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Year 10 Geography - Environmental Change and Management

Investigative Study - Coastal Environment - Management of the Environmental Change

Year 10 Geography -
Environmental Change and Management
Investigative Study - Coastal Environment -
Management of the Environmental Change

Source: Max Watson Geography, n.d.

Instructions for students:


1. Either make a copy of this Google Doc or download as a Microsoft Word
2. Write only in the green cells
3. Upload to the Canvas assignment by the due date

Any issues email me – paul.brown59@det.nsw.edu.au

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Year 10 Geography - Environmental Change and Management
Investigative Study - Coastal Environment - Management of the Environmental Change
Coastal Management Strategies
Physical management of the coast attempts to control natural processes such as erosion and longshore drift.
The strategies can be classified as either:
● Hard engineering involves building artificial structures which try to control natural processes. Each
engineering strategy has its advantages and disadvantages.
● Soft engineering does not involve building artificial structures, but takes a more sustainable and
natural approach to managing the coast.

Hard Engineering
1. Use the BBC Bitesize website to complete the table below on hard engineering strategies
https://www.bbc.com/bitesize/guides/z2234j6/revision/1

Definition Advantages Disadvantages Example

Sea Wall  Effective at  Waves are


protecting still powerful
the base of and can break
the cliff down and
 Sea walls erode the sea
usually have wall
promenades  Expensive –
so people can approximatel
walk along y $4000 per
them metre

Rock Armour  Cheaper than  They look


a sea wall and different to
easy to the local
maintain geology, as
 Can be used the rock has
for fishing been
imported
from other
areas
 The rocks are
expensive to
transport

Gabion  Cheap –  Not very


approximatel strong
y $200 per  Looks
metre unnatural
 Absorbs wave
energy

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Year 10 Geography - Environmental Change and Management
Investigative Study - Coastal Environment - Management of the Environmental Change
Groyne  Builds a  By trapping
beach – sediment it
which starves
encourages beaches
tourism further down
 They trap the coastline,
sediment increasing
being carried rates of
by longshore erosion
drift elsewhere
 They look
unattractive

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Year 10 Geography - Environmental Change and Management
Investigative Study - Coastal Environment - Management of the Environmental Change
Soft Engineering
2. Use the BBC Bitesize website to complete the table below on soft engineering strategies
https://www.bbc.com/bitesize/guides/z2234j6/revision/2

Definition Advantages Disadvantages Example

Beach nourishment  Blends in with  Needs to be


the existing constantly
beach replaced
 Larger  The sand has
beaches to be brought
appeal to in from
tourists elsewhere

Reprofiling  Cheap and  Only works


simple when wave
 Reduces the energy is low
energy of the  Needs to be
waves repeated
continuously

Dune nourishment  Relatively  Can be


cheap damaged by
 Maintains storm waves
and natural-  Areas have to
looking be zoned off
coastline from the
public, which
is unpopular

Pop Quiz - just bold the correct answer


1. What is hard engineering management? 5. What are wooden barriers built out to sea
a. Building artificial structures to control known as?
erosion a. Sea wall
b. A natural approach to control erosion b. Groynes
c. Using technology to monitor erosion c. Gabions
rates
6. Which management strategy redistributes sand
2. What is soft engineering management? on the beach?
a. Building artificial structures to control a. Beach nourishment
erosion b. Dune nourishment
b. A natural approach to control erosion c. Reprofiling
c. Using technology to monitor erosion
rates 7. What is a disadvantage of dune nourishment?
a. It is expensive
3. What is an advantage of beach nourishment? b. It only works when wave energy is low
a. It blends in with the natural beach c. It can be damaged by storm waves
b. It is simple to maintain
c. It can be used for fishing 8. Which hard engineering technique reflects wave
energy back to sea?
4. What is an advantage of rock armour? a. Sea wall
a. It looks natural b. Groynes
b. It is easy to maintain c. Gabions
c. It provides a walkway for people

