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Assignment # 2

CLO-I, PLO-I

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Course: Engineering Management
Submitted To: Sir Nabi Ahmad
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Submitted By: Muhammad Talha Iqbal
Registration Number: UW-16-ME-BSc-003

Department of Mechanical Engineering


Wah Engineering College
University of Wah
Assignment 2

Explain the Following:


1. Quality Management
2. Components of Quality management
3. Principles of Quality Management
4. Benefits of Quality Management

1. Quality Management
1.1 Quality:
Quality is defined as:
“Quality is conformation to necessity or specifications.”
Quality is also expressed as:
“The quality of a product is the capability of that product for meeting or exceeding its
envisioned use as demanded by the purchaser.”
From Engineering point of view quality is basically the degree of excellence of any product.
1.2 Management
Management is the knowledge and art of getting people together to achieve desired tasks and
aims by organizing and assimilating all available resources professionally and successfully.
Management is a process of scheduling, decision making, uniting, leading, inspiration and
monitoring the human resources, economic, physical, and information resources of an
organization to reach its aims in an efficient manner.
1.3 Quality Management
Quality management is the act of overseeing different activities and tasks within
an organization to ensure that products and services offered, as well as the means used to achieve
them, are consistent. It helps to achieve and maintain a desired level of quality within the
organization.
Quality management means what the organization does to:

 Ensure that its products or services satisfy the basic customer's quality requirements.
 Comply with any regulations applicable to those products or services.
 Enhance customer satisfaction and exceed their expectations, and
 Achieve continual improvement of its performance.
2. Components of Quality management
Following are the components of the quality management:
i. Quality Planning 
ii. Quality Assurance 
iii. Quality Control
iv. Quality Improvement

i. Quality Planning
First stage of quality management is planning. It determines that which standards are essential
and provides guidance to investors on how quality management will be completed on the given
project. It will include:

 Objectives to be attained for example, characteristics or specifications, uniformity,


effectiveness, aesthetics, cycle time, cost, natural resources, utilization e.t.c.

 Steps in the processes that constitute the operating practice or procedures of the
organization.

 Allocation of responsibilities, authority, and resources during the different phases of the
process or project

 Specific documented standards, practices, procedures, and instructions to be applied

 Suitable testing, inspection, examination, and audit programs at appropriate stages

 A documented procedure for changes and modifications to a quality plan as a process is


improved

 A method for measuring the achievement of the quality objectives

 Quality Control Measures

ii. Quality Assurance


Quality Assurance is defined as an activity to ensure that an organization is providing the best
possible product or service to customers. Quality Assurance focuses on improving the processes
to deliver Quality Products to the customer. An organization has to ensure, that processes are
efficient and effective as per the quality standards defined. Following are the steps of effective
quality assurance:
 Verify that every process is working as it was planned.
 Check the effectiveness of the planned processes
 Acquire the lessons if any.
 Find the opportunities for the improvement.

iii. Quality Control


Quality control is a process to ensure that product quality is maintained or improved. Quality
control requires to create an environment in which both management and employees strive for
perfection. A major aspect of quality control is the establishment of well-defined controls. These
controls help standardize both production and reactions to quality issues.
Quality control involves testing of units and determining if they are within the specifications for
the final product. The purpose of the testing is to determine any needs for corrective actions in
the manufacturing process. Good quality control helps companies meet consumer demands for
better products.
The Techniques of Quality Control
When the examination is done and the data is collected, it should be presented in a way that
makes it easy to evaluate. i.e.

 Taguchi Method

 Graphical Methods including

 Histogram 
 Pareto Chart
 Control Chart

iv. Quality Improvement


Quality improvement refers to the combined and unceasing efforts of everybody in an
organization to make everything about it, especially its production process, better. It is a
systematic approach to the elimination or reduction of rework, waste, and losses in the
production process.
Quality improvement or QI focuses on improving the production process. However, the target
could be any part of an organization. In every stage of the improvement, it will end up with an
improved and better product, gladder customs, and more revenue generated.
3. Principles of Quality Management
Following are the main principles of Quality Management:
i. Customer focus
ii. Leadership
iii. Involvement of people
iv. Process approach
v. Continual improvement
vi. Factual approach to decision making
vii. Mutually beneficial supplier relationships

i. Customer focus
The goal of any organization is to provide products or services to customers, it makes sense that
there is a focus on customers as a main element.
This starts with knowing your customer and their requirements, ensuring there is communication
with customers throughout the process, and measuring the satisfaction of your customer as a way
of measuring if the requirements, spoken or unspoken, have been met.
Key attributes of customer focus are as follows:

 Increased buyer worth


 Increased buyer fulfillment
 Improved buyer trustworthiness
 Enhanced repeat business
 Enhanced status of the organization
 Increased income and market stake

ii. Leadership
It has been said many times that if the top levels of management are not behind the
implementation of any Quality Management System, it is bound to fail. While this may not
always be a fact, it is true that the more involved the top levels of management are in the Quality
Management System, the better the chance of success, and the better implemented the end result.
If top management who is responsible for controlling the cash flow of the organization can see
the benefit of the system, it is much more likely to be used to its fullest advantage.
Key attributes of customer focus are as follows:
 Improved efficiency
 Improved direction of the organization’s progressions
 Better communication
 Upgrading of the capability of the organization

iii. Involvement of people


It is important that people throughout the organization create value, especially in our ever-
growing competitive world. To ensure this, the Quality Management System must focus on the
competence of people to help them become engaged in the processes to build value in them.
By having empowered and engaged people in the organization, this can become a driving force
behind meeting the objectives of the organization.
Key attributes of customer focus are as follows:

 Greater people satisfaction


 Higher confidence and relationship through the organization
 Increased devotion to shared values
iv. Process approach
By looking at the overall system as smaller interrelated processes you can focus your efforts
toward more consistent and predictable results on the individual processes of the system.
Controlling and improving the individual processes can be a much easier and more effective way
to control and improve the entire system.
Key attributes of customer focus are as follows:

 Greater aptitude to focus effort on main events and prospects for enhancement
 Reliable and expected products
 Effectual use of resources, and
 Less cross-functional barriers

v. Continual improvement
Organizations that stay stagnant in an ever-more-competitive market will quickly be overtaken
by their competition, and in order to counteract this pressure the company must improve in order
to drive down cost and maintain market share. This allows the company to react to changes in
internal or external conditions to create new opportunities.
The whole idea of having a quality policy, with objectives that are consistent with this policy,
works toward improvement. Objectives need to be planned and SMART (Specific, Measurable,
Attainable, Realistic, Time-based), and will not work without commitment to change.
Key attributes of customer focus are as follows:

 Enhanced process performance


 Enhanced organizational capabilities
 Good customer satisfaction

vi. Factual approach to decision making


In order to know that a process is functioning properly we need adequate data, and in order to
plan and assess improvements this data is even more important. Because of this, maintaining
good records becomes crucial to facilitate many of the other Quality Management Principles.
Key attributes of customer focus are as follows:

 Better working and efficiency


 Improved ability to review, challenge and change opinions and decisions
 Improved ability to validate the success of past decisions

vii. Relationship Management


This principle identifies the independence of organizations from their suppliers. In addition, it
ensures a mutually beneficial relationship between the two will enhance productivity and
encourage working values.
Key attributes of customer focus are as follows:

 Mutual understanding of aims and objectives


 Improved capability for making products
 Stable flow of goods and services

4. Benefits of Quality Management


By applying a quality management system affects every part of an organization's performance.
Benefits of the quality management include:

 Meeting the customer’s requirements, which helps to impart confidence in the


organization, in turn leading to more customers, more sales, and more orders.
 Meeting the organization's requirements, which ensures acquiescence with guidelines and
delivery of products and services in the most cost- and resource-efficient manner, growth,
and profit

 General Benefits

 Significant, civilizing, and monitoring processes

 Reducing waste

 Preventing mistakes

 Engaging staff

 Setting organization-wide direction

 Communicating a readiness to produce consistent results

 Lowering costs

 Facilitating and identifying training opportunities

 Internal Benefits

 Improved management confidence

 Improved traceability to root cause of quality problems 

 Improved utilization of resources

 Responsibilities and authorities are adequately defined

 Improved awareness of company objectives

 Improved communications

 Financial Benefits
 Improved Budgetary Performance
 Reduced Cost
 Improved cash Flow
 Improved Return on investment
 Improved Revenue
 Improved profitability
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References
1. https://iedunote.com/management
2. http://asq.org/img/qp/122654-table1.png
3. https://www.iso.org/files/live/sites/isoorg/files/store/en/PUB100080.pdf
4. http://www.wessexdeanery.nhs.uk/quality_improvement/what_is_quality_improvement.aspx