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ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЙ

КУРС
АН ГЛИ Й СК О ГО ЯЗЫКА

~'\вплаос
УЧЕБНИК
ДЛЯ ВУЗОВ

ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЙ
КУРС
АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА
З курс

Под редакцией В.Д. Аракина

4-е издание, переработанное и дополненное

Рекомендовано Министерством образования и науки


Российской Федерации в качестве учебника
для студентов высших учебных заведений

Москва
/ЯШЛШ/ГЛАИЬ4?Л
ХА&лг&гьсгнЯ}
(УҐГі~г/

^ХВЛАДОС
2006
УДК 811.111(075.8)
ББК 81.2 Англ-923
П69

В. Д. Аракин, И. А. Новикова, О. В. Афанасьева,


С. Н. Бронникова, Т. Г. Давиденко, А. С. Саакян, М. А. Соколова,
Н. И. Крылова, К. П. Гинтовт, И. С. Тихонова, Г. А. Шабадаш

Рецензент:
кафедра английского языка
Коломенского педагогического института
(зав. кафедрой канд. пед. наук, доц. B.C. Борисов);
канд. филол. наук М.И. Корбут
(Смоленский государственный педагогический институт)

П рактический курс английского язы ка. 3 курс : учеб. для


П69 студентов вузов / [В.Д. Аракин и д р .]; под ред. В.Д. Аракина. —
4-е изд., перераб. и доп. — М .: Гуманитар, изд. центр ВЛАДОС,
2006. — 431 с . : ил. — (Учебник для вузов).
ISBN 5-691-00046-2 (в пер.).
Учебник является третьей частью серии комплексных учебников для
I —V курсов педагогических вузов. Основная цель — развитие навыков
устной и письменной речи.
4-е издание учебника значительно переработано, усилена его про­
фессиональная и коммуникативная направленность.
УДК 811.111(075.8)
ББК 81.2 Англ-923

© Коллектив авторов, 2000


© ООО «Гуманитарный издательский
центр ВЛАДОС», 2000
© Серия «Учебник для вузов» и
серийное оформление.
ООО «Г
центр ВЛАДОС», 2000
© Макет. ООО «Гуманитарный
ISBN 5-691-00046-2 (в пер.) издательский центр ВЛАДОС», 2000
100-летнему ю билею
В ладим ира Д м итриевича А р ак и н а
п о с в я щ а е тс я

ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

Данный учебник является частью серии учебников П рактический курс


английского язы ка и предназначен для студентов третьего курса факульте­
тов и отделений английского язы ка Педагогических университетов.
В четвертое издание учебника внесены значительные изм енения и до­
полнения, диктуемые новыми условиями работы Педагогических универси­
тетов,
На третьем курсе завершается работа по овладению основами устной и
письменной речи. В качестве основных учебных материалов используются
оригинальные художественные и общественно-политические тексты. Углуб­
ляется работа над лексикой. При обучении разговорной речи преимущ ествен­
ное внимание уделяется условно-неподготовленной и неподготовленной речи.
Наряду с передачей содержания прочитанного, участием в проблемной беседе
и дискуссии от студента требуется умение аннотировать текст, давать необхо­
димый комментарий, суммировать сведения из разных источников.
Учебник состоит из четырех частей: основного курса (авторы И.А.Нови-
кова, О.В.Афанасьева, С.Н.Бронникова, Т.Г.Давиденко), раздела упраж не­
ний на звуки речи и интонацию (авторы М.А.Соколова, К.П.Гинтовт,
Н.И.Крылова, И.С.Тихонова, Г.А.Шабадаш), раздела упраж нений по грамма­
тике (автор А.С.Саакян) и приложения.
Основной курс состоит из восьми уроков, каждый из которых содержит:
речевые образцы и упраж нения на их автоматизацию, текст, представля­
ющий собой отрывок из оригинального художественного произведения анг­
лийского или американского автора, краткие сведения об авторе*коммента­
рий с пояснением реалий и трудных для понимания язы ковы х явлений,
словарь активной лексики, список словосочетаний, встречаю щ ихся в тексте
и подлежащих активизации, и упражнения, обеспечивающие закрепление
вводимого материала.
При отборе текстов для чтения и развития навыков устной речи авторы
стремились, с одной стороны, дагь образцы высокохудожественной литера­
туры, в которых прослеживаются функционально-стилевые особенности
современного английского языка, а, с другой стороны, максимально прибли­
зить их к программной тематике третьего курса, чтобы подвести студентов к
беседе на определенные темы: «Актуальные проблемы окружаю щ ей среды»,
«Школьное образование в Англии и в России», «Воспитание в семье и ш ко­
ле», «Кино», «Живопись» и др.
Упражнения по обучению чтению на материале основного текста урока
составлены с учетом принципа нарастания трудностей и призваны р азви ­
вать у будущего учителя иностранного язы ка высокую культуру чтения,
формировать способность воспринимать художественное произведение во
всем его многообразном идейном и эмоциональном богатстве.
Параллельно с работой над содержанием текста изучается активный сло­
варь, куда входит общеупотребительная лексика, отличающ аяся высокой

