Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 88

HOUSE PLUMBING 1

DRAINAGE, WASTE and VENT SYSTEM


SAMPLE PROJECT: A TWO STOREY
RESIDENTIAL HOUSE
The 4 Major Components of the Drainage System:
• Sanitary or Soil Drainage • Vent System – The piping installed to
System – the piping that provide a flow of air to or from a
conveys the discharge of water drainage system or to provide a
closets or fixtures having circulation of air within such system to
similar functions (containing protect trap seals from siphonage and
fecal matter), with or without back pressure.
the discharges from other • Storm Drainage System - the piping
fixtures. system that receives clear water
• Waste Drainage System – the drainage from leaders, downspouts,
piping that receives the liquid surface runoff, ground water, subsurface
discharge from plumbing water, condensate water, cooling water
fixtures other than water or other similar discharges and conveys
closets. It is free of fecal them to the point of disposal. All
matter. sanitary wastes must not be included in
this system.

Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP - CEBU 7


GRAY WATER

Storm Drainage System:


Downspout, Catch Basin &
Storm pipe
BLACK WATER

Vent System: Main Vent


Stack & Vent Stack Thru Waste Drainage System:
Roof (VSTR) Waste pipe from Kitchen sink

Sanitary Drainage System:


Soil pipe from water closet
and other fixtures

Points of Disposal for Storm


water
Private Treatment Facility:
Septic Tank

Point of Disposal for


Sanitary Waste

Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP - CEBU 8


Terms and Definitions in the DWV System:
• Building Drain – is that part of the lowest horizontal
piping of a drainage system which receives the discharge
from soil, waste & other drainage pipes inside the walls of
the building & conveys it to the building sewer beginning
600 mm outside the building wall. It is also known as
House Drain.
• Building Sewer – is that part of the horizontal piping of a
drainage system which starts from the end of the building
drain & receives the discharge of the building drain &
conveys it to the public sewer, private sewer, individual
sewage disposal system or other point of disposal.
• House Sewer – is that part of a plumbing system
extending from the house drain at a point 600 mm from
the outside face of the foundation wall of a building to the
conjunction with the street sewer or to any point of
discharge, and conveying the drainage of one building site.

Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP - CEBU 9


• Waste pipe – a pipe which conveys only wastewater or liquid waste, free of
fecal matter.
• Soil pipe – any pipe which conveys the discharge of water closet, urinal or
fixtures having similar functions, with or without the discharges from other
fixtures to the building drain or building sewer.
• Soil Stack pipe – A vertical soil pipe conveying fecal matter and wastewater.
• Vent pipe – a pipe or opening used for ensuring the circulation of air in a
plumbing system and for relieving the negative pressure exerted on trap
seals.
• Vent Stack – the vertical vent pipe installed primarily for providing
circulation of air to and from any part of the soil, waste of the drainage
system.
• Stack Vent – the extension of a soil or waste stack above the highest
horizontal drain connected to the stack.
• Stack Vent Through Roof (SVTR) – the uppermost end of the stack vent
above the roof.
• Branch Vent – a horizontal vent connecting one or more individual vertical
back vents with the vent stack or stack vent.

Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP - CEBU 10


Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP - CEBU 11
TRAPS permit
waste & wastewater VENTS protect the water
to enter the seals in traps and permit them
drainage system & to operate effectively. By
prevent any sewer admitting air to the system,
gases from entering vents permit atmospheric
the house. The pressure on both sides of the
water seal utilizes a trap seal to be maintained,
portion of the and permit air to enter at the
wastewater to act as same time as gases escape the
a barrier. drainage system.

Cleanout

SOIL STACKS &


Cleanout LINES are bigger in
Cleanout diameter than the waste
lines, except at ground
WASTE LINES floor or basement
carry wastes such as hair,
lint, grease, food scraps,
etc. Because of this
function, cleanouts
should be located so that
the entire system can be The DWV System combines the use of
opened up if necessary. TRAPS, VENTS, WASTE LINES and SOIL
STACKS & LINES
Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP - CEBU 12
VSTR or SVTR

Branch Vent Vent Stack

Individual Vent
or Back Vent
Wall Cleanout
Lavatory
Water Waste Pipe
600 mm from Closet
foundation wall
Auxiliary
Floor Drain Shower Floor Drain
Floor
Cleanout House Drain
or Building
Drain

Sanitary or Soil Pipe


Cleanout
House Sewer or
Building Sewer
Cleanout
Cleanout

Digestive
Chamber
Holding
Chamber
The DWV SYSTEM
To point of Disposal Septic Tank

Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP - CEBU 13


GENERAL Each plumbing fixture trap shall be
REQUIREMENTS provided with vent pipes
FOR A PROPERLY
DESIGNED
DRAINAGE
SYSTEM
Each plumbing fixture, except those with
All horizontal piping shall be integral traps, shall be separately trapped by
supported & anchored at an approved type watersealed trap.
intervals not to exceed 3
meters.

