύσομαι, πεπόρευμαι proceed
συμβουλεύω plan with, advise
συμβουλευομαι consult with
συστρατεύομαι serve in war with, take to the field with

Exercises

συστρατεύσεται σὺν Κύρω (ῡ)· πιστεύει γὰρ αὐτῷ.


He will serve in war with Cyrus, because he trusts him.
οὐκ ἐπείθου τοῖς θεοῖς.
You did not obey the gods.
τῇ δ' ἀληθείᾳ ἐπορεύοντο ἐπὶ τὸν ποταμόν;
But in truth, did they proceed to the river?
Ἀρταξέρξης τὴν στρατιὰν (ᾱ) ἄξεται.
Artaxerxes will lead his own army.
τοὺς στρατιώτᾱς ἔτοιμοί ἐσμεν λύεσθαι (ῡ).
We are prepared to ransom the soldiers.
Κῦρος δὲ μεταπέμπεται τὸ βαρβαρικόν.
But Cyrus summons the barbarians.
But Cyrus summons the Persians that he commands.
διὰ τοῦ πεδίου ἐπορευόμεθα εἰς κώμᾱς.
We were proceeding through the plain into the village.
Κῦρος δὲ τοῖς στρατηγοῖς καὶ τοῖς λοχᾱγοῖς συμβουλεύεται.
But Cyrus consults with the generals and the captains.
πέρᾱν δὲ τοῦ Εὐφράτου (ᾱ) ἦν κώμη· ἐκ ταύτης οἱ στρατιῶται ἠγοράζοντο τὰ ἐπιτήδεια.
But the village was beyond the Euphrates; because of this the soldiers were buying provisions.

And he was proceeding on the wagon.


καὶ ἐπορεύετο ἐπὶ τῆς ἁμάξης.
The bowmen send for their bows.
οἱ τοξόται μεταπέμπονται τοῖς τόξοις.
He did not obey his brother.
οὐκ ἐπείθετο τὸν ἀδελφόν.
You did not proceed to Cyrus.
οὐκ ἐπορεύεσθε τῷ Κύρῳ (ῡ).
The targeteers will purchase provisions for themselves.
οἱ πελτασταὶ αγοράσονται τὰ ἐπιτήδεια.

ἐπεὶ δ' ἔτοιμος ἦν Κῦρος πορεύεσθαι ἄνω (up country),


λέγει μὲν ὅτι στρατεύεται ἐπὶ Πῑσίδᾱς· τῇ δ' ἀληείᾳ ἐπὶ
τὸ ἀδελφὸν ἐπορεύετο. καὶ ἀθροίζει ὡς ἐπὶ τούτους τό τε
βαρβαρικὸν καὶ τὸ Ἑλληνικόν. ἐνταῦθα καὶ κελεύει τὸν
τε Κλέαρχον ἥκειν καὶ τὸν Ἀρίστιππον ἀποπέμπειν εἰς
Λῡδίᾱν τοὺς ἐν Θερραλίᾳ στρατιώτᾱς. ἐκέλευσε δὲ καὶ
τοὺς ἄλλους ξένους συστρατεύεσθαι. οἱ δὲ ἐπείθοντο·
ἐπίστευον γὰρ αὐτῷ.

When Cyrus was ready to proceed up country, he claimed that


he was preparing an expedition against the Pisidians (but he was
actually adavancing against his own brother), so he mustered both
the barbarians and the Greeks as if against them. And he bade
Clearchus come there, and ordered Aristippus to send the troops
that were in Thessaly into Lydia. The other foreigners he asked
to serve with him in battle, and they obeyed, because they trusted
him.
ere buying provisions.
Lesson 20

Inflection 1st Aorist Middle, Perfect Middle, Pluperfect Middle, Future Perfect Middle

Middle Personal Endings:

Prim Sec

1 -μαι -μην
2 -ει (-σαι) -σο (-ου)
3 -ται -το

2 -σθον -σθον
3 -σθον -σθην

1 -μεθα -μεθα
2 -σθε -σθε
3 -νται -ντο

First Aorist Middle Indicative

1 ἐλῡσάμην To form the First Aorist Middle, -σαμην


2 ἐλύσω (ῡ) insert -σα between the stem and -σω (σαου)
3 ἐλύσατο (ῡ) the sec. personal ending. -σατο

2 ἐλύσασθον (ῡ) -σασθον


3 ἐλῡσάσθην -σασθην

1 ἐλῡσάμεθα -σαμεθα
2 ἐλύσασθε (ῡ) -σασθε
3 ἐλύσαντο (ῡ) -σαντο

First Perfect Middle Indicative

1 λέλυμαι To form the First Perfect Middle, -μαι


2 λέλυσαι add the primary endings directly -σαι
3 λέλυται to the stem, without the thematic -ται
vowel.
2 λέλυσθον -σθον
3 λέλυσθον -σθον

1 λελύμεθα -μεθα
2 λέλυσθε -σθε
3 λέλυνται -νται

First Pluperfect Middle Indicative

1 ἐλελύμην To form the First Pluperfect -μην


2 ἐλέλυσο Middle, add the secondary -σο
3 ἐλέλυτο endings directly to the stem, -το
without the thematic vowel.
2 ἐλέλυσθον -σθον
3 ἐλελύσθην -σθην
1 ἐλελύμεθα -μεθα
2 ἐλέλυσθε -σθε
3 ἐλέλυντο -νται