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Year 10 Geography - Environmental Change and Management
Investigative Study - Coastal Environment - Management of the Environmental Change

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Year 10 Geography - Environmental Change and Management
Investigative Study - Coastal Environment - Management of the Environmental Change
Summary of Coastal Management Strategies

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Year 10 Geography - Environmental Change and Management
Investigative Study - Coastal Environment - Management of the Environmental Change
Figure 1 - Possible Management Solutions to Reduce the Impact of Erosion
Source: Bliss, Paine, McCartan, 2010

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Year 10 Geography - Environmental Change and Management
Investigative Study - Coastal Environment - Management of the Environmental Change
Literature on Coastal Management Strategies - Seawalls
3. Read the following literature for the coastal management strategies (seawalls and beach nourishment).
For all the advantages of the management strategy highlight the text in green. While for all the
disadvantages of the strategy highlight the text in red.

Building sea walls is a small bandaid on a gaping wound


Source: The Conversation, October 5, 2018
The Kingscliff seawall, in the Tweed Shire in northern they are special places.
New South Wales, is an engineering marvel. It is 300
metres long and 6 metres deep, with a projected cost Sometimes, adapting to climate change means allowing
of between A$3 million and A$5 million. Its depth places to change. Change can include retreating from
enables it to be covered in sand. When beach erosion some locations, well before disaster strikes. Climate
occurs, the wall’s large concrete steps should, in change impacts will render some environments
theory, allow the public to carry on using and enjoying unrecognisable to the people who live in them now.
the waterfront. The ultimate injustice would be for marginalised
communities to fund the protection of high-risk private
The main purpose of the wall is to protect a beachfront properties.
caravan park, the main street, and the beach itself,
from coastal erosion. Protecting private property
The problem for local councils is that the main options
But while the seawall is innovative, it symbolises a for coastal adaptation (defend, manage, or retreat) are
major problem with how we approach coastal erosion all likely to curtail individual property freedoms in
and rising sea levels. Councils around Australia must some way. A key challenge for coastal management
chose between long-term adaption to a changing and climate adaptation planning is the ongoing priority
coastline, or fighting an expensive rearguard battle to afforded to private property rights.
protect mainly private property.
During my PhD I explored how residents, local
My PhD research has found that some elected government staff and councillors in Port Stephens and
councillors are willing to override long-range climate Lake Macquarie approached climate change adaption.
change planning so as to protect voters’ private
property. I found that strategies are developed in negotiation
between local councils, property owners and local
The problem with just building walls communities, with reference to state policy. This
The construction of seawalls is usually controversial. A dynamic makes it easier for the advancement of
plethora of research has shown that community private property rights to become a default priority for
interests diverge on the question of whom these walls some local governments.
are protecting (and who should have to pay for them).
This is not because of council staff – quite the opposite.
Fundamentally, this can be categorised as a conflict of Overwhelmingly, council staff are working hard to
private versus public interests, especially where sea implement robust long-term planning to respond to
walls protect private property at the expense of public climate risk. However, elected councillors have
amenity and access to beaches. sometimes overridden staff decisions. They usually do
so where decisions negatively affect local constituents’
Seawalls also provide a false sense of security to private property rights or values. One councillor told
property owners who should not be encouraged to buy me “it’s common sense” to allow people to do as they
in high-risk locations. While it’s true that Kingscliff’s liked with their property. To protect themselves
wall is sensitively designed, seawalls do not allow the against future liability, some staff minuted legal advice.
coast to function as as a coast should. Coastal
environments are dynamic and movable ecosystems; Another interesting result of my research was seeing