3
степенью сочетаемости и большими словообразовательными возможностя­
ми, а такж е стилистически маркированная лексика.
Значительное место отводится наблюдению над семантической структу­
рой слова, развитием переносных значений, сужением и расш ирением зна­
чения слова.
Упражнения на предлоги преследуют цель систематизации употребле­
ния английских предлогов. Предлоги, встречающиеся в тексте урока, даются
в упраж нениях во всех их значениях, с тем чтобы в систему этих упраж не­
ний в целом вошли все основные случаи их употребления.
Система упраж нений по обучению диалогической и монологической
речи представлена в учебнике следующим образом: усвоение речевых об­
разцов, усвоение материала основного текста урока, усвоение активного
словаря и работа над тематикой последнего раздела, который пополнился
такими активными формами речевой деятельности, как ролевая игра, дис­
пут, дискуссия. Разговорные формулы, организованные по целевому при­
знаку, должны послужить опорой студенту в построении творческого выс­
казывания.
Во всех восьми уроках упраж нения по обучению речевому общению на­
писаны по единой схеме:
1. Тематический словарь для бесед и дискуссий на данную тему.
2. Текст информативно-тематического характера и упраж нения на свер­
тывание и развертывание информации.
3. Упражнения коммуникативного характера и клише, сгруппированные
по функционально-семантическому признаку. Предлагаемые разговорные
формулы, как правило, не содержат новой лексики. Их назначение — по­
мочь студентам облечь свои мысли в естественную языковую форму.
4. Упражнения дискуссионного характера.
5. Упражнения для коллективного обсуждения, в которых студенты дол­
жны использовать речевые клише и тематическую лексику.
Раздел заканчивается перечнем тем для творческого высказывания и си­
туацией для ролевой игры.
Раздел упраж нений на звуки речи представлен в виде коррективного
курса, охватывающего не все звуки речи, а лишь те, в которых делается наи­
большее количество ошибок. Подробные задания дают возможность уча­
щ имся работать над устранением своих ошибок самостоятельно.
Раздел упраж нений по интонации предназначен для завершающего эта­
па работы над английской интонацией на III курсе факультета английского
язы ка Педагогических университетов и является продолжением аналогич­
ных разделов учебников для I и II курсов тех ж е авторов. Его основная
цель — расш ирение и углубление отработанного на первых двух курсах ма­
териала, а такж е введение таких интонационных структур, употребление
которых характеризуется английскими фонетистами как факультативное.
Раздел состоит из серии обучающих, контролирующих и творческих уп­
раж нений для дальнейшей автоматизации воспроизведения и употребления
основных интонационных структур в английской речи. Обучающие упраж ­
нения в основном предназначены для лабораторной работы, контролирую­
щие и творческие — для работы в аудитории. Специальные задания на
транскрибирование, интонирование и графическое изображ ение интона­
ции могут быть даны при работе над любым упражнением.

4
Основная цель раздела упраж нений по грамматике — закрепление ново­
го грамматического материала, который изучается на III курсе (имена сущ е­
ствительные, прилагательные, числительные и местоимения, а такж е разде­
лы синтаксиса). Кроме того, большое внимание уделяется неличным формам
глагола и повторению употребления наклонений, времен и артиклей. Упраж­
нения построены в основном на материале уроков основного курса.
В приложение вынесены инструкции по написанию письменных работ,
практикуемых на III курсе: сочинение-повествование, сочинение-описание,
рекомендации по составлению краткого пересказа текста, списки речевых
клише.
При подготовке 4-го издания, не изменяя в целом содержательную и
структурную стороны учебника, авторы сочли необходимым внести опреде­
ленные коррективы в тексты и задания к ним, т. к. во многих случаях пред­
лагавшийся ранее материал оказался несоответствующим современной дей­
ствительности. Это в первую очередь касается раздела, посвященного
системе образования (Урок 3, часть 2), т. к. за последнее десятилетие образо­
вательные системы России и Великобритании претерпели сущ ественные и з­
менения.
Полностью переработан грамматический раздел, который включает в
себя коммуникативно-ориентированные упраж нения по указанным выше
разделам.
Внесены коррективы в лексико-грамматические задания с учетом по­
следних достижений и требований методики преподавания иностранного
язы ка в высшей школе.

Авторы

5
ESSENTIAL COURSE

U nit O ne

SPEECH PATTERNS

1. It is more like a stage village than one built of bricks and


m ortar.

It is m ore like an essay than a story.


This looks m ore like a pond than a lake.
This seem s m ore like silk th an wool.

2. W e roam ed about sw eet Sonning for an hour or so.

T hey w alked about the town (in the forest, there) for an hour or
so (for two hours or so).
H e lived in the village (in Kiev, there) for a year or so.

3. G eorge said th at it would be a splendid opportunity to try


a good, slap-up supper.

A nn will be here any m inute. It will be a w onderful opportunity


to speak to her.
W e still had p len ty of tim e and Jo h n said it was an excellent op­
p o rtu n ity to have a bite.

4. I should never have thought th at peeling potatoes was


such an undertaking.

I should never have th o u g h t th at translating an article was so


difficult.
б
I should never have tho u g h t that w riting a com position w as as
difficult as that.

5. The more we peeled, the more peel there seem ed to be


left on.

The m ore sentences he translated, th e m ore of them there


seem ed to be left.
The m ore I listened, the m ore interested I becam e.
The longer he stayed there, the m ore (the less) he liked the
place. The m ore you do today, the less will be left for tomorrow.

6. There was no potato left.


There was half a pork pie left.

There is some paper (money) left.


There is no bread left.
W e still have som e m oney left.

7. That won't do. Y ou're w asting them .

That w on't do. You h av en 't tried hard enough.


That w on't do. You're m aking a m ess of the job.

EXERCISES

1. Complete the following sentences using Speech Patterns:

1. This is m ore like a w ord for word translation than ... . 2. It is


m ore like a fable th an ... . 3. The fabric looks m ore like cotton
than .... 4. Ann looks m ore like a schoolgirl t h a n .... 5. W ith this h a ir­
do she looks m ore like a boy than .... 6. W e w alked round th e village
for .... 7 . 1 stayed with m y friends f o r .... 8 . 1 lived in the tow n for ....
9 . 1 am not through with the book yet, I've read only 50 p ag es or ....
10. Since everyone is p resent I think i t .... 11. W e are th ro u g h w ith
our work. Isn't it ...? 12. W e've b een looking for her house
for m ore than an hour. I should ... . 13. T here seem s to be no end to
dirty clothes. I should ... . 14. The m ore we listened to him, ... .
7
15. T he m ore Jo h n looked at h e r ,.... 16. The m ore I think about her
decision, ... . 17. The m ore indignant A ndrew becam e....... 18. The
longer we w aited, ... . 19. W ho'll go to the baker's? There is ... .
20. I'm going to the stationer's. There is ... . 21. W hy go shop­
ping? — W e have ... . 22. W e n e e d n 't hurry. T here is ... .
23. H urry up. W e have ... . 24. W hy not put the table near
th e window? — T here seem s to be ... . 25. W here will you put the
bookcase? T here seem s to be no ....