Future Perfect Middle Indicative

1 λελύσομαι (ῡ) To form the Future Perfect -σομαι


2 λελύσει (ῡ) Middle, insert -σ before the -σει
3 λελύσεται (ῡ) thematic vowel and the prim. -σεται
endings.
2 λελύσεσθον (ῡ) -σεσθον
3 λελύσεσθον (ῡ) -σεσθον

1 λελῡσόμεθα -σομεθα
2 λελύσεσθε (ῡ) -σεσθε
3 λελύσονται (ῡ) -σονται

Vocabulary

ἄκρος, ᾱ, ον topmost
ἀποπέμπω send away
ἡδέως gladly
ὀλίγος, η, ον little, small; pl. few
ὅλος, η, ον whole, entire
παρά (+gen) from
παρά (+dat) beside, with, at
παρά (+acc) to
παρακευή, ῆς, ἡ preparation, equipment
πάρειμι be beside, be present
παύω, παύσω, ἔπαυσα, πέπαυκα, πέπαυμαι stop (transitive)
πέντε five
σταθμός, οῦ, ὁ stopping-place, stage, day's march
Φρυγίᾱ, ᾱς, ἡ Phrygia

Exercises

1. πεπόρευται παρὰ τὸν Κῦρον.


He has proceeded to the side of Cyrus.
2. οὗτος τοῦ πρὸς τοὺς βαρβάρους πολέμου ἡδέως πεπαύσεται.
This man will have quickly ceased from war against the barbaians.
3. τὸν τε στρατηγὸν καὶ τὸν σατράπην ἀπεπέμψατο.
He himself sent away both the general and the satrap.
4. οἱ δὲ στρατιῶται ἐπεπόρευντο σταθμοὺς πέντε διὰ φιλίᾱς χώρᾱς;
But did the soldiers proceed five days' march through a friendly country?
5. ὀλίγοι τῶν στρατιωτῶν τὰ ἐπιτήδεια ἠγοράσαντο.
Few of the soldiers bought provisions for themselves.
6. οἱ ὁπλῖται πεπόρευται ἐπὶ τὸ ἄκρον.
The hoplites have proceeded up to the summit.
7. καὶ ὁ σατράπης μετεπέμψατο ἵππους καὶ ὅπλα καὶ τὴν ἄλλην παρασκευὴν εἰς Φρυγίᾱν.
And the satrap himself sent horses, arms and the other equipment into Phrygia.
8. οἱ πολέμιοι οὐκ ἐπαύσαντο τῆς κραυγῆς διὰ ὅλης τῆς ἡμέρᾱς.
The enemy themselves did not stop the shouts through the entire day.
9. ἐπεὶ δὲ καὶ οὗτοι παρῆσαν, ἐστρατεύσατο Κῦρος εἰς τὴν τῶν πολεμίων χώρᾱν.
But when these men were also present, Cyrus himself made an expedition into the country of the enemy.

1. Cyrus summoned few of the captains.


ὁ Κῦρος μετεπέμψατο ὀλίγους τῶν λοχᾱγῶν.
2. They have proceeded to the sources of the river.
πεπόρευνται παρὰ τὰς (ᾱ) πηγὰς (ᾱ) τοῦ ποταμοῦ.
3. He has consulted with Cyrus.
συμβουλεύεται σὺν Κῦρος.
4. You will gladly have ceased from battle.
ἐπεπαύσει ἡδέως τῆς μάχης.
5. The army had advanced fine days' march.
ἡ στρατιὰ ἐστρατεύσατο πέντε σταθμούς.

οὗτοι μὲν παρῆσαν αὐτῷ εἰς Σάρδεις. Τισσαφέρνες


δὲ ἐπορεύετο παρὰ τὸν Ἀρταξέρξην· οὐ γὰρ ἐνόμιζε
τὴν παρασκευὴν εἶναι ἐπὶ Πῑσίδιᾱς. καὶ Ἀρταξέρξης,
ἐπεὶ ταῦτ' ἔλεξε Τισσαφέρνης, ἀντιπαρσκευάζεται.
Κῦρος δὲ ἔχων τούτους τοὺς στρατιώτᾱς ἐξελαύνει
ἀπὸ Σάρδεων διὰ τῆς Λῡδίᾱς σταθμοὺς τρεῖς ἐπὶ τὸν
Μαίανδρον ποταμόν. ἐπὶ δὲ τούτῳ γέφῡρα ἐπῆν. ἐν-
τεῦθεν ἐξελαύνει διὰ Φρυγίᾱς εἰς Κολοσσάς.

{…The other foreigners he asked to serve with him…}

These were present with him at Sardis. But Tissa-


phernes sided with Artaxerxes, for he did not be-
leive that these preparations were intended for Pi-
sidia. And Artaxerxes, when Tissaphernes told
these things, made preparations in return. But Cy-
rus, having these soldiers, marched from Sardis
through Lydia three days along the Maeander
river, and arrived at the bridge. From there he mar-
ched through Phrygia into Colosse.
-σω (σαου)
ge, day's march
n into the country of the enemy.
Lesson 21

Inflection First Aorist and Future Passive (770)

First Aorist Passive: -θη added to the stem, followed by the active secondary endings.

