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I. Objectives
At the end of the lesson, the student can:
a. define sustainable development;
b. discuss the concepts of sustainable development;
c. enumerate the 17 sustainable development goals;
d. identify the pillars and principles of sustainable development;
e. discuss the general information and define global food security;
f. determine the things affecting food security and corresponding; and
g. identify food security measures.

II. Introduction
The continues production of the world’s natural resources, such as water
and fossil fuel allows humanity to discover and innovate many things. We were
able to utilize energy, discover new technologies, and make advancements in
transportation and communication. However, these positive effects of
development put our environment at a disadvantage. Climate change
accelerated and global inequality was not eradicated. This means that
development, although beneficial at one hand, entails cost on the other.
The demand for food will be 60% greater than it is today and the challenge
of food security requires the world to feed 9 billion people by 2050 (Breene,
2016). Global food security means delivering sufficient food to the entire world
population. It is therefore, a priority of all countries, whether developed or less
developed. The security of food also means the sustainability of society such as
population growth, climate change, water scarcity, and agriculture.

III. Inputs


Sustainable development is the development of our world today by using
the earth’s resources and the preservation of such source for the future. The
term Sustainable Development was used by the Brundtland Commission which
has become the most often-quoted definition of Sustainable Development: It is
the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the
ability of future generation to meet their own needs. The goal of which is to
achieve balance/harmony between environment sustainability, economic
sustainability and socio-political sustainability One significant global response or
approach to economic globalization is that of sustainable development, which
seeks to chart a middle path between economic growth and a sustainable
Sustainable Development is a concept that at its core is revolutionary,
yet unfortunately incredibly difficult to pragmatically define. The history behind
sustainable development is one that does not stretch far. Tensions that can
be found within the concept of sustainable development are numerous,
ranging from its ambiguous and vague definition, to the failure of attaining a
universal pragmatic and operational framework. The great challenge that lies
ahead with sustainable development is not only the need to educate it to the
people, but to first define it in a way people will understand it.
In the Australian context, Evans (2000) states that sustainability is seen
to involve five elemental concepts, namely:
1. The integration of environmental and developmental aspirations at all
levels of decision-making.
2. Intragenerational and intergenerational equity. This last is the fundamental
ethical basis of sustainability.
3. Application of the precautionary principle or approach. The precautionary
approach, as expressed in Principle 15 of the Rio Declaration, requires that
where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific
certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective
measures to prevent environmental degradation
4. The maintenance of biological diversity and biological integrity.
5. The internalisation of environmental costs. This requires new economic
attitudes and mechanisms for measuring and evaluating the costs of
maintaining balances of environmental inputs, outputs and effects at
sustainable levels.
Each of the principles discussed above is clearly and directly referable to
the conservation of natural heritage.


1. No Poverty
Aims to eliminate all forms
of poverty everywhere,
highlights the disproportionate
effects of climate change on
impoverished and marginalised

Image from: National Geographic Society

communities, and calls for sound policy framework to support accelerated
poverty eradication actions.
It addresses equality by requiring all nations to ensure both men and
women have equal access to;
 Economic resources
 Basic services
 Ownership of property and inheritance
 Natural resources
 New and appropriate technologies (esp. in information and communication)
 Financial services including microfinance

2. No Hunger
Challenges malnutrition, unsustainable agricultural practices, and
systems that propagate unsustainable food production systems; calls for safe,
nutritious, and sufficient food throughout all seasons for all persons (esp. in
least developed countries).
In order to achieve the aforementioned objectives, agricultural
productivity must double as well as the incomes of small scale farmers. Other
targets that lie under this goal are;
 Elimination of wasting and stunting of children less than 5 years of age
 Increased secure and equal access to land.
 Establishing diversified seed banks to preserve genetic diversity.
 Efficient exchange of both modern and traditional farming practice
 Establishing financial services that market opportunities for value addition
and non-farm employment.
 Increasing and improving rural infrastructure.