2. Suggest a beginning matching up the end. Use Speech Patterns 4, 5 and 7:

1. ... th at looking after a child was so tiresom e. 2.... m ight cost so


m uch effort. 3. ... m ight turn out to be such a trying job. 4. ... the
big g er w ages h e earned. 5. ... the less he knew w hat to do. 6. ... the
m ore we liked the place. 7. ... You sh o u ld n 't be so careless.
8. ... You'll have to do everything all over again. 9....... You treat
the m atter too lightly. 10...... Your answ er is wrong.

3. Respond to the following statements and questions using the Speech Pat­
terns:

1. If only th e w eather w ere better! 2. In two days I'll finish


m y exams. 3. I sh a n 't be through with m y w ork before the w eek­
end, I'm afraid. 4. How long will the job take? 5. W e 're going there
on Friday. 6. She m ay com e yet. Let's wait a bit. 7. H e says it was
your fault. 8. How long shall I stay there?

4. Make up two sentences of your own on each pattern.

5. Translate into English using the Speech Patterns:

A. Весной, на обратном пути в Москву, мы случайно проезжали


мимо небольшого городка. Он был скорее похож на большую дерев­
ню, чем на город, все дома в нем утопали в цветах, и он показался
нам таким красивым, что мы не смогли не остановиться там. Я никог­
да бы не подумала, что прогулка по маленькому провинциальному го­
родку может доставить такое наслаждение. Мы ходили по городу
около трех часов, и чем больше мы смотрели на этот сказочный уго­
лок, тем больше восхищались им. Но у нас осталось мало времени, и
нам пришлось спешить в Москву.
B. В прошлом году нам с женой пришлось пойти в отпуск зимой.
Мы решили, что это удобный случай, чтобы собственными силами
отремонтировать квартиру. После двух дней работы наша квартира
больше походила на склад поломанной мебели, чем на квартиру.
8
«Это никуда не годится, — сказала жена. — Давай лучше пригласим
маляров» (to have smth. done).

6. Make up and act out a dialogue using the Speech Patterns.

TEXT ONE

THREE MEN IN A BOAT

By Jerome K.Jerome

Jerome K.Jerome (1859— 1927) is a well-known English writer, whose novels


Three Men in a Boat, The Idle Thoughts of an Idle Fellow, Novel Notes and Three
Men on the Bummel have enjoyed great popularity. Jerom e K Jerom e is famous
for his art of story-telling, his vivid style and his hum our which is generally ex­
pressed in-laughter-provoking situations often based on m isunderstanding. W ith
sparkling humour he criticized the weak sides of human nature.

Chapter X IV
W e got out at Sonning,1and w ent for a w alk round the village. It
is the m ost fairy-like nook on the w hole river. It is m ore like a stage
village than one built of bricks and m ortar. Every house is sm oth­
ered in roses, and now, in early June, th ey w ere burstin g forth in
clouds of dainty splendour. If you stop a t Sonning, p u t up at the
"Bull", behind the church. It is a veritable picture of an old country
inn, with a green, square courtyard in front, w here, on seats b e ­
neath the trees, the old m en group of an evening to drink their ale
and gossip over village politics; w ith low quaint room s and latticed
windows2 and awkward stairs and w inding passages.
W e roam ed about sw eet Sonning for an hour or so, and then,
it being too late to push on past R eading,3 we d ecided to go b a c k to
one of the Shiplake islands, and p u t up there for the night. It was
still early w hen we g ot settled and G eorge said that, as w e had
plenty of time, it w ould be a splendid o p p o rtu n ity to try a good,
slap-up supper. He said he w ould show us w hat could be done up
the river in the way of cooking, and su ggested that, w ith the v e g e ­
tables and the rem ains of the cold beef and general odds a n d ends,
we should m ake an Irish stew .4
It seem ed a fascinating idea. G eorge gathered w ood and m ade
a fire, and Harris and I started to peel the potatoes. I should never
have tho u g h t th at peeling potatoes was such an undertaking.
The job turned out to be the biggest thing of its kind th at I had ever
9
b een in. W e beg an cheerfully, one m ight alm ost say skittishly but
our lig h t-heartedness was gone by the tim e the first potato was fin­
ished. The m ore we peeled, the m ore peel there seem ed to be
left on; by the tim e we had got all the peel off and all the eyes out,
th ere was no p o tato left — at least none w orth speaking of. G eorge
cam e an d h ad a look at it — it was about the size of pea-nut. He
said:
"Oh, th a t w o n 't do! Y ou're w asting them . You m ust scrape
them ."
So w e scraped them and th at was harder w ork than peeling.
T hey are such an extraordinary shape, potatoes — all bum ps and
w arts and hollows. W e w orked steadily for five-and-tw enty m in­
utes, and did four potatoes. Then we struck. W e said we should re ­
quire the rest of th e evening for scraping ourselves.
I never saw such a thing as potato-scraping for m aking a fellow
in a mess. It seem ed difficult to believe th at the potato-scrapings in
w hich Harris a n d I stood, half-sm othered, could have com e off four
potatoes. It shows you w hat can be done w ith econom y and care.
G eorge said it was absurd to have only four potatoes in an Irish
stew, so we w ashed half a dozen or so m ore and put them in w ith­
out peeling. W e also p u t in a cabbage and about half a p eck 5 of
peas. G eorge stirred it all up, and then he said that there seem ed to
be a lot of room to spare, so we overhauled both the ham pers, and
picked o u t all the odds and ends and the rem nants, and added
them to the stew. T here w ere half a pork pie and a bit of cold boiled
bacon left, a n d we p u t them in. Then G eorge found half a tin of
p o tte d salm on, and he em ptied that into the pot.
H e said th a t was the advantage of Irish stew: you got rid of such
a lot of things. I fished out a couple of eggs th at had got cracked,
an d we p u t those in. G eorge said they w ould thicken the gravy.
I forget the o ther ingredients, but I know nothing was wasted;
and I rem em ber th at tow ards the end, M ontm orency, who had
evinced g reat interest in the proceedings throughout, strolled
away with an earnest and thoughtful air, reappearing, a few m in­
utes afterw ards, w ith a d ead w ater-rat in his m outh, which he evi­
dently w ished to p resen t as his contribution to the dinner;
w hether in a sarcastic spirit, or with a general desire to assist,
I cannot say.
W e had a discussion as to w hether the rat should go in or not.
H arris said th a t he th o u g h t it w ould be all right, m ixed up with the

10
other things, and that every little helped; but G eorge stood up for
precedent! He said he had never heard of w ater-rats in Irish stew,
and he w ould rather be on the safe side, and not try experim ents.
Harris said:
"If you never try a new thing how can you tell w hat it's like? It's
m en such as you th at ham per the w orld's progress. T hink of the
m an who first tried G erm an sausage!"
It was a great success, that Irish stew. I d o n 't th in k I ever e n ­
joyed a m eal m ore. T here was som ething so fresh a n d p iq u an t
about it. O ne's palate gets so tired of the old h ack n ey ed things:
here was a dish w ith a new flavour, w ith a taste like n o th in g else
on earth.
And it was nourishing, too. As G eorge said, th ere was good stuff
in it. The peas and potatoes m ight have b een a bit softer, b u t we all
had good teeth, so th at did not m atter much; and as for the gravy,
it was a poem — a little too rich, perhaps, for a w eak stom ach,
b ut nutritious.