-θη -ν -θην ἐλύθην


-θη -ς -θης ἐλύθης
-θη - -θη ἐλύθη
-θη -τον -θητον ἐλύθητον
-θη -την -θητην ἐλυθήτην
-θη -μεν -θημεν ἐλύθημεν
-θη -τε -θητε ἐλύθητε
-θη -σαν -θησαν ἐλύθησαν

First Future Passive: -θη added to the stem, followed by -σ, the thematic vowel, and the middle primary endings.

-θη -σ -ο -μαι -θησομαι λυθήσομαι


-θη -σ -ε -ι -θησει λυθήσει
-θη -σ -ε -ται -θησεται λυθήσεται
-θη -σ -ε -σθον -θησεσθον λυθήσεσθον
-θη -σ -ε -σθον -θησεσθον λυθήσεσθον
-θη -σ -ο -μεθα -θησομεθα λυθησόμεθα
-θη -σ -ε -σθε -θησεσθε λυθήσεσθε
-θη -σ -ο -νται -θησονται λυθήσονται

Principle Parts:

Present Active, Future Active, Aorist Active, Perfect Active, Perfect Middle, Aorist Passive

Vocabulary

γράφω, γράψω, ἔγραψα, γέγραφα, γέγραμμαι, ἐγράφην write


δή indeed
εἴκοσι twenty
ἐντεῦθεν from there
ἑπτά seven
ἤκω, ἤξω come, have come
παρασάγγης parasang
πιέζω, πιέσω, ἐπίεσα, ---, ---, ἐπιέσθην press hard, be hard pressed
ὑπό (+gen) under, from under; by, through
ὑπό (+dat) under, beneath
ὑπό (+acc) under, down under

Exercises

1. λυθησόμεθα ἐκ τούτων τῶν δεινῶν.


We were rescued from this terrible situation.
2. ἐν δὲ τῇ στενῇ ὁδῷ ἐπιέσθημεν ὑπὸ τῶν πολεμίων.
On the narrow road we were hard pressed by the enemy.
3. λέγεται ἄγγελος ἤκειν παρὰ Δᾱρείου.
The messenger says that he has come from Darius.
4. οὕτω δὴ μετεπέμφθησαν οἱ τοξόται.
Indeed, the toxotes were sent by this (man).
5. ἐδιώκοντο διὰ τοῦ πεδίου παρασάγγᾱς ἑπτά.
They were chased seven parasangs through the plain.
6. ἐπιστολὴ ἐγράφη παρὰ τὸν Κλέαρχον.
He wrote a letter to Clearchus.
7. ἐκ τῶν κωμῶν διηρπάσθη ὑπὸ τῶν βαρβάρων τὰ ὅπλα.
The arms were stolen from the village by the barbarians.
8. ἐπὶ τῷ δεξιῷ ἐτοξεύθησαν ὁπλῖται εἴκοσιν.
On the right flank twenty hoplites were shot.
9. ἐντεῦθεν πεμφθήσονται ὑπὸ Κύρου (ῡ) εἰς Φρυγίᾱν.
From there he was sent by Cyrus into Phrygia.

1. Twenty hoplites were brought from this place.


ἐτεῦθεν εἴκοσι ὁπλίτᾱς (ῑ) ἤχθησαν.
2. The brigde will be destroyed.
λύσεται ἡ γέφῡρα.
3. He was persuaded by the general.
ἐπείσθη ὑπὸ τοῦ στρατηγοῦ.
4. Five targateers on the right were shot.
πέντε πελταστὰς (ᾱ) ἐπὶ τῷ δεξιῷ ἐτοξεύθησαν.
5. They will be hard pressed by the soldiers.
πιέσονται ὑπὸ τῶν στρατιωτῶν.

ἐνταῦθα Κῦρος μένει ἡμέρᾱς ἑπτά· καὶ ἦκε Μένων


ὁ Θετταλὸς ὁπλίτᾱς (ῑ) ἔχων καὶ πελταστάς (ᾱ).
ἐντεῦθεν ἐξελαύνει παρασάγγᾱς εἴκοσιν εἰς Κε -
λαινάς (ᾱ). ἐταῦθα Κύρῳ (ῡ) βασίλεια ἦν καὶ πα -
ράδεισος. ἐν δὲ τούτῳ ἦν ἄγρια θηρία· ταῦτα ἐ -
κεῖνος ἐθήρευεν ἀπὸ ἵππου. οὕτω γὰρ ἐγύμναζε
τοὺς ἵππους. διὰ δὲ τοῦ παραδείσου ῥεῖ ὁ Μαί -
ανδρος ποταμός· αἱ δὲ πηγαὶ αὐτοῦ εἰσιν ἐκ τῶν
βασιλείων· ῥεῖ δὲ καὶ διὰ Κελαινῶν.