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Year 10 Geography - Environmental Change and Management
Investigative Study - Coastal Environment - Management of the Environmental Change
how residents rely on law and popular ideas associated shouldn’t be paying to protect someone who has
with private property to advance individual property chosen to live in a high-risk location.
rights (such as exclusivity and freedom to redevelop).
At the same time many look to the state for help when Local governments remain at the forefront of climate
their own property is threatened by climate variability. adaptation planning on developed coastlines around
the world. Authorities can no longer ignore the legal,
My data show that residents tend to view coastal political, and cultural consequences of climate change
residential property in two primary ways: as an asset, impacts to our coastlines.
and through lived experiences. Most of the residents
involved in my research had lived in their localities for To respond effectively, elected officials must trust their
decades. staff to act in the best interests of the council. Council
staff can and should create evidence-based policy,
Many respondents said they wanted intervention to recognise their legal responsibilities, work with key
protect their own properties from climate change stakeholders for effective community engagement, and
impacts. However, they favoured no intervention for most importantly, keep good, clear records.
broader property protections. This was especially so
where these interventions were because of “climate Author
change”, or where these interventions would reduce Tayanah O'Donnell, Honorary senior lecturer,
property values or public amenity. Others thought we Australian National University

Physical Impacts of Seawalls


Source: Crown, 2016
Seawalls (including revetments) are shore-parallel relationship. These were summarised by (Weggel,
structures and have been used extensively within 1988; Griggs 1990) and include structural parameters
Australia and worldwide to “prevent landward retreat (seawall placement, geometry, length and material),
of the shoreline and inundation or loss of the upland by sediment properties (material, supply and rates of
flooding and wave action” (Kraus and McDougal, transport), hydrodynamic regimes (tidal range, mean,
1996). While these structures, if well designed and seasonal and extreme wave climate) and antecedent
built, are highly successful in achieving their intended morphology (background rates of long-term and
purpose of protecting land from erosion (Pilkey and cyclical shoreline change).
Dixon, 1996), their effect on other parts of the beach
system including the fronting and adjacent beaches is Kraus and McDougal (1996) attributed much of the
more variable with adverse effects often reported. controversy about the potential adverse effects of
seawalls on beaches to lack of differentiation between
The fundamental difference between a seawall and the ‘passive erosion’ and ‘active erosion’ (Pilkey and
beach itself is that the latter is mobile and dynamic Wright, 1988; Griggs et al. 1991, 1994). Passive erosion
while the former is static and designed to be is defined as being caused by “tendencies which
unyielding. The interaction between these static and existed before the wall was in place” and active erosion
dynamic entities has been the subject of much debate as being “due to the interaction of the wall with local
in the engineering, geomorphology and management coastal processes”. Of passive erosion, Griggs et al.
communities (Pilkey and Wright, 1988; Dean, 1986; (1994) stated that whenever a seawall is built along a
Basco, 2004, 2006). While a substantial amount of shoreline undergoing long-term net erosion
research has been undertaken investigating the (recession), the shoreline will eventually migrate
structure-beach interaction and documenting cases of landward behind the structure resulting in the gradual
beach response (summarised in Kraus, 1988; Kraus and loss of beach in front of the seawall as the water
McDougal, 1996), robust and widely-accepted methods deepens and the shoreface profile migrates landward.
for predicting the magnitude and extents of beach
response are not available. This is due in part to the Dean (1986) presented a list of nine possible and often
great number of variables which affect such a suggested effects of seawalls on adjacent shorelines

