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The Old

Hume Highway
History begins with a road

Routes, towns and turnoffs on the Old Hume Highway


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Foreword

It is part of the modern dynamic that, with They were propelled not by engineers and
staggering frequency, that which was forged by bulldozers, but by a combination of the
the pioneers long ago, now bears little or no needs of different communities, and the paths
resemblance to what it has evolved into ... of least resistance.
A case in point is the rough route established Some of these towns, like Liverpool, were
by Hamilton Hume and Captain William Hovell, established in the very early colonial period,
the first white explorers to travel overland from part of the initial push by the white settlers
Sydney to the Victorian coast in 1824. They could into Aboriginal land. In 1830, Surveyor-General
not even have conceived how that route would Major Thomas Mitchell set the line of the Great
look today. Likewise for the NSW and Victorian Southern Road which was intended to tie the
governments which in 1928 named a straggling rapidly expanding pastoral frontier back to
collection of roads and tracks, rather optimistically, central authority. Towns along the way had mixed
the “Hume Highway”. And even people living fortunes – Goulburn flourished, Berrima did
in towns along the way where trucks thundered well until the railway came, and who has ever
through, up until just a couple of decades ago, heard of Murrimba? Mitchell’s road was built by
could only dream that the Hume could be convicts, and remains of their presence are most
something entirely different. visible in the sections of road, bridge, stockade
and graveyard preserved at Towrang. Most of
In fact, however, in mid-2013 the Hume really did
its travellers were pastoralists or their servants,
become something different, when the final bypass
both often former convicts, and what drew them
at Holbrook opened. In a historic achievement of
to the ‘vast southwards’ as 1850s real estate
which Australia can be justifiably proud, Sydney
agents called it was the expansive open forests
and Melbourne were finally linked by a continuous
and grasslands plains of Argyle, the Monaro and
dual carriageway highway, unbroken by traffic
the Murrumbidgee. Later the discovery of gold
lights or town speed restrictions.
made this travelling population multicultural –
And yet – let’s face it – what came with that slick European opportunists and scholars, black and
modernity was also a certain dullness too. I was white Americans, columns of Chinese diggers, as
first reminded of that late last year when, on a well as the increasing number of Australian-born
whim, I pulled off the soporific Hume to have settlers’ children seeking their own fortunes. After
lunch at Gunning. Suddenly, from being lost on gold fever there was a new wave of small-holders
bland bitumen that never changed from one drawn by the opportunities of Robertson’s land
kilometre to the next, I was back in a real town, acts, aimed at breaking up the large land-holdings
with a real history, and real people! Same with of the squatter elite. Many of them came and
Glenrowan just last month. How many people who left within a generation, while the remaining
whizz past on the Hume just 300 metres away, large pastoral and agricultural estates created
know that the place where Ned Kelly made his last the golden age of late 19th century Australian
stand is just beyond yonder clump of trees? You farming. The main streets of Albury, Gundagai,
pull off the Hume as it is now, and suddenly 1880 Yass and Goulburn are testament to how wealthy
is right there before you! rural Australia was at this time.
Anyone who has driven the old Hume, meandering The rich agriculturalists did not care for the road
from town to town, cruising down their main – they lobbied hard for the railway. The Great
streets, winding around hills, ducking under and Southern Road was left to languish, bogging
over railway lines will know its glorious secret – it bullock wagons to their axles and crippling horses.
was never a highway except in name. Rather, it New South Wales jealously guarded its economy
linked inland cities, towns, villages, hamlets and from Victorian encroachment and allowed its
dots on maps – for the early roads went not where southern roads to languish at the same time as
they should, but only where they could. investing in the rail connection back to Sydney.

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And then just before the end of the century, as the an unintended consequence best described by
colonies were beginning to think of themselves Asa Wahlquist in her excellent 1996 SMH column
as part of a greater federated whole, along came Take a byway, not a highway as ‘an increase in the
the pushbike. Truly! In all seriousness, the humble Great Divide between city and rural Australia …
pushie transformed the way that we began to the city drivers cruise benignly by, the texture of
think of roads and distance. From the 1880s rural life hidden from their gaze’.
bicycle clubs began to form, fanning out across
In making a better, faster, safer and more reliable
the landscape in search of what The Bulletin was
route between Sydney and Melbourne we have
telling them was the ‘real’ Australia. Berrima,
progressively chopped off bits of the old road
dying a slow death after being bypassed by the
alignment. These are now little billabongs of
railway line, became a favoured destination, as
history, snippets of Australia that have dodged
did many other towns. The cyclists made maps,
the pressure of early 21st century traffic. Each of
the first decent maps for any road users. Joseph
them tells a bit of a story, and in this tour guide
Pearson in NSW and the Victorian George
the NSW Roads and Maritime Services (RMS)
Broadbent were enthusiastic touring cyclists and
has asked the locals to tell us what is important
both developed major map publishing enterprises
about the history of their area. Each little piece – a
well before cars appeared. They lobbied for
town bypass, a section of winding road, a historic
improvements to roads and signage – in 1903
bridge, a hilly ascent – is part of the bigger story
Broadbent was one of the founding members
of the Hume and southeastern Australia.
of the Royal Automobile Club of Victoria – and
improved the conditions for the first motorists. RMS and its ancestors the Roads and Traffic
Authority and the Department of Main Roads
By the 20th century cars were beginning to take
have built an engineering marvel of which we
over, offering freedom, speed and adventure.
can be very proud. It’s quick and it’s safe, but this
A straggling line of roads between Sydney
guide book encourages those with some spare
and Melbourne was dedicated as the Hume
time to venture into an older world where travel
Highway a century after Hume and Hovell’s trek.
was an experience, not to be rushed, and where
Improvements were slow in coming, despite more
you felt part of the surroundings, for better or
people owning cars, and trucks becoming heavier
worse. Take this book, get your navigator to
and carrying a greater share of freight. Although
guide you off the highway, and rediscover country
drivers had long given up scarves and goggles,
bakeries and cafes, old homesteads, convict
some sections of the road were unsealed until
handiwork, colonial architecture, coaching inns
1940, and other sections were narrow, steep and
and countless other delights. You can start with
winding two-lane road. Petrol stations sprang up
Gunning’s Merino Café ...
along the route, testament to the risks of taking
on such a journey without a mechanic at regular I commend this book to you, and am honoured to
intervals. Travellers became essential to the write its foreword.
livelihood of many towns.
Fast-forward to the present. The Hume is a dual
carriageway ribbon of engineered concrete and
steel, and after leaving Sydney it now avoids
all towns. Some of these towns have benefited
from the removal of through traffic; for others
the jury is still out. We can now travel more than
a hundred kilometres every hour, once a week’s
slog for a loaded bullock wagon. And we do it in
climate-controlled steel cocoons with the music
of our choice in the background. (Dylan, seeing as Peter FitzSimons
you ask.) We no longer have to stop because our Neutral Bay, May 2013
engine has exploded, a herd of cattle is blocking
the road or to find our way. That’s great progress
but we’ve lost touch with the experience of travel,
the scent of the bush, and the taste of country
baking. As the road has been improved, it has had

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About this self-guided tour
Linking the nation’s two largest state capitals, the Fortunately, however, many sections of the old
Hume Highway is the most important highway in road alignment remain in active use today. Some
Australia. With the opening of the Holbrook Bypass former sections now form one of the carriageways
in 2013, the route completed its evolution from its of the new dual carriageway road (eg north of
bullock track origins into a modern dual carriageway Goulburn; south of Tarcutta) while other sections
highway. are important regional roads serving now-bypassed
towns and cities (eg Goulburn, Yass, Albury).
The Hume Highway has its own rich history,
interwoven into the story of the young Colony’s This self-guided tour identifies a selection of those
expansion. Its development charts the economic sections of the former Hume Highway that offer an
growth of the nation, particularly since World War insight into the motoring experience of yesteryear,
Two. Many will recall travelling on the highway in and are easily and safely accessible from the new
times past, when it passed through the numerous highway. The guide leads the motorist through
historic towns and localities along the way, each the interesting and historic towns along the way,
with its own interesting story to tell. highlighting items of historical interest. Historical
information on the towns and localities along
This self-guided tour has been prepared to raise
the route of the Old Hume Highway has been
awareness and appreciation of the historical
provided by the Royal Australian Historical Society
significance of the former highway route, and
and its local member societies.
the history of the towns, localities and features
along its 570 km length within NSW, from Ashfield It should be noted that, due to turn restrictions
to the Victorian border. It will allow travellers and one-way sections at some locations, the
to experience some of the travel conditions of northbound route is slightly different to the
yesteryear, and again enjoy the delights of the southbound. For that reason, separate maps and
charming and historic towns along the way. turning instructions are provided in this guide for
each travel direction.
The route of the Hume Highway has changed
many times over its long history. For the purposes Travellers are also encouraged to visit the towns
of this guide, the route that existed at about the and localities in Victoria previously traversed by
time of World War Two has been selected, as it the Old Hume Highway. They include Wodonga,
coincides with the completion of the sealing of Barnawartha, Chiltern, Springhurst, Wangaratta,
the route (1940) and commencement of the era Glenrowan, Winton, Benalla, Baddaginnie, Violet
of rapid expansion in car ownership and use. Town, Balmattum, Euroa, Creighton, Longwood,
However, the locations of the original route, when Avenel, Mangalore, Seymour, Tallarook,
it was variously known as the Great Southern Broadford, Kilmore, Bylands, Wallan, Beveridge
Road, Argyle Road, Port Phillip Road and Sydney and Kalkallo.
Road, are also shown where appropriate.
Many of the former sections of the road no longer
exist, having been obliterated by subsequent Extreme caution should
works or reclaimed by their surroundings. Other
sections are no longer public roads or now exist
be exercised when turning
solely for local access, sometimes ending at onto or off the busy
locked property gates. Similarly, some remnant
sections are very short, difficult to access, in
Hume Highway at the
generally poor condition and of little historical designated turn points.
interest. Such portions of the old highway have
not been included in this guide although some
have kept their name on local signage and are
often visible beside the new route.
View map
Roads and Maritime Services NSW

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The Old Hume Highway

History begins with a road

Section 6
Section 7

Bookham Bowning
Section 8
Coolac Jugiong Yass

Gundagai
Section 9
Tumblong
Tarcutta

Kyeamba

Little Billabong
Section 10
Holbrook
Woomargama

Bowna
Albury

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Section 1

Liverpool Ashfield
Section 2
Narellan Campbelltown
Picton
Section 3 Bargo
Section 4
Section 5 Belanglo Mittagong
Bowral
Sutton Forest
Cullerin Towrang
Marulan
Gunning Goulburn

Southbound Northbound
Ashfield to Albury Albury to Ashfield
Section 1 Section 10
Ashfield to Carnes Hill Page 16 Albury to Holbrook Page 102
Section 2 Section 9
Carnes Hill to Bargo Page 22 Holbrook to Tarcutta Page 104
Section 3 Section 8
Bargo to Sutton Forest Page 32 Tarcutta to Coolac Page 106
Section 4 Section 7
Sutton Forest to Yarra Page 44 Coolac to Bowning Page 108
Section 5 Section 6
Yarra to Gunning Page 54 Bowning to Gunning Page 110
Section 6 Section 5
Gunning to Bowning Page 62 Gunning to Yarra Page 112
Section 7 Section 4
Bowning to Coolac Page 70 Yarra to Sutton Forest Page 114
Section 8 Section 3
Coolac to Tarcutta Page 76 Sutton Forest to Bargo Page 116
Section 9 Section 2
Tarcutta to Holbrook Page 84 Bargo to Carnes Hill Page 118
Section 10 Section 1
Holbrook to Albury Page 90 Carnes Hill to Ashfield Page 120
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History begins with a road

MAP INSIDE

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History of the Great Southern Road
– Hume Highway
Prior to 1928 the Hume Highway was known as the first exploration party overland for Port Phillip
the Great Southern Road, Argyle Road and also as in Victoria, and much of the present highway route
Port Phillip Road and Sydney Road in the southern is along the path followed by Hume. Hamilton
areas of NSW. In 1928 the NSW Main Roads Board Hume was born near Parramatta on 19 June 1797,
adopted the principle of giving each important his parents having been amongst the earliest
State Highway the same name throughout its settlers in the Colony. In his early days he was
length. After consultation with the Country hardy and athletic, and grew up with Aboriginal
Roads Board of Victoria (which had previously friends from whom he learned his indispensable
used the name North Eastern Highway for the bushcraft skills. In addition to his exploration
route), it renamed the inland road from Sydney to between Sydney and Port Phillip, he is also
Melbourne as the Hume Highway. associated with other noteworthy explorations,
particularly in the western portion of NSW with
The name was a tribute to Hamilton Hume who,
Charles Sturt in 1828. He died on 19 April 1873
together with William Hilton Hovell, in 1824 led
at his home, Cooma Cottage, near Yass. He is
buried alongside his wife Elizabeth in the Anglican
section of Yass Cemetery. His exploration partner
William Hilton Hovell died on 9 November 1875
aged 90 and is buried in St Saviour’s cemetery in
Goulburn.

Early explorations
In the first twenty years after European settlement
at Sydney Cove in 1788, exploration to the
southwest was slow. This area was heavily wooded
at the time, especially the ‘Bargo brush’ which
was regarded as almost impenetrable. In 1798
explorers Wilson, Price, Hacking, and Collins
Lansdowne Bridge, opened 26 January 1836 reached the Moss Vale and Marulan districts,

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History of the Hume Highway

Surveyor General Inn, Berrima

but this was not followed up. Settlement of this In the early 1920s the road between Cross Roads,
area would have to await the construction of an Campbelltown and Narellan was also improved, and
adequate access track, which was beyond the for some years carried the main traffic to the south.
Colony’s resources at the time.
Hume was one of the earliest explorers of the
Soon after Sydney Cove was settled, the Colony’s area between Liverpool and Goulburn. In 1814 he
small but precious cattle stock consisting of two discovered a tract of country north of Goulburn
bulls and four cows strayed and were lost. In 1795 which was named ‘Argyle’. On 3 March 1818
the cattle, now numbering 60 head, were found to he accompanied Surveyor James Meehan and
the south of Sydney near Camden, then known as Charles Throsby (who in 1804 had penetrated
‘The Cowpastures’. They were protected by order through the Bargo brush to the tablelands country
of the Government and no settlement was allowed near Moss Vale and Sutton Forest) on a journey to
beyond this point. By 1802 some 600 cattle were determine if an overland route between Sydney
sighted near what is now Picton. Increasing herds and Jervis Bay could be found. They proceeded as
of better bred cattle were placing pressure on far as the site of Moss Vale, then on a line to the
the carrying capacity of the Cumberland Plain. north of the present route of the Hume Highway,
A number of settlers, in search of more pasture
for their stock, brought their cattle beyond The
Cowpastures, leading Governor Macquarie in
1820 to officially sanction settlement in the area
now known as the Southern Highlands.
During the early 1800s, the southern route from
Sydney Cove passed though Parramatta and
Prospect, then turned south via Carnes Hill and
Narellan, as those localities came to be called, to
the Camden area. Later a route was developed
from Sydney via Liverpool and Cross Roads to
Carnes Hill, and this became the principal avenue
for traffic southwards. Abandoned section of the Old Hume Highway north of Marulan

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which they reached at Marulan. From there they
travelled south, to the east of Bungonia and to the Early surveys
west of Lake Bathurst, making the return journey The earliest survey of the route of the future Hume
to the south of where Goulburn now stands. Highway appears to have been carried out by
After that journey, development of the Southern William Harper in 1821. His field books contain
Tablelands for grazing was rapid. details of a traverse from the Nepean River near
With the extension of settlement from Sydney Camden, over the Razorback Range and on to
to the west and south, the Governor Sir Thomas the Wollondilly River near Paddys River. In 1826 a
Brisbane supported the 1824 Hume and survey was carried out by Surveyor Ralfe further
Hovell expedition to gather information on the south over the Cookbundoon Range, continuing
unexplored territory between Sydney and the until it intersected the Wollondilly River near
southern coast of what is now Victoria. Hovell Breadalbane.
resided at ‘Naralling’ (from which Narellan later A letter dated 21 July 1829 from the Colonial
took its name), where he had obtained a grant Secretary to the Surveyor-General Major
of land in 1821. The party set out from Appin on Thomas Mitchell refers to the line of the road
3 October 1824 and over ten days travelled via in use through the Argyle district being from
Picton, Bong Bong and Breadalbane to Hume’s Campbelltown to Menangle Ford, then from
property near Lake George, then the furthermost Stonequarry Creek (later Picton) to Myrtle Creek
outpost of white settlement. They then proceeded (near Tahmoor), and on to Bargo and Lupton’s
to Yass Plains, crossing the Goodradigbee River Inn (just south of Bargo) – this route thus did not
after being delayed by a flood, and entered pass over the Razorback Range. The route then
unexplored and mountainous country. They crossed the Mittagong Range to the township
passed close to the site of the present town of of Bong Bong, and from there to the bridge at
Tumut, and on 16 November 1824 reached the Paddys River before reaching Barbers Creek (later
bank of a large river which they named Hume Tallong), a distance of 108 kms from Menangle
River (after Hume’s father; it was later renamed Ford. Much of this was Throsby and Meehan’s line,
Murray River) near the site of the current Hume which forked at Sutton Forest to follow the top
Weir. The journey ended on the western side of of the Shoalhaven gorge. The route previously
Port Phillip near the site of the present city of envisaged over the Razorback Range was however
Geelong. The route of Hume and Hovell’s party not abandoned; in 1829 Surveyor H. F. White
thus followed to a considerable degree the was instructed to make a detailed survey of the
general route of the present Hume Highway.

The Old Hume Highway THEN The Old Hume Highway NOW

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History of the Hume Highway

Razorback Hills, and to identify a line of road


through the area.
On 26 March 1830 Mitchell reported that, in
accordance with the Governor’s instructions, a
line of road had been marked. Mitchell envisaged
this line to become the third of the three great
roads of the Colony, along with the Northern and
Western roads. This line followed the existing
route via Campbelltown as far as Lupton’s Inn.
Between there and Little Forest (just east of the
current village of Alpine) the previous line was
straightened with a slight saving in distance. But Old Hume Highway east of Yass, 1949
south of Little Forest a considerable alteration in
the existing route was made. The new line left Mitchell’s new line did not cross the Razorback
the old track at Little Forest Hill and ‘although it Range. However, a line for a road across the
was somewhat tortuous, the ascent to favourable range was determined after Surveyor White’s
ground was easy, and this ground could not be survey and an inspection by the Commissioners
reached by any other manner.’ The new line for partitioning the Territory. Many objections
continued to the north of the old track, avoiding to this route were raised in the press and it was
the Mittagong range, and passed through Bowral also opposed by Mitchell himself, to no avail.
to Berrima, where Mitchell reported favourable He argued that the suggested route was not in
conditions for the construction of a bridge. the proper location to serve the Argyle district.
The line then went southwards along almost flat Ironically the current Hume Highway follows
Mitchell’s line closely to avoid the Razorback.
Those interested in further information on early
routes of the Great Southern Road are referred
to two self-guided tour brochures – Southern
Highlands Heritage Drives and The Great South
Road - available in the Environment – Heritage
section of the Roads and Maritime Services
website at www.rms.nsw.gov.au/tourguides

Early construction work


The first definitive record of a road being
“The cut” on the completed Tumblong to Tarcutta Deviation, 1941 constructed from Sydney to the south is the
construction of a section between Sydney and
Liverpool by William Roberts, which was opened
country to Black Bobs Creek, immediately north
on 22 March 1814.
of the existing track to Goulburn. It crossed the
Old Argyle Road at Hoddles Corner, then crossed In 1818 Hume and Meehan disclosed the
Paddys River at Murrimba and proceeded via existence of promising lands to the south, and
Marulan to Towrang, where it rejoined the old line. Governor Macquarie encouraged settlement
The saving in road length by adopting Mitchell’s in the new country. A new road was necessary,
new line was 36 kms, and it dispensed with the and this was constructed by convict labour. The
need for two crossings over the Wollondilly River. earliest reference to this road is in a letter from
This relocation of the route also brought to an the Governor to Commissary-General Drennan
end the brief life of the small settlement of Bong dated 9 September 1819, where instructions were
Bong. Bong Bong had been the site of a police given for ‘the construction of a cart road through
lockup, Bowman’s Inn and veteran’s grants. These the country as far as the settlement about to be
were lots granted to British soldiers who were established there’. The work was commenced
envisaged by Governor Darling to become land- the following month and completed in February
based yeomanry to bring civilization to the bush, 1821. The length of the road was 121 kms, and its
and form a militia to support the police. average width 10 metres, although only a single

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Construction of overpass north of Bargo in 1967, which replaced the last remaining single lane bridge on the Hume Highway

cart width may have been properly cleared of 33.5-metre stone arch bridge which was erected
stumps and rocks. The road crossed the Bargo by convict labour. The stone was quarried 11 kms
River, passed over the Mittagong Range then downstream on the banks of Georges River and
crossed the Wingecarribee River near Bong Bong, conveyed to the site by punt. The foundation
passing through what are now Moss Vale and stone was laid by the Governor on 1 January 1834
Sutton Forest. It then went west across Paddys and the bridge was opened on 26 January 1836.
River on a low level bridge, and a short distance This fine structure, the most intact example of all
further on crossed the Wollondilly River. It then Lennox’s bridges, remains in use today carrying
ran through Arthursleigh, an early land grant, traffic northward to Sydney.
then to Greenwich Park and on a rugged climb
Approval was given in 1832 for the construction
(Wild’s Pass) across the Cookbundoon Range.
of the road on the new line surveyed by Mitchell
The main route then travelled north towards
in 1830. There are no definitive records as to
Bathurst, while the southern arm appears to have
the order in which the roadworks were carried
reached the Wollondilly River again at what is
out, but there are records of the bridges built by
now Throsbys Ford (near Towrang). This route had
Lennox along the way. In 1833 he was instructed to
several lengths of steep grade, many river and
construct a bridge over the Wingecarribee River at
creek crossings and poor construction quality, and
Berrima, and after a delayed commencement it was
by 1822 a new route along the south bank of the
completed in June 1836. It was designed on the
Wollondilly River (Riley’s Road) had been adopted.
In 1832 Mitchell’s attention turned to planning
the construction of new roads and better stream
crossings. One day while walking along Macquarie
Street in Sydney, he saw a worker cutting stone for
the low wall in front of the Legislative Assembly
building. That man was David Lennox, who later
became Superintendent of Bridges. Lennox
was born in Ayr, Scotland in 1788 and worked
in various roles on major bridges there before
arriving in Sydney in 1832. After earlier bridges at
Prospect Creek, Lansdowne had been destroyed
by flood, Lennox designed a single-span Old Hume Highway scene, Alpine

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History of the Hume Highway

lines of the Lansdowne Bridge with an arch span of


15.3m, but was destroyed by a flood in 1860.
On 23 January 1834 Lennox reported having laid
out the site of a bridge on the main southern
road at the crossing of Midway Rivulet, 5 kms
south of Berrima. A timber bridge supported by
three masonry piers was completed in 1835. Also
in 1834 Lennox laid out the site of a bridge at
Black Bobs Creek, 12 kms south of Berrima. This
bridge was replaced in 1860 and again in 1896.
The 1896 structure was the first unreinforced
concrete arch bridge built in NSW, and is still
standing today. It is accessible on foot at the rear
of the Mackey VC Rest Area, located north of the Climbing Jugiong Hill, 1947
Illawarra Highway junction.
A grand masonry arch bridge was also constructed the Hume & Hovell route, and this became the
over Towrang Creek in 1839. This structure and a main traffic line; the early overlanders talking
short length of the original main southern road, about following the ruts of Mitchell’s wagons
including six culverts, is visible in the area adjacent across the riverine plains.
to Derrick VC Rest Area north of Goulburn. By 1847 the main southern road passed through
The land that Mitchell’s line of road passed Goulburn and Yass. The Yass River was bridged by
through was largely taken up with land grants, and a structure completed by Lennox in 1854. A track
it managed to miss the few small administrative then continued through Bookham, Jugiong and
centres at Bong Bong and Inverary. Mitchell Coolac to Gundagai, where the Murrumbidgee
instructed his surveyors to lay out towns along River was crossed by a ford. Prior to a great flood
the route, and the new settlements were Berrima, in 1852, the township of Gundagai was located
Murrimba, Marulan and Bungonia, while Goulburn on the wide flat on the northern bank. The flood
was drastically re-planned. Some towns developed destroyed the original town with the loss of 89
into thriving communities, while others such as lives and as a consequence the settlement was
Murrimba struggled. For travellers they were transferred to higher ground. Prince Alfred Bridge
somewhere to have a drink, a sleep, get the horse over the Murrumbidgee River was opened in
shod and to catch up on all-important gossip 1867, and was the first iron truss road bridge to be
about road conditions and bushranging. built in NSW. Together with the timber viaduct on
its northern approach it was, at 922m, the longest
From the 1860s, the arrival of the railway again bridge in NSW until the opening of the Sydney
favoured some towns with a new lifeline and Harbour Bridge in 1932. When Sheahan Bridge
relegated others such as Berrima to obscurity. on the Gundagai Bypass opened in 1977, Prince
These struggling towns were seen in a different Alfred Bridge reverted to a local access role and
light in the 1950s, when private car ownership this State Significant structure remains in service
rediscovered them, not as abandoned today, connecting South Gundagai to Gundagai
settlements, but intact remnants of a lost via a road across the floodplain. The historic
Australian heritage. timber viaduct is now closed to both vehicular and
Mitchell’s Great Southern Road forked at pedestrian traffic.
Marulan, and one branch followed the top of The track then followed the southern bank of the
the escarpment to Bungonia, while the other river to Jones’ Inn, some 32 kms from Gundagai,
arm veered west to Goulburn. At the time he passing through Mundarlo (well to the west of the
laid it out, Mitchell was uncertain about which current highway), turning southwards to Tarcutta
direction would take off. He hoped for an easy and then running generally in a south-westerly
passage down the escarpment, which was never direction through Kyeamba Station and over
to be found, while in the 1830s the great pastoral Kyeamba Range to Garryowen and Germanton
occupation of south-eastern Australia was gaining (now Holbrook), then via Bowna to Albury. At this
momentum. Mitchell later followed and surveyed time the route was merely a track serving local

The Old Hume Highway – History begins with a road 7

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Old Hume Highway south of Gundagai, 1951

holdings, although much of the route south of In 1933 the Table Top deviation of the Hume
Tarcutta is along the same general alignment as Highway between Ettamogah and Mullengandra
that of today’s highway. opened. This major deviation was necessitated by
the construction of the Hume Dam on the Murray
The control of the main southern road was
River, which created Lake Hume and inundated
assumed by the Department of Public Works
the former highway route.
in 1861. At that time a fair amount of gravel
surfacing had been carried out between Sydney During the Depression years from the late
and Goulburn, although the surface was not good. 1920s several projects on the Hume Highway
From Goulburn to Albury very little construction were funded by the Unemployment Relief
work had been undertaken. The southward Works Program, which funded a wide range of
expansion of the rail system during the 1860s capital works aimed at providing work for the
and 1870s lessened the need for the road to be unemployed. Examples on the Hume Highway
improved, and its development slowed. include the Governors Hill Deviation at north
Goulburn, the Tumblong-Tarcutta deviation and
The motor car era the Razorback deviation. As a result of these
projects, the Hume Highway had by 1940 been
The Shires Act of 1905 transferred the care and sealed over its full length in NSW, and similarly
control of public roads to local councils. With the through Victoria to Melbourne.
passing of the Main Roads Act in 1924, the Great
Southern Road became eligible for assistance from
Main Roads funds from the State Government.
In Government Gazette No 110 dated 17 August
1928 it was proclaimed a State Highway and
named in honour of Hamilton Hume.
The motor car era began half a century before
personal car ownership became common. Apart
from trucks, most travel was by coach, taking over
from the stage coach runs of the 19th Century.
Horses remained common, as did travelling stock.
Early in the motor car era the Hume Highway
became the setting for unauthorized speed trials.
These events ran from 1905 until ended by police
pressure in the mid-1930s. At that time, the
record for the ‘Sydney to Melbourne Run’ had
progressively dropped to 8 hours and 56 minutes. Constructing Sheahan Bridge at Gundagai, 1976