At that place Cyrus halted seven days. And Menon the


Thessalian arrived, having hoplites and peltasts. From
there he marched twenty parasangs into Celaenas. At
that place Cyrus had a palace and a garden. And in this
garden were wild beasts; these the men hunted from
horseback. And the Maeander river flows through the
garden, with its headwaters from under the palaces;
and it also flows through Celaenas.

{...From there he marched through Phrygia into Colosse…}

There Cyrus halted for seven days, and Menon arrived


with hoplites and peltasts. From there they marched twenty
parasangs into Celaenas, where Cyrus had a palace and an
estate. There were wild animals on the estate, and the men
hunted them from horseback. The Maeander has its headwaters
from beneath the palaces and flows through the estate
and through Celaenas.
middle primary endings.
Lesson 22

Inflection Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect Indicative Middle/Passive of Labial Mute Verbs

Labials
Perfect -π -μαι = -μμαι
Pluperfect -π -μην = -μμην
Future Perfect -π -σομαι = -ψομαι

Vocabulary

ἅμα at the same time


ἀριθμός, οῦ, ὁ number
δένδρον, ου, τό tree
κατά (+gen) down from
κατά (+acc) down along, over, by
καταλείπω abandon
κατακόπτω cut down
κόπτω, κόψω, ἔκοψα, κέκοφα, κέκομμαι, ἐκόπην cut
λείπω, λείψω, ἔλιπον, λέλοιπα, λέλειμμαι, ἐλείφθην leave
Πρόξενος, ου, ὁ Proxenus
τριάκοντα (ᾱ) thirty
χίλιοι (ῑ), αι, α one thousand

Exercises

1. καταλελειμμένοι εἰσὶ τριάκοντα (ᾱ) τοξόται;


Have the thirty toxotes been abandoned?
2. ἅμα δὲ ἐπέπεμψο, ὦ Πρόξενε, ἐπὶ τὴν γέφῡραν.
But by that time you had been sent to the bridge, O Proxenus.
3. κατακέκοπται τοῖς πολεμίοις ἡ στρατιά (ᾱ).
The army had been cut down by the enemy.
4. ὁπλῖται χίλιοι (ῑ) πεπεμμένοι ἦσαν κατὰ θάλατταν.
One thousand hoplites had been sent down along the sea.
5. ὀλίγοι τῶν Κύρου (ῡ) φίλων καταλελειμμένοι ἦσαν.
Few of the friends of Cyrus had been left behind.
6. λελειμμένοι ἦσαν οἱ στρατιῶται.
The soldiers had been left.
7. ἐκ ταύτης τῆς κώμης ἄγγελος ἐπέπεμτο πρὸς Κῦρον.
A messenger had been sent to Cyrus from this village.
8. τὰ δένδρα κέκοπται.
The tree has been cut down.
9. Κῦρος ἀποπέπεμπται τὸν ἄγγελον.
Cyrus has sent the messenger away.
10. τοὺς ὁπλίτᾱς (ῑ) μεταπεπέμμεθα ἐκ τῆς Φρυγίᾱς.
We have summoned the hoplites from Phrygia.

1. The army had been cut to pieces by the satrap.


ἡ στρατιὰ (ᾱ) κατεκέκοπται τῷ σατράπῃ.
2. Twenty bowmen have been left behind in the plain.
ἔκοσι τοξόται καταλελείμμενοι εἶσιν ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ.
3. A letter had been written at the same time.
ἅμα ἐπιστολὴ ἐγέγραπτο.
4. A messenger has been sent away to the satrap.
ἄγγελος ἀποπέπεμπται παρὰ τὸν σατράπην.
5. For a thousand soldiers had been sent to the stronghold.
χίλιοι (ῑ) γὰρ στρατιῶται ἐπεπεμμενοι ἦσαν παρὰ χωρίον ἰσχύρον (ῡ).

ἔστι δὲ καὶ Ἀρταξέρξου βασίλεια ἐν Κελαιναῖς ἐρυμνὰ ἐπὶ ταῖς


πηγαῖς τοῦ Μαρσύου ποταμοῦ· ῥεῖ δὲ καὶ οὗτος διὰ Κελαινῶν.
ἐνταῦθα μένει Κῦρος ἡμέρᾱς τριάκοντα (ᾱ)· καὶ ἦκε Κλέαρ-
χος ἔχων ὁπλίτᾱς (ῑ) χῑλίους καὶ πελταστὰς (ᾱ) καὶ τοξότᾱς. ἅμα
δὲ καὶ Σοφαίνετος παρῆν ἔχων ὁπλίτᾱς (ῑ) χῑλίους. καὶ ἐνταῦθα
Κῦρος ἀριθμὸν τῶν Ἑλληνικῶν στρατιωτῶν ἐποίησεν ἐν τῷ πα -
ραδείσῳ καὶ ἦσαν ὁπλῖται μὲν μύριοι (ῡ) καὶ χίλιοι (ῑ), πελτασταὶ
δὲ δισχίλιοι (ῑ).