3. Good Health
Tackles reducing the global mortality ratio and promotes well-being in all
age groups. It calls for action in ending preventable deaths by increasing
access to communicable disease vaccines and medicines (i.e. HIV/AIDS,
malaria, TB etc.) and challenges health care sectors to eradicate non-
communicable disease (cancers, diabetes, hypertension etc.) by a third,
globally. In doing so, it suggests promoting prevention over test-and-treat
strategies and calls for universal access to sexual and reproductive services.
 Reducing number of road traffic accidents.
 Striving to provide universal health care coverage including financial risk
protection and access to quality primary care.
 Reducing the prevalence of deaths/illness from hazardous chemicals, air,
water, and soil pollution.
 Increasing health financing for early warning and risk reduction in global
health risks.

4. Quality Education
Ensures inclusive, equitable, and quality education for girls and boys at
all levels (as well as vocational and technical training institutions) so that they
experience efficient outcomes and occupations to sustain life. It also calls for
elimination of disparities in gender, disability, and unequal access for those in
vulnerable situations so that they too, can support themselves later in life. It
stresses importance of ensuring literacy and numeracy in both young and old
populations and encourages the creation of an international curriculum that
covers topics such as;
 Sustainable development and lifestyles
 Human rights and gender equality
 Promotion of peace and non-violence
 Global citizenship
 Appreciation for cultural diversity and its contribution to sustainable
Finally, it calls for new and upgraded educational facilities that are child,
disability, and gender sensitive and that promote safe, non-violent, inclusive
and effective learning environments.

5. Gender Equality
The purpose here is to achieve gender equality and empower all women
and girls. This goal sets targets for women’s ability to fully participate and be
provided with equal opportunities in leadership at all levels. This requires;
 Financial services
 Inheritance and natural resource access
 Equal access to enabling technologies, particularly in information and
communication, that promotes empowerment
 Ownership and control over land and other forms of property
It also challenges society to recognize the value of unpaid care and
domestic work through actions such as the provision of public services, better
infrastructure, social protection policies, and the promotion of shared
responsibilities. Mainly, the gender equality goal stresses the full eradication
of not just discrimination, but violence against women in both the public and
private sphere. This includes, but is not limited to trafficking, sexual
exploitation, and harmful cultural practices (prevalent in developing countries)
such as early forced marriages and female genital mutilation. Finally, it calls
for the adoption of sound policies and enforceable legislation to see such
targets are being met.

6. Clean Water and Sanitation

The importance of this goal is to ensure availability and sustainable
management of water and sanitation for all. This is one of the most pressing
of the SDGs; it includes emphasis to end open defecation and to aid women,
girls, and those with disabilities in vulnerable situations. It also challenges
nations to;
 Reduce pollution
 Eliminate dumping
 Minimize release of hazardous chemicals and materials
 Halve the proportion of untreated wastewater
 Increase recycling and safe reuse globally
It stresses ensuring sustainable withdrawals without imposing damage
on water-related ecosystems such as mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers,
aquifers, and lakes. Finally, it calls for international support, cooperation, and
capacity building for developing countries regarding water related activities
such as harvesting, desalinization, and waste-water treatment. While this may
be an investment initially, it will strengthen the participation of local
communities improving their water quality and sanitation management for the

7. Renewable Energy
Aim is to ensure access to affordable, reliable, and sustainable modern
energy for all. Importance is placed on diversifying the market and increasing
the share of renewable energy into the global energy mix—that way more
stakeholders and everyday citizens can bear the expense of switching to
clean energy. This will help create incentive to achieve other targets under
this goal such as;
 Doubling the rate of efficiency improvement
 Enhancing international cooperation to facilitate access to energy research
and technology, particularly in renewable energy, energy efficiency, and
advanced/cleaner fossil fuel technology
 Promoting investments in energy infrastructure
In the face of climate change, it is within countries’ best interests for the
immediate health of generations today as well as the generations of tomorrow
to switch to clean energy alternatives.
8. Good Jobs and Economic Growth
While strengthening GDP (Gross domestic product) is important for a
prosperous and productive economy, it only scratches the surface for this
goal—to promote sustained, inclusive, and sustainable economic growth, full
and productive employment, and decent work for all. It encourages developed
countries to maintain their GDP growth in line with national circumstances
and encourages at least 7 per cent growth in developing and least developed
countries. Targets are set to increase diversification, technological upgrading
and innovation, and focus on high-added value and labour-intensive sectors
and to promote development-oriented policies that support;
 Decent work for all women and men
 Young persons
 Persons with disabilities
 Entrepreneurship
 Creativity and innovation
Encouragement of growth for micro, small, and medium sized
enterprises through access to necessary financial services
It maintains that gender equality and equal education is central for this
goal in addition to the eradication of child labour. It also stresses increasing
the capacity of domestic financial institutions to expand access to banking,
insurance, and other financial services for all.