Vertical piping shall be


secured at sufficiently close
intervals to keep the pipes in
alignment. Stacks shall be
A cleanout, easily accessible, shall be
properly supported at their
provided for inspection or cleaning of
bases.
the pipe run.

All horizontal piping shall run in


practical alignment & at a uniform
grade of not less than 2% (20 mm per
meter) toward the point of disposal

Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP - CEBU 14


DRAINAGE TRAPS
What is a Drain?
• A Drain is a pipe, which carries ground and surface
waters, storm water or wastewater into a building
drainage system.
• The common types of drains are the floor drains and
the roof drains.
• The 2 types of drain connections are the direct drain
connection and the indirect drain connection.
What is a Trap?
• A Trap is a fitting or device designed and constructed to provide,
when properly vented, a liquid seal which prevents the backflow of
foul air or methane gas without materially affecting the flow of
sewage or wastewater through it.
• The types of watersealed traps are:
1. P-trap – is the most widely used for fixtures, common diameter sizes are
32mm (1-1/4”) and 38mm (1-1/2”).
2. Drum trap – is used mostly for bathtubs. It has the advantage of
containing a larger volume of water & discharging a greater volume of
water than a P-trap.
3. Grease Interceptor / Grease Trap – Grease interceptor is an
interceptor of at least 3 cubic meter capacity to serve one or more fixtures
and which is remotely located. Grease trap is a device designed to retain
grease from one to a maximum of four fixtures.
4. House Trap/Running trap – a device installed to prevent circulation of
air between the drainage of the building and the building sewer.
Types of Waterseal Traps:
Crown Weir – the highest
point of the bottom of the
internal surface of the trap

51 – 102 mm

Dip – the lowest portion


of the inside top surface of
the channel through the
trap
Trap seal –the vertical distance or depth of liquid that a
trap will retain, measured between the crown weir and
the top of the dip of the trap.
Grease Trap:
DRAINAGE VENT
What is a Vent?
• A Vent is a pipe or opening that brings outside air into the
plumbing system and equalizes the pressure on both sides of
a trap to prevent trap seal loss.
• Inadequate ventilation usually causes the loss of trap seal.
• At sea level, atmospheric pressure is about 102 kPa (14.75
psi). Any difference between this pressure and the pressure
on the discharge side forces the water seal into the direction
of less pressure. Venting the discharge side of the trap to the
atmosphere tends to equalize these pressures.
Causes of Trap Seal Loss:
• Siphonage – the withdrawal of a liquid from a trap due to a suction
caused by liquid flow in a pipe without proper ventilation.
1. Direct or Self – siphonage
2. Indirect or Momentum siphonage
• Back Pressure or Back Siphonage – pressure developed in
opposition to the flow of liquid in a pipe due to friction, gravity or some
other restriction to the flow of the conveyed liquid.
• Evaporation – occurs when a fixture is not used for a long time.
• Capillary Attraction – a foreign object lodged in the trap causes loss
of trap seal by capillary action by acting as a wick.
• Wind Effect
Causes of Trap Seal Loss:
What are the Types of Vents?
• Soil and Waste Vent • Relief Vent
• Main Vent • Yoke Vent
• Individual Vent or Back • Wet Vent
Vent • Looped Vent
• Unit Vent • Local Vent
• Circuit Vent or Loop • Utility Vent
Vent
Vents and Venting: VENT TERMINATION

Section 906 VENT TERMINATION


VERTICAL SURFACE

300 mm
(minimum)
906.1 Each vent pipe or stack through roof
(SVTR) shall extend its flashing all around and
150 mm the stack vent shall terminate vertically not less
(minimum) than 15 cm above the roof nor less than 0.3
meter from any vertical surface nearby.

905. 4 … the vent through roof (VSTR) shall be


increased 1 pipe size above the reconnection
point of stack vent and horizontal vent.

DANILO V. RAVINA NAMPAP - CEBU


CHAPTER
Vents and Venting: TERMINATION

3000 mm

900 mm
300 mm

300 mm 150 mm

900 mm

150 mm

This are Minimum Distances

DANILO V. RAVINA NAMPAP - CEBU


CHAPTER
Vents and Venting

2100 mm
(minimum)

DANILO V. RAVINA NAMPAP - CEBU


CHAPTER
Vents and Venting: AIR ADMITTANCE VALVE (STUDOR SYSTEM)

Air admittance valves offer a substitute for You can use air admittance valves for:
running vent pipes to the outside of •trap vents
buildings. These valves open automatically •group vents
to let fresh air into the sanitary system if •stack vents
there is a decrease in air pressure within •branch drains.
the system. The valves close automatically, These are not suitable for upstream
to avoid the discharge of foul air, whenever venting of a main drain (unless there are
the pressure in the system is equal to or two upstream vents, in which case one
greater than the external pressure. may be an air admittance valve). They
should be installed in the same location
and using the same method as the vent
they are replacing.