But the palace of Artaxerxes is also in Celaenae, built upon the headwaters
of the Marysus river, which flows through Celaenae.
There Cyrus remained for thirty days, and Clearchus arrived with a
thousand hoplites, peltasts and toxotes. At that same time Sophaenetus
was also there with a thousand hoplites. While they were there, Cyrus
numbered the Greek soldiers on the estate, and there were eleven
thousand hoplites and two thousand peltasts.
assive of Labial Mute Verbs

at the same time

down along, over, by

one thousand
Lesson 23

Inflection Perfect and Pluperfect Indicative Middle and Passive of Palatal and Lingual Mute Verbs

πεπειθμαι πεπεισμαι
πεπειθσαι πεπεισαι
πεπειθται πεπεισται
πεπειθσθον πεπεισθον
πεπειθσθον πεπεισθον
πεπειθμεθα πεπεισμεθα
πεπειθσθε πεπεισθε
πεπειθνται πεπεισμενοι εἰσί

επεπειθμην επεπεισμην
επεπειθσο επεπεισο
επεπειθτο επεπειστο
επεπειθσθον επεπεισθον
επεπειθσθην επεπεισθην
επεπειθμεθα επεπεισμεθα
επεπειθσθε επεπεισθε
επεπεισθντο επεπεισμενοι ἦσαν

ηγμαι ηγμαι
ηγσαι ηξαι
ηγται ηκται
ηγσθον ηχθον
ηγσθον ηχθον
ηγμεθα ηγμεθα
ηγσθε ηγθε
ηγνται ηγμενος εἰσί

ηγμην ηγμην
ηγσο ηξο
ηγτο ηκτο
ηγσθον ηχθον
ηγσθην ηχθην
ηγμεθα ηγμεθα
ηγσθε ηχθε
ηγντο ηγμενοι ἦσαν

Vocabulary

εὖ
εὐώνυμος, ον
μέσος, η, ον
παρασκενάζω, παρασκενάσω…
συντάττω
τάττω, τάξω, ἔταξα, τέταχα, τέταγμαι, ἐτάχθην
ὑποζύγιον, ου, τό
φυλάττω, φυλάξω, ἐφύλαξα, πεφύλαχα, πεφύλαγμαι, εφυλάχθην

Exercises
1. τοῦτον δὴ εὖ πεφυλάγμεθα.
Indeed we have guarded ourselves well against this.
2. ἦκται ἡ στρατιὰ (ᾱ) κατὰ τὸ τῶν πολεμίων μέσον.
He has lead the army against the center of the enemy.
3. οἱ δὲ πολέμιοι ἠθροισμένοι εἰσὶ καὶ συντεταγμένοι.
But the enemy have been gathered and marshalled.
4. Ἀρταξέρξης εἰς μάχην παρεσκεύαστο.
Artaxerxes had prepared himself for battle.
5. οὗτοι οἱ στρατιῶται εὖ τεταγμένοι εἰσίν.
These soldiers have been well ordered.
6. τῷ δὲ λοχᾱγῷ τούτῳ ἡδέως πέπεισμαι.
But this captain has quickly obeyed me.
7. ἐτέτακτο δὲ ἐπὶ τῷ εὐωνύμῳ οὗτος ὁ στρατηγός.
This general had been marshalled upon the left flank.
8. οἱ στρατηγοὶ ἠγμένοι ἦσαν εἰς τὴν Ἀρταξέρξου σκηνήν.
The generals had been lead to the tent of Artaxerxes.
9. καὶ τὰ ὅπλα τοῖς στρατιώταις ἐπὶ ἁμαξῶν ἦκτο καὶ ὑποζυγίων.
And he had brought the arms for the soldiers upon baggage animals and a wagon.
10. αἱ δὲ σκηναὶ πεφυλαγμέναι εἰσὶ τοῖς βαρβάροις.
But the barbarians have been guarding the tents.

1. The fellow has been lead into the presence of Clearchus.


οὗτος ἦκται παρὰ Κλεάρχον.
2. But we had obeyed Cyrus.
Κῦρος δὲ ἐπεπείσμεθα.
3. The men on the left flank had been posted at the bridge.
οἱ δὲ ἐπὶ εὐωνύμῳ συνετάγμενοι ἦσαν ἐπὶ τὴν γέφῡραν.
4. You have prepared yourselves against dreadful foes.
παρεσκενασαι ἐπὶ δείνους πολεμίους.
5. The horses and the beasts of burden had been led through a hostile country.
οἱ ἵπποι καὶ τὰ ὑποζύγια ἦμενοι ἦσαν διὰ πολεμίας χώρᾱς.

ἐντεῦθεν ἐξελαύνει εἰς Θύμβριον. ἐνταῦθα ἦν παρὰ


τὴν ὁδόν κρήνη· ἐπὶ δὲ ταύτῃ λέγεται Μίδᾱς τὸν Σάτυ -
ρον θηρεῦσαι. ἐντεῦθεν ἐξελαύνει εἰς Τυριαῖον, καὶ
ἐξετάζει ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ τὴν στρατιάν (ᾱ). ἐκέλευσε δὲ τοὺς
Ἑλληνικοὺς στρατιώτᾱς ταχθῆναι ὥσπερ εἰς μάχην.
ἐτάχθησαν οὖν ἐπὶ τεττάρων· εἶχε δὲ τὸ μὲν
δεξιὸν Μένων καὶ οἱ σὺν αὐτῷ, τὸ δὲ εὐώνυμον Κλέαρχος
και οἱ ἐκείνου, τὸ δὲ μέσον οἱ ἄλλοι στρατηγοί.