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Year 10 Geography - Environmental Change and Management
Investigative Study - Coastal Environment - Management of the Environmental Change
and beaches (Figure A1). He then critically examined currents, longshore currents and wave reflection.
these postulations and concluded (Basco, 2004, 2006)
the following (bracketed numbers are potential effect In addition to the potential adverse effects of seawalls
as indicated in Figure A1): on the seaward beach profile, the seawall geometry
and make-up as well as the adjacent nearshore
Dean found that armouring of a beach does NOT morphology and hydrodynamic regimes will affect the
cause: serviceability of a seawall in terms of wave run-up and
● Profile steepening (6); wave overtopping, and hence the level of landward
● Delayed beach recovery after storms (5); foreshore stability it provides. For a given seawall crest
● Increased longshore transport (8); level, higher wave overtopping rates are expected for
● Sand transport further offshore (9); and steeper and/or less permeable (solid) structures. High
● Increase in long-term average erosion rate (3). wave overtopping may cause landward foreshore
erosion or undermining and damage to foreshore
Dean found that armouring of the beach CAN structures if wave overtopping rates are not
contribute to: adequately accounted for in the seawall and foreshore
● Frontal effects (toe scour, depth increases; design. The EurOtop Manual (2007) describes
1a); empirically tested methods for the estimation of wave
● End-of-wall effects (flanking; 1b); overtopping rates for seawalls and provides suitable
● Blockage of littoral drift when projecting into preliminary guidance on limits of wave overtopping to
surf zone (groyne effect; 4); and avoid unacceptable damage for different development
● Reduced beach width fronting armouring (2). and foreshore types
Figure A1 - Commonly Stated Effects of Seawalls on
Pilkey and Wright (1988) refuted the conclusion that Adjacent Shorelines and Beaches
armouring does not cause an increase in the long-term Source: Basco, 2004 based on Dean,
average erosion (recession) rate (3) and does not delay 1986 as cited in Crown, 2016
beach recovery after storms (5) on the grounds that
seawalls intensify surf zone processes including rip

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Year 10 Geography - Environmental Change and Management
Investigative Study - Coastal Environment - Management of the Environmental Change
Literature on Coastal Management Strategies - Beach Nourishment
Figure 2 - Sand nourishment requirement for the Jimmys Beach erosion hotspot
Source: News of the Area, 2016

Jimmys Beach sand transfer system is operational


Source: Midcoast Council, 2019
The first of its kind on the NSW coast, the construction pursued a program of sand renourishment of the
of a sand transfer system is complete at Jimmys Beach Beach after each storm event, trucking sand in along
near Hawks Nest and a trial is underway, working the beachfront.
towards building a sand buffer onto the Beach to
prepare it for erosion during severe weather events. "Sand renourishment has been identified as the most
efficient way to provide a buffer for Jimmys Beach, and
A tri-funding arrangement between the NSW Office of has the advantage of preserving the Beach for people's
Environment and Heritage, MidCoast Council and the enjoyment."
Department of Primary Industries Crown Lands and
Water, the $4.1 million project uses pumps to take With that in mind, and after extensive investigations
sand from the Winda Woppa sand stockpile to into all types of options for controlling erosion, it was
renourish Jimmys Beach. determined that the sand transfer system was viable
for Jimmys Beach. It provides a more reliable source of
This week, the sand began to pump onto the Beach, sand that is readily available when required and is a
commencing a three week renourishment test period cheaper option than trucking sand.
of the sand transfer system that aims to provide a
temporary buffer for this winter season. Southerly Thanks to the joint funding arrangement, the
winds and swells, which usually arrive on the east coast construction of the sand transfer system was
during weather characterised by low pressure systems, commenced in July 2018.
cause the sand to be stripped from Jimmys Beach.
"All beaches are unique, and while the sand transfer
It's planned to renourish the beach using the sand system is the best management option for Jimmys
transfer system again as required later this year. Beach, it may not be suitable for other eroding beaches
on the MidCoast" said Andrew.
Council has faced an ongoing battle to provide a sand
buffer for the best part of 30 years on Jimmys Beach, "This system is not designed to stop the erosion,
one of NSW's 12 identified coastal erosion hotspots. however, it will continue to provide a temporary sand
buffer along The Boulevard part of the Beach far more
With community support strongly behind the effectively than previous trucking campaigns."
preservation of the existing beachfront, Council has

Jimmy’s Beach
Source: Midcoast Council, 2020

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Year 10 Geography - Environmental Change and Management
Investigative Study - Coastal Environment - Management of the Environmental Change
The project is funded by $4.1 million in Australian and storm events. Rock walls, groynes and other structures
NSW Government funding matched with Council have all been examined, but establishing an ongoing
contributions. sand nourishment program is the most financially
sustainable option for maintaining Jimmys Beach and
A sand transfer system involving a hopper, pumping to provide a buffer to protect The Boulevarde behind
system and pipeline has been built to transfer sand it. Once operational, it's expected to reduce the total
from Winda Woppa stockpile to replenish Jimmys cost of protecting and maintaining the Beach from the
Beach. current $600,000 per year to $200,000.