9. Innovation and Infrastructure

The objective for this goal is to build resilient infrastructure, promote
inclusive and sustainable industrialization, and foster innovation. Targets are
set to provide regional and trans-border infrastructure and affordable and
equitable access to such services for all. It maintains that raising industry’s
share of employment and GDP should come at no unnecessary cost to the
environment, and that operations are performed under an environmentally
sustainable perspective. This may mean upgrading existing infrastructure and
retrofitting industries with;
 Increased resource-use efficiency
 Greater adoptions of clean and environmentally sound technologies and
industrial processes
 Conducive environment to enable policies in diversification
Enhancing scientific research is paramount here. This includes a target
aiming to encourage innovation and increasing research/development
workers per 1 million. Domestic technological development is another
objective under this goal such as increasing universal access to information
and communication technologies.
10. Reduced Inequalities
Aims to reduce inequality within and among countries; countries should
achieve and sustain income growth to the bottom 4 per cent of the population
at a rate higher than the national average. In turn, this will increase
empowerment, social promotion, and political inclusions for all, irrespective of
age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion, or economic status.
Additional steps are;
 Creation of equal opportunities and inequality reduction of outcome
 Promotion and appropriate legislation, policies, and actions
 Ensuring enhanced representation of voice for developing countries in
decision making on the global economic and financial scale
 Targets also focus on ensuring safe, regular, and responsible

11. Sustainable Cities and Communities

Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient, and
sustainable. Urbanization along with overall population growth could add
another 2.5 billion people to urban populations by 2050 [1]. Therefore targets
specified in this goal have much to do with providing adequate and equitable
services to accommodate the large influx of people moving to urban areas
and the opportunities to promote sustainable lifestyles as a result. It includes
targets for providing safe and affordable housing, upgrading slums, as well
 Improving road safety and expanding public transport
 Significantly reducing number of deaths and those affected by them
 Decreasing direct economic losses relative to global GDP caused by
disasters; emphasis on protecting those most vulnerable such as those in
marginalised communities
 Reducing adverse per capita environmental impact of cities; to live within
their own means and paying attention to air quality and municipal/other
waste management
 Providing universal access to safe and inclusive green public spaces
 Equally important to building sustainable cities are the social, political, and
financial aspects, which according to this goal should support positive
interdisciplinary links between urban, suburban, and rural areas as well
adaptable policies to support migration in the face of climate

12. Responsible Consumption and Production

Achieving economic growth and sustainable development requires that
we urgently reduce our ecological footprint by changing the way we produce
and consume goods and resources. Agriculture is the biggest user of water
worldwide, and irrigation now claims close to 70 percent of all freshwater for
human use.
The efficient management of our shared natural resources, and the way
we dispose of toxic waste and pollutants, are important targets to achieve this
goal. Encouraging industries, businesses and consumers to recycle and
reduce waste is equally important, as is supporting developing countries to
move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption by 2030.
A large share of the world population is still consuming far too little to
meet even their basic needs. Halving the per capita of global food waste at
the retailer and consumer levels is also important for creating more efficient
production and supply chains. This can help with food security, and shift us
towards a more resource efficient economy.

13. Climate Action

By now, it is common knowledge that climate change disproportionately
affects the world’s populations. Underdeveloped areas are most affected
mainly due to lack of infrastructure and vulnerable geography. Therefore, the
main purpose for this goal is to strengthen the resilience and adaptive
capability to climate related hazards and natural disasters in all countries, with
emphasis on the least developed. This is especially important in vulnerable
communities within least developed populations such as women, youth, as
well as marginalized communities. Integrating climate change measures into
national policies, strategies, and planning is a target all countries should hit.
Furthermore, improving education, awareness-raising and human institutional
capacity for the sustainability of climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact
reduction, and early warning is also discussed.