From there they marched into Thymbrium, where there was a spring
by the road where it is said that Midas had caught the Satyr. And from
there they marched into Tyriaeum, where he inspected the army upon
a plain. He commanded the Greek soldiers to be drawn up as if in
battle, and so they were thus arranged. He had Menon and those
with him on the right flank, Clearchus and his men on the left flank,
and the other soldiers in the middle.
atal and Lingual Mute Verbs

well
good name, good omen
middle, center
get ready, prepare
draw together, marshal
arrange, order
beast of burden, baggage animals
guard, mid. guard against
mals and a wagon.
Lesson 24

Inflection None

Vocabulary

ἀλλά but, yet


ἀμφί (+gen) about, concerning
ἀμφί (+acc) about, round
ἀνά up, up along, up to, at the rate of
ἄρχω, ἄρξω, ἦρξα, ἦργμαι, ἤρχθην be first, rule, reign over; mid. begin
αὖ again, in turn, moreover
εἶτα then, thereupon
εὐ θύ ς at once, immediately
περί (+gen) about, concerning
περί (+dat) round, about
περί (+acc) about, all around, round
πρό before
πρῶτος, η, ον first, foremost
ὑπέρ (+gen) over, above, in behalf of
ὑπέρ (+acc) over, above

Exercises

1. σύμμαχοι ἀγαθοί εἰσιν οἱ ἀμφὶ Κῦρον.


Good allies are around Cyrus.
2. οἱ δὲ ἄλλοι ἐθήρευον τὰ θηρία ἀπὸ ἵππων.
The others were hunting the beasts from horseback.
3. οἱ Κύρου (ῡ) φίλοι ἐστρατευμένοι εἰσὶν ὑπὲρ αὐτοῦ.
The friends of Cyrus have made an expedition on his behalf.
4. ταῦτα περὶ τῆς στρατιᾶς ἄγγελοι παρὰ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ ἔλεξαν Κύρῳ (ῡ) πρὸ τῆς μάχης.
Messengers related these things concerning the army to Cyrus before the battle.
5. μετὰ τοῦτο πορεύονται ἑπτὰ σταθμοὺς ἀνὰ πέντε παρασάγγᾱς τῆς ἡμέρᾱς παρὰ τὸν ποταμόν.
After this he proceeds seven days' march along the river at a rate of five parsangs a day.
6. Κῦρος οὐκ ἔστιν ἐπὶ τῷ ἀδελφῷ, ἀλλ' ἄξιός ἐστιν ἄρχειν ἀντ' ἐκείνου.
Cyrus is not against his brother, but he is worthy to rule in place of him.
7. ἐκεῖνος δὲ τῶν ὁπλῑτῶν ἦρχεν· οὗτοι δ' αὖ πρὸ αὐτοῦ Ἀρταξέρξου τεταγμένοι ἦσαν.
But that man ruled over the hoplites; and these in turn had been arranged before Artaxerxes.
8. Κῦρος ἐκέλευσε τὸν Κλέαρχον πρῶτον μὲν τάττειν τοὺς στρατιώτᾱς, εἶτα δὲ ἄγειν διὰ τοῦ πεδίου.
Cyrus called Clearchus first to arrange the soldiers, and then to lead them through the plain.
9. ὁ δὲ σατράπης πορεύεται εὐθὺς παρὰ τὸν Ἀρταξέρξην, καὶ στρατιώτᾱς ἔχει ἀμφὶ τοὺς τριᾱκοσίους.
But the satrap proceeds immediately to Artaxerxes, and he has about thirty soldiers.

1. The messengers will proceed from the market place to the tents.
οἱ ἄγγελοι πορεύσομαι ἀπὸ τῆς ἀγορᾶς εἰς τὰς σκηνάς.
2. Cyrus and his staff proceed immediatley to the palace.
Κῦρος καὶ οὗτοι περὶ αὐτὸν πορεύονται εὐθὺς παρὰ τὴν βασίλεια.
3. He had a stronghold above the village.
ἔσχε χωρίον ἰσχύρον (ῡ) ὑπὲρ τῆς κώμης.
4. Before the battle the generals sacrificed in their tents to the gods.
πρὸ τῆς μάχης οἱ στρατηγοὶ ἔθῡσαν ἐν ταῖς σκηναῖς τοῖς θεοῖς.

ἐξετάζει οὖν ὁ Κῦρος πρῶτον μὲν τοὺς βαρβάρους·


οἱ δὲ παρελαύνουσι τεταγμένοι κατὰ ἴλᾱς (ῑ)· εἶτα δὲ τοὺς
ἄλλους στρατιώτᾱς. μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα ἔπεμψεν ἄγγελον
παρὰ τοὺς στρατηγοὺς τοὺς Ἑλληνικοὺς καὶ ἐκέλευσε
πορεύεσθαι ὥσπερ εἰς μάχην· οἱ δὲ ταῦτα ἔλεξαν τοῖς
στρατιώταις· καὶ ἐπεὶ ἐσάλπιγξεν ὁ σαλπικτής, προβάλλονται
τὰ ὅπλα καὶ σὺν κραυγῇ τρέχουσιν ἐπὶ τὰς σκηνάς.
τοῦτο δὲ τοῖς βαρβάρους φόβον παρεῖχε.