This option will provide a long term and more gradual This is the first time such a scheme will be utilised for
supply of sand to Jimmys Beach, reducing the need to managing an erosion hotspot in NSW.
rely on trucking in sand in response to emergency

Jimmys Beach sand transfer system completed to battle erosion in Winda Woppa
Source: Newcastle Herald, April 11 2019
The MidCoast Council's new solution to erosion on The council has created a stockpile of sand at the end
Jimmys Beach is now complete and undergoing a of the peninsula. Sand will be collected during the
three-week trial period. council's ongoing dredging program, including sand
cleared from the Myall River. The Myall River Action
Council says the $4 million sand transfer system, Group has described the pipeline as a "win-win
stretching two kilometres down the Winda Woppa outcome", after campaigning for years to dredge the
peninsula, is a longer-lasting and more cost-effective river's eastern entrance to return it to its natural state.
solution to erosion than previous responses.
Ken Garrard, the president of the Winda Woppa
The system's pumping station and underground Association and a resident of The Boulevarde, said the
pipeline will enable on-demand delivery of sand to pipeline was a "bandaid" solution, but a necessary one.
Jimmys Beach.
He has been calling for a "whole of system" review in
The council has been trucking in sand to create a buffer Port Stephens so clogging and erosion along the
in front of The Boulevarde, a strip of waterfront coastline and rivers is minimised.
properties, at an estimated cost of $600,000 per year.
Houses were threatened in 2014 when large swells "We need to solve it, for one thing, so we don't have to
tore chunks off the road. pump 20,000 cubic metres of sand on the beach in
perpetuity," he said.
Andrew Staniland, the council's coastal management
coordinator, said he expected sand from the transfer Mr Staniland said the system would last for twenty
system to withstand waves better than sand years "without a maintenance regime". It costs
transported by truck. $200,000 a year to run.

"When we truck our sand all we can do is park the "That gives us a planning window ... where we can
truck on the edge of the road and dump it. It's quite continually assess the situation to see what else we can
friable and moved more readily. do," he said.

"When it comes through the sand transfer system the Mr Staniland said the council was planning on planting
wet slurry is pumped on the beach at a slower rate. It more native vegetation on the beach once the buffer
forms and binds together better than trucking would had widened.
ever do. And because we have ten discharge stations,
we can allocate different amounts of sand and spread "We won't be introducing that for the first few [sand
the load evenly," he said. depositing] campaigns.There's not enough width in
that buffer yet to warrant us commencing," he said.

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Year 10 Geography - Environmental Change and Management
Investigative Study - Coastal Environment - Management of the Environmental Change
There would most likely be at least two deposits per
year, he said, including the current trial and a deposit
planned for later in 2019.

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Year 10 Geography - Environmental Change and Management
Investigative Study - Coastal Environment - Management of the Environmental Change
Evaluation of the effectiveness of the responses in achieving environmental sustainability
4. Complete the table below to evaluate the management strategies. The first row is done for you :-) You
will find the information you need from the earlier pages of this document. This goes over two pages!

Name and define – main Describe – characteristics and Explain – cause and effect
components of topic. features.

Name is It involves ‘How’


It is defined as It includes It aims to
It can be described as

Government Purchase Property It involves the government identifying The government can offer to buy a
Government purchase property is those properties which have a high property off the owner. In NSW
when the government buys land where level of risk of being eroded. It includes property can be compulsory acquired
buildings are at risk of erosion. The those properties which are built on the by all levels of government in
government then removes structure, dune system. At the Jimmys Beach, the accordance with the Land Acquisition
thus removing the risk. majority of land at risk is privately (Just Terms Compensation) Act 1991.
owned. However, there is some council Those properties which are
and crown land which the local compulsory acquired will be
government has acquired. compensated through the Valuer-
General.