DANILO V. RAVINA NAMPAP - CEBU


CHAPTER
Vents and Venting

Conventional Looped Vent


Studor System

DANILO V. RAVINA NAMPAP - CEBU


CHAPTER
SEPTIC TANK

Design
and
Construction
SITING OF SEPTIC TANK*
(Minimum Horizontal Distance)
From building or structure: 1.50 meters
Property line adjoining
Private property: 1.50 meters
Water supply Wells: 15.20 meters
Streams: 15.20 meters
Trees: 3.00 meters
Seepage pits or
Cesspools; 1.50 meters
Disposal Fields; 1.50 meters
On site Domestic Water
Service line: 1.50 meters
Pressure Public
Water Main: 3.00 meters

*Table B-1, Revised National


Plumbing Code of the Philippines
Septic Tank: Design and Construction Considerations
Septic Tank . Septic Tank Construction:
A water tight receptacle
which receives the
Septic tanks shall have a minimum of 2 compartments.
discharge of a sanitary
plumbing system or part The Inlet Compartment shall not be less than 2/3 of the total
thereof, designed and capacity of the tank, nor less than 2 cubic meters liquid
capacity.
constructed to retain
solids, digest organic Minimum Length of 1500 mm

matter through a period


of detention and to allow
the liquids to discharge
into the soil outside of
the tank through a
system of open-jointed
sub-surface pipings or a
seepage pit meeting the
requirements of the
National Plumbing Code. Minimum Width of
The Outlet Compartment shall have a 900 mm
minimum capacity of 1 cubic meter and a
maximum capacity of 1/3 of the total
capacity of the septic tank
The vaults and chambers are
vented through the sanitary
tees in the inlet and outlet
having the top ends open and
screened to make the tank Manhole: Minimum of 2 with
mosquito proof Minimum Dimension of 508mm x
508mm placed over the inlet and the
outlet
228.6mm
Minimum Air
Space or
Freeboard

Liquid Depth: 2 cu.m. minimum


600 mm volume
(minimum) to
1800 mm
(maximum)

If the Septic Tank is over 6 cubic meters,


the minimum length of Secondary
The bottom of the tank should slope (1:10) towards the Compartment shall be 1500mm.
center and below the manhole to facilitate cleaning

No septic tank shall be constructed or


Secondary Compartment: Minimum Capacity of 1 cubic
installed within or under a house. meter or Maximum of 1/3 of the Total Capacity of
Sec. 233 of the 1959 Phil. National Plumbing Code Septic Tank
Inlet Pipe and Fitting:
use 104.6mm Ø (minimum) The invert of the Inlet Pipe shall be at
least 50.8mm above the invert of the
Outlet Pipe

Inlet and Outlet Pipe


shall extend at least
101.6mm above the
water surface

304.8mm Minimum
Depth of Inlet and
Outlet Pipe below
the water surface

Outlet Pipe and Fitting:


Siphon Pipe and Fitting: use 104.6mm Ø
Use 104.6mm Ø (minimum) (minimum)
Access to each septic tank shall be provided by at least 2 manholes Septic tank installed under concrete or black
508mm in minimum dimension or by an equivalent removable cover slab. top paving shall have the required manholes
One access manhole shall be located over the inlet and 1 access manhole accessible by extending the manhole
shall be located over the outlet. Whenever a first compartment exceeds openings to grade in a manner acceptable to
3700mm in length, an additional manhole shall be provided over the the Administrative Authority.
baffle wall.

Septic tank shall be structurally designed to withstand all anticipated earth or other
loads. All septic tanks covers shall be capable of supporting an earth load of not
less than 14.4 kPa when the maximum coverage does not exceed 9000mm.
Sizing of the Septic Tank

Septic tank should be properly sized due to the following conditions:


1. A septic tank of smaller capacity is impractical because some leeway must be allowed
for storage of accumulated sludge.
2. A tank of larger size is not advisable because retarded bacterial activity is liable to
result.