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History of the Hume Highway

reflecting the generally poor standard of all roads


at that time. However, during the 1960s there
was a growing recognition that development of
the nation’s primary roads like the Hume Highway
was not keeping up with community expectations.
The National Roads Act created the National
Highway system, and marked the beginning of
100% Federal funding for the construction and
maintenance of the nation’s major intercapital
highway routes. An ambitious program of highway
Remembrance Driveway sign, south of Mittagong duplications, town bypasses and deviations
commenced along the Hume’s length, and much
In the early 1950s, the northern section of the construction activity followed in the 1980s and
highway started to change its appearance. In 1990s within NSW and Victoria.
1952 Margaret Davis, President of the Garden
Clubs of Australia, and a group of interested Notable projects in NSW were bypasses of
citizens formed a committee under retired Army Gundagai (1977), Marulan (1986), Berrima (1989),
Lt-General Sir Frank Berryman to create a living Mittagong (1992), Goulburn (1992), Yass (1994)
memorial to those who had served in World War and Jugiong (1995), and major deviations between
Two. They were inspired by the US ‘Blue Star Campbelltown and Yanderra (1980), at Tumblong
Highways’ which had been promoted by Garden (1984) and Cullarin Range (1993). In later years
Clubs of America. That name referred to the blue major bypasses were built at Albury (2007) and
star that was hung in the front windows of houses Coolac (2009), and 67 kms of duplicated highway
where a family member was serving in World War between the Sturt Highway interchange and Table
One; if that person was killed in conflict the blue Top was opened in 2009.
star was changed to a gold star. The histories of individual towns in this guide have
NSW Premier J.J. Cahill officially launched the been written by enthusiastic local historians, and
Remembrance Driveway scheme in late 1953. vividly describe the vast changes that this program
On 5 February 1954 the Queen and the Duke of roadworks has had on their communities.
of Edinburgh planted trees at either end of With the opening of bypasses of Tarcutta and
the Driveway at the Australian War Memorial, Woomargama in 2011, and Holbrook in 2013, the
Canberra, and in Macquarie Place, Sydney. By Hume Highway completed its evolution into the
June 1959, 10,000 trees had been planted in modern high-standard road that we see today,
avenues or groves along the route. When the M5 a major freight route and a critical part of the
Motorway was declared as the Hume Highway nation’s transportation infrastructure. It forms a
route south of Liverpool, it became the focus permanent and fitting memorial to the intrepid
for tree planting. Since the mid 1990s the rest Australian-born explorer Hamilton Hume.
areas along the Driveway have been dedicated to
recipients of the Victoria Cross from World War
Two and Vietnam, and this tradition continues.
Another major event in the history of the Hume
Highway occurred on 17 March 1967, when
the last single-lane bridge on the route was
eliminated with the opening of the 191 metre
bridge over the Bargo River and Main Southern
Railway Line between Tahmoor and Bargo.
1974 saw probably the most significant milestone
in the evolution of the Hume Highway, with
the passing of the National Roads Act. While
the Federal government had been providing
roadworks grants to the states since the early
1920s, the funds were generally provided over
many classes of roads, both urban and rural,

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Great Southern Road –
Hume Highway
Chronology of key events

19 June 1797: Hamilton Hume born near 1818: Hamilton Hume and Surveyor James
Parramatta. Meehan surveyed the area between Liverpool,
Moss Vale, Marulan, Lake Bathurst and Goulburn
1805: The first road leading southward from (‘Goulburn Plains’).
Sydney went west to Parramatta then via the Old
Cowpastures Road from Prospect to Carnes Hill, 9 September 1819: Governor Macquarie
then continued to Narellan and Nepean Crossing ordered the construction of a ‘cart road’ to the
(Camden). It was surveyed by James Meehan. Goulburn area. The work was completed in
February 1821. It ran through Bong Bong, what is
7 November 1810: Liverpool named by now Moss Vale and Sutton Forest, to Arthursleigh
Governor Macquarie. and Greenwich Park.

22 February 1814: Governor Macquarie opened 1820: New township of Campbelltown laid out.
the new road between Sydney and Liverpool,
constructed by William Roberts. 1820: Governor Macquarie chose a site for a
village at the Stonequarry Creek (later Picton).
August 1814: Hamilton Hume and his younger
brother John became the first white men to cross 1820: Sutton Forest named.
the Razorback Range from Appin to Stonequarry
(later Picton). June 1821: Surveyor William Harper identified
a route from near Camden, over the Razorback
1816: William Hovell received a grant of 700 acres Range to Paddys River. Surveyor White marked
of land known as ‘Naralling’ (later Narellan). an improved route via Cawdor in 1830.

1822: First land grant in the Bargo area.

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Chronology of key events

3 October 1824: With the support of Governor 1835: Completion of convict-built road over
Sir Thomas Brisbane, Hamilton Hume and William Razorback Range. Planning commenced for a link
Hilton Hovell began their southward exploration between Campbelltown and Camden via Narellan,
from Appin. They crossed the Hume (later Murray) as part of the Great Southern Road.
River on 20 November 1824 and reached the coast
near Geelong on 16 December 1824. 26 January 1836: Lennox’s stone arch bridge over
Prospect Creek, Lansdowne opened. This bridge is
1826: Surveyor Ralfe surveyed the area still in use.
between Cookbundoon Range north of Marulan,
to Breadalbane. 1836: Tarcutta first settled.

August 1826: Completion of the timber 1836-1842: Towrang Stockade in use, housing up
Cowpasture Bridge over the Nepean River to 250 convicts engaged in the construction of the
at Camden. Its removable handrails helped it Great Southern Road.
withstand a significant flood in October 1826.
It was replaced in 1861. 4 March 1837: Yass gazetted.

1827: Surveyor-General John Oxley and Assistant 1838: Gundagai established. Albury declared the
Surveyor Robert Hoddle surveyed the site of the official Murray River crossing place.
village of Narellan.
1839: Stone arch bridge at Towrang Creek opened
1828: Surveyor-General Major Thomas Livingstone (accessible via the Derrick VC Rest Area).
Mitchell laid out the first township of Goulburn
Plains. In 1832 Governor Bourke chose a site 1840: Camden established.
slightly to the south, and named it Goulburn.
1841: An area near Stonequarry Creek named
January 1829: The Commissioners for Picton, after Sir Thomas Picton.
Apportioning the Territory reported that a route via
Razorback Range would be preferable to a route June 1856: Completion of bridge over the
via Menangle Road. This decision was opposed Nepean River at Menangle.
by Surveyor-General Mitchell, who in 1830
June 1858: The Great Southern Road, from near
identified a new straight route via Campbelltown
Sydney through Goulburn and Gundagai to Albury,
and Menangle to Stonequarry (Picton) and Bargo,
proclaimed under the Main Roads Management
avoiding the Razorback Range. It continued south
Act as one of the three main roads in the Colony.
via what would become Bowral and Berrima, to
Towrang. Approval to construct this route was
1861: Department of Public Works assumes
given in June 1832.
control of the main southern road.
1829: Berrima founded. Surveyor Hoddle’s plan
1862: Site selected for village of Coolac.
for the town was approved by Governor Darling
in 1831. 1867: Prince Alfred Bridge over the
Murrumbidgee River at Gundagai opened. It was
1829: First bridge constructed over Stonequarry
the first iron truss road bridge to be built in NSW
Creek (Picton). It was destroyed by floods and
and remains in use.
replaced in 1834.
February 1867: Railway opened to Mittagong.
1833: Lupton’s Inn established, just south of the
present town of Bargo. 6 August 1868: Railway opened to Marulan.
1833: Jolly Miller Inn opened at Paddys River 27 May 1869: Railway opened to Goulburn.
(Murrimba)
19 April 1873: Death of Hamilton Hume at his
1833 – 1836: David Lennox constructed several home Cooma Cottage, east of Yass.
bridges on the Mitchell route.
9 November 1875: Death of William Hovell.

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Great Southern Road – Hume Highway

3 July 1876: Railway opened to Yass Junction. 1920s: Major deviation constructed at Mundoonen
Range (Gunning Gap).
3 February 1881: Railway extended south to
Albury. The broad gauge rail line from Melbourne 1926: Construction of the link between Cross
reached Albury two years later. Roads and the Cowpastures Road near Leppington
was commenced. This section ultimately became
14 June 1884: Mr A. Edward completed the first the route of the Hume Highway and now forms
bicycle ride from Sydney to Melbourne, having part of Camden Valley Way.
started on 23 May.
May 1927: Transfer of the seat of the Government
March 1885: Woomargama village proclaimed. of the Commonwealth to Canberra adds to the
significance of the Hume Highway.
28 October 1890: Tarcutta village proclaimed.
17 August 1928: Government Gazette No. 110
1896: Concrete arch bridge at Black Bobs Creek proclaimed the Great Southern Road as a State
opened, a very early example of this then- Highway, giving it the name ‘Hume or Great
innovative bridge building material. No longer in Southern Highway’. The proclaimed route was
use, it is accessible on foot from the Mackey VC via Liverpool, Cross Roads, Carnes Hill, Camden,
Rest Area. Menangle Road and Picton.

May 1900: Melbourne mechanic Herbert Thomson November 1929: Razorback Range deviation
completed the first vehicular trip between Sydney completed, superseding the section via Cawdor.
and Melbourne (via Bathurst), in a kerosene-
powered vehicle he had constructed himself. 1930: Don Robertson lowered the Melbourne-
Sydney intercapital record to 10 hours and
1905: Shires Act passed control of public roads to 5 minutes. It later dropped further to 8 hours and
local government Councils. 56 minutes. Two motorists were killed in a later
record attempt, and in the mid-1930s NSW Police
31 December 1906: Great Southern Road was issued regulations outlawing record attempts on
proclaimed a main road, described simply as public roads.
‘Ashfield Cross Roads to Albury’.
Early 1930s: Concrete pavement works completed
1920: Highway route through Cullarin Range on the Marulan section from Mt. Otway to Marulan
transferred to an abandoned section of the South and between the Sydney water supply
Main Southern Railway. channel (Carnes Hill) and Narellan. Width was 20 ft
(6.1 m)
1922: The song ‘The Road to Gundagai’ by
Jack O’Hagan first published. 1931: Lorry checking station built at Marulan.
11 January 1924: Great Southern Road was again 1932: Dog on the Tucker Box monument erected
proclaimed a main road, with a more detailed north of Gundagai.
description of the route. The proclaimed route
was via Liverpool, Campbelltown, Kennys Hill and June 1933: 2 km Governors Hill deviation at north
Camden, with an alternative loop via Liverpool, Goulburn opened. Constructed by unemployed
Cross Roads and Narellan. The longer route via relief labour, it removed a section of 10% gradient.
Campbelltown was reconstructed during 1924 and
was the preferred route for a short time. 1933: Table Top deviation between Ettamogah
and Mullengandra opened. This deviation was
17 October 1924: Unveiling of monument to made necessary by the construction of the Hume
Hume and Hovell at Fish River near Gunning, Weir on the Murray River, which inundated the
marking the centenary of the commencement of former highway route.
their expedition from that location.
1936: Following work on the Federal Highway
1 January 1925: Main Roads Board takes control north of Lake George, the route between Sydney
of the Great Southern Road. and Canberra was now fully sealed.

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Chronology of key events

December 1938: Jugiong Hill Deviation opened. 1954/55: Route 31 signs erected over the full
length of the Hume Highway, as part of a national
13 April 1938: Opening of railway overbridge at route numbering scheme for major roads.
Warwick Farm, which eliminated a level crossing on
a poor alignment. 1956/57: Planning for a freeway standard route
between Sydney and Mittagong commenced.
23 December 1938: First (northern) stage
of Tumblong-Tarcutta deviation opened. The 18 December 1957: New bridge over Prospect
complete 34 km deviation via Sylvias Gap, partly Creek opened at Lansdowne. It was designed
funded under the Unemployment Relief Works with the same rise and span as the 1836 Lennox­
Program, opened in 1940 and reduced the highway designed arch bridge parallel to it.
length by 14 kms. It included the Hillas Creek
concrete bowstring arch bridge, just west of the December 1958: New truck weigh station (40 ton
current Snowy Mountains Highway interchange. It capacity) built at Marulan. Replaced in 1970/71.
is one of only two such bridges built in NSW, the
other being at Shark Creek near Maclean. 1959: First curve advisory speed signs in NSW
trialled on the Hume Highway between Camden
Mid-1939: 95% (557 km) of the Hume Highway and Berrima. Later extended to other roads.
now sealed with a bitumous surface.
1960: A pavement width of 24 ft (7.3m) adopted
1940: Hume Highway now fully sealed, following for the key State Highways including the Hume
sealing work near Tarcutta. Highway. The first permanent traffic counters on
the Hume Highway installed.
1942: Construction of Ten Mile Creek Bridge
at Holbrook. 7 April 1961: Union Bridge over the Murray River
opened.
June 1951: New bridge over Cabramatta Creek
opened. 1961/62: Hume Highway rerouted in Albury
(via Hume Street and an extended Young St) to
1951: Planning for the F5 Freeway (South Western avoid the town centre.
Fwy) commenced.
2 January 1962: Completion of standardisation
1953/54: Construction of first public weighbridge of the Sydney-Melbourne railway gauge ends the
(80 ton capacity) on the Hume Highway, at practice of transhipment of railway freight at Albury.
Chullora. It issued permits for road haulage of A study indicated that the number of heavy vehicles
goods on journeys over 50 miles in length, in on the Hume Highway dropped 3.8% as a result.
competition with rail.
December 1962: Opening of the ‘Meccano set’,
1954: Breadalbane to Cullerin deviation opened, a major set of overhead traffic signs and signals at
eliminating two level crossings on the Main the intersection of Woodville Road , Henry Lawson
Southern Railway line. Drive and the Hume Highway.

5 February 1954: Commencement of the 1963: Closure of the Campbelltown-Camden


Remembrance Driveway project, a living memorial tramway eliminated two level crossings at Narellan.
of groves and plantings dedicated to World
War Two servicemen. The Queen and the Duke June 1963: New deviation north of Mittagong
of Edinburgh planted trees at either end of the opened, eliminating the ‘Drabbles’ and ‘Maltings’
Driveway at the War Memorial, Canberra and in bridges over the Main Southern Railway.
Macquarie Place, Sydney. In the mid-1990s the
rest areas along the Driveway were dedicated to 3 July 1965: New bridge opened at Jugiong
recipients of the Victoria Cross from World War Creek, replacing a single-lane bridge.
Two and Vietnam.
1965/66: Deviation at Bendooley Hill north of
Berrima opened.

The Old Hume Highway – History begins with a road 13

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Great Southern Road – Hume Highway

1966: 3 km deviation north of Marulan opened, 16 December 1974: South Western Freeway
eliminating a winding section with 35 km/h extended to Narellan Road near Campbelltown.
hairpin bend.
November 1974: Completion of twin concrete
17 March 1967: The last single-lane bridge on bridges at Paddys River.
the Hume Highway was eliminated when the
191 metre bridge over the Bargo River and Main 21 June 1976: New Fitzroy Bridge at Goulburn
Southern Railway Line at Tahmoor opened. opened, superseding the 1883 structure.

1966/67: Reconstruction of the highway over 25 March 1977: Opening of the 1134 metre
the Mundoonen Range (Gunning Gap), including Sheahan Bridge over the Murrumbidgee River on
provision of climbing lanes. the 8 km Gundagai Bypass. This was the second
longest bridge in NSW and the longest yet built by
March 1968: Liverpool Bypass opened. the Department of Main Roads (DMR).

1970: Dual carriageway and new bridges built, 24 May 1977: 13.5 km section of the South
bypassing the 1930s bridge at Boxers Creek, north Western Freeway between Yanderra and
of Goulburn. Aylmerton opened.

5 April 1971: New bridge over Black Bobs Creek 15 October 1977: Hume Bridge over the Yass
opened. It replaced a historic concrete arch bridge River opened.
built in 1896.
2 April 1979: Truck blockade on Razorback Range.
5 May 1972: Completion of 10 kms of dual
carriageway south of Goulburn, including a grade 15 December 1980: 35 km section of the South
separated interchange with the Federal Highway. Western Freeway between Campbelltown and
Yanderra north of Mittagong opened. This section
1972: First trial of computer-based design of road of the Hume Highway includes Pheasants Nest
signs. The first signs designed using the system Bridge across the Nepean River, at 76 m the
were installed on the Hume Highway at Yass. highest bridge ever built in NSW. This section
formed part of the longest continuous freeway in
26 March 1973: The Macarthur Bridge at
Australia at that time (64 km) and won the DMR
Camden opened by the Governor of NSW,
major design and engineering awards. Twenty
Sir Roden Cutler, removing the last major flood
percent (117 km) of the Hume Highway in NSW
barrier on the highway.
was now duplicated.

26 October 1973: 10 km section of the South 21 November 1983: 11 km first stage of the
Western Freeway from Cross Roads to Raby Road 17.6 km Tumblong Deviation opened, superseding
opened. the former route via Sylvias Gap which had
operated since 1938. The project involved over
1973: Bowning deviation opened. 2 million cubic metres of excavation.

3 July 1974: Approach roads to Macarthur Bridge June 1984: 172 km of the Hume Highway in NSW
opened, completing the 9 km flood-free bypass of now duplicated.
Camden.
February 1985: New bridge over Georges River
20 September 1974: With the passing of the and link between Heathcote Road , Moorebank
National Roads Act, the Federal Government and Casula opened. This route would become the
assumed full responsibility for construction and main route out of Sydney to the south-west.
maintenance of 16,000 km of National Highways,
the principal routes between the state and territory June 1985: 224 km of the Hume Highway in NSW
capital cities. A massive program of duplication now duplicated.
works on the Hume Highway commenced.
1986: B-Double heavy vehicles commence
operation on the Hume Highway.

14 Roads and Maritime Services NSW

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Chronology of key events

June 1986: 256 km of the Hume Highway in NSW 1 July 2006: Higher Mass Limits (HML) introduced
now duplicated. on several highways including the Hume Highway
south of Goulburn, permitting an extra 10% to
27 November 1986: 7.3 km Marulan 13% payload capacity.
Bypass opened, including new heavy vehicle
weighing stations. December 2006: Grade separated interchange at
North Gundagai opened.
August 1987: Grade separated interchange at
the Illawarra Highway opened. 4 March 2007: 17 km Albury Wodonga Hume
Freeway opened.
22 March 1989: 15.5 km Berrima Bypass opened.
2007: Tarcutta truck changeover facility opened.
17 December 1991: 10 km duplication
between Coppabella Road and Reedy Creek August 2008: Widening completed between
(south of Yass) opened. Camden Valley Way and Brooks Road .

17 August 1992: 8.5 km Mittagong Bypass opened. 25 May 2009: Duplicated Sheahan Bridge on the
Gundagai Bypass opened.
5 December 1992: 12 km Goulburn Bypass
opened. 14 August 2009: 12 km Coolac Bypass opened.

5 April 1993: 35 km Cullarin Range Deviation, December 2009: 67 kms of duplicated


including a bypass of Gunning, opened. highway between the Sturt Highway interchange
and Table Top opened.
25 July 1994: 18 km Yass Bypass opened.
November 2010: Heavy vehicle rest area at
16 October 1994: Dedication of the Australian Pheasants Nest opened.
Truck Drivers’ Memorial in Tarcutta.
December 2011: Widening to 4 lanes in each
3 May 1995: 17 km duplication between Cullarin direction between Brooks Road , Ingleburn and
Range Deviation and Yass Bypass opened. Raby Road , St Andrews completed.

29 May 1995: Grade-separated connection to the 7 November 2011: 9 km Woomargama


Barton Highway at Yass opened. Bypass opened.

11 October 1995: 13 km Jugiong Bypass opened. 15 November 2011: 7 km Tarcutta Bypass opened.

3 May 1996: 9.4 km Tarcutta Range Deviation March 2012: Widening to 3 lanes in each direction
opened. between Raby Road , St Andrews and Narellan
Road , Blairmount completed.
18 February 1998: First stage of 19 km
Bookham Bypass opened. Second stage 23 June 2013: Official dedication ceremony
opened on 4 July 2001. held for the 9.5 km Holbrook Bypass. The project
opened in stages to traffic on Wednesday
August 1998: Flyover linking Roberts Road with 7 August 2013, completing the duplication of the
Centenary Drive, South Strathfield opened. Hume Highway.

17 September 1999: Grade separated


interchange at South Gundagai opened.

2002: Replacement of bridges over Nattai River


and Gibbergunyah Creek near Mittagong.

June 2006: Additional access ramps at


Ingleburn opened.

The Old Hume Highway – History begins with a road 15

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Section 1 Southbound
Ashfield to Carnes Hill

Former main road to the south, from


A44 1805 to about 1814, via Parramatta,
Prospect, Carnes Hill and Narellan
M4 A40
TO
PEN
RITH
GRE
AT W
ESTE
RN
Prospect VE
WESTE HIG

Parramatta

DR I
RN MO HW
TORWA AY
Y M4

MES RUSE

AD
ATE R RO
PROSPECT
RESERVOIR
M7

JA

D
OA
ERW
A28

ER
OV
SILV
7

ORSLEY DRIVE
K M

EC
THE H

LAN
M4
LI N
WEST

A6

AD
Lidcombe
ROAD

HIGHWAY

CENTENARY
RO
Fairfield E

DRIVE
ILL
A4

D
E

OA
DV
UR

OO

OOD R
LAND
ST

ELIZ
A
PA

C
COW

B
BE

BER

ROOKW
TH

A
WSON
CUM
DRI

OAD
Ashfield
VE

M7
HENRY LA E

A22

RTS R
DRIV

WARWICK
D
Bankstown
FARM
OA

ROBE
RACECOURSE
REET YR
BUR
ER
Liverpool A3 NT
Canterbury
EY ST

MILP CA
ERR
AR
Carnes OA
Hoxton D
STAC

SOUT
H A34
Hill W
Park SIR RODEN CUTLER
E ST
ERN MOTORWAY M5
M5

AY
VC REST AREA
LL
VA EY WA

HW
Y 2
Rockdale
KI

EN N

HIG
NG

D
M LA
EL Cross Roads East Hills
ROAD

GE
CA

ES
AR
OR

NC
N
Glenfield
GE

TO

PRI
OINT

SR

M31
OA
RDS P

D
ALFO
WN
LTO
BEL

ORANG
(CUMBERL A

A1
AMP

E G R OVE
TO C

AY
HW
N D HI

HIG
ME
HU 0 2 4 6
GH

D
RO
WA

AD

KM
Y)

EL
Key
ET

IZ A Former route via level crossing at


RIE STRE

BETH D
RIVE
Warwick Farm. Deviated in 1938
Old Hume Highway
MACQUA

MOORE Hume Highway


STREET

MEMO Former route via Macquarie Street Historic Route (trafficable)


RIAL ST
REET until Liverpool Bypass opened in 1968
Historic Route (non-trafficable)

NE
WB
Major Road
E HIGHWAY

R IDG
E RO Minor Road
A D
Train line
Liverpool
HUM

Rest Area

16 Roads and Maritime Services NSW

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Section 1

Ashfield to Carnes Hill


Southbound

Directions DISTANCE FROM


PREVIOUS TURN POINT Along the way ... PAGE

1 Start at beginning of Hume Highway Liverpool 18


(Route A22), off Parramatta Road at
Ashfield

2 Veer right onto Camden Valley Way at


Cross Roads, towards Bringelly
30 km Points of interest
A Remembrance Driveway 19
plantings at Bass Hill
Approximate distance: 35km B The ‘Meccano set’ 19

C Lansdowne Bridge 20

D Berryman Park Reserve, 21


Warwick Farm

E Pioneers’ Memorial Park, 21


Liverpool

The Old Hume Highway – History begins with a road 17

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Section 1

Collingwood House, built in 1810. It is the oldest house still standing in Liverpool

Liverpool
The Darug people and their neighbouring tribes
the Tharawal and the Gandangara called this land
their home. The first Macquarie Town was named
by Governor Macquarie on 7 November 1810
when he proclaimed ‘Having surveyed the ground
and found it in every respect eligible and fit for
the purpose, I determined to erect a township on
it, and named it Liverpool, in honour of the Earl of
that title’.
The Old Hume Highway once followed Macquarie
St, the main street of Liverpool. In 1968 the
highway route shifted to the new Liverpool
Bypass, and part of Macquarie Street was sold to
Westfield for a large retail shopping complex.
The historic Pioneers’ Memorial Park, a former
cemetery on the western side of the intersection
of Macquarie Street and the Hume Highway,
contains the graves of many notable early settlers
including Charles Throsby, James Badgery, Rev.
Robert Cartwright, Capt. William Campbell,
Murdoch Campbell (shot by a convict), Capt. Eber
Bunker (who built historic Collingwood House) and
members of the Hordern family. Originally known
as St Luke’s Cemetery, it operated as a burial
ground from 1821 to 1958.

Governor Macquarie Statue, Macquarie St

18 Roads and Maritime Services NSW

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Ashfield to Carnes Hill

POINT OF INTEREST – A POINT OF INTEREST – B

Remembrance Driveway The ‘Meccano set’


plantings at Bass Hill This landmark structure was opened in 1962.
It was intended to provide advance direction
The Great War of 1914-1918 fostered an
signage for the large volumes of traffic using
enormous community need to establish
this busy intersection, plus a gantry from which
permanent memorials to those who served their
to attach the traffic signals. Its resemblance to
country, and today most Australian towns have
a child’s toy made from Meccano pieces gave
a war memorial to commemorate their efforts
it its popular name, which survives in common
and sacrifice. After World War Two however,
usage to this day.
planting trees was seen as a symbol of hope
for the future, and Mrs Margaret Davis MBE,
the Founding President of the Garden Clubs of
Australia, suggested planting a living memorial The church was designed by Francis Greenway
to those Australians who had served in World and the foundation stone was laid by Governor
War Two. Macquarie in 1819. It held its first service on 18
October 1819.
A preliminary committee was formed in April
1952 to investigate planting avenues of trees The very modern Macquarie Street Mall beside the
and establishing groves and memorial parks church is a place of recreation for young and old
along the Hume and Federal Highways between and is a multicultural area, with people from 157
Sydney and Canberra to honour those who
different nationalities living in the vicinity.
had served. This committee became the
Remembrance Driveway Committee, which At the eastern end of Elizabeth Street is Liverpool
continues its work to this day. District Hospital, and the heritage listed Old
The wide Remembrance Driveway plantings Liverpool Hospital (now Liverpool TAFE), also a
along the Hume Highway through Bass Hill and Greenway building from circa1825 and described
beside Prospect Creek are among the most as one of the finest colonial buildings remaining in
prominent plantings in the Sydney area and Australia. For many years it served as an Asylum
give this length of the Hume Highway a very for the Infirm and Destitute.
distinctive appearance.
Bigge Park, opposite, was originally the town
square. It was named after John Thomas Bigge, an
Further south on the corner of the Hume Highway opponent of Governor Macquarie’s administration.
and Elizabeth Street is Apex Park, site of the first The barracks were opposite, and in 1812
Liverpool Cemetery dating from circa 1811. It Lieutenant William Lawson was in charge.
closed in 1821. The Old Liverpool Courthouse, on the western
St. Luke’s Anglican Church, one of the oldest corner of Moore Street and Bigge St, was built in
churches in Australia, is on the corner of Elizabeth the 1850s. Next door is Liverpool Primary School,
Street and the Macquarie Street Mall. On the built in 1863.
corner is the carved monument of the Winged Bull
of St. Luke, carved in Appin stone by May Barrie.