Seawall

Beach Nourishment

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Year 10 Geography - Environmental Change and Management
Investigative Study - Coastal Environment - Management of the Environmental Change
Criteria for evaluation – Examples of value judgment type words that to demonstrate impact / level of effectiveness etc include;
Positive - benefits, increases, sustains, enhances, improves, promotes, prevents, progresses, gains;
Negative – decreases, harms, reduces, limits, diminishes

Discuss – points for and against Analyse – relationships between Evaluate – make a judgment,
components. support an argument

‘What’ This leads to ‘Why’


The advantages are This results in Use linking words such are therefore,
The disadvantages are Therefore, thus as a result, thus

Government Purchase Property This leads to the government owning Government purchase property is a
(+) Allows easier management of the the land, where they can remove sustainable coastal management
dune area buildings at risk and thus the land can strategy for Jimmys beach, however
(+) Allows naturals beach processes to return to the natural dune system not financially viable for the area. By
continue which are more stable. This approach removing properties which have
(+) Increase public access to the beach could have withstood the extreme altered the natural environment, the
weather events, such as the June 2016 coast can return to their natural
(-) Loss of revenue to the local council storm. Though, purchasing property at process. However, as waterfront
(rates) risk is extremely expensive. These properties are inherently expensive
(-) Possible social problem with properties are worth on average $1.5 due to their prime location, local and
residents who must move million each, and more than 30 would state governments cannot justify the
(-) Exposes the back dune area which need to be purchased. This is a high cost (in excess of $100 million for
will need protection significant cost for the council. the Mid Coast Council). Furthermore it
(-) Cost would be extremely high will diminish lucrative council rates
(-) Does not solve sand loss from these properties (which are based
on property valuations).

Seawall

Beach Nourishment

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Year 10 Geography - Environmental Change and Management
Investigative Study - Coastal Environment - Management of the Environmental Change

Use the scaffold to answer the following extended response question


5. Evaluate the effectiveness of coastal management strategies in achieving environmental sustainability
for a specific location in Australia (20 Marks)

Your answer will be assessed on how well you:


● demonstrate knowledge and understanding relevant to the question
● apply relevant geographic information, terms, concepts, relationships and theory
● present a sustained, logical and cohesive response

Criteria Mark

● Provides a sustained, logical and cohesive response 17 - 20


● Integrates relevant geographic terms, concepts, relationships and theories
● Demonstrates a clear and comprehensive understanding of coastal management
strategies that are designed to achieve environmental sustainability
● Develops arguments to judge the success of coastal management strategies designed to
achieve environmental sustainability

● Provides a logical and cohesive response 13 - 16


● Applies relevant geographic terms, concepts, relationships and theories
● Demonstrates a sound understanding of coastal management strategies that are
designed to achieve environmental sustainability
● States arguments regarding the success of coastal management strategies designed to
achieve environmental sustainability

● Provides a coherent response 9 - 12


● Uses relevant geographic terms, concepts, relationships and theories
● Demonstrates an understanding of coastal management strategies that are designed to
achieve environmental sustainability

● Provides a generalised response 5-8


● Uses some geographic terms and concepts
● Sketches in general terms some aspects of coastal management strategies that are
designed to achieve environmental sustainability

● Provides a limited response 1-4


● Uses some geographic terms and concepts
● Identifies some aspects of coastal management strategies that are designed to achieve
environmental sustainability

To help you, one of the paragraphs have been written for you.

The verb of the question is ‘evaluate’, which means “make a


judgement based on criteria; determine the value of”. I.e. is it
good or bad? And WHY!!!!

Now look at how I structured my paragraph (look at the colours). I


started with my evaluate statement (the last column), then I (1)
name and defines; (2) described; (3) explained; (4) discussed; (5)
analysed and then (6) evaluated.