Methods of Sizing the Septic Tank


1. The Philippine National Plumbing Code of 1959 (Sec. 233) provides the standard sizes of septic
tanks based on the capacity (the number of persons) served by the tank.
2. The 1999 Revised National Plumbing Code of the Philippines uses the Estimated Waste/Sewage
Flow Rates of the Design Population in sizing the septic tank. (Tables B-2 and B-3).
3. If the number of persons served (design population) is not available, the Fixture Unit Method
may be employed.
4. If the values for the estimated waste flow rate are not available, use the following volume:
- For residential installations, allow 0.14 to 0.17 cubic meter of tank content per person.
- For school, commercial or industrial purposes, allow 0.06 to 0.09 cubic meter of tank content
per person.
Method 2a:
Estimated Waste/Sewage Flow Rates (Table B-2, 1999National Plumbing Code)
Capacity of Septic Tanks*
SINGLE MULTIPLE OTHER MINIMUM SEPTIC TANK CAPACITY IN:
FAMILY DWELLING USES:
DWELLING UNITS or MAX. DFU GALLONS LITERS CUBIC
(NO. OF APARTMENTS SERVED METERS
BEDROOMS)
1 or 2 --- 15 750 2838 2.84
3 --- 20 1000 3785 3.79
4 2 units 25 1200 4582 4.58
5 or 6 3 units 33 1500 5677.5 5.68
--- 4 units 45 2000 7570 7.57
--- 5 units` 55 2250 8516.3 8.52
--- 6 units 60 2500 9462.5 9.46
--- 7 units 70 2750 10,408.8 10.41
--- 8 units 80 3000 11,355 11.36
--- 9 units 90 3250 12,301.3 12.30
--- 10 units 100 3500 13,247.5 13.25
Extra Bedroom: 150 gallons (567.8 liters) each
Extra Dwelling Units over 10: 250 gallons (946.3 liters)
Extra Fixture Units over 100: 25 gallons (94.6 liters) per fixture unit

*Septic Tank sizes in this table include sludge storage capacity and the connection disposal of domestic food waste units
without further volume increase.
Method 2b:
Estimated Waste/Sewage Flow Rates (Table B-3, 1999 National Plumbing Code)
Type of Occupancy Gallons per Day Liters per Day Type of Occupancy Gallons per Day Liters per Day
Airport : per employee 15 + 4 per 56.8 + 18.9 per Restaurant: Cafeteria 20/employee 75.7/employee
passenger passenger
Churches (Sanctuary) 4 per seat; (with 18.9 per seat; (with Restaurant: Toilet 7/customer 26.5/customer
Kitchen): 7 per Kitchen): 26.5 per
seat seat Restaurant: Kitchen 6/meal 22.7/meal
waste
Factories: w/o shower 25/person/shift 94.6/person/shift
Restaurant: Add for 1/meal 3.8/meal
Factories: w/ showers Add 10/employee Add 3.79/employee garbage disposal
Factories: w/ cafeteria Add 5/employee Add 18.9/employee Restaurant: Add for 2/customer 7.6/customer
cocktail lounge
Hospitals 250 per bed 946.3 per bed
Schools: Staff & Office 20/person 75.7/person
Hospital: Kitchen waste 25 per bed 94.6 per bed
Schools: Elementary 56.8/person
Hospital: Laundry waste 40 per bed 151.4 per bed
Schools: intermediate 20/person 75.7/student
Hotel: No kitchen waste 60/bed (2 person) 227.1/bed (2 & High School
person)
Schools: w/ gym & 5/person Add 18.9/student
Hotel: w/ kitchen waste 70/bed(2 person) 264.95/bed showers
Offices 20/employee or 75.7/employee or Schools: w/ cafeteria 3/person Add 11.4/student
1.12/ sq.m. floor 4.23/sq.m. floor
area area Recommended Design Criteria:
Stores 20 /employee 75.7/employee A. Waste/Sewage Flow, up to 1500 GPD (5677.5 LPD):
Septic Tank Capacity = Flow x 1.5
Stores: Public Restroom Add 1.2/sq.m. of Add 4/sq.m. of B. Waste/Sewage Flow over 1500 GPD (5677.5 LPD):
floor space floor area Septic Tank Capacity = (Flow x 0.75) + 1125
Prefabricated Septic Tanks
Manufactured or prefabricated septic
tanks shall comply with all approved
applicable standards and be approved
by the Administrative Authority.

Independent laboratory tests and


engineering calculations certifying the
tank capacity and structural stability
shall be provided as required by the
Administrative Authority.

Plastic Purifying Septic Tank (PPST): Courtesy of KOTEC PLASTIC CORPORATION.