Cyrus therefore inspected first the barbarians, and they drove forth arragned by companies,
followed by the other soldiers. After this he sent messengers to the Greek generals and ordered
them to proceed as if they were going into battle; and they related this to the soldiers. And when
the trumpeter sounded, they presented their arms and rushed upon the tents with a shout. And they
caused a panic among the barbarians.
πρὸ τῆς μάχης.
before the battle.
έρᾱς παρὰ τὸν ποταμόν.
te of five parsangs a day.

αγμένοι ἦσαν.
n arranged before Artaxerxes.
εἶτα δὲ ἄγειν διὰ τοῦ πεδίου.
o lead them through the plain.
ς ἔχει ἀμφὶ τοὺς τριᾱκοσίους.
about thirty soldiers.
d by companies,
nerals and ordered
e soldiers. And when
with a shout. And they
Lesson 25

Inflection

-ς κλωπς = κλωψ φυλακς


-ος κλωπος = κλωπος φυλακος
-ι κλωπι = κλωπι φυλακι
-ν κλωπν = κλωπα φυλακν

-ε κλωπε = κλωπε φυλακε


-οιν κλωποιν = κλωποιν φυλακοιν

-ες κλωπες = κλωπες φυλακες


-ων κλωπων = κλωπων φυλακων
-σι κλωπσι = κλωψι φυλακσι
-νς κλωπνς = κλωπας φυλακνς

Vocabulary

διῶρυξ, υχος, ἡ canal, ditch


εἰσβολή, ῆς, ἡ entrance, pass
ἔπειμι be on, be over
Θρᾷξ, Θρᾳκός, ὁ Thracian
θώρᾱξ, ᾱκος, ὁ breastplate
κῆρυξ, ῡκος, ὁ herald
Κίλιξ, ικος, ὁ Cilician
κλώψ, κλωπός, ὁ thief
φάλαγξ, αγγος, ἡ line of battle, phalanx
φύλαξ, ακος, ὁ watcher, guard

Exercises

1. Κλέαρχος εἶχεν ὁπλίτᾱς (ῑ) χῑλίους, καὶ πελταστὰς (ᾱ) Θρᾷκας.


Clearchus had one thousand hoplites and Thracian peltasts.
2. ἐκέλευσε πορεύεσθαι τὴν φάλαγγα.
He ordered the phalanx to proceed.
3. διὰ τοῦ θώρᾱκος ἐτοξεύθη ὑπὸ Κίλικος.
He was shot through the breastplate by a Cilician.
4. τότε δὲ ἅμα τῇ ἡμέρᾳ κήρῡκας ἔπεμψε περὶ σπονδῶν.
But at day break he sent heralds concerning the treaty.
5. ἐν δὲ τῇ εἰς τὸ πεδίον εἰσβολῇ τεταγμένοι εἰσὶ τῶν Κιλίκων φύλακες.
But the Cilician phalanxes have been ordered at the entrance to the plain.
6. ἀλλ' ἐν μέσῳ ἦμεν τοῦ ποταμοῦ καὶ τῆς διώρυχος.
But we were in between the river and the canal.
7. οἱ γὰρ τοξόται τοὺς κλῶπας ἐδίωξαν.
For the toxotes pursued the theives.
8. τὸ δὲ εὐώνυμον τῆς φάλαγγος αὐτῶν παρὰ τῷ ποταμῷ ἦν.
But the left flank of their phalanx was against the river.
9. τοῖς γὰρ Θρᾳξὶ πολέμιος ἦν.
For the Thracians were hostile.
10. ἐντεῦθεν ἐπορεύοντο ἐπὶ τὴν διώρυχα· γέφῡρα δ' ἐπῆσαν.
From there they marched along the canal and crossed a bridge.
1. This thief was dishonored.
οὖτος κλώψ ἠτῑμάσθη.
2. The Cilicians have horses.
οἱ Κίλικες ἔχουσιν ἵππους.
3. He sent Thracians as guards.
οἱ Θρᾷκες ἐπέμφησαν ὥσπερ φύλακες.
4. The heavy-armed men had breastplates.
οἱ ὁπλίται (ῑ) εἶχον θώρακας.
5. The canal is long and narrow, and upon it is a bridge.
διώρυξ ἑστὶ μακρὸς καὶ στενός, καὶ ἐπὶ αὐτῷ ἐστὶ γέφῡρα.

ἐκ δὲ Τυριαίου ἐξελαύνει πρὸς Δάνα. καὶ Λυκᾱονίᾱν


διήρπασαν οἱ στρατιῶται· πολεμίᾱ γὰρ αὐτῷ ἦν. ἐν
δὲ Δάνοις μένει ὁ Κῦρος ἡμέρᾱς τρεῖς, καὶ ἀποκτείνει
Μεγαφέρνην, φοινῑκιστὴν βασίλειον· ἐπεβούλευε γὰρ
αὐτῷ. ἐντεῦθεν εἰσέβαλλον εἰς τὴν Κιλικίᾱν· ἡ δὲ
εἰσβολὴ ἦν ὁδὸς ἁμαξιτός, ὀρθίᾱ καὶ στενή· ἐλέγετο δὲ
καὶ Συέννεσις ὁ Κίλιξ εἶναι ἐπὶ τῶν ἄκρων, φυλάττωn τὴν
εἰσβολήν. διὰ τοῦτο ἔμενον ἡμέρᾱν ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ.