EXPLANATORY NOTES

1. Sonning ['sDnirj]: a picturesque village on the bank of the Thames.


2. latticed window: a window with small panes set in.
3. Reading ['redirj]: a town on the river Thames, Berkshire, South
England. It is an important town for engineering, transport "&nd scientific
research. It is also important for its cattle and com markets. It is proud of
its university which specializes in agriculture.
4. Irish stew: a thick stew of mutton, onion and potatoes.
5. peck: a measure for dry goods equal to two gallons. Half a peck is
equal approximately to four litres.
6. German sausage: a large kind of sausage with spiced, partly cooked
meat.

ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY

Vocabulary Notes

1. gossip n 1) (uncount.) idle talk, often ill-natured, about persons or


events, also what appears in newspapers about people well-known in
society, as the gossip column, a gossip writer, e. g. Don't believe all the
U
gossip you hear. 2) (count.) a person who is fond of talking about other
people's affairs, as the town gossips.
gossip vi (over smth.) to talk about the affairs of others, to spread
rumours, e. g. Aren't you ashamed of gossiping over his affairs?
2. wind [waind] (wound [waund] vt/i 1) to turn round and round:
to wind the handle; 2) to make into a ball or twisted round shape, as to
wind wool; 3) to follow a direction in a twisting shape, e. g. The path winds
through the wood. 4) to tighten the working parts by turning, as to wind
a clock; 5) to bring or come to an end, e. g. It's time he could wind up (his
speech), to wind someone round one's little finger to make someone do
what one wants.
3. peel v t/i 1) to take off the skin, as to peel oranges (apples, potatoes,
bananas, etc.); 2) to come off in thin layer or strips, e. g. The skin peels off
the nose or face when a person gets sunburnt. The wallpaper is peel­
ing (off).
peel л the outer skin of fruit or vegetables, as orange peel, potato peel;
candied peel the peel of oranges, lemons, etc., preserved and coated with
sugar.
4. scrape v t/i 1) to remove (material) from a surface by pulling or
pushing an edge firmly across it repeatedly, e. д. I scraped the skin off the
vegetables. 2) to clean or make (a surface) smooth i(n this way, e. g. She
scraped the door (down) before painting it again. He scraped his boots
clean before coming in the house. 3) to rub roughly (esp. on, against):
a chair scraping on the floor, e. g. He scraped his chair against the wall.
4) to hurt or damage in this way, e. g. He scraped his knee when he fell.
5) to succeed in a class by doing work of the lowest acceptable quality,
e. g. She just scraped through the examination, to scrape a living to get
just enough food or money to stay alive; to scrape up also to scrape
together to gather (a total, esp. of money) with difficulty by putting small
amounts together.
5. steady adj 1) firmly fixed, not likely to fall, as a steady foundation, to
make a chair or table steady, with a steady hand, e. g. The chair is steady
enough, syn. firm, as firm ground, foundation, steps, muscles;
2) regular in life, work, etc.; industrious, as a steady person; 3) constant, as
a steady wind (rain, growth, increase), steady progress.
steadily adv in a steady manner, e. g. It has been raining steadily since
the morning.
steady v t/i to make or become steady, e. g. With an effort he steadied
the boat. The boat soon steadied again.
6. mess n (rarely pi.) ь state of confusion, dirt or disorder; to be in
a mess, e. g. The room was in a mess, to make a mess of smth. to do it
badly, e. g. You've made a mess of the job. to get into a mess to get into
trouble or into a dirty state, e. g. You'll get into a mess if you are not
more careful.

12
7. crack vt/i 1) to break or cause to break, in such a way, however,
that the pieces remain together, e. g. A vase may crack if washed in
boiling water. You've cracked the window. 2) to make or cause a thing to
make a loud noise, as to crack a whip, e. g. His rifle cracked and the deer
fell dead, to crack a joke (si.) to make a somewhat rough joke, e. g. There
is no one like him to crack jokes.
crack n an incomplete break; a sharp noise, as a wide (small, loud,
sudden) crack, e. g. The walls are covered with cracks. I heard a crack as if
of a branch.
8. contribute vt/i 1) to give money, supply help, etc. to a common
cause, e. g. The development of friendly ties with other countries contri­
butes to mutual understanding of their peoples. Good health contributes
to a person's success in work. 2) to write articles or other material for
newspapers, magazines, etc., as to contribute articles to a wall-newspa-
per, to contribute a poem to a magazine.
contribution n the act of contributing; that which is contributed,
e. g. Montmorency brought a dead water-rat as his contribution to the
dinner.
9. spirit n 1) moral condition, tendency, as the spirit of the army,
the spirit of the times (age), the spirit of the law, to take smth. in the right
(wrong) spirit, to show a proper spirit, e. g. That's the right spirit! He
found himself in conflict with the spirit of the time. 2) energy, courage,
liveliness, e. g. Put a little more spirit into your work. He spoke with spirit.
3) pi. mood, as to be in high (low) spirits, e. g. His spirits rose (fell or sank),
to raise smb.'s spirits; out of spirits depressed, unhappy, e. g. You seem
to be out of spirits today.
10. taste n 1) flavour; quality of any substance as perceived by the
taste organs, e. g. The doctor prescribed her some pills with a bitter taste.
I don't care for this bread, it has a very bitter taste. I dislike the taste of
olives. 2) liking, e. g. You may choose any flowers to your taste here.
There is no accounting for tastes. Tastes differ. 3) ability to form judge­
ments in questions of beauty and manners, e. g. The room was furnished
in good taste. They say she dresses in poor taste. I was ashamed of you,
your jokes were in very bad taste.
taste v t/i 1) to try by eating or drinking; to recognize after taking into
the mouth, e. g. There we found some strange meals and made up our
minds to taste them all. Can you distinguish types of apples by tasting
them? I have a bad cold and cannot taste anything. 2) to have a particular
flavour, e. g. This orange tastes bitter. 3) to experience, e. g. There she
tasted the joys of privacy.
tasteful adj showing good taste, as a tasteful person, work of art.
tasteless adj 1) having no taste; 2) having or showing poor taste.
Usage: When tasteless is used of food it means "having no taste". When it
is used of people, furniture, ornaments, etc., it means "having or showing
bad taste", e. g. The potatoes were tasteless without salt.
13
Word Combinations and Phrases