The Old Hume Highway – History begins with a road 19

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Section 1

Lansdowne Bridge

POINT OF INTEREST – C

Lansdowne Bridge
Lansdowne Bridge is considered to be one of the
finest examples of colonial architecture in Australia
as well as David Lennox’s masterpiece of design
and the most intact example of all his bridges.
After earlier bridges over Prospect Creek had
been destroyed by flood, Lennox designed a
single-span 33.5-metre stone arch bridge which
was erected by convict labour. The foundation
stone was laid by the Governor on 1 January
1834. The bridge was built with stone which was
quarried 11 kms downstream on the banks of
Georges River and conveyed to the site by punt.
The bridge opened on 26 January 1836.
The sandstone arch has the largest span of any
surviving masonry bridge in Australia. Its size,
appearance and durability make this bridge an
outstanding example of colonial engineering
and this fine heritage-listed structure remains in
use today carrying traffic northward to Sydney.
Plaque on historic Lansdowne Bridge

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Ashfield to Carnes Hill

POINT OF INTEREST – D POINT OF INTEREST – E

Berryman Park Reserve, Pioneers’ Memorial Park,


Warwick Farm Liverpool
This reserve is named after distinguished Army The historic Pioneers’ Memorial Park contains the
officer Sir Frank Horton Berryman (1894-1981). graves of many notable early settlers. Originally
After serving with distinction in both World known as St Luke’s Cemetery, it operated as a
Wars, he directed his considerable planning burial ground from 1821 to 1958.
and organisational skills to a wide range of
community activities. Among these was his
involvement with the Remembrance Driveway
Committee, which he served as founding
President from its inception in 1952 to 1981.
The objective of the Committee is to plant
avenues of trees and groves to commemorate
all those who served in the Australian Defence
Forces in World War Two and subsequent wars,
or who have served since then in defence of the
nation’s interests in operational theatres around
the world. During the mid-1990s the Committee
decided to develop the Victoria Cross Rest
Areas and Memorial Parks. These honour the
25 Australian World War Two and Vietnam War
Victoria Cross recipients.
Historic St Luke’s Church, Liverpool, built 1819

Junction of Hume Highway (left) and Terminus Street (right) in Liverpool, October 1961

The Old Hume Highway – History begins with a road 21

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Section 2 Southbound
Carnes Hill to Bargo SHF
IELD
W TO A
ES

TLI
NK
Carnes
Hoxton

M7
Hill
Camden Park
OLD HUM

CAMDEN VALL
South EY W
AY
ASS
E

BYP
HI

EN 4
MD
Glenfield
GH

CA MURRAY STREET

STR ET
W

BU
AY

E
RR 5
AG
OR
AN
G
Leppington M5
AY

RO A D

N
UGHTO
IGHW
OLD HUME H

BR O
Camden
Kirkham
3
Narellan
A9
4

Camden MT ANNAN Campbelltown


BOTANIC
5 GARDEN
E ROAD

Camden Bypass,
Route in use until 1930
opened in 1974
B69
B ARKE R ODG
SL

Razorback Menangle M31


Range B REM
EM
BR
AR

AN
F
KERS LOD

G
Picton

CE
PARTRIDGE VC ET

D
REST AREA

RIV
RE
ST

EW
GE

AY
LE
RO

GY

6
AR
AD

M
EN
AN

6
GL
ES
TREET EAST

Route of Great South Road


Thirlmere until completion of the road
over Razorback in 1835

Tahmoor
CE
PRINEET
STR
Former highway route. The 1967 H Picton
deviation eliminated the last single
I lane bridge on the Hume Highway

KENNA VC M31 0 2 4 6
REST AREA Former route until LAKE
railway construction CATARACT KM

VE
R in 1919
Bargo RI
Bargo Key
EAN

7
NEP

Old Hume Highway


7
Hume Motorway
G AY B88
N RW Historic Route (trafficable)
O TO
G M
O
TA E
IT Historic Route (non-trafficable)
TO
M
HU

M
W

TO Major Road
O

Avon Dam
LL
O

Minor Road
N
G
O
N

LAKE Train line


G

NEPEAN
Rest Area
LAKE AVON LAKE CORDEAUX

22 Roads and Maritime Services NSW

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Section 2

Carnes Hill to Bargo


Southbound

Directions DISTANCE FROM


PREVIOUS TURN POINT Along the way ... PAGE

3 Continue straight ahead on Camden 18 km Leppington 24


Valley Way at Narellan, towards Camden
Narellan 25
4 Proceed into historic Camden; Turn left 5 km
Kirkham 25
at the roundabout at the end of Camden
shops, into Murray Street then veer right Camden 26
onto Broughton Street
Razorback Range 28
5 Turn right onto Old Hume Highway / 2 km
Remembrance Driveway towards Picton 29
Picton and Bargo
Tahmoor 30
6 Continue under the rail overpass in 18 km
Bargo 31
Picton, towards Tahmoor / Bargo /
Mittagong

7 Turn right just south of Bargo to


Yanderra / Yerrinbool
19 km
Points of interest
F Razorback truck 28
blockade site
Approximate distance: 57 km Anthony Hordern’s tree 28
G

H Victoria Bridge over 29


Stonequarry Creek, Picton

I Site of the last single 31


lane bridge on the
Hume Highway

The Old Hume Highway – History begins with a road 23

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Section 2

The Sydney Water Supply Channel

enthusiasm. Since 1964, Forest Lawn Memorial

Leppington Park at Leppington has been the last resting place


of many southern-Sydney folk.
As early as 1823, the track passing south from
William Cordeaux (1792-1839), colonial Land Prospect through Leppington to Narellan and
Commissioner, arrived in NSW in 1817, and in Camden was called The Cowpasture Road. Now,
1821 was granted 700 acres on the Cumberland the former route of the Hume Highway between
Plains near Denham Court. Cordeaux raised cattle Cross Roads and Camden is known as Camden
and built a hill-top mansion, grandly naming it Valley Way. The Sydney Water Supply Channel, a
‘Leppington Park’ after a village near his Yorkshire canal carrying Sydney’s drinking water from the
birthplace. The locality was soon known as Upper Nepean Scheme, has passed tranquilly
Leppington. Leppington bushrangers accosted under Camden Valley Way since 1888. The South
and shot a traveller in 1826, and the Cumberland West Rail link currently under construction will
hounds hunted Leppington dingos in the 1840s. cross both Camden Valley Way and Cowpasture
Anthrax first appeared in Australia among Road, and provide Leppington with a railway
Leppington cattle in 1847, and in 1850, a canny station to service the projected housing
lessee of the Denham Court tollgate employed developments in the area.
‘scouts’ to lurk at Leppington and decoy Sydney-
bound travellers from a rival tollgate on the
Campbelltown Road.
Small farms were later carved out of the larger
grants at Leppington and nearby Raby. Much
of the area has remained rural, and Leppington
market gardeners have helped to feed Sydney. Mr
A. A. Tegel of Tegel Turkeys started at Leppington
in 1920. The district developed rapidly post-WWII,
when European migrants settled and farmed
vegetables; by 1955 some were earning a record
£800 per acre from cabbages alone. Dating from
1956, Leppington Progress Hall in Ingleburn Leppington Progress Hall. A good example of practical, vernacular
Road is a monument to immigrant enterprise and design – postwar fibro, weatherboard, wrought iron.

24 Roads and Maritime Services NSW

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Carnes Hill to Bargo

Narellan
Kirkham

Narellan was a small village on the Great Southern Kirkham, a locality between Camden and Narellan
Road, later the Hume Highway, north of Camden. on the former route of the Great Southern Road
The highway ran through the village until 1973 and the Hume Highway, was originally occupied
when it moved to the Camden Bypass, and later by the Tharawal people.
to the current freeway route in 1980. The first land grants fronted the Great Southern
The name Narellan, used for the village, the Road and were given out during the time of
district, and the parish, was probably derived from Governor Macquarie to smallholders Danial
William Hovell’s 1816 grant of ‘Naralling’ of 700 McLucas, John Herbert and John Condron.
acres. Most of the parish of Narellan was granted The name of the locality comes from John Oxley’s
1815 grant ‘Kirkham’ of 1,000 acres. A prominent
to settlers by Governor Macquarie between
landmark is Herberts Hill, the site of the original
1810 and 1818. By 1827 Surveyor-General John
Herbert land grant. Also known as Rheinbergers
Oxley and Assistant Surveyor Robert Hoddle
Hill and Longleys Hill, it is located opposite
had surveyed the site of the village set out in a the intersection of Camden Valley Way and
rectilinear plan, and marked the site of a church, Kirkham Lane.
school and courthouse.
A Kirkham Lane private residence known as
By 1839 a lockup had been built and sly grog Camelot is listed under the NSW Heritage Act.
shops had sprung up along the Great Southern It was designed by John Horbury Hunt and
Road. A church school was built in 1839 and constructed in 1888 as a ‘rural seat’ for racehorse
in 1842 there were 45 pupils. The first village breeder James White. The house remains virtually
allotments were offered for sale in 1843. The unaltered since its original construction.
Narellan Post Office was opened in 1856 and
Another interesting building is historic Yamba
located on the Great Southern Road.
cottage at 181 Camden Valley Way. Yamba is an
In 1875 a government National School was Aboriginal word meaning ‘a good place to camp’.
established on the site for a courthouse and later The cottage was built in 1913 for the headmaster
became Narellan Public School. The Edmund of Narellan Public School, Frederick Longley.
Blacket designed St Thomas’s Anglican Church was The site was originally a portion of the Edward
consecrated in 1884. Narellan Railway Station was Lord’s 1815 land grant of ‘Orielton’. Kirkham
the hub of the village and was the fourth station Railway Station was located adjacent to Kirkham
after leaving Camden. The Camden-Campbelltown Lane. It operated from 1882 to 1963 and was
tramway operated from 1882 to 1963. the third station after leaving Camden on the
Camden-Campbelltown tramway. Remnants of old
The village was part of Nepean Shire Council until railway embankments and culverts are still visible.
the Council was abolished in 1948. The village The station was a short platform, with a small
remained quite small until the opening of Narellan weathershed and station signage. Passengers had
Town Centre in 1995, and is now a bustling to hail down the small locomotive called ‘Pansy’
commercial centre. that ran on the tramway.

Historic Wivenhoe, built in 1837 Historic Camelot, built in 1888

The Old Hume Highway – History begins with a road 25

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Section 2

Historic Camden streetscape

Camden

In colonial times it was a matter of Government


policy to reserve the lands west of the Nepean for
the use of the wild cattle which grazed in the area.
In July 1803 a Proclamation was issued forbidding
any person from crossing the Nepean without a
permit signed by the Governor. Disobedience
of the order rendered the individual liable to six Argyle Street, Camden c. 1940
months hard labour.
In December 1805 the country west of the Camden in its early years was one of the most
Nepean River was named Camden County, important commercial and administrative centres
although the present boundaries of Camden between Sydney and Goulburn on the Great
County have changed. The first colonial land Southern Road. The Hume Highway followed
grants in Camden were issued to John Macarthur, the town’s main street from colonial times until
thus beginning ‘Camden Park’. The private 1973 when it was moved to the Camden Bypass,
township of Camden was not established for and then subsequently moved again in 1980 to
another thirty years. In 1841 the Court of Petty the freeway route. Yet the role of the Hume in
Sessions was moved to Camden, being previously Camden’s development is not widely appreciated.
located in Cawdor, and took up residence in The highway was one of the conduits that brought
Camden Inn, as there was no courthouse in the international influences of modernism and
Camden at that time. consumerism to the town, and the goods and
services that supported them. In the first half
of the 20th century Camden was the centre of

26 Roads and Maritime Services NSW

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Carnes Hill to Bargo

Roundabout Camden Museum


Court House
Traffic lights CAMD
EN VA
Hilder
LLEY
WAY
Reserve
T
Onslow Park EE
TR
L ES St John’s Church
GY

M
AR

AC
Rotary

AR
Dr Crookston’s House Cowpasture

iver
MURRA

TH
Reserve

UR
R
Camden

ean

RO
Bicentennial Macarthur King Bush

Y STRE

AD
Nep
Equestrian Park Reserve
Park

ET
SHEAT River
HERS
LANE
Reserve
S
PAS
EN BY
CAMD
AD
RO
OR

BRO

an River
WD

UGHTON
CA

S S
PA
BY
N
N e pe
MDE SPRIN
CA GS RO
Belgenny AD
TREETS

Reserve

BUR
RAG
ORA
NG
ROA
D

Camden town map

the police district. It had the regional hospital, glass windows to give natural light, which was
it was the largest population centre and it was supplemented by fluorescent lighting for early
a transport node of a district which spread from mornings and winter afternoons. The mechanism
Campbelltown to the lower Blue Mountains. consisted of a circular platform which rotated on
two circular rails, and its 50 bails could milk 300­
The town had two weekly newspapers, Camden
375 cows per hour with ten operators. It ceased
News and the Camden Advertiser. Modern
operation in 1972.
advancements included the opening of the
telephone exchange (1910), the installation The layout and shape of Camden has changed
of reticulated gas (1912), electricity (1929), little with the shopping strip along the Old Hume
replacement of gas street lighting with electric Highway from the 19th century. The town centre
lights (1932) and a sewerage system (1939). By the has a certain bucolic charm and character that is
interwar years, a period of transition, the motor the basis of the community’s identity and sense of
car had replaced the horse on the roads, and on place; this country feel has become the basis of
the farm the horse was replaced by the tractor, the modern ‘country town idyll’.
all of which supported the growing number of
Camden is home to a number of historic houses,
garages in the town. A number of petrol stations
government buildings and churches. Beside
were build along the main street to serve the
the old restored Camden Dairy building are the
Hume Highway traffic.
remnants of the old Camden tramway. Visitors
Dairying was also a major regional industry. In to Camden may stop at the Camden Visitor
1952, Camden Park installed The Rotolactor, Information Centre, which is located in John Oxley
which was then the ultimate in modern milking Cottage, an 1890s ‘workman’s cottage’,
machinery. Developed in the USA and brought on Camden Valley Way, Elderslie.
to Australia by Lieutenant-Colonel Edward
Macarthur-Onslow, it was in effect a multi-cow
rotary automatic milking machine 18.3 metres in
diameter. Its circumference was enclosed with

The Old Hume Highway – History begins with a road 27

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Section 2

While I Live I’ll Grow tree, Razorback Range

Razorback Range POINT OF INTEREST – F

The Razorback has been an important feature in


the development of the Great Southern Road and
the Hume Highway. Surveyor William Harper first
marked a road over the Razorback in 1821. It was
cleared in 1825 and was much used. In 1829 it was
reported as the most direct route to the south but
the Macarthur family objected to it passing through
their property. In 1830 Surveyor White marked a
more direct route via Cawdor over the Razorback, Razorback truck blockade site
and in 1832 Thomas Mitchell was instructed by On 2 April 1979, over 400 truck drivers staged
Governor Bourke to construct the Great Southern a blockade on Razorback Range. It was part of
Road on that line, to Mitchell’s great displeasure. a wider protest against ton-mile taxes and low
The project was completed in 1835. freight rates. The efforts of the truck drivers
were not in vain and the ton-mile tax was
abolished shortly after the protests.
POINT OF INTEREST – G

Anthony Hordern’s tree This route contained several very steep sections
‘While I live I’ll grow’ was the motto of Anthony and two particularly sharp curves, which made
Hordern’s, a major Sydney retailing firm dating it unsuitable for the demands of modern motor
from 1844. The original 109-year old Port vehicle traffic. In August 1927 work on a new route
Jackson fig tree on Razorback blew over in high over the range commenced, bypassing Cawdor.
winds in 1974. Partly funded by unemployment relief funding, it
was a major construction effort and employed at

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Carnes Hill to Bargo

Picton
As the Old Hume Highway winds down the
Razorback and comes to the flat lands, there is
the old Razorback Inn on the right. Now a café, it
was once an inn, then a private home and then a
service station. Nearby is the Picton golf course
with its clubhouse once being the home of the
Antill family. It was built in 1865 and looks across
the road to Vault Hill, the Antill family’s private
burial ground.
The area for a government town, just south of the
Picton of today was first set aside in November
1821. This area is now known as Upper Picton
or Redbank. Major Henry Antill, Governor
Macquarie’s aide, was granted some 3,000 acres
Widening works on southern side of Razorback Range in 1969 in the 1820s. He was the Police Magistrate and
responsible for keeping order in a huge tract of
its peak 229 workers. It utilised a section of the territory. In 1841 he portioned off a piece of his
existing Camden-Menangle Road, which avoided estate near Stonequarry Creek, establishing the
the flood-prone length on the former route south
of Camden, then crossed the range to the east of
the former route. POINT OF INTEREST – H
The deviation was completed in 1929, and the
November 1929 Main Roads journal noted that
‘In lieu of the old second or third gear road, with
its difficult and dangerous bends, there is now
available a top gear road throughout, which will
prove, not only in the ease and safety with which it
can be negotiated, but also on account of the fine
panoramic views of the surrounding country which
it affords, a boon to all who use it.’
But even this route proved to be problematic as
traffic volumes increased. Land slippages often Victoria Bridge over Stonequarry
caused cracking in the road surface, necessitating Creek, Picton
frequent restoration work. In December 1980 the Completed in 1897, the Victoria Bridge is an
Razorback route was finally bypassed, with the early example of an Allan type timber truss road
opening of the 35 km section of the South Western bridge. Percy Allan’s truss design was third in
Freeway between Campbelltown and Yanderra. the five-stage design evolution of NSW timber
truss bridges, and was a major improvement
In April 1979 the road was the scene of the over the McDonald trusses which preceded
Razorback truck blockade, now marked with a them. Allan trusses were 20% cheaper to build
monument. Razorback is also the site for the historic than McDonald trusses, could carry 50% more
Anthony Hordern’s tree ‘While I Live I’ll Grow’. load, and were easier to maintain.
The 1832 Mitchell route between Camden and Having the tallest timber trestle supporting piers
Picton via Cawdor remains open and in use, for of any timber truss bridge in NSW, the Victoria
those wishing to experience this historic convict- Bridge has an imposing appearance, and is
built road alignment. both technically and aesthetically significant as
a result. It has been classified as being State
Significant under the NSW Heritage Act.

The Old Hume Highway – History begins with a road 29

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Section 2

After crossing Victoria Bridge a visit to the railway


station is worthwhile. Look to the west of the
station to marvel at the sandstone railway viaduct
built in 1862. It is the oldest stone archway over
water in NSW, and is still in use.
Further information is available at the Wollondilly
Visitor Information Centre, located at the corner of
Argyle and Menangle Streets.

The George IV inn, built in 1839, has been a well-known landmark


for many years. Tahmoor/
town of Picton, named after Sir Thomas Picton.
The Great Southern Road bisected Picton and
later the Hume Highway followed this line.
Myrtle Creek
In 1844 George Bell entered into a contract to Present day Tahmoor was known in the early days
supply bricks for the first steam powered flour mill of white settlement as Myrtle Creek, Bargo or
erected in the district. The proprietor Mr Larkin Bargo West. Myrtle Creek derived its name from
had a windmill on the elevation now known as the myrtle trees which formerly grew along the
‘Windmill Hill’. creek flowing through the area, and have now
been extensively cleared up to the main roads.
Until the freeway opened in 1980, Argyle Street
The Tahmoor of today is a coal mining town
was a tangle of traffic chaos, often queued back
located 5km south of Picton. The word Tahmoor
for a mile or so and made worse by the ‘Hole in
is believed to come from the Aboriginal name for
the Wall’ – the railway underpass to the south of
the Bronzewing Pigeon.
the town. There was all the highway traffic and
many coal trucks, but after 1980 all was quiet The area was once home to the Myrtle Creek Hotel,
with only local traffic on the road. Some now Tahmoor House. The hotel’s original well and
businesses were affected and four of the five parapet were constructed by convict labour but the
petrol stations closed. house itself, with the exception of the stonework,
was erected by free men. In its early colonial days,
Some of the main buildings are the Court House
and being in the neighbourhood of the notorious
erected in 1865 and the Commercial Bank and
Bargo Brush, the hotel was often visited by
Post Office on the corner of Menangle Road. Turn
bushrangers. On one occasion these bushrangers
right and see St Mark’s Church, built of local stone
stuck up a party of teamsters and their wives who
and designed by Edmund Blacket in 1856. The
were camped at the creek below the house, killing
crossing over the creek goes back to the late 18th
one woman and injuring a man and a child. The
century and over the bridge is the George IV Inn,
daughter of the hotel owner, Mrs James Mann,
built in 1839.
recounted the incident:
Further along the Old Hume Highway up and
‘On the occasion of the murderous attack on the
over the next ridge and left into Prince Street is
teamsters, my father saw them approaching the
another local landmark, Victoria Bridge. It is the
house and ordered his wife to lock the children
second oldest Allan truss bridge built in NSW, and
in the nursery, and keep watch upon the road on
one of the largest of its type. The18 metre high
the northern side, ready to fire if the murderers
timber trestles are the tallest in NSW.
attempted any violence. He then rode out to meet
them, and shortly after the outlaws, four in number,
entered the bar and called for champagne … the
men shortly afterwards made off into the ranges.’
The hotel changed owners several times, and with
it, so did its name. The hill opposite the house,
which has now been divided into the building
Tahmoor House, built in 1824. It is the oldest building in Wollondilly Shire allotments forming Tahmoor Park Estate, was a

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Carnes Hill to Bargo

flourishing orchard which provided fruit for the So the area changed from the dangerous era of
surrounding district. the early 1800s to a flourishing orchard district.
Tahmoor House was re-opened to the public on The present day village of Bargo has developed
5 April 2010, with an overwhelming response. around the railway station. On the eastern side
The restored house now functions again as a of the Highway near the railway station are
bed and breakfast, an interesting respite for the three monuments each with a plaque recording
historically-minded visitor. the sighting of the first lyrebird and koala by
Europeans on 24 January 1798. After passing

Bargo and

through the main street of Bargo, turn left over


the railway then right into Avon Road. Follow
this road to the Avon Dam built in 1921, and the

Lupton’s Inn

Nepean Dam built in 1925. Both dams are part of


the Sydney Water Catchment and are open to the
public, and are popular tourist attractions along
with the Wirrimbirra Flora and Fauna Sanctuary.
The name Bargo derives from the Aboriginal word
‘Bah-go’ meaning ‘dark’. The present railway Further south was the site of Lupton’s Inn, its
station stands on the site of the first settlement. walls finally collapsed by neglect and weather
A grant of land was given to a man named in the late 19th century. In the days of the gold
Partridge in 1822 and on this old grant the rushes, it was a famous stopping point for a meal
township of Bargo is built. and change of horses. John Lupton established it
around 1830 at a time when the route of the Great
An early settler named Brown kept the Woolpack Southern Road was uncertain. He positioned it at
Hotel, one and a half miles south of Bargo. At the the apex of both alternative road plans. His widow
same place he also had a blacksmith and coach married Joseph Henry Doyle who ran mail coaches
repairing shop. The remains of the old building through to Goulburn for many years. His coaches
are still to be seen. He was one proprietor of the were called Lupton’s Dragons and the stop at the
coaches that ran through in the early days. A fair inn was a welcome relief.
quantity of wheat was grown in the area and much
hay was sold to coach owners and carriers. Wheat Lupton’s Inn had one surprise before closing its
and sheets of bark were carted to Camden. The doors after the rail opened to Mittagong in 1867.
roads were very bad and coaches often had to be Prisoners were being brought from Berrima Gaol
hauled over the worst parts by bullocks. in 1866 and the party stopped at the inn to have
lunch. They hatched a plan to escape and put this
Today as one enters the village of Bargo it is into effect near the cemetery, a few miles north
a far cry from the early days when it figured of the inn. Constable William Raymond was shot
prominently in the history of the bushranging dead as the convicts attempted to escape and
days. Bargo Brush was associated with ‘bailups’, one of the recaptured prisoners was later hanged.
convict escapes and some dark and murderous
deeds. It was one of the most bushranger-infested POINT OF INTEREST – I
stretches of road in the colony, and the place for
many years was under the shadow of the past.
Soon after the events of those far-off teamster
Site of the last single lane bridge
days, the whole tract fell under a kind of spell and on the Hume Highway
remained forgotten and neglected for a quarter History was made on Friday 17 March 1967 when
of a century. In those former times the area would Lady Cutler, wife of then NSW Governor Sir Roden
light up with teamster’s fires, while the solitude Cutler VC, officially opened a new bridge over the
was broken by the voices of the campers. Bargo River about 10 kms south of Picton.

When the railway was built, teamsters left in The new bridge and its long sweeping
search of fresh fields. Wayside inns fell into ruin approaches not only replaced the last remaining
single lane bridge on the Hume Highway but
and desolation spread. However enterprising
also eliminated a narrow railway overbridge and
orchardists could see the proximity of Bargo’s a length of poor road alignment approaching
waste lands to the Sydney market when the the two bridges.
railway first came through the area in the 1860s.