Invented by a Korean Engineer, Soon Weon Seo in 1997
Private Sewage Disposal System – a septic tank with the effluent
discharging into a subsurface disposal field, seepage pits or of such other
facilities as may be permitted by the plumbing code.
Private Sewage Disposal System: Sanitary Drain Field
Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP - CEBU 50
Fixture Pipe Joint
Details

Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP - CEBU 51


Section 701: MATERIALS FOR DRAINAGE PIPES AND FITTINGS

Excreta Drainage Piping


materials are: Drainage pipes are the pipes that convey wastes from the
• Cast Iron building to an approved point of disposal.
• Ductile Iron
• Galvanized Steel Drainage fittings are the pipe accessories in the drainage
• Galvanized Wrought Iron, system, such as coupling, bend, wye, etc., used to join two
• Lead or more pipes together or to change their direction.
• Copper
• Brass The Types of Drainage Pipes are:
• Series 1000 PVC DWV • Sanitary or Soil pipe – the pipe which carries the
• Extra Strength Vitrified wastes from water closets, urinals or fixtures of
Clay Pipe similar function to the building drain. This contains
• or other approved human excrement.
materials having smooth • Waste pipe – the pipe which carries only liquid
and uniform bore. wastes, free of human excrement or fecal matter.
• Vent pipe – the pipe connected to the drainage
system that conveys air to and from the system and
keep the water from being siphoned from the trap.
• Storm pipe – the pipe which convey rainwater from
the roof gutter to the building storm drain.
DANILO V. RAVINA NAMPAP CEBU
CAST IRON SOIL PIPES (CISP)
SPIGOT – the end Cast Iron Soil Pipe – is made from an alloy of iron, carbon& silicon, with
of a pipe which fits the controlled amounts of manganese, sulfur & phosphorous. This is
into a bell. primarily used for sanitary drain, waste and storm water systems.

BELL or HUB –
that portion of a
pipe which, for a Classification of CISP
short distance, is 1. Class A – Extra Heavy (XH) – is often used for
sufficiently underground applications.
enlarge to receive 2. Class B – Service Weight (SV) – is used for general
the end of building installations.
another pipe of
the same
Telescoping Length: 64mm diameter for the
(2-1/2”) to 108mm (4-1/4”) purpose of Properties of CISP
making a caulked
or push-on joint.
 Available Diameter (Nominal I.D.): 2”, 3”,
4”, 5”, 6”, 8”, 12”, and 15”
 Length: 1500mm (5’) and 3000mm (10’)
Hydrostatic Test:
345 kPa (50 psi) for Service Weight
690 kPa (100 psi) for Extra Heavy)

Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP - CEBU 53


CAST IRON SOIL PIPE (CISP)

Cast Iron Soil Pipe


Most popular and generally specified material for drainage
installation. Extensively used in the 60s and 70s.
Durable, conveniently installed (<25 storey)
Commercial length: 1.5 m & 3.0 m
SPIGOT
Diameters: 2”, 3”, 4”, 5”, 6”, 8”, 10”,
Hub or Bell
12” and 15”
Affected to some extent by corrosion by acid formed by Carbon
Dioxide, Sulphur Oxide, and Methane Gases that create rust

2 Types:
Extra Heavy (XH) - Class A (100 psi); for underground installations
Service Weight (SV) - Class B (50 psi); for general building installations
DANILO V. RAVINA NAMPAP CEBU
CAST IRON SOIL PIPE (CISP)
BELL or HUB –is that portion of the pipe which, for a short distance, is sufficiently enlarged to receive
the end of another pipe of the same diameter for the purpose of making a caulked or push-on joint .
(Sec.203.12)

SPIGOT – is the end of the pipe Single Hub Pipe with


that fits into a bell. (Sec. 220.24)
Single Hub Pipe
Spigot Bead
SINGLE HUB – is equipped with 1
hub & 1 spigot end and used in
the installation of plumbing in its
full length.

DOUBLE HUB – is constructed


with hub on each end so it may
be cut into 2 pieces when a short
piece of pipe is needed.
Double Hub Pipe Hubless Pipe
HUBLESS PIPES – are cast iron
pipes with plain ends connected
together with bolted stainless
steel bands and neoprene
gaskets. (Sec. 209.9)

DANILO V. RAVINA NAMPAP CEBU


Cast Iron Soil Pipe

Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP - CEBU 56


Cast Iron Soil Pipe (CISP) Fittings

Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP - CEBU 57


CAST IRON SOIL PIPE (CISP)

DANILO V. RAVINA NAMPAP CEBU


CAST IRON SOIL PIPE (CISP): TYPES OF JOINTS

1. Caulked joint or Calk Joint


2. Neoprene Compression Gasket
3. Stainless Steel couplings for hubless pipes

Neoprene Compression Gasket

Caulked Joint Stainless Steel Couplings


DANILO V. RAVINA NAMPAP CEBU
CAST IRON SOIL PIPE (CISP): Caulked Joint

Making Lead and Oakum Joints in Cast Iron Drainage fittings.


NOTE: Remember to wear appropriate personal protective equipment to work with
molten lead. Wear safety glasses and full length shirt and pants of non-synthetic
material.
Always be sure to warm tools and materials that are being placed into molten lead
remove any condensing moisture which might react explosively.
Cast iron soil pipe joints, also known as calked
joints, when made with oakum fiber and lead,
are leak-proof, rot-proof, strong and flexible.
The waterproofing qualities of oakum fiber
have long been recognized by plumbers.
Molten lead, when poured over oakum in the
hub end of the pipe, completely seals and
locks the joint. After the lead has cooled a
minute or two, it can be caulked into the joint.