14. Life Below Water

Humanity can thank the ocean for rainwater, drinking water, weather,
climate, coastlines, the food we eat, and the oxygen we breathe. Additionally,
“over 3 billion people depend on coastal biodiversity for their livelihoods,” and
“the market value of marine/coastal resources is estimated at 3 trillion dollars
(U.S) per year, or about 5 per cent of the global GDP”[1]. That is why this goal
is so important—to conserve and sustainably use our oceans, seas, and
marine resources. The goal includes targets for prevention and reduction of
marine pollution from land based activities (debris, nutrient pollution). It also
stresses the protection and conservation of at least 10 per cent of coastal
marine areas as well as minimizing ocean acidification.
15. Life on Land
Aim is to protect, restore, and promote sustainable use of terrestrial
ecosystems, combat deforestation and desertification, and halt/reverse land
degradation and biodiversity loss. This is also central to maintaining habitable
conditions for life. Targets are set to ensure conservation, restoration, and
sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems and their services which, much like
marine ecosystems, warrant an urgent response. Emphasis is placed on;
 Restoring degraded soil
 Protecting and preventing the extinction of threatened species
 Ending poaching and trafficking of protected species; address the demand
and supply of illegal wildlife products
 Integrating ecosystem and biodiversity values into national and local
 Significantly increasing financial support from all sources to sustainably use
biodiversity and ecosystems

16. Peace and Justice

Aims to promote peaceful and inclusive societies, access to justice for
all, and build effective, accountable, and inclusive institutions at all levels. It
holds that development is best possible in the presence of peaceful and non-
violent societies. This means;
 Ending abuse, exploitation, trafficking, illicit financial and illegal arms flows,
corruption, and bribery
 Strengthening representation of developing countries in global governance
 Developing effective, accountable, and transparent institutions at all levels

17. Partnerships for the Goals

The final goal deals with effective ways to facilitate and accelerate
development through strengthening and revitalizing global partnerships. The
main objectives of this goal cover five specific areas: finance, technology,
capacity building, trade, and systematic issues.

Finance: Targets strengthening domestic resource mobilization with

additional international support as well as assistance in attaining long-term
sustainability in debt financing, relief, and restructuring. Also important is
developed countries’ assistance commitments of at least 0.7 per cent of their
respective GDP (1.5-2.0 per cent aid for least developed countries)[1].
Technology: In order to make technology and subsequent
advancements in science and innovation accessible to all countries, it is
important to improve the coordination on knowledge sharing. Ensuring that
these technologies are environmentally sound is equally important and by
2017, a theoretical technology, science, and innovation bank should be
operationalized in least developed countries.
Capacity Building: The partnerships goal includes increasing efforts to
enhance international support for implementing effective and targeted
capacity-building in developing countries so that they can make headway in
executing the sustainable development goals.
Trade: By ensuring a universal, rules-based, open and equitable
multilateral trade system, targets for increasing the exports of developing
countries to at least double by 2020 is possible. The goal also encourages
their indefinite access to a duty and quota-free market.
Systematic Issues: The following systematic issues involved with
strengthening the means of implementation of the SDGs and the revitalization
of global partnerships for sustainable development include issues of policy
and institutional coherence, multi-stakeholder partnerships, data monitoring,
and accountability. Therefore, the issues discussed are global
macroeconomic instability, policy incoherence to sustainable development,
lack of global partnerships, and lack of timely and high quality data. Data that
is separated by gender, age, race, ethnicity, minority status, disability,
geographic location to name a few, provides useful information for policy
creation and prioritization to help accelerate development sustainably and