The Old Hume Highway – History begins with a road 31

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Section 3 Southbound
Bargo to Sutton Forest Buxton

BARGO
CONSERVATION
Balmoral 7
PARK
Bargo
Yanderra

Hilltop Yerrinbool
LAKE
NEPEAN

Colo Vale M31

WO 8 Alpine
MBE
YAN CAVES
RO
A 9
Aylmerton
D

M31
Former route became northbound Braemar
carriageway when new southbound 13 Welby
carriageway was built at Bendooley
Hill in 1966
12
Mittagong Former route
until railway
M31 D construction
Bowral
A

TH R in 1919
O

K OU
Berrima
S

REM E MBRAN
OL

East
AV O N D
BELANGLO
BER
R Bowral
AM
STATE GORDON VC
IMA

REST AREA
CE

FOREST
14 RO
D

AD
ROAD

RI

EW
V

Belanglo Moss
A
Y

MOSS VALE PARK


Vale
THROSBY PARK
HISTORIC SITE
A48
Bargo AY
Black Bobs WAY A48 WINGECARRIBEE RW
TO

GH RESERVOIR O
HI
Creek Bridge M
ME
ILLAW HU
L A
Hoddles RR ARRA
Cross HIGH
A

Roads
MACKEY VC
ILL A W
Sutton WAY TO A
LBIO
Forest N PA
REST AREA
RK

B73

0 2 4 6
KM
Mittagong 10

GH
WA
Y Key
HI
E
Old Hume Highway
UM
H
LD

O N
MITTAGONG CE Hume Motorway
SPORTS FIELD ES
CR
N
O
US Historic Route (trafficable)
11 RG
FE
Historic Route (non-trafficable)
J E ET
Major Road
IN STR
OL MA
D
HU
ME
Minor Road
HIG H 12
WAY
Train line
L ROAD Rest Area
BOWRA

32 Roads and Maritime Services NSW

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Section 3

Bargo to Sutton Forest


Southbound

Directions DISTANCE FROM


PREVIOUS TURN POINT Along the way ... PAGE

8 Rejoin Hume Motorway after Alpine 13 km Yanderra 34

1.5 km Yerrinbool 34
9 Take Mittagong exit
Alpine 36
10 After 3.5 km turn left at the traffic 3.5 km
signals into Renwick Drive. The Old Aylmerton 37
Hume Highway (Ferguson Crescent)
Braemar 37
will then be seen on the right, but now
must be accessed by a U-turn at the first Mittagong 38
roundabout then a left turn. Proceed
south along Ferguson Crescent, crossing Welby 40
two rail overbridges
Berrima 41
11 After crossing the two rail overbridges, 1.5 km
turn left back onto the Old Hume Highway

12 At the signals in Mittagong continue


straight ahead on Main Sreet, towards
1 km Points of interest
Berrima & Wombeyan Caves J Fitzroy Iron Works 39

13 Stay on the Old Hume Highway by going 3 km


K Berrima Gaol 41
straight ahead via the Welby overbridge
– do not rejoin Hume Highway at the Black Bobs Creek Bridge 43
L
interchange ramp

14 Rejoin Hume Highway south of Berrima 14.5 km

Approximate distance: 48 km

The Old Hume Highway – History begins with a road 33

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Section 3

Old buildings, Yanderra

at right-angles to the railway, forcing the Hume

Yanderra Highway into a dangerous dog-leg, and the


locality got a name for motor accidents.
Yanderra made headlines in December 1941 when
Yanderra, meaning ‘Turpentine tree’, is well known thieves laid a bomb near the station, intending
for its fruit orchards and flowers, including the to derail and rob a railway pay-bus. The bomb
red and white waratah. In 1925 Arthur Rickard blew the bus apart, killed its three occupants, and
& Co advertised ‘The Yanderra Estate, in the scattered cash over the bush. The thieves were
Healthy Southern Highlands’, 1362 healthy feet never caught.
[415 m] above sea level. Sydney had experienced
an influenza epidemic, and a tuberculosis scare. In 1980 the new Hume Highway bypassed
The lofty Blue Mountains were over-crowded with Yanderra. The station closed and the lone shop
tourists, and ‘The Southern Mountains’ were now stood empty. Yet the settlement has grown.
offered to Sydney’s hygiene-and-leisure seekers. Yanderra’s streets slope away from the roaring
Hume Highway towards the tranquil Bargo River.
‘In a few years, this will be a thriving township,’ Yanderra is now a dormitory suburb, a ‘tradie’s
claimed Rickard, who built Yanderra Railway haven’. The new highway allows a rapid commute
Station on the new 1919 railway line, where to employment between Liverpool and Goulburn.
potential buyers could arrive. Few did. Rickard Yanderra has a thriving primary school and a Rural
then promoted Yanderra for fruit-growing, Fire Brigade. Market gardens lie on its outskirts.
poultry farms, and pig-raising, but the automobile Its paddocks hold an alpaca or two, a few sheep,
doomed any ‘Southern Mountains’ plan. Day- and the odd pig. Yanderra presents a slightly
trips by car replaced weekend excursions by scruffy visage at its Old Hume Highway end,
train. Motorists glimpsed, but didn’t explore, the indicating that tree-change people haven’t yet
scenery. Some built ‘mountain cabins’ at Yanderra, priced Yanderra folk out of their bushland haven.
some ran small farms, but without a railway goods

Yerrinbool
siding, shipping Yanderra produce to market
was problematic. Yanderra’s road bridge was set

Yerrinbool lays the best claim as ‘Gateway to the


Southern Highlands’. Vivid greens or autumn
russet and gold of European trees, neat cottages,
expanses of clipped lawn sweeping down to the
Old Hume Highway – Yerrinbool sets a Highlands
scene. The area of Yerrinbool was explored in
1807 by Hamilton Hume who called it ‘Little
Market garden, Yanderra Forest’. Yerrinbool is thought to be an Aboriginal
word meaning ‘Wood Duck’.

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Bargo to Sutton Forest

Railway overpass, Old Hume Highway, Yerrinbool

In 1834 John Keighran built an inn, which stood – but no grand country house ever rose there.
near the second of the railway bridges south Buyers were promised a golf-links, tennis courts,
of the township. Beyond Keighran’s Inn lay the and improbably, an aerodrome. Waterfalls, pretty
forty-acre farm of the redoubtable Sophie Corrie cascades and swimming holes lay within walking
(1832-1913). Left a widow with six children, Mrs distance, but despite its ‘healthy’ altitude of 1,900
Corrie in 1875 cleared and fenced her selection, feet above sea-level, resort-seekers never came in
planted an orchard, and in time became Australia’s numbers. Like Yanderra, Yerrinbool’s progress was
leading authority on preserving fruit. Much of the limited by the swiftly-passing automobile, and by
land from Hambridge Road southwards belonged the surrounding expanse of water catchment area.
to Mrs Corrie, or her son Broughton. Corrie Road
The general store, opened in 1919 by land-agent
recalls this pioneer family.
Mr J. W. G. Simons, still does business opposite
tidy Yerrinbool station, which once won prizes in
the Railway Gardens Competition. The Post Office
and primary school have gone, but Yerrinbool
retains a Rural Fire Brigade, a Community Hall,
and a tiny Anzac Park, on land donated by one
Muriel Vickers. In the mid-1970s, little Yerrinbool
was cleft by the new dual-carriageway Hume
Highway, and its halves joined by an overbridge.
Over on the western side lie the Baha’i Summer
School, opened in 1937, and bushwalks in the
Bargo River State Conservation Area.
Store, Old Hume Highway, Yerrinbool

A big red apple welcomes the traveller to


Yerrinbool. The Tennessee Orchard has long been
a Hume Highway landmark, selling fruit in season.
Yerrinbool was founded on the lands of Mr
Albert Dawson, metallurgist and vigorous writer
of Letters to the Editor. Bushfire destroyed his
homestead ‘Lorna’ in 1902, and the ruins were still
visible in 1919 when The Yerrinbool Station Estate
was spruiked as ‘The New Southern Mountain
Resort’ in an eighteen-page booklet. A first land
sale was successful, but interest dwindled. Former
weekenders can still be spotted in Yerrinbool’s
Local Yerrinbool landmark
streets - Everest, Appenine, Sierra, Simla, Kiandra

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Section 3

Farm gate, Old Hume Highway, Alpine

One may drive back through Alpine, turn off the

Alpine Old Hume Highway, and briefly explore the Old


South Road. This earlier route runs along the
eastern side of Forest Hill, through the several
This locality was once part of Colo Vale, and hundred acres which Dr William Jamieson Sherwin
known as Forest Hill. The oldest surviving house, (1804-1874) once farmed. Sherwin was the son of
built of stone in 1834 and still standing beside the convicts, and was the first Australian-born medical
Old Hume Highway, is ‘Forest Lodge’. Forest Hill practitioner, taking his diploma at London’s Royal
was thick with valuable timber and in 1904, when College of Surgeons. Sherwin was also a chemist
Rickard & Co advertised ‘health and profit blocks’ and druggist, and in 1835 was commissioned
on the new ‘Alpine Estate’, cleared blocks were by Governor Bourke to report on Contagious
sold more cheaply. Mr J. H. Kerslake’s orchard Epidemic Catarrh among sheep.
‘Alpine’ gave the village its name. Alpine had a Travellers can turn off the Old South Road into
Post Office, but never a school or station. A railway Aylmerton Road, which will take them back to the
tunnel, nearly a mile long, lies deep below Alpine, Old Hume Highway, and the locality of Aylmerton.
and to build it, an entire tent-town of fettlers
and their families sprang up while the Southern
Deviation was constructed. Work on the Alpine
Tunnel cost several lives. Brick chimney structures,
built to exhaust the smoke from steam trains, are
still visible in the paddock above the tunnel.
‘Alpine stands 2086 ft above sea-level,’ advised
Rickard’s advertisement. It had ‘splendid rainfall’
and ‘rich volcanic soil’. Alpine also had ferocious
bushfires, which roared up its slopes and through
its stands of timber, destroying farms and
menacing lives.
Two venerable historic routes meet at Alpine

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Bargo to Sutton Forest

In 1876 Rush also built the beautiful Braemar


Lodge on the western side of the road opposite
the Prince Albert Inn, as a stately gentleman’s
residence which conjures up images of
resplendent days gone by. This building started
out as a single storey, which was added to in later
years. The property was well known for its orchard
where fruit was sent to Sydney from the railway
station known as Rush’s Platform.
Today known as Braemar Lodge Guesthouse, the
building has had many name changes, owners
and uses. It was known as Oulart then became
Forest Lodge, Old Hume Highway, Alpine, built c. 1834 Resthaven. During the 1930s the building was
used by the Christian Science Church, which
added the top storey and used it as a guest

Aylmerton house for members from across Australia. The


name changed again when the Akhnaton Health
Resort was opened. It specialised in the treatment
Aylmerton is located near the end of the off­ of Slimming, Asthma, Arthritis, Rheumatism,
ramp from the Hume Highway which leads to Fibrositis and Sciatica. Electric and steam baths
Mittagong. Originally this area was known as were available, along with Electrotherapeutic and
Cannabygle Plains after a well known Aboriginal Hydrotherapeutic equipment. Today the Braemar
in the area, who was killed in the 1816 native Lodge Guesthouse continues to cater for visitors.
uprisings. The area was later named Aylmerton Another local feature is All Aboard Braemar Model
after a town in Britain. Railways, with over 30 metres of track and trains
When the railway passed through Alymerton from all over the world, and the headquarters for
in 1919 it brought Sydney much closer and one of Australia’s largest retailers of model trains.
meant that all types of produce could now be It all began the day the owner gave his one-year
transported in one day instead of days by horse old son a model train for his first birthday. He
and bullocks. was not interested, so dad took over and it has
consumed his life since, making it a destination for
In December 1880 the residents of the locality, railway buffs of all ages.
then known as Chalkerville or Chalker Vale,
applied to the Department of Education for aid
to establish a provisional school in their district.
With the building of the Freeway everything
including the school had to be moved to the
north-western side of the Freeway. Today only
a sign on the left of the road after leaving the
Freeway indicates that there was once a village
and school there.

Braemar
Braemar takes its name from a former residence
which was named after a Scottish parish. On the
eastern side of the Old Hume Highway is the two­
storeyed Prince Albert Inn (just past The Poplars
Motel). Originally built in 1845 as an inn, it was
purchased by Bartholomew Rush in 1860, who
operated it as a boarding house.
Prince Albert Inn, Braemar, built in 1845

The Old Hume Highway – History begins with a road 37

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Section 3

Routes investigated for the bypass of Mittagong and Berrima (orange western route selected), 1977. Map prepared by George Snyder

mountains and river in his journal of a tour of the

Mittagong southern country.


The villages of Nattai, New Sheffield, Fitzroy and
later Mittagong, grew around the Fitzroy Iron
Settlement in Mittagong commenced early in Works, the first iron works in Australia. It operated
colonial history. The area now known as Lower at Mittagong between 1848 to the 1890s and
Mittagong was settled in the 1820s. William established the industry in this country. The
Chalker gained a permit in 1821 that allowed him enterprise struggled to be successful, and works
to graze cattle on the Mittagong Range. He was at Lithgow took its place.
the Principal Overseer of Government Stock at the
Cowpastures and for his services received In 1862 a portion of land close to the works was
200 acres of land. He is regarded as a pioneer reserved for village purposes and named Village
of the district and his land spread over the of Fitzroy. A further subdivision in the township
Mittagong Range along the Old South Road. of New Sheffield (so named by skilled workers,
principally from Sheffield, UK) was offered for
In 1827 George Cutler built an inn on the Old sale in May 1865. The Mittagong Land Company
South Road that from 1820 to 1835 carried all acquired iron works land and in 1883 subdivided
traffic to the south through Bargo to Lower 140 acres. It was probably about this time that
Mittagong and then proceeded further south to New Sheffield and Nattai formed the present
Bong Bong, Sutton Forest and beyond. township of Mittagong.
Major Mitchell’s new line of road through Berrima By 1890 many splendid buildings were erected
opened in the 1830s, deviating east of Mittagong and today some fine examples of these buildings
to avoid the steep Mittagong Range. A new may be seen along with many of the original
village began to grow where Mittagong is now worker’s cottages, especially in the streets near
situated and several inns were opened to cater for Lake Alexandra, which was the water supply for
travellers. Some of these are still in existence – the the iron works.
Prince Albert Inn at Braemar and the Fitzroy Inn in
Ferguson Crescent. Travellers can visit several sites in connection with
the iron works. At Ironmines Oval in Mittagong, on
The first postal address in the area was known the site of the blast furnace, stands a cairn erected
as Nattai (meaning ‘water’) before being named in 1948 by BHP and the Royal Historical Society
Mittagong with the arrival of the railway in 1867. to commemorate the iron work’s centenary.
Explorer Barralier wrote of establishing his camp Some exposed archaeological remains of an early
at a place called by the natives ‘Nattai’ in 1802. In section of the works site have been conserved,
1815 Governor Macquarie mentioned the ‘Nattai’

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Bargo to Sutton Forest

POINT OF INTEREST – J

Fitzroy Iron Works


The Fitzroy Iron Works was the first iron works
established in Australia. It opened in 1848 following
the 1833 discovery of local iron ore deposits,
and reflected the desire to lessen the Colony’s
dependence on imported iron and steel products.
The works were progressively expanded, with a
tilt hammer, rolling mills, puddling furnaces and
Fitzroy Iron Works a blast furnace built. The works produced the
pier cylinders for the 1867 Prince Alfred Bridge in
maintained and displayed with permanent public Gundagai, which remains in use today.
access, and are located in the underground car Trading remained difficult however, and over the
park of Highlands Marketplace, 197 Old Hume following years attempts were made to upgrade
Highway, Mittagong. the works and make them profitable. Despite
some promising starts and an 1886 Government
A large and imposing Maltings building was
contract to roll rails, all proved unsuccessful. The
opened at Mittagong in 1901 as a malt house to works closed in the 1890s and by 1907 a modern
ferment hops. This was extended over the years iron and steelworks was operating in Lithgow.
and gutted by fire in 1942, but the enterprise
carried on for several more decades. The In 2004 Woolworths lodged a development
expansive buildings now lie idle and are well application for the Highlands Marketplace.
Archaeological testing uncovered remains
worth a look from the nearby park.
of the rolling mills, puddling furnaces, boiler
Other points of interest in the town include the houses, chimney bases and cupola furnaces,
railway station, the original police station building which demonstrate the phases of upgrading
of about 1880, the old Post Office of 1891, the that occurred. The development was redesigned
to avoid the remains, and many items are now
fine CBC bank building now being restored, and
publicly accessible.
the Memorial Clock built in 1920 in the centre of
the town.

Mittagong
Caravan
Fitzroy Iron Works Fitzroy Blast Furnace Lake Park
Alexandra
Reserve
TREET

Ironmines
TREET

ALFRE
D STRE
J Oval ET
ET
MER S

A STRE

S
EET

LOUISA

Fitzroy Inn
OLD
BESSE

ER STR

HU )
EET

EET
STREE

ME
HELEN

STR
TREET

HIG IN
IA STR

Highlands Marketplace HW (MA


AY
PIONE

AY HW Maltings
ALICE

G
S

I
EH
VICTOR
QUEEN

UM
Berrina & District DH
Historical and Family OL
History Society
Memorial Clock
EET
STR
NE ENT
NT LA REG
REGE
BESS

E
ROAD

AY RAD
NDS W WAY
PA
IGHLA RAIL
THE H
EMER

RANGE

Mittagong
STRE

Station
ET

Roundabout WAVE
RELY
PARAD
Traffic lights E

Mittagong town map

The Old Hume Highway – History begins with a road 39

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Section 3

Maltings building, Mittagong, built 1901

Visitors can call into the Visitor Information Centre Further south on the Old Hume Highway, a pointed
at 62 – 70 Main Street and pick up maps of mountain known as Mount Jellore is visible in the
historic sights around Mittagong. The Old Hume distance on the right. It is the highest mountain
Highway veers right of the Clock in the main street in the Southern Highlands and it was here in May
of Mittagong. 1827 that Major Mitchell noted in his field book
that with his theodolite he took in panoramic views
Early planning for the Hume Highway bypass
of Mount Warrawolong 170 km to the north, Mount
of Mittagong centred on routes to the east,
Banks, Mount Hay and Mount Tomah in the Blue
through established farm land. There was strong
Mountains. Whilst on Mount Jellore Mitchell was
community opposition to these options, and the
notified that he was now the Surveyor-General,
Hume Highway finally bypassed Mittagong on its
following the death of John Oxley.
rugged and undeveloped western side in 1992.

Welby
The area now known as Welby was once called
Fitzroy but because of the number of towns in
the Commonwealth bearing the name Fitzroy it
had to be changed. The name Welby was derived
from Welby’s farm, which was one of the first farm
houses in the district, situated on the east half way
up the hill. After leaving Welby and crossing over
the Hume Highway, railway buffs can turn right
into the Box Vale Track parking area; from here
they can take a 4.4km walk along the now disused
railway to an old mining site. After returning to the
Old Hume Highway and continuing southwards,
travellers will see Wombeyan Caves Road on the
right. This road goes to two popular areas to visit
– the historic shale mining ghost town of Joadja
Mittagong Post Office, built 1890
(30km) and Wombeyan Caves (71km).

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Bargo to Sutton Forest

Remembrance Driveway landscaping south of Berrima

Berrima
POINT OF INTEREST – K

Berrima Gaol
Berrima Gaol was operational between 1839
The township of Berrima (from Berri-me, meaning and 2011, with a number of breaks in between.
‘black swan to the south’) was founded in 1829 The facility closed in 1909 and reopened in
on land surveyed by Surveyor-General Sir Thomas 1949 as the Berrima Training Centre. At the
Mitchell, after he noted its abundance of good time of its closure in 2011, the Centre was the
water and building stone while carrying his road oldest operating Australian correctional facility.
through to the district of Goulburn. It was built out of local sandstone by convicts
The village is a fine example of early colonial between 1836 and 1839. In 1866 it was renovated
architecture and still retains much of the charm to the standards described by the prison reform
movement for a ‘model prison’, although it still
and character of yesteryear. Berrima was almost
contained solitary confinement cells.
the geographical centre of the County of Camden
as drawn by Mitchell’s map of 1829, and was During World War One the army used the gaol
intended to be not only the capital, but the as a German prisoner internment camp. Most
centre for manufacturing and administration. The of the 329 internees were enemy aliens from
township was approved in 1831. shipping companies.
Between 1970 and 2001, the Centre was
Entering Berrima from the north, the first two­
classified as minimum/medium security for
storeyed building on the right is Harper’s Mansion. male inmates. Most inmates were permitted to
The building is also notable for its garden and work outside of the Centre on the local market
maze. It was built in the 1830s by James Harper, gardens. Some were permitted to maintain
the first licensee of the historic Surveyor General local parks and gardens and also assist with
Inn. This 1835 hotel was one of 13 inns built to community duties such as firefighting.
accommodate the coaches and teams that would In 2001 the Centre changed its name to Berrima
be passing through on the road. It is still trading and Correctional Centre and, after 166 years as a
is the oldest continuously licensed hotel in Australia. men’s prison, the Centre became a women’s
prison, with a capacity of 59 inmates.
Another superb example is the 1838 Court House
in Wilshire Street. Classified by the National Trust, The Centre closed on 4 November 2011.
it was the scene of Australia’s first trial by jury.

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Section 3

Approaching Berrima from the north

Next door is the 1839 Berrima Gaol. It is empty were free to roam within a two mile radius during
of inmates today but is a stark reminder of the day, returning for evening muster at 5pm.
Berrima’s early days and of high historical value. They created a pleasure garden and a flotilla of
Notable features are the Bull’s Head Fountain in canoes on the Wingecarribee River. By 1915 the
Wilshire Street on the gaol wall, and the stocks fame of the Germans’ bridge, huts and gardens
in Wingecarribee Street across the highway from had spread far beyond Berrima. People from other
the gaol. areas came to sightsee, swim and picnic and it was
ironic that the internees, in the middle of the war,
Berrima Gaol was also home to a number of
brought about Berrima’s first tourism industry.
German prisoners-of-war during World War One.
Amongst those interned were both residents and In 1867 the railway was built east of Berrima
travellers of different classes, such as merchants, and the newer towns of Bowral and Moss Vale
tradesmen, marine officers and sailors. Internees surpassed Berrima in population and work
were locked up at night but after morning roll call opportunities. By late 1909 only the Surveyor
General Hotel survived to cater for travellers.
The change in circumstances of the town actually
assisted Berrima’s survival as a well-preserved
example of an early colonial town. Eventually this
led to Berrima being listed as a site of historic
importance and a heritage town.
Berrima’s charm lies not only in its rich history
but also the scenic beauty of the Wingecarribee
River winding through and around the town. A
walking guide of the town can be purchased at
the award-winning Berrima District Museum near
the bridge across the Wingecarribee River, or at
the Court House.

Berrima Gaol

42 Roads and Maritime Services NSW

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Bargo to Sutton Forest

POINT OF INTEREST – L

Wombat sign, south of Berrima Black Bobs Creek Bridge


When driving or walking around the streets, visitors (behind Mackey VC Rest Area)
will see some wonderful old buildings around The original bridge in this location was designed
the Market Place, a large park divided by the by David Lennox in 1834 as part of the Great
highway to the south of the town. Sir Henry Parkes Southern Road. It was completed in 1836-37,
contributed to Berrima by planting the oak tree replaced in 1860 and again in 1896.
in the northern tip of the park on the right hand The 1896 structure is still standing today, and
side, which is now a memorial garden. Holy Trinity was the first unreinforced concrete arch bridge
Anglican Church is at one end of the park and St built in NSW. It is accessible on foot at the rear of
Francis Xavier’s Catholic Church lies south of the the Mackey VC Rest Area, located north of the
township on the left. These churches were built in Illawarra Highway junction (Hoddles Cross Roads).
the 1840s and are of strong historical significance.
There are many interesting shops and cafes in People are often intrigued by the name of the
Berrima, some with historic features. Three Legs O’Man Bridge on the Hume Highway
South of Berrima is a roundabout. At this point a few miles south of Berrima. The originator of the
a short distance down Taylor Avenue on the left name was Robert Crowley, who arrived in Australia
is the village of New Berrima. It was established in from the Isle of Man in 1846. Soon after he
to house workers for the first cement works built arrived he bought a roadside inn near Berrima
there in the 1920s. called the Kentish Arms. He changed this name
to that of the emblem of the Isle of Man – Three
Proceeding south, the Old Hume Highway forms Legs O’Man.
part of the Remembrance Driveway, a living
memorial established in 1953 to commemorate The Three Legs O’Man Bridge also marks the
those who served in World War Two and change in status of the Hume Highway – full
subsequent conflicts. In 1954 the Queen planted freeway standard with grade-separated access
trees at each end of the Driveway, in Sydney and to the north, and controlled access with limited
Canberra. The Berrima plantings on either side junctions and property accesses to the south.
of the road contain monuments with inscriptions The Hume Highway bypassed Berrima in 1989.
to those who donated funds to establish the
landscaped areas.

The Old Hume Highway – History begins with a road 43

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Section 4 Southbound
Sutton Forest to Yarra

AD
17

ON RO

AY
W
GH
ET
BRAYT

RE

HI
ST

E
M
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HU
RG
BRAYTON
ROAD

O
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GE
RE

18
ST

ET
KE

RE
UR

ET
ST
BO

21 GOULBU
RE
RN

RN STRE
ET

CL ET
ST

ET
BU

IN
RE

RE
NE

TO
AU
ST

N ST
OA

ST 20 TARLO RIVER E
R

RG
PE

RE
SL

E NATIONAL PARK EO
W

T G
WA
Y
CO

GH
HI
Belanglo
Goulburn HU
ME
Marulan BELANGLO
STATE FOREST

R MACQUARIE’S
ME AD O RO
RN N T RO AD L
VE
O
G

MACKEY VC

Hanging
D

REST AREA
OL

COOKBUNDOON
AD
Rock
RANGE
GH RO
NLEI
Paddys
MID

O
NY 15
AD

KINGSBURY VC
CA
Brayton 16 REST AREA
G RO
DL

River Penrose
D
OA
E

RM PENROSE
A

Wild’s Pass
AR

STATE
AN

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FOREST H
ALG

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SO U T RO
A

D AD
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AD
TAR

L
O
RO DO R
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Fairfield ER
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EY

LAKE

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Wingello
CR

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SOOLEY RI G
Towrang

AR
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Marulan
K 17
O

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OL D
CHOWNE VC
EL G
Goulburn
REST AREA
L RO
AD M
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NG E
RO AD 19
N Tallong WINGELLO
STATE FOREST
21 20
Marulan
FRENCH VC DERRICK VC
REST AREA
AD

REST AREA

Yarra South
RO

22 M31
RA
RA
A
D
RO

JER
BRAID WOOD

KIBBY VC
REST AREA

MORTON
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NATIONAL PARK
OO
OOD

IDW
TO BRAIDW

BRA
TO

0 2 4 6
KM

Key
ROAD
EET

Former route, until Fitzroy


Bridge opening in 1976
N STR

EY ROAD
DN
GORMAN

SY
Old Hume Highway
O

WAY
RE G
ET
COMM
ST ON

Hume Highway
HIGH
L

HUME

Historic Route (trafficable)


Former route of Hume Highway
EET

Historic Route (non-trafficable)


REET

until opening of Governors Hill


N STR

Deviation in 1933
Major Road
ON ST
RINGTO

Minor Road
Goulburn
COMM

O Train line
North
HETHE

Rest Area

44 Roads and Maritime Services NSW

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Section 4

Sutton Forest to Yarra


Southbound

Directions DISTANCE FROM


PREVIOUS TURN POINT Along the way ... PAGE

15 About 700m after Kingsbury VC Rest 14.5 km Paddys River 46


Area, turn right into Hanging Rock Road
Marulan 47
16 After about 6 km turn left and then turn 6 km
right to rejoin the Hume Highway Old Marulan 47

15 km Goulburn 48
17 Take exit to Marulan and visit the main
street (George Street). You will need to Yarra 52
return to this interchange to continue
the trip south

18 Rejoin the Hume Highway via the onramp 0 km


Points of interest
19 Take Goulburn exit; continue through 23 km
L Black Bobs Creek Bridge 43
shopping area (Auburn Street)

20 Turn right at Clinton Street 7 km M Towrang Stockade site 48

0.5 km N Masonry arch bridge 48


21 Turn left at Cowper Street
and culverts
22 Rejoin Hume Highway from elevated 3.5 km Goulburn War Memorial 51
O
roundabout just past the Big Merino

Approximate distance: 67 km

The Old Hume Highway – History begins with a road 45

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Section 4

a little spree and impromptu concert. The

Paddys River bushrangers robbed Mrs Murray’s store of £50


worth of goods and removed £14 from

(Murrimba)
Mr Jeffrey’s cash box, then departed.
Today there are no remains of the township of
Murrimba. In the mid-twentieth century when
Paddys River was originally named St Patrick’s modern transport improved and traffic on the
River on 17 March 1818. A small village called Hume Highway increased, two small businesses
Murrimba grew beside the river. The first building opened to supply petrol and food for travellers.
here was the 1833 Jolly Miller Inn owned by These were the Spot Cafe and Kay’s Cafe. With
Willoughby Beadman. the duplication of the highway and opening of
Later there were two inns, one on either side of new bridges, the two cafes closed.
the road, and a blacksmith’s shop and store run During World War Two, there was an emergency
by Mrs Murray. Her husband James Murray, a air strip on flat ground near Uringalla Creek. It
teamster, won a tender to build the first bridge was marked out with painted drums around the
over Paddys River in 1833. It was a wooden bridge perimeter, but was probably never used.
and unfortunately was washed away in the late
19th century. Although the stream looks quite tranquil and
was the swimming hole for many young Marulan
On 3 February 1865 Ben Hall, John Gilbert and picknickers last century, there are some very
John Dunn held up the township of Murrimba deep holes and it is said that many years ago
and mustered the population of five families into a bullock driver and his team were drowned
Jeffrey’s Inn from 9pm until 2am. They enjoyed crossing the river.