CAULKING – plugging an opening with oakum, Oakum – hemp or old hemp


lead or other materials that are pounded into the rope soaked in oil or tar to make
annular space. Also the material pounded into it waterproof.
the annular opening. (Sec. 204.1) DANILO V. RAVINA NAMPAP CEBU
CAST IRON SOIL PIPE (CISP): Caulked Joint

The table below lists the amounts of Calking Irons


materials needed per joint for various Caulking irons are used to drive the lead firmly into
sizes of pipe. the joint. This is necessary because lead shrinks
when it cools. Therefore, to produce a tight seal,
the lead must be caulked to fill the joint.
Inside and Outside Calking Irons
There are “inside” and “outside”
caulking irons. Outside caulking
irons are used to shape the lead
to the inside of the hub. Inside
caulking irons are used to shape
the lead near the spigot.
Yarning Irons
Yarning irons are used to pack the
oakum into the joint.

DANILO V. RAVINA NAMPAP CEBU


CAST IRON SOIL PIPE (CISP): Caulked Joint

Making Vertical Caulked Joints


To assemble vertical, upside-down and horizontal caulked joints, the plumber should follow these procedures:
1. Wipe the hub and spigot ends dry and free from any other foreign materials. MOISURE CAN CAUSE MOLTEN LEAD
TO EXPLODE OUT OF A JOINT. SERIOUS INJURIES CAN RESULT. If necessary, dry the ends with a heating torch to
eliminate all traces of moisture.
2. Slide spigot end into the hub of the other pipe and align the joint. A cut piece of pipe has no spigot bead, so extra
care should be taken to center the cut end in the hub.
3. Using a yarning iron, pack the oakum around the pipe. Repeat this operation until the hub is packed to about 1”
from its top. Pack the oakum with a hammer and packing iron to make a bed for the molten lead.
4. Using the plumber’s ladle, carefully pour the molten lead into the joint. Dip enough lead to fill the joint in one
pouring. Allow a minute or two for the molten lead to harden and change in color from royal blue to a dull grey.
Usually, one pound of lead is melted for each inch of pipe size.
5. Caulk the joint first using the outside caulking iron and then the inside caulking iron. The first four blows should be
struck 90 degrees apart around the joint to set the pipe. Drive the lead down on the oakum and into contact with
the spigot surface on one edge and the inner surface of the hub on the other. Use firm but light hammer blows.
Caulking the lead too tightly may create pressures high enough to crack the pipe. If this occurs, the broken section
must be replaced.

DANILO V. RAVINA NAMPAP CEBU


CAST IRON SOIL PIPE (CISP): Caulked Joint

Making Horizontal Caulked Joints


1. Prepare the ends of the pipe and pack the
joint with oakum as in vertical joints.
2. Clamp the joint runner in place around the
pipe and fill the joint with molten lead.
3. After the lead hardens, remove the runner
and trim off the surplus.
4. Caulk the joint as a vertical joint, but use the
inside iron first.

DANILO V. RAVINA NAMPAP CEBU


CAST IRON SOIL PIPE (CISP): Neoprene Compression Gasket Joint

The compression gasket is a precision molded


one-piece gasket that is made of an elastomer
that meets the requirements of ASTM C-564.
The physical characteristics of this elastomer
ensures that the gasket will not decay or
deteriorate from contact with the materials
flowing in the pipe or chemicals in the soil or
air around the pipe.

DANILO V. RAVINA NAMPAP CEBU


CAST IRON SOIL PIPE (CISP): Stainless Steel Coupling for Hubless Pipe Joint

Hubless cast iron soil pipe and fittings are simply pipe and
fittings manufactured, without a hub, in accordance with
ASTM A888 or CISPI 301. The method of joining these pipe
and fittings utilizes a hubless coupling which slips over the
plain ends of the pipe and fittings and is tightened to seal it.
Hubless cast iron soil pipe and fittings are made in only one
class or thickness. There are many varied configurations of
fittings and both pipe and fittings range in sizes from 1 1/2"
to 10". Couplings for use in joining hubless pipe and fittings
are also available in these same size ranges from the
member companies of the Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute.