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Year 10 Geography - Environmental Change and Management
Investigative Study - Coastal Environment - Management of the Environmental Change

Evaluate the effectiveness of coastal management strategies in


achieving environmental sustainability for a specific location in Australia (20 Marks)

Paragraph 1 - Introduction

Paragraph 2 - Government Purchase Property


Government purchase property is a sustainable coastal management strategy for Jimmys beach, however not financially
viable for the area. Government purchase property is when the government buys land where buildings are at risk of
erosion. The government then removes structure, thus removing the risk. It involves the government identifying those
properties which have a high level of risk of being eroded. It includes those properties which are built on the dune system.
At the Jimmys Beach, the majority of land at risk is privately owned. However, there is some council and crown land which
the local government has acquired. The government can offer to buy a property off the owner. In NSW property can be
compulsory acquired by all levels of government in accordance with the Land Acquisition (Just Terms Compensation) Act
1991. Those properties which are compulsory acquired will be compensated through the Valuer-General. The advantages
are: allows easier management of the dune area; allows naturals beach processes to continue; and increase public access
to the beach. However, the disadvantages are: loss of revenue to the local council (rates); possible social problem with
residents who must move; exposes the back dune area which will need protection; cost would be extremely high; does not
solve sand loss. This leads to the government owning the land, where they can remove buildings at risk and thus the land
can return to the natural dune system which are more stable. This approach could have withstood the extreme weather
events, such as the June 2016 storm. Though, purchasing property at risk is extremely expensive. These properties are
worth on average $1.5 million each, and more than 30 would need to be purchased. This is a significant cost for the council.
Government purchase property is a sustainable coastal management strategy for Jimmys beach, however not financially
viable for the area. By removing properties which have altered the natural environment, the coast can return to their
natural process. However, as waterfront properties are inherently expensive due to their prime location, local and state
governments cannot justify the high cost (in excess of $100 million for the Mid Coast Council). Furthermore it will diminish
lucrative council rates from these properties (which are based on property valuations).

Paragraph 3 - Seawall

Paragraph 4 - Beach Replenishment

Paragraph 5 - Conclusion

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Year 10 Geography - Environmental Change and Management
Investigative Study - Coastal Environment - Management of the Environmental Change
Proposal of how individuals could contribute to achieving environmental sustainability for the
environment
6. For the three types of individuals listed below who are involved with the coastal environment at the
Jimmys Beach, outline how they can contribute to achieving environmental sustainability

Type of How can the individual contribute to achieving environmental sustainability for the coastal
Individual environment at Collaroy-Narrabeen Beach

Tourists ●

Local ●
Residents

Property ●
owners who
let

The varied role of community groups


Source: Adelaide University, 2010

Today, all around Australia, community groups play a extremely cautious about public involvement where it
great variety of roles in managing the coast: a surf is perceived that sensitive economic or political issues
lifesaving club concerned with beach safety; a are involved, or there are contingent links outside a
conservation group involved with ecosystem local area. As a result, Hale L. (1996) points out that
protection; a dive club monitoring reef health; a community management approaches are more likely to
coastal park friends group engaged in weed removal; a be successful at the local scale, where:
service group managing a foreshore reserve; or a ● they are confined to a small geographic area
professional fishers association managing a regional ● they deal with issues that do not have strong
fishing zone. contingent links to systems outside the
control of the community
In the past, state agencies, and sometimes local ● ownership or management responsibility is
government agencies, have tended to keep community located close by
groups at arm’s length and engage in closed planning ● motivation is high, such as management
and management processes, which tended not to involving the economic interests of the
involve the community. During the last 20 years there community
has been an increase in community willingness to ● communities have access to, or can acquire,
participate and a greater readiness by governments to appropriate expertise.
encourage such involvement. This has often been at
the implementation stage, involving minor works,
rather than in direction-setting. Many governments are

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