So they marched forth from Tyriaenus to the city of Dana.


The soldiers sacked Lycaonia, because the country was hos-
tile toward them. Cyrus spent three days in Dana, where he
put Megaphernes, the royal Phoenicistes, to death for plotting
against him. From there they started into Cilicia. But while the
pass was crossable by wagon, the road was steep and narrow;
and it was rumored that Syennesis the Cilician was upon the
summit, guarding the pass. For this reason they waited one day
upon the plain.
= φυλαξ
= φυλακος
= φυλακι
= φυλακα

= φυλακε
= φυλακοιν

= φυλακες
= φυλακων
= φυλαξι
= φυλακας
Lesson 26 p. 74

Inflection

νυκτς νυξ ασπιδς ασπις ορνιθς


νυκτος νυκτος ασπιδος ασπιδος ορνιθος
νυκτι νυκτι ασπιδι ασπιδι ορνιθι
νυκτν νυκτα ασπιδν ασπιδα ορνιθν
νυκτε νυκτε ασπιδε ασπιδε ορνιθε
νυκτοιν νυκτοιν ασπιδοιν ασπιδοιν ορνιθοιν
νυκτες νυκτες ασπιδες ασπιδες ορνιθες
νυκτων νυκτων ασπιδων ασπιδων ορνιθων
νυκτσι νυξι ασπιδσι ασπισι ορνιθσι
νυκττνς νυκτας ασπιδντς ασπιδας ορνιθτνς

Vocabulary

ἅρμα, ατος, τό chariot


ἀσπίς, ίδος, ἡ shield
γέρων, οντος, ὁ old man
ἐλπίς, ίδος, ἡ hope
νίκη (ῑ), ης, ἡ victory
νύξ, νυκτός, ἡ night
ὄρνῑς, ῑθος, ὁ, ἡ bird
στόμα, ατος, τό mouth; van of an army
στράτευμα, ατος, τό army
χάρις, ιτος, ἡ grace, favor, gratitude
χάριν ἔχω be or feel grateful

Exercises

1. ἐν δὲ ταῖς σκηναῖς ἦσαν ἀσπίδες.


But there were sheilds in the tents.
2. ἔστι δὲ στράτευμα Περσικὸν ἐν τῷ παραδείσῳ.
But there was a Persian army in the garden.
3. τοῖς οὖν θεοῖς χάριν εἶχον τῆς νίκης (ῑ).
They feel grateful to the gods for the victory.
4. τὴν γέφῡραν ταύτην λέλυκεν ὁ σατράπης τῆς νίκης (ῑ). *τῆς νίκης = genitive of cause
The satrap has destroyed the bridge for the sake of victory.
5. τῷ δὲ γέροντι τούτῳ ἐκεῖνοι πολέμιοι ἦσαν.
That man was hostile to this old man.
6. ἐπορεύοντο δὲ εὐθὺς ἐπὶ τὸ τοῦ ποταμοῦ στόμα.
But they immediatelt proceeded to the mouth of the river.
7. σὺν τοῖς θεοῖς καλαὶ τῷ στρατεύματι ἐλπίδες εἰσὶ νίκης (ῑ).
With the gods there are hopes of victory for the army.
8. ἐν δὲ ταῖς οἰκίαις ἦσαν ὄρνῑθες.
But there were birds in the houses.
9. ἔχομεν καὶ ὅπλα καὶ ἅρματα καὶ ἱκανὰ τὰ ἐπιτήδεια.
We have arms, chariots, and capable equipment.

1. We feel grateful to the hold man.


χάριν ἔχομεν τῷ γέροντι.
2. At night they ceased from battle.
νυκτὶ ἔπαυσαν μάχης.
3. Cyrus had twenty chariots.
Κῦρος εἶχεν ἔκοισιν ἅρματα.
4. The bowmen shot birds and wild asses in the plain.
οἱ τοξόται ἐτόξευσαν ὄρῑνθας καὶ ἀγρίους ὄνους ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ.
5. The army was cut to pieces by these barbarians.
τὸ στράτευμα κατεκοψαν ὐπὸ
ορνις γεροντς γερων αρματ αρμα
ορνιθος γεροντος γεροντος αρματος αρματος
ορνιθι γεροντι γεροντι αρματι αρματι
ορνιν γεροντν γεροντα αρματ αρμα
ορνιθε γεροντε γεροντε αρματε αρματε
ορνιθοιν γεροντοιν γεροντοιν αρματοιν αρματοιν
ορνιθες γεροντες γεροντες αρματα αρματα
ορνιθων γεροντων γεροντων αρματων αρματων
ορνισι γεροντσι γερουσι αρματσι αρμασι
ορνιθας γερονττνς γεροντας αρματα αρματα

*τῆς νίκης = genitive of cause