Old building and sign, Marulan

46 Roads and Maritime Services NSW

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Sutton Forest to Yarra

Marulan

Marulan is situated between the Shoalhaven and


Wollondilly rivers. The township actually began
at Old Marulan, 5 km to the south. In 1868 the
Southern Railway was opened to the north of
the old village, so a new township grew around
the railway, the hotel and rail workers’ camp, and Golden Fleece Hotel at Old Marulan
people and businesses gradually gravitated to the
new town. vehicles entering the checking station no longer
need to stop for a stationary weight check.
Marulan has always been an agricultural and
mining area. The first marble in Australia was Before rejoining the highway, travellers will notice
mined here and minerals, sandstone and Meridian Park on the left. Known as the Marulan
limestone have been quarried over the years. Meridian Arch, it marks the path of the
150 degree Meridian which passes through
Because of Marulan’s proximity to the highway, Marulan, the only town in the world on its path.
transport has always been important. By the mid This is the exact middle of the Eastern Standard
20th century there were nine sites with Time Zone, where the sun rises at 6am and sets
petrol stations in the main street as well as a at 6pm precisely every equinox. The sculpture
towing service. describes the path of the earth around the
Marulan was chosen as a check point for truck sun, while the two elements at each end of the
inspectors. The first inspectors were ‘mobile’, structure represent a sundial and a clock.
parked in the main street, pulling up trucks to Marulan is a growing town because of its
check log books. In late 1958 the Department convenient location half way between Sydney and
of Motor Transport built a checking station on Canberra. The rural lifestyle appeals to many who
the north-eastern side of the highway. All trucks want a ‘tree change’. It is a multicultural town with
had to pass through that station and inspectors about forty different nationalities represented. On
were checking about 300 trucks each 8-hour shift. special occasions the 40 world flags are flown in
Traffic increased to such an extent that two new Meridian Park.
stations were built in town, one on either side of
the highway. By 1970 it was estimated that Walking maps of the town are available from the
3,000 trucks per day were passing through the Museum in the main street.
checking station.
In 1986 when Marulan was bypassed, new
checking stations were erected on the bypass.
In 1996 modern WIM (Weigh in Motion) checking
Old Marulan
technology was introduced and about 80% of The junction of the Hume Highway and the Jerrara
Road (about 5 kilometres south of the Marulan
heavy vehicle weighing station) marks a crucial
point in Major Mitchell’s survey of the Great
Southern Road. Settlement beyond this point was
sparse and Mitchell was unclear whether graziers
would favour following the top of the escarpment
and eventually finding an easy way down to the
coastal strip, or turn inland to access the grassy
plains stretching across the southeast. He divided
the road, one arm leading to Bungonia, edging
the impassable Shoalhaven River gorge, the
other turning west to Goulburn. These towns
marked the end of the Great Southern Road and
Meridian Arch, Marulan
a small settlement, Marulan, was marked at the

The Old Hume Highway – History begins with a road 47

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Section 4

junction. Like other roadside towns it was mainly built archaeological investigations discovered the
notable for having a range of pubs for travellers remains of the Woolpack Inn’s outbuildings and
to choose to break their journeys. The original charted the course of the township’s growth. The
was a handsome two-storey establishment, town site is protected on the NSW State Heritage
the Woolpack Inn run by Joseph Peters, which Register as an archaeological ‘snapshot’ of life on
remained the most prominent in the town. the Great Southern Road.
Marulan never grew to be much bigger than a
short three-pub town on the way to Goulburn
or Bungonia. Its main claim to fame was that the
Main Southern Railway, built in the early 1860s
Goulburn
with the strong backing of many prominent Goulburn is one of New South Wales’ largest
graziers and politicians, missed the town and most historic country towns. Settlement
completely. The line of the railway crossed the in Goulburn began in 1821 shortly after the
Great Southern Road some five miles northwards, discovery of ‘Goulburn Plains’ by the explorer and
and this became the railhead while the final surveyor James Meehan in 1818. John Oxley and
section of line to Goulburn was built. The railhead Governor Macquarie passed through the area in
was usually called Marulan, but the small cluster 1820, with Macquarie noting that Goulburn Plains
of buildings around it took on township status as was ‘a most beautiful, rich tract of country … fit
Mooroowoollen, the more exact Gundungurra for both purposes of cultivation and grazing’. The
pronunciation of Marulan. Very soon businesses original idea for a town at Goulburn was for the
began to drift from the old Marulan to the new, purpose of a soldier-settler scheme for discharged
eventually resulting in most of the old town soldiers of the New South Wales Royal Veterans
being abandoned. When the post master at companies. Primarily named ‘The Argyle’ and later
Mooroowoollen requested a new stamp, it was named after Henry Goulburn, the Secretary of
decided to just take the one from Marulan – an act State for War and the Colonies, Goulburn’s first
that signalled the official death of the old town. white settlers were settled on properties such
The site of the former town is marked by two
cemeteries that are still in use - Catholic and
Anglican. Although the railway line was the POINT OF INTEREST – N
town’s death, it spurred a local boom in limestone
quarrying and burning both in the former town
and at South Marulan. A new interchange was
constructed in 2012 to allow large trucks from
South Marulan and a new porphyryite mine to the
west to access the Hume Highway. Before it was

POINT OF INTEREST – M

Towrang Stockade site


Remnants of the stockade are located just off
the Hume Highway off Towrang Road. The site
is accessible by stepping over the stile on the
fence near the parking area.
The stockade housed the convicts engaged
Masonry arch bridge and culverts
in building Mitchell’s Great Southern Road at Towrang (Derrick VC Rest Area)
between 1833 and 1843. Little remains of the This 1839 arch bridge, located at the rear of the
stockade itself but mounds of earth mark the Derrick VC Rest Area, is thought to have been
location of the cells that housed the convicts designed by David Lennox. Six other convict-
at night. The powder magazine set in the bank built culverts can be found along a remaining
of the river survives. Across the creek there is a section of the road running south from the bridge
cemetery with three headstones. towards Goulburn.

48 Roads and Maritime Services NSW

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Sutton Forest to Yarra

William Hovell’s

FI T
Roundabout grave site

ZR

EET
Traffic lights DIXON

STREE
STREET KINGHO St Saviour’s

OY
ME STRE

TR
ET Cemetery

STREET
Y S
ER
ET

UNION
CHATS CE M
B
STREEURY
T

REET

T
EE
CITIZEN

R
VIEW ST
STREE

ST
BR T

N
GO AD

R
LD EET

BU
LE
STR
CL Y
IF SM

AU
ST
FO ON

ET
IT RE O
RD H ET LAG
RE
ST ST ST
RE RE
Victoria ET ET St Clair
AN

ET
Rugby Park
CC

RE
DE

Park

ST

ET
LL

ET

RE
St Saviour’s

ET
FU

RE

ST
Cathedral
H

RE
ST
IT

NE
FA

CL

ST
KE

OA
IN VE

R
RN

RN
TO

SL
U
AD ER Goulburn

BO
N
Belmore

BU
DI ST ST War Memorial
SO RE RE

AU
N ET
ET Park Goulburn
ST
RE Golf Club
ET
T
EE

Post Office Court House Memorial


TR

Park
S

ET

ET
ET
EL

Eastgrove
RE

RE
D

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AN

ST

ST

Park North
ST

ET
M

LL

KE

ET
RO

FU

RE
R

UR

Goulburn Station
RE
PE
CO

TH

ST
BO

ST
W
I
FA

NE
RN
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Eastgrove
BU

OA
AU

Park South
Mulwa ree R
SL

AD
WOO D R O

B
U

T
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NG

iver

R
O

ST IA
N

E RO
BRAID

M Goulburn AD
HU Bladwell
Park Recreational William Hovell’s grave
Area

Goulburn town map

as Lansdowne and Springfield well before the


township of Goulburn was laid out in 1828. The
Argyle land quickly became productive agricultural
land, with Goulburn helping to feed Sydney
during the droughts of 1838-1840.
The need for lines of communication and trade
between Goulburn and Sydney in the 1830s led to
the construction of the Great Southern Road. As
early as the 1840s, however, it became apparent
that the construction of a railway was required 1940s Goulburn streetscape
to assist trade and lessen the heavy traffic on the
Great Southern Road, which largely consisted of
teamsters driving bullock wagons. Traffic on the
Great Southern Road was subject to the dangers
of bushrangers and poor road conditions, with
drays and coaches sometimes became bogged for
weeks. The railway to Goulburn was opened on
27 May 1869.
The present town of Goulburn is situated on the
Southern Highlands of the Great Dividing Range
and has often been referred to in the past as
the ‘Inland Capital of NSW.’ Since the early days
of settlement Goulburn has become a major Goulburn Post Office and Town Hall, built in Victorian Italianate style
in 1880/81

The Old Hume Highway – History begins with a road 49

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Section 4

Community support for the Goulburn Bypass

Goulburn Bypass looking south

agricultural centre, especially famous for its cattle,


sheep, potatoes and fruit. It has also been known
as ‘Lilac City’ due to the large number of lilacs
planted by the town’s early pioneers.
Goulburn offers a vast array of historical sites for
visitors. In its early years Goulburn was a major
centre of crime and punishment, famous both
for its convict labour and bushrangers, many
of whom were escaped convicts. Its gaol is an
icon of colonial architecture, history and penal
folklore in NSW. Although the gaol is still in use
as a maximum security correctional centre, the
beautiful classic revival courthouse on Montague
Street is open to visitors. Opened in 1887 to
replace the former courthouse, it is built in an
Italianate revival style and is one of Goulburn’s
most stunning landmarks.
Other sites of interest include Goulburn Historic
Waterworks, built in 1885 and Goulburn War
Memorial and Museum, which pays tribute to
Goulburn’s men who served in World War One
and boasts spectacular views over the city. Also
noteworthy are St Saviour’s Cathedral, one of
the most beautiful gothic cathedrals in Australia,
and Sts Peter and Paul’s Old Cathedral, the only
Convict-built culvert – near Derrick VC rest area greenstone cathedral in the world. St Saviour’s

50 Roads and Maritime Services NSW

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Sutton Forest to Yarra

Traffic through Goulburn before the bypass opened

cemetery at North Goulburn is the last resting


place of Hamilton Hume’s exploration partner POINT OF INTEREST – O Photo: Don Fuchs Photography
William Hilton Hovell, who died on 9 November
1875 at age 90.
The elegantly furnished Colonial Georgian
Riversdale Homestead is renowned for its
collection of colonial furniture, arts and crafts,
and wood carvings. Celebrating Goulburn’s role
in Australia’s wool industry, The Big Merino,
now relocated to the southern end of town, is a
roadside icon. Goulburn was also an important
railway centre and the Goulburn Rail Heritage
Centre showcases Goulburn’s rail history Goulburn War Memorial
through a collection of heritage locomotives, Goulburn War Memorial on Rocky Hill at North
rolling stock and machinery in the former Goulburn was built as a lasting tribute to the
locomotive roundhouse. gallant men of Goulburn and district who served
in World War One. It was opened in 1925.
There is no shortage of eateries, wineries, antique
The War Memorial is a square tower of stone
stores, heritage estates and walking tours in
conglomerate and concrete standing 20 metres
Goulburn to suit every taste and interest. Further high, with Rocky Hill as its pedestal. Inside
information is available at the Goulburn Visitor the tower is a tablet inscribed with the names
Information Centre at 201 Sloane Street. of those who enlisted from the district. The
The Hume Highway bypassed Goulburn in lookout gallery at the top of the Memorial gives
unsurpassed views of Goulburn and surrounds.
December 1992, and the city remains a popular
stopping spot, particularly for travelers between
Sydney and Canberra.

The Old Hume Highway – History begins with a road 51

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Section 4

Yarra scenes

the 1900s sent weather observations to the

Yarra Commonwealth Meteorologist. Dr Hammond


deplored in print the wholesale deforestation
of the surrounding countryside, and conducted
South of Goulburn, the Hume Highway swings experiments to show that trees attracted rain.
westward on its way to Melbourne, and the A little further south was Thornford Public
Federal Highway heads south to Canberra. At School, where Miles Franklin first learned to
the junction of these two busy thoroughfares read – and write.
lies Yarra. In the tongue of the Wiradjuri people, To the north-west of Yarra lies Parkesbourne,
‘yarra’ means ‘red’; the word can also refer to the community of selectors named by Sir Henry
the River Red Gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis). Parkes, in honour of himself, during his visit in
An early settler was George Cole, and the stone 1866. Not short on patriotism, Yarra supplied at
buildings of his farm ‘Malton’ on Coles Road at least one volunteer for the Boer War, and when
Yarra are now locally heritage listed. So too are the Kangaroo Recruiting March trudged through
the ruins of Yarra Anglican Church and cemetery, Yarra on 22 December 1915 on its way from
for which Mr David Clark donated the land. His Wagga Wagga to World War One, two Yarra lads
young wife Mary (d. 1878) was first to be buried joined their strength.
there and her headstone leans beneath the few
remaining oaks. Also resting in this graveyard Some of Yarra’s story is the story of trees: a rest
is Mr W. C. Apps, once proprietor of the area with a grove and of eucalypts, poplars and
Breadalbane Inn. Yarra Public School, opened in willows was planted at Yarra in 1956, as part of
1869, has vanished but a tennis court stands in the the Remembrance Driveway between Canberra
playground surrounded by elderly pines, planted and Sydney.
by little hands on long-ago Arbor Days. Yarra’s small railway station is long gone but the
South-east of Yarra was Samares Station, from level crossing keeper’s cottage on the nearby
whence Dr Alfred De Lisle Hammond during sideroad remains.

52 Roads and Maritime Services NSW

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Sutton Forest to Yarra

Yarra scene

Yarra scene

The Old Hume Highway – History begins with a road 53

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Section 5 Southbound
Yarra to Gunning

Route of Hume Highway


until late 1940s

P
Cullerin
Fish Mutmutbilly
River
25 24
27 26 Gunning Yarra
Breadalbane
23

KIBBY VC
M31 REST AREA

AY
HW
IG
WOLLOGORANG

H
Route of Hume Highway LAGOON A L
ER
until the 1920s FED

M23
TO SUTTON

R
CTO
LLE

ERRA
ANB
TO C
CO
TO

0 2 4 6
Gunning AY
KM
W
GH
DALT HI
E
Key
ON R M
OAD
HU
D
OL
W ST

24
AR RE

ET
Old Hume Highway
RA ET

RE
CO
TA

ST
LLE

SS
W

YA
Hume Highway
CTO

25 T
E Historic Route (trafficable)
TRE
RR

HU ME S
D

OA
OA

GUNNING Historic Route (non-trafficable)


D
OR

PARK
HU
Major Road
O

26 ME
AR

HI
GH
ND

W Minor Road
AY
GU

Rest Area

54
Roads and Maritime Services NSW

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Section 5

Yarra to Gunning
Southbound

Directions DISTANCE FROM


PREVIOUS TURN POINT Along the way ... PAGE

23 Turn right onto Cullerin Road to 17.5 km Breadalbane 56


Breadalbane and proceed through
to Gunning Cullarin Range / Cullerin 57

27 km Fish River 58
24 Proceed through Gunning business
area – do not follow signs to Hume Gunning 59
Highway at this point

25 Turn left onto road to Yass/Gundaroo/ 1 km


Canberra, beyond the centre of Gunning
(the old road only continues for a short
Points of interest
distance beyond this point)
P Hume & Hovell memorial 58
26 Turn right down ramp to rejoin the Hume 0.5 km
Highway towards Yass & Gundagai

Approximate distance: 39 km

The Old Hume Highway – History begins with a road 55

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Section 5

Breadalbane cemetery

Breadalbane
A lengthy superseded stretch of the Old Hume
Highway runs through Breadalbane to Gunning,
and is now known as the Cullerin Road. The
turnoff is at Wollogorang, about ten kilometres
west of Yarra.
‘The native name of these plains is Mulwarry, but
which I have named Breadalbane Plains,’ noted Breadalbane cemetery gates
Lachlan Macquarie in his diary on 22 October
1820. Macquarie, born in Mull, was a nostalgic supposedly seven sly grog shops along the route,
bestower of Scottish place-names upon the Colony including Pretty Sally’s near Mutmutbilly, which
of New South Wales. With the lands in the County had the reputation of ‘harbouring rogues’, as they
of Cumberland ‘being in an exhausted State’, all did.
Macquarie in 1820 permitted grazing on the With its bushranging days over, Breadalbane got
Breadalbane Plains, and squatters soon arrived. on with business. Its little school opened in 1868,
The Plains are sheep country; selectors of the and remains vigorous. The railway came through
1860s failed to crop the stony ground. This was in 1875, and Breadalbane Station served the
also bushranger territory. The rough Cullerin district for a century. The Breadalbane Mines and
Range provided splendid hiding places for Smelting Works began processing iron and copper
bushrangers and almost every stretch of this road ore in 1910. When the Kangaroo Recruiting March
has some bushranger lore attached. Johnny Dunn came through Breadalbane in 1915, a banner
robbed the Yass mail at Breadalbane in 1864; in front of Breadalbane post-office greeted
John Gilbert did likewise in 1865. There were them with ‘Cooee, We wish you good luck and

56 Roads and Maritime Services NSW

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Yarra to Gunning

The long avenue of poplars west of Breadalbane, a distinctive Old Hume Highway sight

God-speed’. Down the Old South Road lies an


abandoned graveyard with handsome gates
memorialising two local lads who joined this march
to World War One, but didn’t march home again.
Cullarin Range /
That graveyard belongs to St Silas’s Church,
which was relocated in 1937, renamed the
Cullerin
Chisholm Memorial Church to acknowledge its
major benefactor, and rebuilt in functional red Beyond Breadalbane, the Old Hume Highway
brick with a glass-brick crucifix in the northern climbs over the Great Dividing Range, here known
wall. The convenience in the churchyard shows as the Cullarin Range. Bullockies dreaded and
similar structural detail. The good Scots name damned the spot, dubbing it the ‘Razorback’.
of Chisholm was ever prominent in Breadalbane A sign near the railway identifies the almost
Plains matters, and the Hannan family is well identically named locality of Cullerin as the highest
represented among the graves of St Brigid’s point on the Main Southern Line; the first train
Catholic Church at Mutmutbilly. There lies Thomas panted up here in 1876, when the Great Southern
Byrne, d. 1888, once part of Ben Hall’s gang. Railway extension went through from Goulburn to
Gunning. Cullarin Range is also the highest point
After the Cullarin Range Deviation opened in on the Old Hume Highway, at 790 metres.
April 1993, the pace of Breadalbane slowed. Its
red-roofed hotel became a private home. The Between 1880 and 1975, Cullerin had a railway
Breadalbane service station closed and potted platform and over the level crossing stand the
shrubs stood on the forecourt instead of pumps. ruins of what may have been an inn. In 1926, a
few kilometres westward, a highway deviation and
Breadalbane’s avenue of tall poplars, a distinctive new bridge were constructed, utilising part of the
local landmark, still welcomes Old Hume Highway former railway formation. The former section of
travellers. unsealed Old South Road nearby may tempt the
adventurous, but extreme caution is called for at
the level crossings.

The Old Hume Highway – History begins with a road 57

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Section 5

Fish River

Since 2009, the great white sails of the Cullerin


Range Wind Farm have generated power from POINT OF INTEREST – P
brisk Cullerin breezes.
The traveller will also pass the handsome
homestead of Mount Pleasant. In colonial days,
Mr Joseph Bean kept the Frankfield Inn here, and
when he sold up in 1871, he offered, along with
his eight bedroom hotel, 200 acres of land, 30
under cultivation, and a one-acre garden well-
stocked with fruit trees, plus 1500 grape-vines,
a reminder that an innkeeper had to be self-
sufficient to succour his guests.
While there is now little in the way of settlement
at Cullerin, tourists may observe local wildlife
including the prominent crimson rosella.

Fish River
Fish River is Hume country. Hamilton Hume
received 1,200 acres of choice Yass Plains pasture
in recognition of his achievement as an explorer. Hume & Hovell memorial
An obelisk atop a roadside cutting, slightly
This memorial, near Fish River east of
difficult to inspect, marks the spot where Hume Gunning, was unveiled on 17 October 1924. It
and Hovell set off on their journey to Port Phillip commemorates the centenary of the Hume and
in 1824. Hume was himself childless, and virtually Hovell expedition which set out from this location.
conscripted his nephew into helping him establish

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Yarra to Gunning

Fish River scenery

Mitchell, who thought it reminiscent of that


Spanish city. The local creeks feed the Fish River,
which in turn forms the headwaters of the Lachlan.
One of these is Blakely Creek, which saw a tiny
gold rush in 1852, Ben Hall’s Gang in 1865,
but more lastingly, gave its name to Eucalyptus
blakelyi, aka Blakely’s Red Gum, a sturdy provider
of Fish River fence-posts and firewood, shade for
grazing sheep, and blossoms for honeybees.

Gunning
At the foot of a long Old Hume Highway hill
lies the small town of Gunning whose peaceful
surrounds have a colourful and sometimes bloody
history. John Kennedy Hume, brother of the
Gunning War Memorial and Post Office
explorer, was shot dead at Gunning in January
the Hume merino stud and rural holdings that 1840 by bushranger Thomas Whitton. Hume’s
prospered here for some generations. Frankfield grave can be seen in the General Cemetery, but
and Collingwood stations nearby were just two harder to view is the grave of Henry Dunkley,
of several Hume properties. Hamilton Hume later who in 1842 was slain by his wife Lucretia and her
settled at Yass. convict lover Martin Beech. The murderous couple
were hanged in Berrima Gaol, and Dunkley’s grave
The Fish River locality got its present name when is now part of the Gunning Sewage Farm; a sorry
the railway arrived in 1875; in 1887, a ticket to tale all round.
Goulburn from Fish River station cost five shillings
and sixpence for an adult, 3 shillings a 8 pence per Gunning was long a place travellers avoided.
child. The station was at first called Tank. Thirsty Without decent accommodation, the town was
steam engines filled their boilers here before the also rumoured to harbour the criminal element of
stiff climb up the Cullarin Range towards Sydney. the district, a familiar accusation among colonial
The steel water tanks can still be seen. settlements. ‘Some half-dozen miserable looking
buildings thrown together pitchfork fashion,’
The true Fish River, also known as Narrawa, lies sneered a visitor in 1854. Even the addition of
further north-west. The watercourse that here substantial church buildings, Catholic, Anglican,
passes under the highway and railway bridges and Wesleyan, on rises around the township, did
is properly Lerida Creek, named by Sir Thomas not much impress visitors.

The Old Hume Highway – History begins with a road 59

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Section 5

Bluestone church of St Francis Xavier and Joseph, Gunning. Opened April 1860

From the 1870s, a metalled and better maintained


Great Southern Road enriched Gunning with
passing trade. There was a coaching station for
Cobb & Co. The railway reached Gunning in
1875, and next year The Gunning Leader began
publication. Having its own newspaper suggests a
burgeoning community, but some still prophesied
doom. ‘While Gunning was the railway terminus
the township was in a very flourishing state, the
streets being almost impassable on account of
the number of [bullock] teams standing about.
With the extension of the railway [to Yass] all
this disappeared.’ Yet Baltinglass, Bowering,
Inglewood, and the Hume family strongholds of
Frankfield and Collingwood made the Gunning
district famous for its wool-clips and merino studs.
Gunning Pastoral and Agricultural Show was a
prestigious showplace for Yass Plains breeders,
though in some years there was no show at all.
The sticking point was the sale of liquor, for
Gunning had another distinction. In 1909, when
Local Option was closing NSW pubs by the dozen,
Gunning was the greatest Temperance stronghold
in the State.
The Showgrounds remain impressive, and the
Gunning Community Hall is a splendid structure in
Memorial to Boer War volunteer Denis Murray
corrugated steel. Here too, is a fine monument to

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Yarra to Gunning

Y
Old Court House WA
and Lockup GH
Frankfield HI
DALTO E
N ROAD M
Caxton HU
D
House OL

Gunning Station Court

W
AR
House Gunning Cemetery

OM
RA

BA
NE

TA

T
LA

ST
W
N GL

ST
London

O
ST
OLD HUME HIGHWAY House

Pye Cottage
(Gunning Historical Society)

COLLE
M31
AD

CTOR RO
HU
RO

ME
OO

HI
R GH
N DA WA
Y

AD
GU

Gunning town map

The Hume Highway bypassed Gunning in 1995.


As in 1878, some locals prophesied the death of
the town. Others welcomed a more restful pace
of existence, turning over slowly like the blades of
a windmill. Since 2011, the Gunning Wind Farm
has become a major source of clean energy, but
just in case life seems a little too laid-back, the
Gunning Fireworks Festival explodes out at the
Showground each September.
Further information is available at the Gunning
Visitor Information Centre at 56 Yass St.