Sustainable development policies encompass three general policy
areas: economic sustainability, environmental sustainability and social
sustainability. Several United Nations texts, and the 2005 World Summit
Outcome Document, refer to the “interdependent and mutually reinforcing
pillars” of sustainable development as being economic development, social
development, and environmental protection. If any one pillar is weak then the
system as a whole is unsustainable. Two popular ways to visualize the three
pillars are shown in the figures below
Economic Sustainability is the ability of an economy to support a defined
level of economic production indefinitely. Since the Great Recession of 2008
this is the world's biggest apparent problem which endangers progress due to
environmental sustainability problem. The economic pillar of sustainability is
where most businesses feel they are on firm ground. To be sustainable, a
business must be profitable. That said, profit cannot trump the other two
pillars. In fact, profit at any cost is not at all what the economic pillar is about.
Activities that fit under the economic pillar include compliance, proper
governance and risk management. It emphasises that in sustainable
development, everyone is a user and provider of information. It also stresses
the need to change from the old sector-centered ways of doing business to
new approaches that involve cross-sectoral co-ordination and the integration
of environmental and social concerns into all development processes.
Furthermore, Agenda 21 emphasises that broad public participation in
decision making is a fundamental prerequisite for achieving sustainable
development. Agenda 21 is a comprehensive program of action adopted by
182 governments at the United Nations Conference on the Environment and
Development (UNCED) at the Earth Summit on 14 June 1992 in Rio de
Janeiro. It provides a blueprint for securing the sustainable future of the
planet. It identifies the environment and developmental issues which threaten
to bring about economic and ecological catastrophes, and a strategy was
formulated for a transition into more sustainable practices.
Social Sustainability is the ability of a social system, such as a country,
family, or organization, to function at a defined level of social well-being and
harmony indefinitely. Problems like war, endemic poverty, widespread
injustice, and low education rate are symptoms of a system that is socially
unsustainable. The social pillar ties back into another poorly defined concept:
social license. A sustainable business should have the support and approval
of its employees, stakeholders and the community it operates in. The
approaches to securing and maintaining this support are various, but it comes
down to treating employees fairly and being a good neighbour and community
member, both locally and globally.
Environmental Sustainability is the ability of the environment to support a
defined level of environmental quality and natural resource extraction rates
indefinitely. This is the world's biggest actual problem, though, since the
consequences of not solving the problem now are delayed, the problem
receives too low a priority to be solved. The environmental pillar often gets
the most attention. Companies are focusing on reducing their carbon
footprints, packaging waste, water usage and their overall effect on the
environment. Companies have found that have a beneficial impact on the
planet can also have a positive financial impact. Lessening the amount of
material used in packaging usually reduces the overall spending on those
materials, for example. Walmart keyed in on packaging through their zero-
waste initiative, pushing for less packaging through their supply chain and for
more of that packaging to be sourced from recycled or reused materials.

Key Principles of Sustainability

According to Cotter and Hannan (1999:171-172), some of the key
principles of sustainability are:
• Integration: The effective integration of environmental, social and economic
considerations in decision-making. An integrated approach means that
decision making processes at all levels should include consideration of a
broad range of environmental, social and economic effects. The separation
of functions within councils can result in a decision-maker in one area
overlooking impacts that would be readily apparent to people in other areas.
Integration involves developing organisational processes that allow such
impacts to be easily seen and considered across council departments
before decision making occurs. Integration also suggests the effectiveness
of working more closely and cooperatively with other organisations,
including neighbouring councils, other levels of government and, most
significantly, all sectors of the local community
• Community involvement: Recognition that sustainability cannot be achieved,
nor significant progress made toward it, without the support and involvement
of the whole community. A cooperative council/community approach, from
the early stages through to implementation of a project, allows for resource
sharing, and fosters a supportive and active community that perceives itself
as owning both the problems and the solutions. The effectiveness of this
approach is already recognised in many local authority programs such as
those of waste minimisation or greenhouse-gas emission reduction.
Community involvement is also essential to monitoring the state of the
• Precautionary behaviour: Where there are threats of serious or irreversible
environmental damage, lack of full scientific certainty should not be used as
a reason for postponing measures to prevent environmental degradation,
such as taking measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Precautionary behaviour requires the careful consideration of possible
adverse environmental effects of planning, policy and practice. Where a
threat of serious or irreversible environmental damage exists, it would be
imprudent and inadequate to wait for scientific certainty before acting.
Precautionary behaviour implies a conservation ethic within councils’
environmental planning and management frameworks to guard against
future environmental degradation
• Equity within and between generations: Fairness and equal access to
opportunities both in our lifetimes, as well as for future generations. This
notion of equity implies the importance of maintaining both ecological
integrity and the Earth’s resources in order to provide for a certain quality of
life, in both the short and long term. As such, present activities should not
compromise the right of the present generation, or of future generations, to
healthy and dynamic environments nor must they foreclose on
opportunities. This approach involves asking, “Is the current quality of life
obtained at the expense of others, or of generations to come?”
• Continual improvement: The declining environmental situation means there
is an imperative to take immediate action to become more sustainable and
to make continual improvement. Change will not occur all at once, however,
it is important to make continual improvements, making the most of
advances in technology and scientific understanding about what is
sustainable, and of increases in community awareness of sustainability
• Ecological integrity: This requires the protection of biological diversity and
maintenance of essential ecological processes and life-support systems.
Recognising the interdependence of all parts of the natural environment,
that nothing is separate from it, the protection of the natural environment in
its many diverse forms is essential for there is a heavy dependence on it.
For example, each region has a unique climate, geomorphology, biota and
habitat qualities and patterns that determine the issues and responses to
maintaining ecological integrity. Therefore, urban, rural and coastal councils
may have significantly different perspectives in preserving ecological
integrity in their own region. These could include maintenance and
enhancement of vegetation, waterways, coasts and wildlife corridors as well
as soil, water and air quality.