in early June half a dozen, half a peck of peas,


to put up at some place half a pork pie, half a tin of
to roam the woods (through salmon
the woods, about a place) to stir smth. up
to get settled to add smth. to smth.
odds and ends to empty smth. into a pot
to be the size of smth. to thicken the gravy
the rest of the evening with an earnest and thougtful air
to be on the safe side

READING COMPREHENSION EXERCISES

1. Listen to Text One and mark the stresses; enough time will be given for
you to repeat the sentences.

2. Put fifteen questions to the text.

3. N ote down the sentences from the text which contain the word combina­
tions and phrases. Translate them into Russian.

4. Paraphrase the following sentences using the word combinations and


phrases (p. 14).

1. At th e b eg in n in g of M ay the village is really fairy-like with all


its houses sm othered in roses. 2. I'd like to stay in this small inn for
a w eek or so. 3. The w hole day we w andered over the country-side
and in th e evening w e had a nice rest. 4. It tu rned out to be quite
late w hen a t last we m ade ourselves com fortable. 5. I never saw
such a th ing as a stew for gettin g rid of all rem nants of food.
6. C hoose th e books you n eed and tak e the others to the library,
please. 7. This is a rare edition: the book is as small as a m atch-box,
b u t the prin t is very clear. 8. W e have half a tin of potted pork left,
le t's p u t it into th e stew. 9. Put som e m ore oatm eal in th e porridge
a n d m ix it tho ro u g h ly w ith a spoon. 10. He m ay have forgotten
ab o u t our arrangem ent, le t's call him up to m ake sure.

5. Translate the following sentences into English using the word combina­
tions and phrases:

1. Мне бы очень хотелось поехать на юг в начале июня, когда все


утопает в цветах, и побродить по горам. 2. Мы решили, что в Санкт-
Петербурге остановимся в гостинице и проведем там около недели.
14
3. Мы быстро устроились, и оказалось, что до вечера у нас еще много
времени. 4. Когда мы наконец устроились, мы так устали, что никто
из нас не захотел никуда идти. 5. Вряд ли эти обрезки бумаги на что-
нибудь годятся. 6. Никогда бы не подумала, что из этих остатков ма­
териала можно сшить платье. 7. Моя комната такого же размера, что
и ваша, но она почему-то выглядит меньше. 8. Я прочла только поло­
вину статьи, но мне кажется, что она имеет мало отношения к инте­
ресующему вас предмету. 9. Поезд придет только через полчаса, да­
вайте побродим по городу. 10. Элен перемешала салат, попробовала
его и решила добавить еще соленых огурцов. 11. Это хорошие мяс­
ные консервы. Положите полбанки в рагу. 12. Добавьте немного
муки в соус, чтобы он стал погуще. 13. Он шутит с таким серьезным
видом, что невозможно не рассмеяться. 14. На всякий случай нам
лучше не,касаться этого вопроса сегодня.

6. Make up and practise a short situation using the word combinations and
phrases of Ex. 3.

7. Make up and act out a dialogue using the word combinations (p. 14).

8. Find in Text One equivalents for the following words and phrases and use
them in sentences of your own:

to w ander about a place; for about an hour; to stay som ew here


for the night; to have a lot of time; an excellent chance; an a ttrac ­
tive plan; to build up a fire; a difficult task; to prove to be; to be as
small as smth.; w ithout stopping; ridiculous; to exam ine th o ro u g h ­
ly; to pull out; to m ake the gravy thicker; not to risk; tfivial things;
not to be im portant

9. Note down from the text equivalents for the following words and phrases.
Make up sentences using the phrases:

сказочный уголок; утопать в розах; настоящая сельская гостини­


ца; сельские новости; причудливые комнаты; решетчатые окна; ши­
карный ужин; по части стряпни; собирать хворост; беззаботность

10. Explain what is meant by the following phrases and sentences:

1. to gossip over village politics. 2. to try a good slap-up supper.


3. O ur light-heartedness was gone. 4. T hen w e struck. 5. W e
should require the rest of the evening for scraping ourselves. 6. W e
overhauled both the ham pers. 7. All the odds a n d ends and
the rem nants. 8. Every little helped. 9. G eorge stood for precedent.
10. H e would rather be on the safe side and not try experim ents.
15
11. Answer the following questions and do the given tasks:

1. W hat do you know of Jerom e K Je ro m e and his place in En­


glish literature? 2. W hat does the passage u n d er study present? (Is
it a piece of narration, a description, a portrayal or an account of
events?) 3. In w hat key is the first part w ritten? (Is it lyrical, dra­
m atic, hum orous or unem otional?) 4. How does the author achieve
th e hum orous effect in the second part? (Is it th e hum our of the sit­
uation or the hum our of words?) 5. Find in the passage senten­
ces containing irony, exaggeration and contrast and com m ent on
them . 6. In w hat key is the second p art w ritten? 7. W hat can you
say of J.K .Jerom e's m anner of writing? Sum m arize your observa­
tions.