Main Street, Gunning

Denis Murray, a Boer War Volunteer, who like


so many in that conflict died, not in battle,
but from fever.
Gunning also shakes, rattles, and rolls. Since
the 1880s, earth tremors have been recorded,
those of the 1930s being the most dramatic and
damaging. One Gunning resident liked to show
visitors the cracks in his walls and give the date
of each. Geologists concluded that Gunning was
built on a fault line.
Returned Servicemen’s Memorial Gates, Gunning Showground

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Section 6 Southbound
Gunning to Bowning
TO
BO
OR
OW
A

B81
LAC
HL

Bowning
AN
VAL EY WAY
L

Oolong Gunning
24
25
27 26

32 28
M31

R
Yass 29 MUNDOONEN
31 AY
NATURE RESERVE

YW Manton
E

Q
LL

A
YASS V
30
D

A
RO

TO SUTTON
SS

A25
ER - YA

B ART

Early route of main south road


A SP

ON H
EJ
WE

IG

W
H

AY
TO CANBER
RA

0 2 4 6
CO
OT KM
AM
UN
DR

BO
A
RO
AD
Key
GO
LO Old Hume Highway
NG BO
WN
ST IN
RE G
RO Hume Highway
ET AD
Historic Route (trafficable)
34 33
Historic Route (non-trafficable)
HUME HIGHWAY
Major Road

Bowning Minor Road

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Section 6

Gunning to Bowning
Southbound

Directions DISTANCE FROM


PREVIOUS TURN POINT Along the way ... PAGE

27 After 2.5 km turn left onto Veterans Road 2.5 km Manton 64


then right onto the Old Hume Highway
Yass 64
28 Rejoin Hume Highway after about 6 km 6 km
at Oolong Road Bowning 68

29 Turn left onto Yass Valley Way 16 km

30 Proceed straight ahead through the 5 km Points of interest


Barton Highway access roundabouts
Q Cooma Cottage 66
31 Proceed through Yass shopping area 6 km
R Hamilton Hume’s grave 67
32 Rejoin Hume Highway after service centre 7 km

33 Turn right to Bowning at Bowning Road 5.5 km

34 Rejoin Hume Highway after 2 km 2 km

Approximate distance: 50 km

The Old Hume Highway – History begins with a road 63

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Section 6 – Southbound

In the late 1870s, when the railway was extended

Manton from Gunning to Yass, a tent city of workers


sprang up at Mantons Creek. The locality became
notorious for sly-grogging, prostitution, and
Mr Frederick Manton Esq. (1799–1863) was highway robberies. Many local bad characters
among the earliest pastoralists on the Yass congregated there, complained the police, though
Plains. Several thousand acres of his grant the navvies were ‘a decent body of men’.
surrounded the stretch of the Old Hume Highway In 1900, the Federal City League inspected the
now called Yass Valley Way. Manton called his Yass district, and had they chosen it, Manton
station ‘Mon Réduit’ (French for ‘my hideout’ or might have become a suburb of our nation’s
‘my cubbyhouse’), perhaps recalling a town in capital. The Manton locality was bypassed by
Mauritius. He departed the district in 1839 for the Hume Highway in 1994, and the Yass Valley
Melbourne, where among other enterprises he Way is now a tranquil, though not unused, rural
erected the first flour mill. The State of Victoria road. About half-way along it the Manton Park
claims Manton as a pioneer; before a border was Estate, which offers modest house blocks for sale,
drawn at the Murray River, Manton and others seems set to become a dormitory suburb for the
looked to Melbourne as their metropolis. increasing number of commuters between Yass
He left a manager to run his farm, half a dozen and the national capital.
sons, and his liberally bestowed name. Not
only is the Parish named the Parish of Manton,
but the ridge cleft by the Hume Highway is
Mantons Ridge, the peak to the south-west
Yass
with telecommunications towers atop is Mount
The Yass Valley first belonged to the Ngunnawal
Manton, and to the east is Mantons Road. Manton
people, whose land stretched from Muttama in
Public School closed in 1947 and the classroom
the south up through Yass Valley and east towards
became shearers’ quarters: this is sheep country.
the present capital. The town of Yass is situated
This is also bushranger country. Travellers were on the Yass River, and is just west of the junction
regularly ‘bailed up’ near Mantons Creek: a neat of the Hume and Barton Highways, connecting
irony, since Joseph Manton, gunsmith of London Sydney, Melbourne and the ACT. The district of
Town, was the father of Frederick Manton Esq., Yass was discovered by Hamilton Hume in 1821,
pastoralist of Yass Plains, and Ben Hall’s Gang following which the bountiful land was occupied
wielded stolen ‘Joe Mantons’ whenever possible. by squatters with sheep and cattle, who lived

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Gunning to Bowning

Manton

beyond the prescribed government limits for Hume called out ‘Well, can you see anything?’
settlement. By 1830 the Yass district was being and the convict replied in a provincial drawl
divided up into land for pastoral settlement, ‘Ya-s-s-s, Plains.’ It is generally believed now that
though only a few managed to secure freehold the name is derived from the local river, which the
title. The first survey for a town in the district was indigenous people called ‘Yahrs’ or ‘Yahrr’.
conducted in 1834, and in 1837 the township of
One of Yass’s main and most famous exports is
Yass was officially gazetted.
its fine wool. In the early days of settlement Yass
The derivation of Yass’s name has been debated, was praised for its rich pastures, ideal for sheep
with one unlikely folk tale suggesting it came and cattle grazing. The Sydney Gazette of 18
from a conversation between Hamilton Hume November 1830 remarked that ‘this beautiful tract
and a convict in his travelling party. According to of our south-west country in the vicinity of the
this tale Hume told one of his convicts to climb Murrumbidgee River...abounds with some of the
a tree and look out over the surrounding bush richest pasturage in the world for sheep and cattle’.
to see what lay ahead. Receiving no quick reply

Yass Bridge and township, c.1876

The Old Hume Highway – History begins with a road 65

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Section 6

Yass Court House, built in 1880

Like many of the towns between Sydney and Flats (now known as Young) gold fields there
Goulburn in the early days, Yass became the was an increase in highway robberies. Highway
target of bushrangers in the 1830s. A gaol and ‘bailups’ became common in 1863 and in 1865 the
courthouse were quickly erected in Yass in 1836. Felon’s Apprehension Act was passed, marking the
In the 1860s with the opening of the Lambing beginning of the end for bushrangers.
Yass’s history is still very much alive today as the
town showcases a number of beautiful nineteenth
POINT OF INTEREST – Q century buildings. Yass Post Office, established
in 1835, is one of the most historic offices in New
Cooma Cottage South Wales, and was essential in opening lines of
On the banks of the Yass River east of Yass, communication into Yass in the 1830s.
Cooma Cottage is in the heart of the rich sheep
grazing country which attracted pioneers in the Cooma Cottage is another favourite tourist
early 1820s and 1830s. The original colonial destination, being the home and retirement spot
bungalow forms part of the earliest complex of explorer Hamilton Hume. It is one of the oldest
of dwellings and stables on the site, as built by surviving rural houses in Yass, and is a good example
pioneering pastoralist Cornelius O’Brien.
The property is most noted as the home of
Hamilton Hume. It is said that Hume fell in love
with the site when camping there in 1824 on his
epic overland journey to Port Phillip Bay with
William Hovell. He purchased the cottage and
100 acres in 1839 for £600 and over the next
20 or so years embarked on an enthusiastic and
creative process of building extensions, adding
his own version of Palladian style wings and a
Greek Revival portico.
The cottage, now listed under the NSW
Heritage Act, regularly houses art exhibitions.
Banjo Paterson Park, Yass

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Gunning to Bowning

Water
Reserve iver
R

AY
Yas ss
Ya

LLEY W
Yass Lawn sR MOUNT
STREE
T
Cemetery

ive
r
A
GRAMP

YASS V
LAN STR
EET
Hamilton Hume’s
Grave site Victoria St Clement’s Anglican
Park Church Rectory
IR
R VI
NE Joe O’Connor Banjo Paterson Park St Clement’s
Yass General D
Park Anglican Church
Cemetery
R
IV
E

Yass Court House ET


RE Commercial Hotel
ST
E ET H AN
ST
R EE Yass
ROSSI I M ET
STREE SS RE Showgrounds
T
RO ST T
A D E
LE RE
ST

ROAD
Yass Post Office G
D IN
OL ET
P RE
SH

JUNCTION
STREET ST
Royal Hotel NE
EA

OW
RS

BR
BY

CRAGO
CR

GRAND
ES

Roundabout
EN

Traffic lights
T

Yass town map

POINT OF INTEREST – R

Yass Mechanics Institute, with distinctively Australian features


Hamilton Hume’s grave
of what the first settlers built for themselves, their Hamilton Hume died at his home Cooma Cottage
families and the servants. The cottage, now listed on 19 April 1873 and is buried alongside his
under the NSW Heritage Act, regularly houses art wife Elizabeth in the Anglican section of Yass
exhibitions. Hamilton Hume died there on 19 April Cemetery. To visit the Cemetery heading west in
1873, and is buried in Yass Cemetery. Yass township, turn left at Ross Street near the Yass
River, then after 700m turn right into Irvine Drive.
Also worth a look are the Mechanics Institute, circa
1869, and Banjo Paterson Park. For local history
enthusiasts the Yass & District Museum deserves to a number of vineyards and fine, cooler climate
a visit. Rail enthusiasts should visit Australia’s wines. Further information is available at the Yass
shortest railway platform at the Railway Heritage Visitor Information Centre, located at Coronation
Centre. For drama enthusiasts the Yass Repertory Park, 259 Comur Street.
Theatre – Australia’s oldest continually operating
theatre and based in the historic Liberty Theatre The Hume Highway bypassed Yass in July 1994.
– is the place to be, as performance nights always
promise a full house. Wine lovers will not be
disappointed either, as the Yass Valley is home

The Old Hume Highway – History begins with a road 67

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Section 6

Pet emu, Bogolong Road, Bowning

Cobb & Co Coaching Station, in Bogolong Street.

Bowning St James’s Church of England opened its doors


in 1879 and still holds services. St Columba’s
bluestone Catholic Church was built 30 years later.
When Hume and Hovell passed this way in 1824, A final Mass was celebrated there in June 2003.
both marked ‘Mt Buaning’ on their sketched The Commercial Hotel in Leake Street, built 1870
maps. This may be a clue to the original is supposed to have been a watering hole of
pronunciation of Bowning (derived from the author Henry Lawson when Lawson stayed with an
Aboriginal word ‘bownyan’ for ‘big hill’), though aunt in nearby ‘Mayfield’ around 1899-1914.
Captain Hovell also noted the ‘Lachling River’.
Bowning missed out on becoming part of the
Bowning Hill still dominates the surrounding nation’s capital, though the sweating Federal Site
countryside. Big Bowning, which looms over the Committee climbed the hill in October 1900 to
village, has flamed out on at least three occasions. admire the view towards Yass. Mount Bowning
The first was in antiquity, when it was the core of
a volcano. In 1873 the entire mountain was ablaze
with a bushfire visible for miles around.
On the night of 7 June 1935, Boy Scouts lit a
mighty pyre on Mount Bowning, one of a chain of
bonfire beacons across the State celebrating the
Jubilee of King George V.
In 1876, Bowning was the busy southern terminus
of the Great Southern Railway. Interstate travellers
alighted here and took a Cobb & Co coach to Port
Phillip. The station closed in 1992. The railway
buildings, now listed under the NSW Heritage Act,
are best viewed from the bridge nearby; they are
a private residence. So too is the diplomatically
named Rose, Shamrock & Thistle Inn, once a Former Bowning Station Sign

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Gunning to Bowning

St James’ Anglican Church, Bowning, built in 1879

also missed out on being an Astronomical long agitated for construction of one. The Old
Observatory, despite Professor Hussey of Hume Highway dog-legs through the village and
California’s Lick Observatory approving the with an ever-increasing volume of traffic, especially
location in 1903. heavy and sometimes toxic freight, locals had
feared calamitous accidents.
Unlike other towns fearing commercial eclipse
from a Hume Highway bypass, Bowning locals had The Hume Highway bypassed Bowning in 1973.

St Columba’s Catholic Church, Bowning, built in 1909

The Old Hume Highway – History begins with a road 69

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Section 7 Southbound
Bowning to Coolac
G

39
UNRO

Bookham
D AD

40
AG
AI

ROADNG
41
MA
TTA

ILLALO
MU OAD
R
HU
36 M
E
ROAD

HI
GH
W
FA AY
HU ME HIGHWAY

G
COOLAC

AN
D

AD
RU D
RI
M 35

RO
M VE
O

LA
N
D

ET Y
ST

RE RO
DO
RE

ST ON
ET

IL
CH

C
Coolac
45 TO
TEM
42 OR
44 A
GO
BAR
43
RAL
ON
GR
B81
OA
D
BURL
EY
GRI
FI

F
B94 N
K

WA
CREE

Route of Hume Highway

Y
until 1938 GIONG
JU

34 33
RA

Jugiong Bowning
TO COOTAMUND

36
37 35 TO YASS
38

Bookham
Deviation opened K ROAD
in July 1965
C

MURR DG E R
UMBI E IVE
JU

R
IN

Coolac
RR

LAKE
BU BURRINJUCK
Route of Hume Highway
between 1938 and 1995
BURRINJUCK
AI

NATURE RESERVE
AG
D
UN
G
TO

0 2 4 6
D

KM
A
F RO

Key
EE

HUME HIGHWAY R
S
JU

MAHON
GIO

37 Old Hume Highway


N GR

Mc

Hume Highway
OA
D

RIVERSIDE DRIVE Historic Route (trafficable)


E
IV MURRUMBIDGEE RIVER
DR Historic Route (non-trafficable)
DE
SI
V ER Major Road
RI

38
Jugiong Minor Road

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Section 7

Bowning to Coolac
Southbound

Directions DISTANCE FROM


PREVIOUS TURN POINT Along the way ... PAGE

35 Turn left into Conroy Street to Bookham 18.5 km Bookham 72


then right into Fagan Drive
Jugiong 73
36 Turn right into Childowla Road after 1 km
1 km and then turn left to rejoin Coolac 75
Hume Highway

26 km
Points of interest
37 Turn left to Jugiong via Riverside Drive

38 Rejoin Hume Highway after 5.5 km 5.5 km


S Burrinjuck Dam 73
39 Take Muttama Road exit to Coolac 17.5 km
& Cootamundra

40 Turn right at top of highway off-ramp 0.5 km

41 Turn left onto Old Hume Highway 0.5 km

42 Turn left into Coleman Street at sign 3.5 km


‘Pettit / Adjungbilly’

43 Turn left again into Main Street 0.2 km

44 Turn left into Gobarralong Road 0.5 km

45 Turn left onto Hume Highway 0.1 km

Approximate distance: 74 km

The Old Hume Highway – History begins with a road 71

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Section 7

The more official story of Bookham’s name are


less amusing – it is believed to be a shortening of
‘Cumbookambookinah’, the name initially given to
the village.
In 1939 Banjo Paterson mentioned Bookham in his
memoirs in The Sydney Morning Herald, describing
it as a town with a pub at each end and nothing
in between. He recalled how as a boy Bookham
was one of the few places where one could still
see horse racing in heats. The racetrack, Paterson
wrote, was unfenced, with no grandstand, and
laid out through gum and stringy bark scrub. One
particular day at the races in 1873, in which the
boy Paterson (then called Andrew Barton) lent his
saddle to the winning horse ‘Pardon’, would go on
to inspire the racing ballad ‘Old Pardon, the Son
of Reprieve’. ‘Pardon’ also rated a mention in ‘The
Man from Snowy River’:
‘There was Harrison, who made his pile

when Pardon won the cup,

The old man with his hair as white as snow;


But few could ride beside him when his

blood was fairly up –

He would go wherever horse and man

could go.’

In 1939 Bookham suffered a devastating bushfire


St Columba’s Catholic Church, Bookham, built c.1910 which destroyed half of the area known as the
Bogolong district. The fire was started on a hot
summer morning by some ladies who threw

Bookham a burning rug out of a motor car into the dry


grasslands adjoining the road. The fire burned
through Berramangra and Bookham and on
towards Bowning before it was contained. Several
Bookham is located in the district of Bolong, which
weeks later it was relit by dry leaves which blew
was first visited by European settlers in the 1820s.
onto a smouldering stump and this time burned to
According to local folklore, Bookham’s name was
within a few kilometres of Yass. Over 70,000 acres
coined by Lady Jane Franklin, the wife of the
of pastureland was devastated and some settlers
Governor of Van Diemen’s Land (Tasmania), who
lost everything. The town’s regeneration began in
was travelling with her party in 1839 from Jugiong
1943 when planning began to create the Bookham
to an inn at Bolong Creek. At this inn Lady Franklin
Soldier’s Memorial Hall, which would become the
and her daughter entreated the hospitality of
central community hall for social activities and
the Green family. Mrs Green complained to Lady
the meeting place of organisations such as the
Franklin that she and her husband wanted a new
Australian Red Cross Society.
name for their place, which she believed was
tainted by the name of the prisoner who had it
before them. Lady Franklin, seeing Mr Green
working at his books in a room from the roof of
which hung a number of hams, was attracted by
the spectacle to suggest the name ‘Bookham’.

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Bowning to Coolac

View from Jugiong Hill

Jugiong POINT OF INTEREST – S

Burrinjuck Dam
The Murrumbidgee River meanders northwest Burrinjuck Dam is a 93-metre high, concrete
from Burrinjuck Dam, makes a lazy loop, then gravity dam on the Murrumbidgee River 60km
from Yass. The dam divides the upper and
winds down to Gundagai. On the crest of the
lower catchment of the Murrumbidgee and is
loop is Jugiong, named after the Aboriginal word the headwater storage for the Murrumbidgee
for ‘valley of crows’. The village lies on a river Irrigation Area (MIA). Construction commenced
flat surrounded by steep hills, and the waters of in 1907 and was completed in 1928. Prior to
the Murrumbidgee regularly well up and weave 1911, the dam was known as Barren Jack, a
Jugiong fences with a map of débris. In 1852, the corruption of the Aboriginal name of the locality.
river virtually obliterated the settlement.
A 45-kilometre narrow gauge railway was
Jugiong Creek was a formidable obstacle to traffic constructed from the Main Southern Line at
on the Great Southern Road. Several Jugiong inns Goondah to bring materials to the site. Many
accommodated travellers; among the earliest was delays were experienced throughout the
construction period, as a result of foundation
Mr Ernest Green’s, built in 1839. John P. Sheahan
problems, spillway extensions and the impact of
was the most popular innkeeper and his wife was World War One.
storekeeper and postmistress. Mr Sheahan himself
rescued 38 Jugiong citizens during the 1852 flood. Flooding in July 1922 filled the reservoir to the
The St George Tavern was rebuilt by Sheahan after record height of 359m above sea level, or 60m
above the bed of the river. The flood water
the flood with stonemasons from Ireland building
came within less than a metre of spilling into the
a structure with sturdy thick walls. The building
finished northern spillway, which was then being
remains Jugiong’s most prominent landmark and used as a storage site for sand and granite.
is still run by the Sheahan family. Another major flood in May 1925 far exceeded
all previously recorded floods and resulted in
the dam wall being overtopped by a metre.

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Section 7

Semi-trailer climbing 9 % grade on Jugiong Hill, 1952

Sheahans continued their tradition of service. In electric station at Burrinjuck Dam. The dam
1954, local MP the Hon. W. F. Sheahan was NSW also protects Murrumbidgee settlements from
Attorney General and his son Terry later occupied dangerous floods.
that position between 1980 and 1988.
Famous Australian cricketer and commentator
Ben Hall’s gang blockaded Jugiong in November Richie Benaud started his schooling in Jugiong
1864, bailing up a number of travellers and in 1935.
teamsters just south of the town in hope of
Around 1940, hoping perhaps to mimic the
sticking up the Gundagai mail coach. The coach
success of Jack O’Hagan’s ‘Along the Road
was escorted by police, much gunfire ensued, and
to Gundagai’, R. J. Cassidy penned ‘The Road
gallant Sergeant Edmund Parry was shot dead by
to Jugiong’ with music by J. A. Steele.
John Gilbert. A cairn to Parry’s memory stands
near the spot though Parry’s grave is at Gundagai. When the Jugiong bypass was planned, there was
Gilbert was shot by police the following June; his no provision for a southern interchange. Locals
grave is at Binalong. protested, so an exit was added at the top of
Jugiong Hill. ‘A town without a back door is like
Teamsters cursed steep Jugiong Hill, and few
a pub with no beer’ said one disgusted local,
would descend it without dragging a couple of
‘Bloody useless.’
young trees behind their wagon as brakes. In June
1884, Mr A. Edward completed the first bicycle The bypass opened in October 1995.
ride from Sydney to Melbourne, but he was forced
to walk up the ‘almost impassable’ Jugiong Hill.
The splendid view is still worth the ascent. Halfway
up is the 1858 St John The Evangelist’s Catholic
Church, on land donated by John P. Sheahan. On
a nearby rise is the Anglican Christ Church, an
Edmund Blacket design, erected in 1872.
Since 1933, Jugiong’s Pumping Station has
delivered Murrumbidgee River water to
Cootamundra and other towns to the north and
west. The pumps are powered by the hydro­ Jugiong Bridge, late 1800s

74 Roads and Maritime Services NSW

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Bowning to Coolac

Beehive Hotel, Coolac

Coolac geology includes an ophiolite, ‘a section of

Coolac the Earth’s oceanic crust and the underlying upper


mantle, uplifted and exposed above sea level’.
The school closed in 1980 and the two churches
In 1862, the NSW Surveyor-General announced are private residences - St Jude’s Anglican was
that a site had been fixed upon for a town, to be built 1879 and St Peter’s Catholic in 1925. The
called Coolac (perhaps from an Aboriginal word latter now has a collection of railway carriages
for native bear, ie koala) on the Mutta Muttama in its grounds, which intrigues the locals. The
Creek. This site seems to be the present hamlet Cootamundra-Tumut railway line came through
of Pettitt, a little to the south, but the folk of Coolac in 1886, and the district shipped its wool
Coolac had long before decided to settle either by rail. The line closed in 1984. Coolac Goods
side of the Great Southern Road. Mr John Smith Shed is in splendid order, but only an earth bank
Papps was conducting the Traveller’s Inn Arms at remains of the platform. Coolac’s War Memorial
‘Coolooc’ by 1840. Hall (1959) is locally heritage-listed. Its squat brick
Crossing violent Coolac (Muttama) Creek was façade is a good example of post-war functional
a well-known travelling hazard. Mail bags had design. Australia’s rural towns preserve many
sometimes to be floated across in wash tubs. The examples of vernacular architecture, which might
creek was bridged in 1860, after a politician got long ago have been demolished in a metropolis.
a dunking there. ‘If the bridge be the result of his Coolac was the launching place in 1994 of the
intervention, it is a pity we have not a legislator Bald Archys, a burlesque of the Archibald Prize
half drowned in every creek between this and for Portraiture. Winning the 2012 Archys were
Albury’ wrote a local cynic. Despite a spectacular caricatures of two Federal politicians, painted
hold-up and shoot-out at Mr Keane’s store in 1866 inside hospital bedpans.
by one Patrick Lawler, Coolac was bushranger­
free. Legend attaches Ben Hall to Coolac’s famous The Coolac Bypass opened in 2009, but Coolac
Beehive Hotel, but bushrangers attract legends spirits clearly are undaunted. The town has its own
like honey attracts bears. community radio station, which features a ‘Drive
Time’ show. Scores of stuffed toys are attached
Chromium mining began near Coolac in 1894, to the eucalypts on the forecourt of the Beehive
exploiting ores from the Coolac Serpentine Belt. Hotel – mostly bears.

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Section 8 Southbound
Coolac to Tarcutta

South Gundagai NG

TE
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Gundagai TO J

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Coolac
O
51

STR
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47 Timber trestle bridge
AY
HIG
HW SH
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in use until opening of
ME IDA
HU the bypass in 1977
P R OAD

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N DR
Historic 1867 Prince
AD

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Alfred Bridge
GO

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ID 49
P
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JE S
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SO P S L A RUMBIDGEE
MUR
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53 RE
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Mingay
T N
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M
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46

Nangus Gundagai

MURRUMBIDGEE RIVER

Mundarlo South
OLD
H UME H
Gundagai
IGH
W
Hillas Creek concrete
AY
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AD
bowstring arch bridge,
54
built 1938
W
55 Tumblong
TO WAGGA WAGGA

Sylvias
A20 X Gap
S
STU

NO

T
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Route in use between


W
HI

M 1940 and 1983


GH
W

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ELLERSLIE
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NATURE RESERVE B72


56
TO T
UMU
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57 Tarcutta 0 2 4 6
K
OO KM
BR
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L
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HO
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HI
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Old Hume Highway
AY

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Hume Highway
55 Historic Route (trafficable)
ROADGAI

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GUND

GA
SYLVIAS Historic Route (non-trafficable)

Tumblong Major Road


Minor Road

76 Roads and Maritime Services NSW

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Section 8

Coolac to Tarcutta
Southbound

Directions DISTANCE FROM


PREVIOUS TURN POINT Along the way ... PAGE

46 Take exit on left to Gundagai (1st exit) 12.5 km Mingay 78

Gundagai 79
47 Turn left at Sheridan Street and proceed 2.5 km
through Gundagai shopping area Tumblong 82
48 Turn right at the Post Office, 0.7 km Tarcutta 82
towards Tumut, and proceed across
Murrumbidgee River floodplain

49 Cross Murrumbidgee River at historic


Prince Alfred Bridge
1 km
Points of interest
50 After crossing bridge, veer right into 0.1 km T Dog on the Tuckerbox 79
Tumut Road then left onto Mount St,
South Gundagai U Niagara Café 80

51 Turn left at the roundabout into 1.6 km V Prince Alfred Bridge 81


Cross Street and Gocup Road,
heading towards Tumut W The ‘big cut’ at Tumblong 82

52 After 1.3 km turn right onto Jessops 1.3 km


X Hillas Creek concrete 83
Lagoon Road bowstring arch bridge
53 After 2.7 km turn right then left to rejoin 2.7 km
Hume Highway

54 Turn left at Tumblong Road then right 7.5 km


into Gundagai Road (Old Hume Highway)
towards Tumblong

55 Rejoin Hume Highway after 1.6 km at 1.6 km


Adelong Road (as the old road only
continues for a short distance beyond
this point)

56 Take exit to Tarcutta 29 km

Approximate distance: 61 km

The Old Hume Highway – History begins with a road 77

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Section 8

Muttama Creek, Mingay

The Cootamundra-Tumut railway line came

Mingay through Mingay in 1886, crossing Mingay


(Muttama) Creek on a sturdy wooden trestle
bridge, which can still be admired from Mingay
The early history of Mingay is almost a Biblical Road. Mingay had its own whistle-stop platform
tale. John Warby, ex-convict and respectable a little to the north. In 1906, there was a brief
Campbelltown farmer, had two sons, Benjamin Mingay gold rush, but alluvial yields were
and William. In the 1820s William ventured south­ modest. In 1907, there was a proposal to dam the
west, ‘beyond the limits of settlement’ where only Murrumbidgee near Mingay Station, to create a
squatters dared, and established a run named reservoir exceeding in size the Burrinjuck. Mingay
Minghee, (MIN-gee, Aboriginal for ‘unwell’). In and other famous stations would have been
1836, William sold Minghee to Benjamin, who submerged. It did not proceed, and the area has
promptly found himself in court. It seems William remained pastoral. There never was a village, a
had stocked Minghee with cattle duffed from his post office, a church, or a school; Coolac was the
neighbours. William got fourteen years’ penal post town. Mingay railway platform closed in 1971.
servitude in Van Diemen’s Land, while Ben now The Hume Highway upgrade in 2009 had little
has a cairn just north of Gundagai, celebrating him effect on Mingay. The Travelling Stock Route
as a respectable early settler. was relocated via Pettit. The Pettit Railway
Sir Charles Nicholson took up the Minghee lease platform was relocated to Coolac. And Mingay
during 1840s, and renamed it Mingay, perhaps Rest Area was built on the Hume’s north-bound
after the islet in the Hebrides, perhaps to purge carriageway, a pleasant spot to pause, refresh, and
it of its former associations, perhaps because contemplate the Mingay story.
it was closer to the correct pronunciation. His
manager was George Rusden, who among later
achievements wrote a ground-breaking History of
Australia acknowledging the Aborigines, whom
Rusden admired. Mingay Station changed hands
several times. Two other brothers farmed it: James
O’Donnell, reputedly so strong that he could pull
a bullock-wagon loaded with a ton of goods, and
‘thorough-going sportsman’ Mr P. J. O’Donnell,
J.P., who in 1887 donated the trophy known as
the Cootamundra Cup. When P. J. died in 1907,
Mingay Station was worth £134,587 net.