E. GLOBAL FOOD SECURITY – Christine B. Osorio

General Information
• Agriculture accounts for 18%of the economy’s output and 47% of its
workforce. India is the second biggest producer of fruits and vegetables in the
world. Yet according o he Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the
United Nations, some 194 million Indians are undernourished, he larges
number of hungry people in any single country. An estimated 15.2% of the
population of India are too malnourished to lead a normal life. A third of the
world’s malnourished children live in India.
• After decades of steady decline, the trend on world hunger – as measured
by the prevalence of undernourishment – revered in 2015, remaining virtually
unchanged in the past three years at a level slightly below 11 percent.
Meanwhile, the number of people who suffer from hunger has slowly
increased. As a result, more than 820 million people in the world are still
hungry today, underscoring the immense challenge of achieving the Zero
Hunger target by 2030.
• This recent trend is confirmed by estimates of severe food insecurity in the
world based on the Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES), which is
another way to monitor hunger.
• Hunger is on the rise in almost all sub regions of Africa, the region with the
highest prevalence of undernourishment at almost 20%. It is also rising slowly
in Latin America and the Caribbean, although the prevalence there is still
below 7%. In Asia, where undernourished affects 11 percent of the
population, Southern Asia saw great progress in the last five years but still he
sub region with the highest prevalence of undernourishment, at almost 15 %,
followed by Western Asia at over 12 percent, where the situation is
• Estimates of SDG Indicator 2.1.2, which monitors progress towards the
target of ensuring access to food for all, reveal that a total of about 2 billion
people in the world experience some level of food insecurity, including
moderate. People who are moderately food insecure may not necessarily
suffer from hunger, but they lack regular access to nutritious and sufficient
food, putting them together risk of various forms of malnutrition and poor
• This new indicator also reveals ha even in high- income countries,
sizeable portions of the population lack regular access to nutritious and
sufficient food; 8% of the population in Northern America and Europe is
estimated to be food insecure, mainly a moderate levels.
• In every continent, the prevalence of food insecurity is slightly higher
among women than men, with the largest differences found in Latin America.

1. Global food security means delivering sufficient food to the entire world
population. I also signifies he sustainability of society such as population
growth, climate change, water scarcity and agriculture.
2. Food Security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and
economic access to sufficient safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary
needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life (1996, World Food
3. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) defines four dimensions of
food security:
• Availability – the supply of sufficient quantities of food of appropriate
quality where it is needed.
• Access – people have secure access to this food so that they can cultivate
or purchase adequate food.
• Utilisation – food can be used and digested suitably and as needed.
• Stability – the supply of food is stable in the long term.


a) Environment Destruction
The challenges to food security can be traced to the protection of the
environment. A major environmental problem is the destruction of natural
habitats, particularly through deforestation (Diamond, 2006). Industrial fishing
has contributed to a significant destruction of marine life and ecosystems
(Goldburg, 2008). Biodiversity and usable farmland have also declined at a
rapid pace.