DANILO V. RAVINA NAMPAP CEBU


CAST IRON SOIL PIPE (CISP): Stainless Steel Coupling for Hubless Pipe Joint

Shielded Hubless Coupling


The shielded hubless coupling for cast iron soil pipe
and fittings is a plumbing concept that provides a more
compact arrangement without sacrificing the quality and
permanence of cast iron. The illustrated design in Figure 1
shows the system typically uses a one-piece neoprene
gasket, a shield of stainless steel retaining clamps. The great
advantage of the system is that it permits joints to be made
in limited-access areas. The 300 series stainless steel, which
is often used with hubless couplings, was selected because
of its superior corrosion resistance. It is resistant to
oxidation, warping and deformation, offers rigidity under
tension with a substantial tensile strength, and yet provides
sufficient flexibility.
In the illustration shown, the shield is corrugated in order to
grip the gasket sleeve and give maximum compression
distribution. The stainless steel worm gear clamps compress
the neoprene gasket to seal the joint. The gasket absorbs
shock, vibration and completely eliminates galvanic action
between the cast iron soil pipe and the stainless steel shield.
DANILO V. RAVINA NAMPAP CEBU
PVC DWV SERIES 1000

ABS and PVC DWV piping installations shall be used in high-rise buildings, provided that its
use shall be the discretion of the Master Plumber/Designer and also with the full consent
of the owner. (Sec. 701.1.2)
ABS pipe and fittings are made from a thermoplastic resin called Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-
Styrene (ABS for short).

A polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe is made from a plastic and vinyl combination material. The
pipes are durable, hard to damage, and long lasting. A PVC pipe does not rust, rot, or wear
over time. For that reason, PVC piping is most commonly used in water systems,
underground wiring, and sewer lines.
PVC was first developed in 1925 when a BF Goodrich employee, Dr. Waldo Semon,
attempted to invent a method for bonding metal and rubber. After blending materials
together to create a strong and flexible material, Semon discovered PVC. Nonetheless, the
product remained virtually useless for another decade. In the late 1930s, PVC was found to
have great shock absorbing abilities. This discovery led to the creation of long
lasting PVC tire treads, which were created with flexible forms of PVC.
Two decades later, PVC pipe was invented. By heating the PVC material, a special machine
called an extruder could be used to push it into hollow pipes. This PVC pipe was extremely
solid and virtually indestructible. Using these pipes for irrigation systems proved to be
effective, and PVC pipe has since been considered an affordable and reliable means for
water piping. DANILO V. RAVINA NAMPAP CEBU
PVC DWV SERIES 1000

DANILO V. RAVINA NAMPAP CEBU


PIPE JOINT DETAILS
Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP - CEBU 70
Fixture Pipe Joint
Details

Danilo V. Ravina NAMPAP - CEBU 71


Section 704: FIXTURE CONNECTIONS (EXCRETA DRAINAGE)

Two fixtures set back-to-back, or side-by-side, within the distance allowed between a trap
and its vent, may be served by a single vertical drainage pipe provided that each fixture
wastes separately into an approved double fixture fitting, such as double sanitary tee or
double wye and 1/8 bend having inlet openings at the same level. (Sec. 704.2)

Double Sanitary Tee

Double Wye & 1/8 Bends

DANILO V. RAVINA NAMPAP CEBU


Section 705: CHANGES IN DIRECTION OF EXCRETA DRAINAGE FLOW

705.1 Changes in direction of drainage piping shall be made by the appropriate use of approved
fittings and shall be of the angles presented by a 22-1/2⁰ or 1/16 bend, 45⁰ or 1/8 bend, and 60⁰
or 1/6 bend, or other approved fittings of equivalent sweeps.

705.2 Horizontal drainage lines, connecting with a vertical stack, shall enter through 45 or 60
degree wye branches, combination wye and 1/8 bend branches, sanitary tee or sanitary tapped
tee branches, or other approved fittings of equivalent sweep. No fitting having more than one (1)
inlet at the same level shall be used unless such fitting is constructed so that the discharge from
one (1) inlet cannot readily enter any other inlet. Double sanitary tees may be used when the
barrel of the fitting is at least two (2) pipe sizes larger than the largest inlet, (pipe sizes recognized
for this purpose are 51, 64, 76, 89, 102, 114, 127, 152 mm, etc.)

705.3 Horizontal drainage lines connecting with other horizontal drainage lines shall enter through
45 degree wye branches, combination wye and 1/8 bend branches or other approved fittings of
equivalent sweep.

704.4 Vertical drainage lines connecting with horizontal drainage lines shall enter through forty-
five (45) degree branches or other approved fittings of equivalent sweep. Sixty (60) degree
branches or offsets may be used only when installed in a true vertical position.

DANILO V. RAVINA NAMPAP CEBU


Section 706: CLEANOUTS

706.1 Each horizontal drainage pipe shall be provided with a cleanout at its upper terminal and each run of piping,
which is more than 15 meters in total developed length shall be provided with a cleanout and at every 15 meter
length or a fraction thereof.
Exceptions:
706.1.1 Cleanouts may be omitted on a horizontal drain line less than 1.50 meter in length unless such line is serving
sinks or urinals.
706.1.2 Cleanouts may be omitted on any horizontal drainage pipe installed on a slope of seventy-two (72) degrees )
or less from the vertical angle (or an angle of 1/5 bend), and
706.1.3 An approved type of two-way cleanout fitting, installed inside the building wall near the connection
between the building drain and building sewer or installed outside of a building at the lower end of a building drain
and extended to grade, may be substituted for an upper terminal cleanout.