Carin to early settler Ben Warby

78 Roads and Maritime Services NSW

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Coolac to Tarcutta

Former Hume Highway timber trestle bridge across the Murrumbidgee River floodplain, Gundagai

Gundagai POINT OF INTEREST – T

The town of Gundagai has become embedded


in Australian bush folklore. As the subject of
Banjo Paterson’s poem ‘The Road to Gundagai’,
as well as a number of other poems, and songs
such as Jack O’Hagan’s ‘Along the Road to
Gundagai’, it is no surprise that Gundagai has
been immortalised in the cultural memory of
early Australian European settlement and bush
exploration, and has become an example of a
classic Australian country town. The dog on the
Dog on the Tuckerbox
tuckerbox from the 1924 Jack Moses poem ‘Nine The Dog on the Tuckerbox is a historical
Miles from Gundagai’ has become an icon of the monument and tourist attraction located at Snake
town, with a monument to the dog situated on the Gully, 8 km north of Gundagai. The dog section
of the monument was cast in bronze by ‘Oliver’s
Hume Highway, 8km north of Gundagai.
Foundry’ in Sydney and its base sculpted by local
Gundagai was discovered by Europeans in the stonemason Frank Rusconi. It was unveiled by
1820s. Hume and Hovell passed through in 1824 Prime Minister Joseph Lyons on 28 November
and were quickly followed by settlers and their 1932 as a tribute to pioneers. The statue was
inspired by a bullock driver’s poem, ‘Bullocky Bill’,
sheep, who established themselves in the area
which celebrates the life of a mythical driver’s dog
as squatters. Located almost midway between that loyally guarded the man’s tuckerbox.
Sydney and Melbourne, the town of Gundagai
was founded in 1838 on a crossing of the An earlier monument had been erected at a site
Murrumbidgee River, despite warnings by the nine miles from Gundagai in 1926.
native Wiradjuri people about the risk of flooding

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Section 8

on the Murrumbidgee plains. On 24 June 1852, popular (and internationally recognised) iconic sites,
the river flooded and washed through Gundagai, the legend of which has been firmly established
killing one third of the town’s 250 inhabitants and through the poem ‘Nine Miles from Gundagai’ as
destroying 71 buildings. A handful of Wiradjuri well as Jack O’Hagan’s 1937 song ‘Where the Dog
men, two of whom were known as Yarri and Jacky, Sits on the Tuckerbox (Five Miles from Gundagai)’.
helped ferry townspeople to safety from rooftops Gundagai showcases a number of historic bridges,
and the branches of giant river red gums. They such as the Prince Alfred and Railway Bridges, and
were later honoured with medallions for their the dual Sheahan Bridges on the town bypass. The
bravery during the flood. After the floods the town latticework of wooden trusses and timber viaducts
was moved and rebuilt on higher ground north of are excellent examples of early engineering
the river flats. The flood of 1852 still remains one of solutions for crossing the major flood plain.
Australia’s worst natural disasters. Gundagai Railway station also offers a beautiful
example of the town’s late nineteenth century
Throughout the nineteenth century Gundagai
architecture, having been restored to its original
became a booming town, thriving on the gold
1886 glory, now housing memorabilia of interest to
rushes and a rich agricultural industry. Today
visitors and railway buffs.
Gundagai offers a wealth of historical sites and
activities for the keen visitor. The Dog on the Other sites of interest include Anzac Grove, a
Tuckerbox monument is one of the town’s most beautifully handcrafted memorial commemorating

POINT OF INTEREST – U
BU

ET
RR

RE
A

W E ST ST
RO
AD

PU Gaol
NC
HS
T
Court House
Railway Museum
M31

Niagara Café U
Niagara Café
Often referred to as ‘Australia’s Wonder Café’,
MI

AD Gundagai
DD

NG US RO the Niagara Café in Gundagai is an excellent


NA Golf Club
AY

LE

Morleys Creek example the family-run Greek cafés which were


er
T
HUME HIGHW

O N
b i dgee Riv

DR Museum once common throughout rural Australia.


IV
E
V These cafés stayed open for long hours and were
often the social hub within their towns. They are
um

Mu also now recognised for their important role in the


rr

BR
T

U N GLE ROAD
EE

Americanisation of Australian popular culture, well


R

Prince Alfred
ST

Bridge before the arrival of the fast food phenomenon


T
N
U

of the 1970s. The cafés affected eating and


O
M

social habits (soda fountains, spiders, milkshakes,


sundaes – often with exotic names), architecture
D

A
G OCUP RO

(booth seating; art deco fittings) and music


(jukeboxes). The early decades of the twentieth
century witnessed a large migration of Greeks from
the USA to Australia, and it was not surprising that
they brought these influences with them.
RD
JES

The tastes, sights, sounds and glamour of


N
OO

O
S

PS L A America, as expressed through the Greek café,


G

became a metaphor for modernity in regional


Australian communities.
Gundagai town map

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Coolac to Tarcutta

POINT OF INTEREST – V

War Memorial and timber trestle bridge, Gundagai Prince Alfred Bridge
Tenders were called for the construction of an
iron bridge at Gundagai in 1863. The Fitzroy
Iron Works of Mittagong, the first iron foundry in
Australia, won the tender for the casting of the
pier cylinders and other iron work. The bridge
had 54 cylinders in all, each weighing 2.5 tons,
six feet long and six feet in diameter. The cast
iron cylinders were delivered by bullock dray
and assembled on top of each other as internal
excavation proceeded. When they finally founded
on rock the piers were filled with concrete.

Hume Highway traffic crossing the timber trestle bridge


The bridge consists of three wrought iron girder
at Gundagai on a frosty morning in July, 1976 spans of 103 feet each over the main channel of
the river, and was the first iron truss bridge to
be built in NSW. The structural wrought iron was
imported from England and fabricated in Sydney
by P.N. Russell & Co. then forwarded to the site
for installation. The bridge was completed on
18 September 1867.
The construction of the northern approach
was commenced on 23 October 1867, and on
completion this was the longest bridge in NSW until
the 1932 opening of the Sydney Harbour Bridge.
The northern approaches were low-level and so
the bridge was not usable in times of flood. In
1896 after serious flooding the present structure
Sheahan Bridge under construction, September 1975
was opened for use.
World War One, designed by the late monumental
mason Frank Rusconi, as well as the Gabriel
Gallery, home to a collection of historic
tracks, such as the Heritage Walk, which passes by
photographs of the town and its people taken by
the old mill, the only building to survive the floods
the town doctor Charles Louis Gabriel in 1887.
of 1852. Visitors may obtain copies of Gundagai’s
The Gundagai Historical Museum, Gundagai
walking tours and information on Gundagai’s many
Courthouse and the Old Gaol are also sites of
tourist offerings at the Visitor Information Centre
interest. The museum houses an interesting
at 249 Sheridan Street, between West Street and
collection of pioneer and bushranger memorabilia,
Otway Street.
and Gundagai Courthouse is rich in history, being
one of the first stone buildings to be erected after The Hume Highway Bypass of Gundagai opened
the floods of 1852. Gundagai also hosts a number in 1977.
of festivals and celebrations year-round, and a
great way to see the town is on one of the walking

The Old Hume Highway – History begins with a road 81

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Section 8

POINT OF INTEREST – W

The ‘big cut’ at Tumblong


Tumblong War Memorial. St James Anglican Church behind The route of the Hume Highway has changed
twice in this location. The original highway went
well to the west of Tumblong, via Mundarlo. In

Tumblong
1938 it was relocated to a shorter route through
Tumblong, saving 14 km and necessitating a
large cutting (58,000 cubic metres) at Sylvias
Gap (now inaccessible).
Around 1829, Henry Stuckey gave the name In 1983 the current dual carriageway deviation
Tumblong to his 20,000 acre run. Other spellings was built. The major cutting on this alignment
were ‘Tumbalong’, and ‘Tombolong’; J.F.H. involved the removal of 550,000 cubic metres
Mitchell, who circa 1906 compiled a glossary of material, which was at the time one of the
of the Wiradjuri language, remarked that many largest roadway cuttings in NSW.
names in this area should have the accent on their
second syllable, eg tum-BAH-long. The settlement
was long known as Adelong Crossing-Place. In reminder that every age produces fresh heroes.
1838, Stuckey had an inn here; Adelong Creek Community spirit here is strong.
was another notorious hiccup for travellers on the
The Tumblong Deviation, opened in stages
Great Southern Road.
between 1938 and 1940, shifted the highway route
Adelong Crossing-Place made the news in 1869, significantly to the east, and ‘brought Sydney ten
when two local men claimed to have seen a bunyip miles nearer Melbourne’. A later Hume Highway
fording the Murrumbidgee. In the same year the deviation opened in 1983, which bypassed the
school opened, and pupils perhaps learned the settlement. Since most of the village lies along
difference between fact and fantasy. In 1871, an the Grahamstown Road to Adelong, not much of
earthquake shook Tumblong. The school’s chimney its fabric has been lost. The War Memorial and
tumbled, the building tipped to one side, ‘and a Citizens Hall (1954), like Coolac’s, is unpretentious,
large desk fairly danced on the floor, to the great well-kept, and locally heritage listed.
alarm of the pupils, who rushed out of doors,
The name was changed to Tumblong in 1913, due
somewhat fearful that the suddenly animated
to increasing confusion with the town of Adelong.
piece of school furniture would follow them’, an
On the northern wall of the Tumblong Tavern can
event which might have inclined them towards
faintly be seen the legend ADELON* CROS**G. Like
fresh belief in the fabulous. The school has closed,
legends, old towns don’t die, they just fade a little.
but the bunyip legend stays alive and well.

Tarcutta
The Anglican Church of St James dates from the
early 1870s. Travellers will note its similarities in
design and stone fabric with St Mary’s at Yarra, St
Brigid’s at Mutmutbilly, and St Jude’s at Coolac.
The War Memorial by the church is a heart­ Tarcutta is a quaint village, long popular as a
rending reminder of the number of Tumblong stopping and changeover point for drivers as it
boys who went to war and came not home. The is halfway between Melbourne and Sydney. It is
Tumblong Rural Fire Brigade shed stands near, a named after an Aboriginal word meaning ‘meal
made from grass seeds’.

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Coolac to Tarcutta

stopping point for travellers and buses, with noted


POINT OF INTEREST – X amenities including a shower block, a waste facility
for caravans and a newly upgraded main street
designed specifically for tourists.
The local park houses the National Truck Drivers’
Memorial to the truck drivers who have died on
the Hume Highway as well as elsewhere around
the country. Country music legend Slim Dusty
enriched the memorial with a plaque.
Hidden in the surrounding district is a vast amount
of pioneer history, not only a town historical walk,
Hillas Creek concrete bowstring but short day drives are a must for visitors.
arch bridge The village has some unique treasures from lone
The bridge over Hillas Creek was one of more graves to intricate memorial stained glass church
than 1,000 bridges built by the Main Roads Board windows which honour the pioneers of the region.
& Department of Main Roads between 1925 and The Tarcutta Inn and the Mates Homestead are
1940, a period in which engineers were adapting two private properties in the village that pay
bridge design standards to meet the demands tribute to the importance of Tarcutta and its
of improving motor vehicle performance. location & association with Cobb and Co.
Bridges were being built wider and with an
improved load capacity, and reinforced concrete Travellers can experience the yesteryear and
became a favoured construction material. In the follow the former Port Phillip Road, which
1930s, DMR engineers Vladimir Karmalsky and meanders from Tumblong, west through
Alexander ‘Sandy’ Britton pioneered the use of Mundarlo where the original Mundarlo Inn still
the bowstring principle in reinforced concrete. stands and the bushranger Paisley was captured.
Their theories were implemented first in the Shark The famous ‘Bootes’ Private Cemetery and St
Creek Bridge near Maclean in 1935, and then in Peter’s Church which was robbed back in 1923,
the Hillas Creek Bridge, built in 1938.
are also unique destinations.
The Hillas Creek Bridge was constructed as part
of the original Tumblong – Tarcutta deviation. In The Link Road via Oberne to Humula and back
1983 a new 11.5 kilometre deviation bypassed to the Hume Highway will encompass another
the Hillas Creek Bridge. Although the bridge hour’s drive. This route offers a combination of
was no longer in use by traffic, it was recognised interesting historical sites, fauna and flora.
that it held a unique place within the region and
the State and should be retained. The bridge
was listed on the Register of Australian Historic
Bridges in 1982 and a plaque was placed on it
in 1988, noting its unique design link with the
bowstring arch over Shark Creek. The plaque
also notes that it has become known in the wider
community as ‘The Little Sydney Harbour Bridge’.
While the bridge is no longer physically
accessible, it is visible on the western side of
the Hume Highway near the Snowy Mountains
Highway interchange.

The village was first settled when Thomas Mate


arrived in 1836. His primitive homestead was half­
way on the track between Sydney and Melbourne,
so he added an inn and store for travellers.
In 2011, 174 years after it was first settled, Tarcutta
was bypassed. However, it remains a popular Early settler grave, Tarcutta

The Old Hume Highway – History begins with a road 83

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Section 9 Southbound
Tarcutta to Holbrook
I
GA
NDA
GU
TO
56
Tarcutta
57

Keajura

TU
MB
A
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BA
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Kyeamba
TUMBAR
UMB

AR
NEST HILL
O

NATURE RESERVE
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MURRAGULDRIE
STATE
FOREST
AD
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RO
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G
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BY

BO
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O AD
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WA
G Little
Billabong
GA WAGGA - H

0 2 4 6
OLBR

KM
OOK ROA

Garryowen
Key
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58
Old Hume Highway

Y Hume Highway
Holbrook Historic Route (trafficable)
59 J ING
Historic Route (non-trafficable)
ELLI
RY

Major Road
BU

C R

OAD
AL

Minor Road
TO

84 Roads and Maritime Services NSW

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Section 9

Tarcutta to Holbrook
Southbound

Directions DISTANCE FROM


PREVIOUS TURN POINT Along the way ... PAGE

57 Rejoin Hume Highway south of Tarcutta 4.5 km Keajura 86

Kyeamba 86
58 Take Holbrook exit 62 km
Little Billabong 86
59 Rejoin Hume Highway south of Holbrook 5 km
Garryowen 87

Holbrook (formerly Germanton) 88

Approximate distance: 67 km
Points of interest
Y The Holbrook submarine 88

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Section 9

Stock underpass on Hume Highway, Kyeamba

Lady Franklin noted that Ten Mile Creek was ‘10

Keajura from the next where there is permanent water.’


Water is precious in Australia. The creeks along

Kyeamba
the Hume Highway are today in the watchful
custody of Landcare groups battling problems
like salinity, erosion, the invasion of weed and

Little Billabong
carp, and rubbish tossed from passing traffic. The
impact of the highway on the local environment
is carefully monitored and minimised. The route
several times crosses the serpentine course of
Between Tarcutta and Holbrook, the Hume Kyeamba and Keajura Creeks. At Kyeamba Creek
Highway is criss-crossed with creeks. All were (1st Crossing), a livestock underpass runs beneath
once fording places: daunting, notorious, the carriageway, one of many that link separated
sometimes fatal. Creeks collect rainfall, and pastures. Overhead is a row of wooden poles that
they also collect names – colourful, obscure, aid squirrel gliders to sail across in safety. Similar
traditional, and some merely functional. Ginger poles strung with rope are crossings for possums
Beer Creek, Splitter’s Creek, Lunt’s, Ten Mile, and other fauna; corridors for wombats and other
Seven Mile, Keajura, Kyeamba, Billabung …
Between Tarcutta and Holbrook, the Hume has not
much altered its contours. Lady Jane Franklin, wife
of the Van Diemen’s Land Governor, journeyed
in 1839 from Port Phillip to Sydney in company
with a large party, camping along the way. She
kept a journal describing the countryside and
the people she met. While staying near Tarcutta,
she observed ‘The natives have names for every
creek and every hill.’ The earliest squatters often
gave these names to their runs, and some remain
though the meanings may be lost or altered. Little Billabong Creek. Hume Highway in background

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Tarcutta to Holbrook

terrestrials run beneath the road. Further north, around 1859–1870. Lawrence leased nearly three
the residents of Bookham have a subway under the thousand acres in the area of Little Billabong,
highway to reach their cricket-ground and a bus- and here pastured ‘upwards of seventy horses’
stop. All these structures protect those crossing, which hauled his mail coaches. He also kept an
and those passing, from accident and injury; noise inn on the Sydney Road. Lawrence Garry named
barriers of concrete or earth mounds deflect Hume his property Garryowen, perhaps honouring that
Highway traffic noise from roadside homes. village in Limerick, or simply as a pun on his name
and an allusion to the merry jig-tune.
There were injuries when Mad Dan Morgan the
bushranger stuck up a party of road contactors The Garryowen settlement straggled along
near Kyeamba, in December 1864. Morgan shot Billabong Creek and the Sydney Road. A visitor of
one fellow who was too slow to turn out his 1878 wrote ‘There are two hotels (Trimble’s and
pockets. The injured party was carried to the Walker’s). At the former there is a postal receiving
Traveller’s Joy Hotel, which is now a private home, office and a blacksmith’s shop. This village can
visible on the western side of the highway behind also boast of a brewery, owned by Messrs.
a noise-deflecting earth bank. Gregson Brothers. Mr Lawrence Garry, for many
years a coach proprietor, lives privately along the
Nine kilometres south of Tarcutta is Coach Hole
main road.’ The visitor added ‘Since the railway
Reserve. Once a watering place on a Travelling
has reached Wagga the traffic is not near so great
Stock Route, it has been adopted by Tarcutta
as heretofore.’ Garryowen was notorious as part of
Landcare. In 2010, Coach Hole Reserve was
Mad Dan Morgan’s territory.
revegetated with native grasses, trees and shrubs
with the help of thirty local schoolchildren. Coach In 1875, anticipating closer settlement arising from
Hole got its name in 1851 when two coach drivers the Selection Acts, the Department of Lands drew
drowned there while attempting to cross flooded up a plan for Garryowen Village, a grid of streets
Keajura Creek. and house blocks bordered by the meandering
Billabong Creek. Blocks were reserved for a
‘Billabung’, ‘Billy Bung’ and Little Billabong are
Presbyterian Church and Manse, as well as a
creek and station names. Lady Franklin noted that
school. But no village grew there. The plan is
Father John Joseph Therry had owned a station
marked ‘1886, Ellis reports no settlement.’
at ‘Billybong’. Known as Yarra Yarra, in 1860 it was
sold to Mr James McLaurin, wealthy pastoralist
and zealous Presbyterian, whose son John added
Little Billabong to the family holdings. John
died in 1927, leaving an estate worth £92,000,
and a will stipulating that any of his children
who married a Roman Catholic was to be cut
off without a penny. Little Billabong once had a
school and a post office. There were Anglican and
Presbyterian churches. Mr Lunt kept the Australian
Hotel, ran the store, and farmed his 1300 acres.
Little Billabong now has just a community hall
and tennis courts. Little Billabong Station on Little
Billabong Road is still in business.

Garryowen
Free immigrant Mr James Garry came to New
South Wales in 1839 from County Meath. Garry
went into the coaching trade with Mr John
Sheahan of Jugiong. Garry eventually settled at
Mylora, near Binalong; the Garry family remains
noteworthy in the district. His brother Lawrence
Garry ran the mail coach from Yass to Albury Tombstone of pioneer James Garry, in Jugiong Catholic Cemetery

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Section 9

HMAS Otway, Holbrook

Today’s traveller can see the site intended for


Garryowen, the village that never was, by taking POINT OF INTEREST – Y
a ‘Stop and Revive’ at the Rest Area just north of
Mirrabooka Road. Look to the west. The tree-line The Holbrook submarine
follows Billabong Creek southwards and marks the Holbrook is named after Commander Norman
village limits. The absence of other trees may be D. Holbrook, who led one of the most daring
explained by the 1878 visitor, who noted that the submarine raids of World War One in the
whole of Garryowen’s timber had been ring-barked Dardanelles.
by Lawrence, no doubt to pasture his horses. In recognition of the link between the town and
After his retirement, Lawrence planned to farm submarines, the Royal Australian Navy donated
mulberries. There are none of those in sight, either. the fin from the decommissioned HMAS Otway
to the town in 1995. This resulted in a fund
Lawrence Garry died in April 1903, aged 77, and raising effort by the district to bid on the whole
rests in Holbrook Cemetery. submarine. This initiative raised $100,000,
almost all a gift from Lt Holbrook’s widow

Holbrook
Gundula Holbrook. However, the amount was
insufficient to purchase all of the Otway. After
negotiations with the scrap yard in Sydney,

(formerly Germanton) the town did succeed in purchasing all of the


outside skin of the Otway above the waterline.
An official dedication, with Lt Holbrook’s
Holbrook, the unlikely nicknamed ‘Submarine widow in attendance, was held on 7 June
Town’, was originally called Ten Mile Creek, the 1997, reinforcing Holbrook’s reputation as ‘the
name given in 1837 to the adjacent Ten Mile submarine town’.
Creek Station by John Purtell. It was common
Visitors may also learn more about submarines
practice at that time for property names to be
and Lt Holbrook at the Submarine Museum.
applied to nearby towns or surrounding districts,
or vice versa. When the town of Ten Mile Creek
was officially gazetted, some time after 1850, the
name was changed to Germanton in honour of

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Tarcutta to Holbrook

Woolpack Inn Museum Holbrook, built in 1895

Johann (John) Pabst, a German immigrant who Lt Holbrook learned of the town’s tribute and
with his wife Ellen ran the Woolpack Inn, which wrote to thank them for the honour. It was not
was the only building in town until the 1850s. until 1956, however, that he first visited the
Today, visitors may recall the district’s history at town, meeting great affection. He and his wife
the Woolpack Inn Museum. established a scholarship fund for local students
and, after his death his widow donated his
Germanton was an increasingly important
medals to the town. The news that Holbrook
junction, with a post office opening in 1858, a
would be bypassed caused concern about the
school established in 1868 and a railway branch
loss of traffic and business, prompting the
line from Culcairn on the Main Southern rail line
formation of a working party for the town to
opened in 1902.
purchase a real submarine.
Acceptance of German speakers and German
Aside from submarine history, visitors to Holbrook
nationals in Australian communities was replaced
may also enjoy the National Museum of Australian
with antagonism during and immediately after
Pottery, dedicated to 19th and early 20th century
the years of World War One (1914–1918).
pottery. Ten Mile Creek Gardens provide a
People, products or geographic locations with
beautiful park setting and are home to Holbrook’s
a connection to Germany were under suspicion.
miniature railway. Stopping along the Old Hume
Geographic locations with German sounding
Highway (Albury Street), visitors may also see
names, such as Germanton, were also denounced
many of the remaining buildings from the town’s
and despite strong opposition from many
earliest settlement, including the Court House,
people in the local community, the Germanton
Police Station and Knox Uniting Church or St
Shire Council called several public meetings in
Paul’s Anglican Church.
September 1914 to put forward suggestions for a
change of name. Further information is available at the Holbrook
Visitor Information Centre at 15 Wallace Street.
While the town was considering its name change,
Commander Norman D. Holbrook grabbed The Holbrook Bypass opened to traffic on
headlines when he led one of the most daring 7 August 2013. This significant project marked
submarine raids of the war in the Dardanelles. He the completion of the Hume Highway duplication
was awarded Britain’s Victoria Cross for valour between Sydney and Melbourne, a major
and, across the world, the residents of Germanton milestone in the development of the nation’s
agreed that Holbrook would be a fitting new transportation infrastructure.
name for their town.

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Section 10 Southbound
Holbrook to Albury

AD
RO
G A
AG TA
W
UT
68 RC
TA
TO
REET

AY
MATE ST

HI
G
HW
E RACECOURSE
Holbrook 58

M
HU

70 69 ALBURY 59
STREET

NORTH AIRPORT
STREET
YOUNG
STREETSEND

72
TOWN

Z 71
DEAN ST
REET
PLACEGA

74 73
N

HUME
WODO

STREET

Albury
60

M31
GGA
TO WAGGA WA

Gerogery
61
Woomargama

A41 TABLETOP
NATURE RESERVE
WAY
OLYMPIC HIGH

WOOMARGAMA
NATIONAL PARK

M31 63
62
Mullengandra
64

Bowna

Ettamogah 65
00
00
67 66

LAKE HUME
Table
Top 0 2 4 6
Lavington 1930s route of Hume Highway.
Deviated during construction of
KM

North Thurgoona Hume Dam


Albury Key
Old Hume Highway
B58
MURRAY RIVER SYSTEM Hume Highway

Historic Route (trafficable)


Albury Historic Route (non-trafficable)
E
RN

Major Road
OU
LB

Minor Road
ME

Train line
TO

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Section 10

Holbrook to Albury
Southbound

Directions DISTANCE FROM


PREVIOUS TURN POINT Along the way ... PAGE

60 Take Woomargama Way exit 5 km Woomargama 92

9 km Mullengandra 93
61 Rejoin Hume Highway south of
Woomargama Bowna 94

62 Turn left at the Sweetwater Road / 11 km Table Top 95


Bowna Road intersection
Lavington 96
63 Turn right into Bowna Road 0.1 km
Albury 96
64 Rejoin Hume Highway after about 10 km 10 km

65 Take Davey Road exit to Jindera 14.5 km


Points of interest
66 Turn right to Jindera 0.5 km
Z Smollett Street metal 97
0.3 km arch bridge
67 Turn left to Albury (on Wagga Road)

68 Veer left into Mate Street at Lavington 8 km

69 Turn right at North Street 1.8 km

70 Turn left at Young Street 0.3 km

71 Turn right at Dean Street 1.5 km

72 Turn left at Townsend Street 1 km

73 Turn right at Hume Street 0.5 km

74 Turn left at Wodonga Place 0.2 km

75 Victorian border 1 km

Approximate distance: 70 km

The Old Hume Highway – History begins with a road 91

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Section 10

Old Hume Highway, Woomargama

had been influenced by reading Robbery Under

Woomargama Arms. The magistrate, Mr T. A. Browne, was not


amused, and fined them £20. Mr Browne is better
known by his pen name of Rolf Boldrewood,
Every traveller on the Great Southern Road once author of the book in question.
knew Dickson’s (or Dixon’s) Swamp. The locality St Mark’s of Woomargama still stands and remains
was also known as Mountain Creek. A design in use, a tiny weatherboard church in a gated
for a village was drawn up in May 1869, with a paddock where flocks may safely graze. The
dozen streets, and given a less gloomy name, Presbyterian Church did not weather a storm
Woomargama, derived from an Aboriginal word of 1935. Woomargama school closed in 1997,
for a native cherry, and taken from the name of and is now a Post Office cum store. A mural
Mr John Dickson’s own run. Woomargama Village painted by the pupils can still be seen there,
was proclaimed in March 1885, by which time it and there is another more professional mural in
had a Public School (1873), the Anglican Church Woomargama Park. A trio of assorted boulders
of St Mark (1877), and a cemetery (1880). The
highway was called ‘Melbourne Street’ where
it passed through town, a reminder that these
southern settlements looked to Port Phillip as their
metropolis. Mr Dickson sold his run and moved to
Albury, where he bought a brewery and in 1861,
is supposed to have drunk himself to death. He
is recalled by Dickson Street, and his swamp was
recalled by Swamp Street, which has since sunk
without trace. The Hume and Hovell expedition
which came by in 1824 is honoured by a street
name, and a commemorative boulder.
Less celebrated is the formidable Leah Augusta
Splatt. Widowed in 1879, Mrs Splatt bought up
several runs and selections around Woomargama
during the late 1880s, eventually buying the
famous Woomargama Station itself. Mrs Splatt
was among those who successfully shipped frozen
mutton to England, but there were a couple of
black sheep in the Splatt family. In November of
1891, her sons William and Colin tried to bail up
the Holbrook mail. Easily identified, they were
hauled into court, where they claimed that they St Mark’s Anglican Church, Woomargama

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Holbrook to Albury

stands shoulder to shoulder beside Woomargama


Way, commemorating the opening of the Hume
Highway bypass in November 2011. A sculpted
squirrel glider, the Woomargama Village icon, is
poised mid-flight atop the central stone.
His Royal Highness Prince William Arthur Philip
Louis, later to become Duke of Cambridge, Earl of
Strathearn, and Baron Carrickfergus, took his first
steps at Woomargama Station in 1983, while his
family was on a royal visit to NSW.
Visitors may take an afternoon (or longer) detour
to the nearby Woomargama National Park, which
features a number of hikes, some rewarding
visitors with views of the Murray River, Riverina,
and South West Slopes.