b) Water Crisis
Another significant environmental challenge is that of the decline in the
availability of fresh water (Conca, 2006). The decline in the water supply
because of soil or desertification (Glantz, 1977), has transformed what was
once considered a public a good into a privatized commodity. The poorest
areas of the globe experience disproportionate share of water-related
problems. The problem is further intensified by the consumption of “virtual
water,” wherein people inadvertently use up water from elsewhere in the
world through the consumption of water-intensive products (Ritzer, 2015). He
destruction of the water ecosystem may lead to the creation of “climate
refugees, people who are forced to migrate due to lack of access to water or
due to flooding” (Ritzer, 2015, p.211)

c) Climate Change
Pollution through toxic chemicals has had a long-term impact on the
environment. The use of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has led to
significant industrial pollution (Dinham, 2007). Greenhouse gases, gases that
trap sunlight and heat in earth’s atmosphere, contribute greatly to global
warming. In turn, this process causes the melting of land-based and glacial
ice with potentially catastrophic effects (Revkin, 2008), the possibility of
substantial flooding, a reduction in the alkalinity of the oceans, and
destruction of existing ecosystems. Ultimately, global warming poses a threat
to the global supply of food as well as to human health (Brown, 2007).
Furthermore, population growth and its attendant increase in consumption
intensify ecological problems. The global flow of dangerous debris is another
major concern, with electronic waste often dumped in developing countries.
d) Land Degradation
The excessive feeding of vegetation for cattle, sheep and goats that may
result for the consumption of roots and sparse of the vegetation to which it
disables the reproduction of crops and fades the ability for food release
established in this crops. Also, slash-and-burn farming and large-scale
deforestation were greatly impairing soil fertility. Most forests in developing
countries and emerging economies are slashed and burnt in order to obtain
new agricultural acreage. Another is the incorrect irrigation where it keeps the
salt content of the soil and disables the enrichment state of the soil. Naturally,
a proper drainage is a must to remove the salt content of the soil and avoid
being salinized that may cause for the soil to grow arable crops no more.

e) Greedy Land Deals

Particularly in developing countries and emerging economies, both
international and local investors secure large parcels of land for themselves,
using long-term purchasing or lease agreements, in order to cultivate food,
feed or energy crops, particularly for exports. In view of rising agricultural and
land prices, land is however also increasingly becoming an object of
speculation for investors. Many of these large-scale land purchases and
leases lead to the displacement of the local population and endanger the local
and regional food supply. This acquisition of land is referred to as
landgrabbing. It frequently takes place behind closed doors, and no reliable
figures are available.

f) Genetically Modified (GM) Foods/ Genetically Modified Organisms

Transgenic (plants or animals) or GMOs are defined as those organisms
that contain a gene(s) or genetic constructs of interest that has been
artificially inserted by molecular or recombinant DNA techniques (genetic
engineering) instead of the natural or conventional methods. The GMO, thus,
carries ‘transgene(s) which when integrated and expressed stably and
properly, confer a new trait to the organism, which was hitherto not present
earlier or enhance an already existing trait. The term Genetically-modified
foods or GM foods is most commonly used to refer to foods produced from
transgenic plants or animals.
The National Academy of Science released a report that GM products
introduce new allergens, toxins, disruptive chemicals, soil-polluting
ingredients, mutated species and unknown protein combinations into our
bodies and into the whole environment. This may also raise existing allergens
to new heights as well as reduce nutritional content. Even within the FDA,
prominent scientists have repeatedly expressed profound fears and
reservations. Their voices were muted not for cogent scientific reasons but
due to political pressures from the Bush administration to buttress the nascent
biotech industry (Nathan, 2009).