706.2 An additional cleanout shall be provided in a drainage line for each aggregate horizontal change of direction
exceeding one hundred and thirty-five (135) degrees .

706.3Each cleanout shall be installed so that it opens to allow cleaning in the direction of flow of the soil or waste or
at right angles thereto and, except in the case of wye branch and end-of-line cleanouts, shall be installed vertically
above the flow line of the pipe.

706.4 Each cleanout extension shall be considered as drainage piping and each ninety (90) degree cleanout
extension shall be extended from a wye type fitting or other approved fitting of equivalent sweep.

DANILO V. RAVINA NAMPAP CEBU


Section 706: CLEANOUTS
Size of Pipe (mm) Size of Cleanout (mm) Threads per 25.4 mm
40 38 11-1/2
50 38 11-1/2
65 64 8
80 64 8
100 & larger 89 8

706.7 Each cleanout in piping 51mm or less in size


shall be installed so that there is a clearance of not
less than 305mm in front of the cleanout. Cleanouts
in piping larger than 51mm shall have a clearance of
not less than 0.45 m in front of the cleanout.
Cleanouts in underfloor piping shall be extended to
or above the finished floor or shall be extended
outside the building when there is less than 0.45
meter vertical and 0.75 meter horizontal clearance
from the means of access to such cleanout.

DANILO V. RAVINA NAMPAP CEBU


SIZING OF THE DRAINAGE
PIPINGS
DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNIT (DFU)
METHOD
Section 702: FIXTURE UNIT EQUIVALENT
The Fixture Unit (F.U.) rating of plumbing fixtures shall MAXIMUM TRAP LOADINGS
be based on the size of the trap required. PIPE DFU VALUE
FIXTURE TRAP DFU SIZE
SIZE VALUE 32mm 1
BATHTUB 38mm 2
38mm 3
BIDET 38mm 2
DRINKING FOUNTAIN 31mm 1 51mm 4

FLOOR DRAIN 51mm 2 76mm 6

GREASE INTERCEPTOR 51mm 3 102mm 8


LAUNDRY TUBS 38mm 2
SHOWER (SINGLE STALL) 51mm 2 The fixture unit equivalent of fixtures and devices not
shown, shall be based on the rated discharge capacity in
SHOWER, GANG (1 UNIT/HEAD) 51mm
liters per second. For intermittent flow only.
SINK 38mm 2
Discharge Capacity DFU VALUE
SINK, COMMERCIAL 38mm 3
Up to 0.47 liter/second 1
SINK, SERVICE 51mm 3 0.50 to 0.95 liter/second 2
URINAL, WALL MOUNTED 51mm 2 1.00 to 1.89 liter/second 4
WASH BASIN/LAVATORY, PRIVATE 32mm 1 1.95 to 3.15 liter/second 6
WASH BASIN/LAVATORY, PUBLIC 38mm 2
For continuous flow into a drainage system, such as from sump
WATER CLOSET, PRIVATE 76mm 4 pump or ejector, air conditioning equipment or similar devices, 2
fixture units shall be allowed for every 0.063 L/S (1 gpm) of flow.
WATER CLOSET, PUBLIC 76mm 6
DANILO V. RAVINA NAMPAP CEBU
Section 703: SIZE OF DRAINAGE PIPING

The minimum sizes of vertical and/or horizontal drainage piping shall be determined from the total of all fixture units
connected thereto, and additionally, in the case of vertical drainage pipes, in accordance with their height or length.

1. Excluding trap arm.


2. Except sinks, urinals and dishwashers.
3. Except six-unit traps or water closets.
4. Only four (4) water closets or six-unit traps allowed on any vertical pipe or stack; and not to exceed three (3) water closets or six-unit traps on any
horizontal branch or drain.
5. Based on one-fourth (1/4) inch per foot (20.9 mm/m) slope. For one-eighth (1/8) inch per foot (10.4 mm/m) slope, multiply horizontal fixture units by
a factor of 0.8.
Note: The diameter of an individual vent shall not be less than one and one-fourth (1-1/4) inches (31.8 mm) nor less than one-half (1/2) the diameter
of the drain to which it is connected. Fixture unit load values for drainage and vent piping shall be computed from Tables 1-1 and 1-2. Not to exceed
one-third (1/3) of the total permitted length of any vent may be installed in a horizontal position. When vents are increased one (1) pipe size for their
entire length, the maximum length limitations specified in this table do not apply.
DANILO V. RAVINA NAMPAP CEBU
NEXT….