Mullengandra
Well beyond the colony’s authorised limits of
settlement, Mullengandra (from the Aboriginal
‘mully-an-janderra’, for ‘place where eagles
breed’) nonetheless had a number of cattle and St Luke’s Anglican Church, Mullengandra
sheep stations by the 1830s. Among the earliest
licensed pastoralists was John Morrice who put an altar for the original place of worship.
a manager on Mullingandra, his 25,000-acre run, Mullengandra post office opened in 1877,
and for a time lived near Berrima. Such leases operating from one end of the Royal Oak Hotel. In
remained unsurveyed for decades, boundary 1886, the Department of Lands drew up a plan for
pegs were unknown and fences were the ‘the Village of Mullanjandra’. The site lies west of
exception. Actions for trespass were frequent, the present Bowna Road, north of Newton’s Road,
with neighbours suing one another for illegally and was bordered by Mullengandra Creek to the
grazing stock. In a country whose seasons could west. Like Garryowen, its streets (South Street,
be treacherous, pasture was jealously guarded. East Street, West Street, Creek Street) do not ever
In 1854, a traveller noted that Mullengandra had seem to have been settled. Owners of township
an inn and a few scattered farm houses. By 1873, blocks marked on this map recall other early
Mullengandra’s Rose and Crown Inn had earned Mullengandra settlers: Mitchell, Plunkett, Taskis,
a pleasant reputation. ‘Opposite to the hotel is Mullavey and Ross.
a capital garden, belonging to Mr. Pankhurst. George Ross kept Mullengandra’s Royal Oak
Grapes in a splendid state of perfection, Hotel from 1922. A customer and admirer of
magnificent apples of many varieties, and almost Mr Ross was artist Russell Drysdale, who in 1950
every kind of English fruit attracted our attention immortalised Mr Ross, and the Royal Oak, in
in this garden,’ wrote a visitor. Pankhurst was oil on canvas. The painting is part of a private
raising cherries at Mullengandra as early as 1857, collection, and the hotel is a private home, listed
perhaps in competition with Mr Darby, who could by the National Trust. It can still be admired by
grow Mullengandra peaches at the rate of forty- the passing traveller. When the dual-carriageway
two per foot of branch. The green-thumbed Mr Hume Highway was constructed in 2009, a length
Pankhurst also grew ‘the best looking wheat’ of of Old Hume Highway was retained. Along it now
any in the district, and made his own wines. stand the Royal Oak Hotel, St Luke’s Anglican
John Morrice died in 1875, and the Morrice Church (1927, on the site of the Morrice Church),
Anglican Memorial Church was built to honour and Mullengandra’s proud little public school, still
him; Morrice, a carpenter by trade, had carved going strong after 140 years of education.

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Extract from August 1937 Main Roads journal

designed Bowna’s steam-powered flour mill and

Bowna won a competition in 1891 for a state house to be


constructed in Centennial Park, Sydney.
Those Bowna buildings which could be dismantled
The Murray River was named the Hume in 1824 by were removed. Others remained. The final service
Hamilton Hume, in honour of his father. Charles of Bowna’s Presbyterian Church, built 1866, was
Sturt, who encountered it further west in 1830, held in September 1933. Dr J. W. Dyer, Bishop
thought it was a different stream and named it of Wagga Wagga, laid the foundation stone
the Murray in honour of the British Secretary of for the New Bowna Catholic Church in 1935,
State. The latter name stuck. In the mid-1920s, it and declared that new churches were fortresses
was proposed that the Murray’s mighty snow-fed against paganism.
waters be dammed. The vast body of water so
stored – ‘the largest artificial lake in the world… Old Bowna is recalled in the Bowna Waters
three times the size of Sydney Harbour’ - was Reserve, on Lake Hume’s southern foreshore, and
named the Hume Reservoir, now Lake Hume. by its western extremity, known as Bowna Arm.
There were some problems to be faced: the The old town lies below a line between the end of
submerging of major lines of communication the Sydney Road on the Albury side, and Plunkett
(roads, railways, telegraph and telephone lines), Road, on the Bowna side. The Old Bowna cemetery
and the cost of buying up several first-class survived at this end, above water level, though it
properties, like Cumberoona. There was also the now lies on private property. Old Bowna rooftops
question of uprooting lives and homes and history, sometimes emerge in drought years. Grey, dead
for the villages of Bowna and Tallangatta were to trees stand near the spot like elderly sentinels.
be submerged. Three hundred men were employed in
From all accounts Bowna was a neat little town, constructing the Hume Highway detour around
running in a straight north-south line along the the western end of Lake Hume, which opened in
Sydney Road. Under the waters went The White 1933. It was a useful source of employment during
Horse Hotel, and the barn-like Mechanics Institute. the Great Depression. A site for New Bowna was
One or two of Bowna’s distinctions seem to have proposed at the crossroad of the Sydney and
gone down with it. For instance, architect Mr Upper Murray Roads, on land purchased from Mr
J. Kirkpatrick, whose father resided in Bowna, Charles Mullavey – but the new town site did not

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Holbrook to Albury

Stock feeding in paddock near Bowna Creek, Table Top

‘take’. The move was made in the era of the motor squatting families of the district. James Mitchell
car, when residents could relocate more readily, (1835–1914), a kindly and popular man, was the
and had a greater choice of fresh destinations. master of Table Top. Among other distinctions,
Nonetheless, Bowna Post Office served Bowna James was a top-class breeder of stud stock,
locals until 1994. and produced fleeces which gained international
fame. James also achieved the astonishing feat

Table Top
of completely freeing his Table Top paddocks of
rabbits, his yield totalling 16,000 pest-free acres,
and 18,000 rabbit skins railed each week from
Table Top siding.
Aborigines long ago named this locality Yambla.
To Captain Hovell, examining this range on 13 The Hume and the Olympic Highways (the
November 1824, one flat prominence resembled Olympic Torch was carried along this route to
a fortification. The short trees standing along it Melbourne in 1956) meet at an interchange over
recalled soldiers guarding battlements. Hovell Bowna Creek which was opened in 2009. The
named it Battery Mount. Later settlers, more dual-carriageway Hume Highway turns south and
prosaic, named it Table Top, ‘from its resemblance splits Table Top. On the eastern side is Table Top
to that well known article of furniture’ noted one Public School, 115 years old. It stands opposite
traveller in 1881. Passengers admired Table Top a replica of cartoonist Ken Maynard’s fabled
when the railway came through in 1881. The Ettamogah Pub, which opened in 1987. On the
Olympic Highway provides a splendid view of western side, the railway station can no longer be
the fascinating knobs, bosses, and peaks of the seen – it closed in 1980. The former Presbyterian
Yambla Range, including Table Top, the Sugar Church, erected 1933, can be glimpsed in
Loaf, and Pulpit Rock, which is the sloping bluff Perryman’s Lane. All these spots lie within the site
visible from the Hume Highway at the eastern end. once proposed for the National capital.

Settlers arrived here in the 1830s, squeezed out of Table Top today is mostly hobby farms, though
the Cumberland Plain by drought years. Among locals warily watch Albury’s northern industrial
them were the Huon brothers, whose nephews area creeping their way.
Thomas, John F., and James Mitchell became
one of the most prosperous – and munificent –

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Section 10

Road builders near Table Top. Photo: Howard Jones

Dutch, German and Cornish immigrants settled in

Lavington Lavington, and today, they and their descendants


are stalwarts in the community. Their influence was
reflected by the numerous orchards and vineyards
Lavington is the second major centre of the city in the area.
of Albury, with its own commercial CBD. Albury’s The Hume Dam and Murray River are found
population of about 50,000 includes Lavington within close proximity, providing a variety of
with its population of 16,000, and growing at a water activities.
rapid rate.
Visitors can step back in time at the Jindera
Lavington is located approximately 529 km from Pioneer Museum and imagine life as it was lived in
Sydney and 327 km from Melbourne on the Hume those early days of rural community.
Highway. The Hume Freeway bypassed Lavington
in 2007, reducing the constant drone of heavy The area provides a range of community, cultural,
vehicle traffic yet still maintaining an active truck sporting and social activities and offers all the
stopover point at the northern extremity. amenities available within the suburbs of major
cities. Sites worth visiting include Mungabareena
Prior to 1908 Lavington was known as ‘Black Reserve and Albury Art Gallery. There are also
Range’, but it was decided at a meeting held numerous historic walks and bushwalks, cycling
at the local School of Arts to change the town’s tracks and leisure activities for all ages.
name, chiefly because there were five other towns

Albury
by the name of Black Range in Australia and it was
the cause of some confusion. Lavington replaced
the name Black Range in 1909. The name change
was celebrated with a social at the arts school,
which involved food, dancing, games, and vocal Albury and Wodonga developed as the principal
items contributed by the Lavington Glee Club. Murray River crossing place on the route between
Australia’s two largest cities. They grew and
No-one is quite sure where the name Lavington
prospered as thoroughfare towns servicing the
originated. One thought is that Joseph Box,
needs of travellers on the track to Port Phillip,
an early settler at Black Range (a gold mining
later the Great Southern Road then the Hume
settlement on the edge of Albury in the 1850s),
Highway. Travellers have long recognised both
called his property Lavington after his home
Albury and Wodonga as the southernmost and
town in England. Another is that Lavington takes
northernmost points of the highway within the two
its name from a piece of machinery, possibly a
states. To many people both places have special
gold battery or from the Lavington Gold Mining
significance as border posts.
Company of 1865.

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Holbrook to Albury

Smollett Street metal arch bridge, Albury

Prior to European settlement, stable Aboriginal They eventually got across a short way upstream, near
populations were densely settled along the Murray the site of the present-day Hume Dam. A tree blazed
River. They had in the riverine environment a rich by Hovell still marks their first encounter. One of the
source of fish, game and plants, and, as a result, series of celebratory obelisks erected 100 years later
there was little need to move from its banks. to mark out the route they took to the Port Phillip
district stands close to where they crossed near the
In the late spring of 1824, explorers Hume and
present Hume Weir.
Hovell encountered the river and approached what
seemed to be a natural ford, but they could not
POINT OF INTEREST – Z
cross as the river was running swiftly.

Smollett Street metal arch bridge


The Smollett Street Bridge over Bungambrawatha
Creek on the Riverina Highway was built in
1888. It was designed by noted engineer John A
McDonald, and fabricated at Blackwattle Bay in
Sydney by the firm of D & W Robertson. It was
then dismantled for transportation to Albury by
the recently opened railway.
This elegant structure is locally heritage listed,
and is the older of only two metal arch bridges in
New South Wales, Sydney Harbour Bridge being
its big city cousin.
The bridge has proven to be a cost-effective
structure requiring only routine maintenance and
Young cross-border cyclist having his papers checked for evidence of no strengthening, despite the large increase in
contact with anyone suffering from infantile paralysis, 1937. traffic loads during its many years of service.
Photo: The Border Mail

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Section 10

Distinctive Albury architecture

By 1838, Governor Gipps declared Albury the In 1973 the Albury-Wodonga National Growth
official Murray River crossing place and endowed Centre project was to become the Federal
it with a town plan and a contingent of police, Government’s iconic decentralisation project, set
who would apprehend runaway convicts and to ‘attract population and economic activity away
protect travellers from Aboriginal attacks. from the major metropolitan areas, particularly
Sydney and Melbourne, in order to alleviate the
Just over 20 years on, an aptly named ‘Union’
undesirable pressures on these cities’.
Bridge was built to give New South Wales
people better access to the newly separated Albury remains a central point for culture,
Victoria which had suddenly become gold-rich. entertainment, sporting and outdoors activities.
But travellers found they could not always cross The Albury Art Gallery hosts one of the largest
the Union Bridge easily. At various times in the fine art collections in the Murray/Riverina region.
nineteenth century, customs officers collected Stories of the indigenous peoples, the early
stock tax and/or customs duties on some crossing place, the Hume Dam, Australia’s largest
goods. They tried to prevent Chinese travellers post-war migrant reception centre at Bonegilla,
from moving from one colony to the other by Albury’s railway history and significance until 1962
demanding they pay a poll tax. Through the as a break of gauge point, and the Hume Highway
twentieth century, the highway bridge became are told at the Albury Library Museum. The Albury
a checkpoint to stop the spread of influenza in Entertainment Centre hosts premier Australian
1919, and poliomyelitis in 1937. Inspectors seized drama, comedy, dance, opera and music.
fruit and vegetables to try to prevent the spread
Albury city is home to more than 460 hectares
of fruit fly in the 1960s and 1970s. Roadside signs
of parks and reserves, including the Albury
tried to prevent the spread of equine flu in 2007.
Botanic Gardens and a host of riverside parks.
The expansion of Lake Hume behind the newly It is also home to the Smollett St Bridge over
constructed Hume Dam changed the northern Bungambrawatha Creek, on the Riverina Highway.
approach of the highway to Albury in the early This elegant 1888 structure is locally heritage
1930s. In the post-war years the growth of listed, and is the older of only two metal arch
motor traffic diverted the highway from the main bridges in New South Wales.
commercial area. But the principal change to the
Further tourist information is available at the
route through the city came with the freeway
Albury Visitor Information Centre at Railway Place,
bypass in 2007. There was much argument about
on the corner of Young and Smollett Streets.
whether there should be an internal or external
bypass. The dispute was resolved when the
Federal Government announced funding for an
internal route in 2002.

98 Roads and Maritime Services NSW

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Holbrook to Albury

AD
RO
GA
AG
UNION W
ROAD

ET TRE
LOGAN
ROAD
AY

MATE S
G HW
HI Racecourse
E
M
Commercial HU
Golf Resort FALLON
STREET
M31
NORTH
STREET Albury

ET
Airport
STRE
Albury Library Museum
STREET

& Albury Art Gallery


HIGHWAY
INA
YOUNG
ER
R IV
Albury Botanic
KIEWA

BORELL
Gardens A ROAD

R IVERIN
A HIG
HW DEAN S
AY T
Albury Station Mungabareena
PLACNEGA

Island
STRESEEND

HUME
ST
WODO

Hovell Tree Park Albury Public School, 1850 Roundabout


TOWN

Traffic lights

Albury town map

Hume and Hovell Centenary, 1924 Hume and Hovell obelisk near Hume Dam

The Old Hume Highway – History begins with a road 99

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100 Roads and Maritime Services NSW

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Northbound

The Old Hume Highway – History begins with a road 101

RMS8104_HumeHighwayGuide_SecondEdition_2018_v3.indd 101 26/6/18 8:25 am


Section 10 Northbound
Albury to Holbrook

AD
RO
GA
AG TA
W
UT
8 RC
TA
TO
REET

AY
MATE ST

HI
G
HW
E RACECOURSE
Holbrook 16

M
HU

6 7 ALBURY 15
STREET

NORTH AIRPORT
STREET
YOUNG
STREETSEND

4
TOWN

Z 5
DEAN ST
REET
PLACEGA

2 3
N

HUME
WODO

STREET

Albury
14

1
M31
GGA
TO WAGGA WA

Gerogery
13
Woomargama

A41 TABLETOP
NATURE RESERVE
WAY
OLYMPIC HIGH

WOOMARGAMA
NATIONAL PARK

M31 11
12
Mullengandra
10

Bowna

Ettamogah 9
00

LAKE HUME
Table
Top 0 2 4 6
Lavington 1930s route of Hume Highway.
Deviated during construction of
KM

North Thurgoona Hume Dam


Albury Key
Old Hume Highway
B58
MURRAY RIVER SYSTEM Hume Highway

Historic Route (trafficable)


Albury Historic Route (non-trafficable)
E
RN

Major Road
OU
LB

Minor Road
ME

Train line
TO

102 Roads and Maritime Services NSW

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Section 10

Albury to Holbrook
Northbound

Directions DISTANCE FROM


PREVIOUS TURN POINT Along the way ... PAGE

1 Start at bridge over Murray River Albury 96

1 km Lavington 96
2 Turn right into Hume Street
Table Top 95
3 Turn left at Townsend Street 0.2 km
Bowna 94
4 Turn right at Dean Street 0.5 km
Mullengandra 93

5 Turn left at Young Street 1 km Woomargama 92

6 Turn right at North Street 1.5 km

7 Turn left at Mate Street 0.3 km Points of interest


8 Gentle right veer after Union Road 1.8 km Z Smollett Street metal 97
arch bridge
9 Rejoin Hume Highway at on-merge north 7.3 km
of Albury

10 Turn right into Bowna Road 15 km

11 Turn left to stay on Bowna Road 10 km


(Sweetwater Road continues
straight ahead)

12 Turn right onto Hume Highway 0.1 km

13 Take Woomargama Way exit 11 km

14 Rejoin Hume Highway north 9 km


of Woomargama

Approximate distance: 70 km

The Old Hume Highway – History begins with a road 103

RMS8104_HumeHighwayGuide_SecondEdition_2018_v3.indd 103 26/6/18 8:25 am


Section 9 Northbound
Holbrook to Tarcutta
I
GA
NDA
GU
TO
18
Tarcutta
17

Keajura

TU
MB
A
RU
M

BA
RO
AD
Kyeamba

TUMBAR
UMB

AR
NEST HILL
O

NATURE RESERVE
AD

MURRAGULDRIE
STATE
FOREST
AD
WE

RO
ST

G
N
BY

BO
LITTLE BILLA
O AD
R

WA
G Little
Billabong
GA WAGGA - H

0 2 4 6
OLBR

KM
OOK ROA

Garryowen
Key
D

16
Old Hume Highway

Y Hume Highway
Holbrook Historic Route (trafficable)
15 J ING
Historic Route (non-trafficable)
ELLI
RY

Major Road
BU

C R

OAD
AL

Minor Road
TO

104 Roads and Maritime Services NSW

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Section 9

Holbrook to Tarcutta
Northbound

Directions DISTANCE FROM


PREVIOUS TURN POINT Along the way ... PAGE

15 Take Holbrook exit 5 km Holbrook 88

5 km Germanton 87
16 Rejoin Hume Highway north of Holbrook
Little Billabong 86
17 Take exit to Tarcutta 62 km
Kyeamba 86
18 Rejoin Hume Highway north of Tarcutta 4.5 km
Keajura 86

Approximate distance: 67 km Points of interest


Y The Holbrook submarine 88

The Old Hume Highway – History begins with a road 105

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Section 8 Northbound
Tarcutta to Coolac

South Gundagai NG

TE
UGIO

RE
Gundagai TO J

ST
T
UN

T
EE
Coolac

O
24

STR
M

ST
WE
28 Timber trestle bridge
AY
HIG
HW SH
ER
in use until opening of 32
ME IDA
HU the bypass in 1977
P R OAD
NS 31
TR

K
EE 27

EE
T
U

CR
ST MER
CU

ET

YS
Y

RE
HUME HIGHWA

LE
HO
O

OR
30

M
E
IV
23

N DR
Historic 1867 Prince
AD

TO
RO

Alfred Bridge
GO

E
CU
ON

DL
ID 26
P
O

JE S
M
G
V
RO

SO P S L A RUMBIDGEE
MUR
AD

T RIV
E 25 ER
22 RE
ST BRU

Mingay
T N
N ROAGLE
M
O
U D
T

29

Nangus Gundagai

MURRUMBIDGEE RIVER

Mundarlo South
OLD
H UME H
Gundagai
IGH
W
Hillas Creek concrete
AY
RO

AD
bowstring arch bridge, 21
built 1938
W
19
20
Tumblong
TO WAGGA WAGGA

Sylvias
A20 X Gap
S
STU

NO

T
R

Route in use between


W
HI

M 1940 and 1983


GH
W

Y
UN
A

TA
IN
S HI
GH
W

ELLERSLIE
AY

NATURE RESERVE B72


18
TO T
UMU
T

17 Tarcutta 0 2 4 6
OK KM
RO
OL

LB
D

O
HU

H
TO Key
M
E

21
HI
GH

AY
W

HW
Old Hume Highway
AY

G D
E HI OA
IR
RO

M
HU GA
AD

DA
GU
N
Hume Highway
19
Historic Route (trafficable)
ROADGAI

G
20ADELOAND
A

P ROAD RO
GUND

GA
SYLVIAS Historic Route (non-trafficable)

Tumblong Major Road


Minor Road

106 Roads and Maritime Services NSW

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Section 8

Tarcutta to Coolac
Northbound

Directions DISTANCE FROM


PREVIOUS TURN POINT Along the way ... PAGE

19 Turn right into Sylvias Gap Road 29 km Tarcutta 82


(to Adelong). Tumblong 82
20 Immediately turn left towards 0 km Gundagai 79
Tumblong, along Sylvias Gap Road –
Grahamstown Road Mingay 78

21 Turn left at Tumblong Rd then right onto 1.6 km


Hume Highway

22 Turn right into Jessops Lagoon Road 7.5 km Points of interest


Turn left after 2.7 km into Gocup Road 2.7 km X Hillas Creek concrete 83
23
bowstring arch bridge
24 After 1.3 km turn right at the roundabout 1.3 km W The ‘big cut’ at Tumblong 82
in Mount Street
V Prince Alfred Bridge 81
25 Veer left then cross Murrumbidgee River 1.6 km
at Prince Alfred Bridge
U Niagara Café 80
26 Cross Murrumbidgee River at historic 0.1 km
Prince Alfred Bridge T Dog on the Tuckerbox 79

27 Turn left at Sheridan Street 1 km

28 Turn right at West Street 0.7 km


(becomes Sheahan Drive)

29 Rejoin Hume Highway north of Gundagai 2.5 km

Approximate distance: 61 km

The Old Hume Highway – History begins with a road 107

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Section 7 Northbound
Coolac to Bowning
G
UNRO

Bookham
D AD
AG
AI

ROADNG
31 32
MA
TTA

ILLALO
MU OAD 38
R
HU
M
E
ROAD

HI
GH
W
FA AY
HU ME HIGHWAY

G
COOLAC

AN
D

AD
RU D
M RI

RO
M VE
O

LA
N 39
D

ET Y
ST

RE RO
DO
RE

ST ON
ET

IL
CH

C
Coolac
TO
TEM
OR
A
GO
BAR
RAL
ON
GR
B81
OA
30 D
BURL
EY
GRI
FI

F
B94 N
K

WA
CREE

Route of Hume Highway

Y
until 1938 GIONG
JU

40 41
RA

Jugiong Bowning
TO COOTAMUND

38
39 TO YASS

Bookham
Deviation opened
K ROAD

in July 1965
C

MURR DG E R
UMBI E IVE
JU

R
IN

Coolac
RR

LAKE
BU BURRINJUCK
Route of Hume Highway
between 1938 and 1995
BURRINJUCK
AI

NATURE RESERVE
AG
D
UN
G
TO

0 2 4 6
D

KM
A
F RO

Key
EE

HUME HIGHWAY R
S 37
34
JU

MAHON
GIO

Old Hume Highway


N

33
GR

Mc

36
Hume Highway
OA
D

35 Historic Route (trafficable)


RIVERSIDE DRIVE
E
IV MURRUMBIDGEE RIVER
DR Historic Route (non-trafficable)
DE
SI
V ER Major Road
RI
Jugiong Minor Road

108 Roads and Maritime Services NSW

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Section 7

Coolac to Bowning
Northbound

Directions DISTANCE FROM


PREVIOUS TURN POINT Along the way ... PAGE

30 Take exit to Coolac Road 12.5 km Coolac 75


(Pettit/Adjungbilly exit)
Jugiong 73
31 Turn right into Muttama Road 4.7 km
Bookham 72
32 Turn left onto Hume Highway on-ramp 0.4 km
and rejoin highway

33 Take exit ramp to Jugiong 19.1 km Points of interest


34 Turn right into Jugiong Road 0.5 km S Burrinjuck Dam 73

35 Turn left in Jugiong onto 0.6 km


Old Hume Highway

36 Turn left at McMahons Reef Road 2.9 km

37 Turn right onto ramp to rejoin 0.6 km


Hume Highway

38 Turn right to Bookham (via Childowla 26.2 km


Road) then left towards township

39 Turn left after 1 km into Conroy Street 1 km


then turn right onto Hume Highway

Approximate distance: 74 km

The Old Hume Highway – History begins with a road 109

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Section 6 Northbound
Bowning to Gunning
TO
BO
OR
OW
A

B81
LAC
HL

Bowning
AN
VAL EY WAY
L

Oolong Gunning
49 50
48

42
M31

46 47

R
Yass 45 MUNDOONEN
43 AY
NATURE RESERVE

YW Manton
E

Q
LL

A
YASS V
44
D

A
RO

TO SUTTON
SS

A25
ER - YA

B ART

Early route of main south road


A SP

ON H
EJ
WE

IG

W
H

AY
TO CANBER
RA

0 2 4 6
CO
OT KM
AM
UN
DR
A
RO
AD
Key
BO
GO
LO Old Hume Highway
BO
NG WN
ST IN
RE G
RO Hume Highway
ET AD
Historic Route (trafficable)
40 41
Historic Route (non-trafficable)
HUME HIGHWAY
Major Road

Bowning Minor Road

110 Roads and Maritime Services NSW

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Section 6

Bowning to Gunning
Northbound

Directions DISTANCE FROM


PREVIOUS TURN POINT Along the way ... PAGE

40 Turn left to Bowning 18.5 km Bowning 68


(via Bowning Road)
Yass 64
41 Turn left onto Hume Highway after 2km 2 km
Manton 64
42 Take Yass exit ramp and proceed towards 5.5 km
the townhip

43 Proceed through Yass shopping area 7 km Points of interest


44 Proceed straight ahead at the Barton 6 km R Hamilton Hume’s grave 67
Highway access roundabouts
Q Cooma Cottage 66
45 Turn right from Yass Valley Way onto 5 km
Hume Highway

46 Turn left at top of Mundoonen Range into 3.4 km


Sheldricks Lane then immediately right
onto old highway; proceed around (or
through) the rest area after about 3 km

47 Rejoin Hume Highway 3.5 km

Approximate distance: 50 km

The Old Hume Highway – History begins with a road 111

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Section 5 Northbound
Gunning to Yarra

Route of Hume Highway


until late 1940s

P
Cullerin
Fish Mutmutbilly
River
49 50
48 Gunning Yarra
Breadalbane
51

KIBBY VC
M31 REST AREA

AY
HW
IG
WOLLOGORANG

H
Route of Hume Highway LAGOON A L
ER
until the 1920s FED

M23
TO SUTTON

R
CTO
LLE

ERRA
ANB
TO C
CO
TO

0 2 4 6
Gunning AY
KM
W
GH
DALT HI
E
Key
ON R M
OAD
HU
D
OL
W ST

50
AR RE

ET
Old Hume Highway
RA ET

RE
CO
TA

ST
LLE

SS
W

YA
Hume Highway
CTO

49
E ET Historic Route (trafficable)
RR

H U M E S TR
D

48
OA
OA

GUNNING Historic