12. Retell Text One: a) close to the text; b) in indirect speech; c) as if you were
Harris or George.

13. Give a summary of Text One.

14. Make up and act out a dialogue between George and Harris cooking the
stew.

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

1. Study the Vocabulary Notes and translate the illustrative examples into
Russian.

2. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the words
and word combinations in bold type:

A. 1. Of an evening Barbara would have a good gossip with the


neighbour over the g ard en fence. 2. G ossiping and lying go hand
in hand. (proverb) 3. “I decided to have her up here, for a tim e at
least, and let the gossips do their worst," said Beatrice. 4. "W ho's
talking gossip now ?" said cousin Rachel. 5. W hile playing under
h er m other's eye, she felt a wind-up toy. 6. It was becom ing stuffy
in the com partm ent of the train. I wound the w indow down and got
m y pipe out. 7 . 1 braided h er hair and wound it round her head. 8. If
one only could peel her, as one peels an onion, of pretence and in­
sincerity. 9. I saw him w ith great clarity, from the pleased smile to
the peel of sunburn on the top of his bald head. 10. C arefully she
broke all th e twigs from the branch, so that it becam e an alm ost
straight stick, a n d as she w alked, she peeled th e b ark from the
16
wood until it was stripped clean. 11. Scrape your m uddy shoes with
this old knife. 12. "H i!1' cried Nick, scraping som e snow from the
sledge and flinging a snowball w hich hit G eorge full in the ear.
13. All the trivial sounds of the room re-echoed m addeningly about
h im — the scraping of chairs, the coughing. 14. Y ou've got to
scrape up som e courage, som e daring. 15. The lane was so narrow
that a donkey with panniers could hardly have scraped its w ay
through. 16. It was so slippery that if he had not steadied me,
I should have fallen. 17. The fog cam e steadily over us in waves
and it was extrem ely difficult to see w here one was on the road.
18. She looked at me again with that peculiar steady gaze. 19. She
heard the steady b eat of her heart: "G et up! Go out! Do som e­
thing!" 20. These eyes, w hen he raised them , w ere extraordinarily
steady and inquiring. 21. Tom was charm ing and unscrupulous.
He m ade a steady incom e from his friends and he m ade friends
easily.
В. 1. He felt th at he was beginning to clear up the m ess into
which his life had fallen. 2. I’ve never seen so m uch m ess and disor­
der anyw here. 3. It's true that I had a country w alk on T hursday
and cam e hom e in a dreadful mess. 4. "1 saw m y father today.
I hoped h e 'd give me a last chance and haul m e out of the m ess for
the tim e being," said Ben. 5. The driver cracked his whip, and the
horses raced off. 6. She raised the w indow a crack and laid th e cold
towel on D ottie’s forehead. 7. A d rau g h t through the cracks in the
window-fram e stirred the curtains. 8. They had lau g h ed and
cracked jokes with John. 9. Bert studied him for several m inutes
through the crack in the door and then w ent out into the yard.
10. The tree cracked loudly and fell. Everything was still again.
11. The excellent conditions provided for the experim ent contrib­
uted greatly to its success. 12. H er honesty contributed to th e g e n ­
eral regard for her good sense. 13. His m elancholy was com parable
with Bracey's, no doubt contributing to their m utual u n d e rsta n d ­
ing. 14. The bom bing succeeded in neither suppressing the fight­
ing spirit nor in deranging the econom ic life of the country. 15. Ev­
idently his dream y fancies had not interfered w ith eith er his spirits
or his appetite. 16. The child was healthy and high-spirited, and
it was im possible to keep her quiet. 17. H e filled the glass w ith w a­
ter and sipped at it cautiously: the taste was terrible. 18. N obody
could deny she had taste, though som etim es a little bizarre. '>
1 9 .1can apologize again for my ill taste in w hat I said. 20. Bill w on­
dered w hether he w ould ever taste fresh oranges again. 21. If you
17
don't scrape the dust away, everything you eat will taste of it.
22. Som e books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some
few to be chew ed and digested. 23. H er fine figure and tasteful
clothes always attracted attention. 24. She sipped at the tea, taste­
less, unrefreshing.

3. Paraphrase the following sentences using your active vocabulary:

A. 1. The Browns w ere glad to drop in of an evening for a cock­


tail and a chat. 2. H e chuckled at the thought of how successfully
they had deceived the people who w ere fond of spreading rum ours
in the small colony. 3. Ann m ade Tom do w hatever she w ished him
to do. 4. It’s tim e he ended his speech. 5. She hates taking the skin
off potatoes. 6. Put the towel round your shoulders or you'll burn
and your skin will com e off. 7. The silly boy is always getting into
trouble. 8. C lean the soles of your shoes thoroughly before you go
into the cottage. 9. It took the boys m uch tim e and effort to collect
the m oney th ey needed. 10. H e is a young m an w ho is regular in his
life and work. H e tu rn ed o ut to be an industrious worker. 12. He
was not bad-looking and had a good regular job. 13. The table was
shaky, as one of its legs was broken. 14. The rain is pouring con­
stan tly dow n all th e tim e
B. 1. A fter he had finished packing, the room was in a state of
disorder. 2. But for your carelessness you w ould not have got into
trouble. 3. But even he m ust have know n that he had done the job
badly. 4. T here is a slight b reak in the vase. 5. H e's fond of m aking
jokes. 6. Poor as th ey w ere the w orkers w ere ready to give m oney
to their com m on cause. 7. H e regularly writes poem s for our new s­
paper. 8. H e cam e to lunch in a particularly jolly mood. 9. He did
the job w ith such en erg y that he accom plished a shining success.
10. A fter su p p e r everyone was in a b e tte r m ood. 11. W hen he is ill,
he does not touch food for days. 12. The soup has a flavour of on­
ions. 13. It is im possible to explain why different people like dif­
ferent things. 14. W h at do you know of his likings or dislikings?
15. A fter our quarrel even m y favourite dish seem ed unsavoury.