How can food security be secured? Agricultural experts and nutritionists,
economists and ecologists worldwide have been addressing this question.
They are developing different solutions, but they all presume one finding: The
agriculture of the future must be guided by the principles of sustainability and
a more efficient use of resources.
A few examples: It would require only a relatively minor effort to stop the
loss of fertile arable soil.
 Small rain water retention walls and hedges to provide shelter against the
wind on the fields reduce soil erosion caused by rain and wind.
 Gentle “drip irrigation” applied directly onto the roots of plants is more
efficient than large-scale field irrigation where large quantities of water
evaporate, causing soil salination.
 Well-coordinated mixed cropping, such as coffee and cacao trees together
with banana trees, increases yields whilst causing little extra effort, and
helps protect the soil.
Positive tendencies are also unfolding in other areas: Where in many
places small family farms did not have any access to loans, today various
forms of microfinance provide loans at acceptable interest rates.
Agricultural and food research also provides new information and a
better understanding of small farming. Researchers are working on
sustainable pest control and on soil improvement, cultivating vegetable and
fruit varieties which have high yields, are rich in nutrients and better able to
withstand pests or drought. Almost forgotten local cereal or vegetable
varieties are also used here, which are frequently better suited to the
respective local conditions. Research is hence helping to promote higher
productivity and nutrient density and to ensure gentle, more efficient use of
natural resources.
Specifically, the great measure that will preserve the food security that is
much as we seem.
 Refrain ourselves from environment destruction or any act of losing the
habitats of organisms that has a major part in secure food production.
 In connection, consider the act of major contributor for soil or desertification
– the conversion of fertile land into desert, which will lessen the distribution
of water such as deforestation.
 Abstain from using substance that will increase the temperature of
greenhouse gas and to avoid global warming. And so, the catastrophic
effect of the latter will never be conserved and to continue the food
 Reduce the excessive consumption of major vegetation for herds to
preserve the soil fertility and will be essential for cycle of agricultural
 Fairness, accountability and transparency should be employed for those
landowners and have an equal distribution for cultivation of lands. Also, the
correct and acceptable rationality for the purpose of ownership should be
address that is mainly for safe and secure food reproduction and agriculture.
 Sense of responsibility should be a major consideration for purchasing food
acquisition of foods, typically from genetically modified food.

IV. Outputs
GROUP ACTIVITY (Go! Go! Goals: Board Game)
How to Play the Game:
1. There are 63 spaces on the board game. Players advance the number of
spaces determined by rolling a single dice.
2. The reporters will group the class into 6 groups with 5 members each by
counting off.
3. Each player places their token on the Start Field.
4. Players take turns to roll the dice and move their tokens forward the number of
spaces as shown on the dice.
5. If a player lands at the bottom of a ladder, they can immediately climb to the
6. If a player lands at the top of a waterslide, they immediately move to the
bottom of the slide.
7. If a player lands on a Sustainable Development Goal field (1-17), they can
draw a card corresponding to the goal number. Another player should read the
card question. A correct answer from the card drawer will allow the player to
roll the dice once again.
8. The first player to arrive on the field “2030 is the winner”! If a player throws the
required number, they must step forward into field 2030 and then move
backwards the surplus number of species.
Playing Time: 30-40 minutes

V. References
Beatti, A. (2019). The 3 Pillars of Corporate Sustainability. Retrieved from
Brown, C., Ainley, K. (2005). Understanding International Relations. Palgrave
Mcmillan, 175 fifth Avenue, New York. 3rd Edition, pp. 65, 128, 129, 151,
160, 162, 163, 174, 180, 183, 187, 190, 206, 210, 245, 252.
Cotter, B., & Hannan, K. (1999). Our Community, Our Future: A guide to Local
Agenda 21. www.ea.gov.au/esd/la21/manual/index.html.
Food and Agriculture Organization. (2008). An Introduction to the basic concepts
of food security [1]. Retrieved from: https://www.google.com/url?
FAO, IFAD, UNICEF, WFP and WHO. (2019). The State of Food Security and
Nutrition in the World 2019. Safeguarding against economic slowdowns
and downturns [3]. Rome, FAO.
Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture. (January, 2015). Understanding global
food security and nutrition [6, 7, 11, 20]. Retrieved from:
Gupta, R. K. (2011). Food security, genetically modified crops and environment.
2011 2nd International Conference on Environmental Science and
Development. (4).
Kottack, C.P. (1999). Mirror for Humanity. McGeaw-Hill Bok Co-Singapore. 2 nd
Edition, pp. 95.
Signh, H. (2019). Sustainable Development: Background, Definition, Pillars and
Objectives. Retrieved from m.jagranjosh.com/general-
1. Mabayag, Deborah Jubilee C.
2. Pandoy, Lordjan Kenneth L.
3. Osorio, Christine B.
4. Gargoles, Jerico E.
5.Javier, Janine