4. Explain or comment on the following sentences:

A. 1. C harles had planned to see A rthur Brown in Hall and on


the side pick up such gossip as was going. 2. You m eet other boats
there and river gossip is exchanged. 3. He had m entioned that
G eorge was attractin g som e gossip. 4. He gave people pieces of
18
gossip in the sam e way that he gave them drinks. 5. Bess was an in­
curable gossip. 6. Bant m arvelled how gossip travelled. 7. At last
the town gossips left her alone. 8. N ext day, w hile he was at his of­
fice w inding up its last tattered affairs, I telephoned M rs. Skelton.
9. D on't you see that she can wind anyone round h er little finger?
10. Bits of the wall peeling, a banister leg was loose. 11. The w allpa­
p er peeled off in long, broad ribbons. 12. Sitting dow n and peeling
off her gloves, Jan e took a m irror out of her bag and looked at h er­
self. 13. It was quite an und ertak in g to scrape all the rust off.
14. The lazy boy was lucky to scrape through the exam s. 15. Jo h n
had scraped together enough m oney for his first year at college.
1 6 .1 ran the risk of g etting into som e scrapes. 17. “If you d o n 't take
care, your friend will g et you into a serious scrape, som e d ay,” said
Carrie. 18. M y father and I scraped to g eth e r the change in our
pockets and found enough for breakfast at a diner. 19. Steady!
There is a broken step here. 20. H e was a steady visitor at their
hom e. 21 H e said unsteadily: "I understand, Mrs. Evans." 22. C aro­
line rep eated the ejaculation not in so steady a tone. 23. The snow
was falling steadily o ut of a taw ny sky. 24. H e clu tch ed at her to
steady himself. 25. He is a steady fighter for peace. 26. "No," said
M ary steadily, "he never com es here." 27. H e m oved forw ard u n ­
steadily in the darkness. 28. I'm a bit of a philanderer, m y dear, you
need a steadier chap. 29. H e's got a character a n d stead y em ploy­
m ent, and h e's no fool. 30. "I a in 't going," was his steady answ er to
all her threats and requests. 31. H e lost w eight steadily.*
В. 1. You've m ade a m ess of the job. I wish you had refused to do
it. 2. W hy did you leave the table in such an awful m ess? 3. N o th ­
ing to do, but sweep up the m ess — and such nice eggs. 4. "Now
w e've got to clear up this m ess," he said. "All I hope is th a t it
d o esn 't take too long." 5. I th o u g h t of the m ess he was b o u n d to
m ake of it. 6. This word is a crack-jaw for foreigners. 7. H e is a hard
n u t to crack. 8. He is fond of cracking jokes, b u t th ey are not to my
taste. 9. A cracked bell can never sound well. (proverb) 10. All
is lost that is poured into a cracked dish. 11. His contributions to
science are invaluable. 12. Mr. WTinfield listened and soon u n d e r­
stood th at he was expected to contribute to the conversation.
13. M .Sholokhov contributed m ost generously and w ith g reat skill
to world literature. 14. M y own earliest boating recollection is of
five of us contributing three-pence and taking a boat on the lake.
15. This is not the right spirit to begin som e new work in. 16. W e
found him alone, spent and spiritless. 17. His spirits rose w hen the
19
door sw ung open and he saw Saundra on the threshold. 18. Despite
all h er troubles she too seem ed caught up in the spirit of the occa­
sion. 19. C an you taste any p ep p er in this soup? 20. I d o n 't know
that I ever tasted pum pkin pie as good as hers. 21. His tastes did
not seem to have changed. 22. The house was handsom e, he con­
ceded, but it w asn't to his taste. 23. "Your taste in brandy, Doctor,
is m uch b e tte r th an your taste in music," said Chris. 24. After that,
having acquired a taste for the water, I did a good deal of rafting.

5. Choose the right word:

peel — scrape

1. N ew po tato es are nice to the taste, b ut I hate ... them . 2. I've


boiled p otatoes in their jackets, will you ... them ?

stea d y — firm

1. The chair was not ... because one of its legs was broken.
2. The oak-tree stood ... in the earth. 3. Mr. C onvoy was a ... cus­
tom er at the bookshop. 4. His decision was ....

crack — break

1. The cup ..., b u t the pieces still held together. 2. The ice ... and
then ... u n d e r his feet. 3. Brittle things ... easily.

taste — flavour

1. The p each has a peculiarly fine ... . 2. The fruit looked tem pt­
ing, but it tu rn ed o ut to have an unpleasant ... . 3. I like the lem ­
on ... of th e sweets.

6. Give English equivalents for the following phrases:

заниматься сплетнями; заводить часы; сматывать шерсть в клу­


бок; задеть локтем за что-л.; работать без передышки; внести вклад
во что-л.; дух времени; работать с огоньком; быть горьким на вкус;
обвести кого-л. вокруг пальца; попасть в беду; быть замешанным в
каком-л. деле; о вкусах не спорят; в хорошем вкусе

7. Translate the following sentences into English:

A. 1. На всякий случай не рассказывайте об этих делах. 2. «По-мо-


ему, в нашем доме мало сплетниц, нам повезло», — сказала Энн.
3. «Никогда бы не подумала, что Джейн будет распространять сплет­
20
ни», — сказала Кейт. — «А ты не слушай», — ответила Дотти. 4. Да­
вайте поднимемся по этой винтовой лестнице на верх башни. 5. Что
ты делаешь? Это никуда не годится. Разве так разматывают шерсть?
6. Никто не умел так обвести человека вокруг пальца, как маленькая
Полли. 7. Положите все эти мелочи в пакет и обвяжите его несколько
раз веревкой. 8. Не отдирайте кору с березы, вы повредите дерево.
9. Зря вы так долго лежите на солнце, у вас будет лупиться кожа, да и
вообще это принесет вам больше вреда, чем пользы. 10. Зачем вы чи­
стите картошку? Для салата картофель лучше варить нечищенным.
11. Кейт иногда удавалось найти временную работу, но на еду опять
ничего не оставалось. 12. Что-то пристало у меня к подошве, никак не
могу отскрести, должно быть, это деготь. 13. Осторожно! Не заденьте
рукой за гвоздь. 14. Не скребите, пожалуйста, вилкой по тарелке, я
не выношу этого звука. 15. Он едва-едва сдал экзамены, но, по-мое­
му, он понял, что нельзя терять столько времени попусту. 16. Это
вполне приличный дом отдыха, но нам очень не повезло с погодой: с
утра до вечера, не переставая, шел дождь, 17. В эту минуту я не могла
не восхититься ее самообладанием. Твердой рукой она вдела нитку в
иголку и продолжала шить, как будто ничего не произошло. 18. Он
казался вполне уравновешенным молодым человеком. 19. Давайте
подложим что-нибудь под ножку стола, чтобы он не качался.
В. 1. В комнате Джона был ужасный беспорядок, но когда сестра
воспользовалась его отсугствием и прибрала там немного, он очень
рассердился и сказал, что теперь он не может ничего там найти. 2. Вы
опять испортили всю работу. Неужели вам не стыдно так безразлич­
но ко всему относиться? 3. Она спутала все мои планы, заставив
меня прождать ее четыре часа. 4. Мы услышали, как треснула ветка,
кто-то подходил к нам. 5. Как ты небрежна! Треснула маМина люби­
мая ваза, разве можно было мыть ее кипятком? 6. Сейчас уже небе­
зопасно переходить реку: во льду образовались трещины. 7. Краска
на подоконнике потрескалась, придется соскоблить ее, прежде чем
красить его заново. 8. Регулярная тренировка способствовала его ус­
пеху на соревнованиях. 9. Он отказался дать стихи в нашу стенгазе­
ту, а теперь уже нет времени просить кого-нибудь другого сделать
это. 10. Американский художник Рокуэлл Кент пополнил коллекцию
картин музея имени А.С.Пушкина своими произведениями. 11. Он
говорил с таким жаром, что никто не остался равнодушным. 12. Как
только вы расскажете ему об этом, у него сразу же исправится на­
строение. 13. Вы правильно отнеслись к критике, другого я от вас и
не ожидала. 14. Я помню, что где-то еще осталось полбутылки клуб­
ничного сока. По вкусу его ни с чем на свете не сравнить. 15. Этот не­
знакомый нам фрукт сначала показался всем неприятным на вкус,
но потом мы привыкли утолять им жажду. 16. Мы все знали ее как
женщину с тонким вкусом. 17. Я не люблю вкус моркови. Не кладите
еег пожалуйста, в салат. 18. В этом магазине такой выбор товаров, что
вы, безусловно, найдете себе что-нибудь по вкусу. 19. Он любит по­
21
шутить, но многие его шутки дурного вкуса. 20. Какая досада! Огур­
цы горчат.

8. Review the Essential Vocabulary and answer the following questions us­
ing it:

1. W hat do you call ill-natured idle talk? 2. W hat do you call the
o u ter skin of fruit and vegetables? 3. W hat do you call giving m on­
ey to a com m on cause? 4. W hat do you call the sense peculiar to
the tongue? 5. W hat do you call a person who is fond of talking
ab o u t other p e o p le 's affairs? 6. W hat do you call a person who is
regular in life and industrious? 7. W hat w ould you say of a person
who m anages to m ake others do w hatever he likes? 8. W hat would
you say of a room w hich is in a state of disorder? 9. W hat w ould
you do w ith a table w hich is shaky? 10. W hat do you do to m ake
sure th at there is en o u g h salt in the soup? 11. W hat do you have to
do with the saucepan if the porridge gets burnt? 12. W hat m ust
one do before applying to an Institute for adm ission? 13. W hat is
sure to h ap p en if you w ash a cut-glass vase in boiling water?
14. How do you feel if all is well? If things go from bad to worse?

9. Respond to the following statements and questions using the Essential


Vocabulary:

1. A ren't you asham ed of discussing my affairs behind my back?


2. W h a t's th e m atter w ith your face? 3. I d o n 't th in k he did his
share of the work. 4. It took you ages to do the room! 5. W hy do
you look so sullen? 6. W hy did you give such a confused answer?
7. Look at the coat I've ju st brought from the cleaner's! 8. The paint
is a bit thick. 9. I should never have tho u g h t that you w ould fall for
her prom ises. 10. W h at's w rong w ith the orange? 11. Did he do
well at his exam s? 12. W hich of the twins is Bob? 13. I hear he was
not adm itted to the Institute. 14. W hat's this sound?

10. Make up and practise a short situation using the following words and
word combinations:

1. to gossip; spirit; to get mixed; to scrape through


2. like nothing else on earth; to wind; to roam; to gather wood;
steadily; a crack; to g et into scrapes
3. to peel; for an hour or so; I should never have thought, to be
on the safe side; the m ore ... the m ore
22
11. Make up and act out a dialogue using the words and word combinations
of Ex. 10:

1. Two inexperienced girls are cooking soup, (to peel potatoes,


to be the size of, to waste, odds and ends, to mix, good stuff, to try
experim ents, to flavour, to tu rn out, to be m ore like ... , a m ixture
with a bad taste, to scrape out)
2. A young m arried couple is packing, (there is little tim e left,
plenty of time, in a mess, there is no room to spare, odds and ends,
the m ore ... the m ore ..., th at w o n 't do, to get cracked, to scrape, to
m ake a m ess of, to require help, the rest of the evening, I should
never thought)

12. Find in Text One and copy out phrases in which the prepositions (or ad­
verbs) “in', ‘off and Vith' are used. Translate the phrases into Russian.

13. Fill in prepositions:

1. Stand ... front of me, you'll see b e tte r then, there will be n o th ­
ing ... the way ... your view. 2. Frankly speaking, I d o n 't see an y ­
thing ... that idea. 3. She is always ... trouble ... her son. H e c a n 't re ­
sist bad influence. 4 . 1 can never talk easily ... him, w e seem to have
nothing ... common. 5. A stitch ... tim e saves nine. (proverb)
6. A bird ... the hand is w orth two ... the bush. (proverb) 7. There
were not m any people at the m eeting, about 10 or 12 ... num ber,
I should think. 8. O ur preparation had to be m ade ... secret, w hich
required caution. 9. W e are ... s ig h t ... land now and w ilI«oon be ...
port. 10. The m atter ... itself is not im portant, ... fact I was going to
take no notice ... it, b u t he had acted ... such a way th at I m ust take
it into consideration. ... any case it c a n 't affect you. 11. I shall tak e
these plates away now and bring the pudding ... . 12. C om e to our
village ... a m onth or so. You'll see then how beautiful it is ... early
June, all the houses sm othered ... roses and not a cloud ... the sky.

14. Translate the following sentences into English. Pay attention to the prep­
ositions:

1. Такого учителя нелегко найти, таких на тысячу один. 2. Я был в


самой середине толпы и не мог подойти к вам. 3. На вашем месте я бы
подождал немного, это в ваших интересах. 4. «Кто вынимал сегодня
почту? Не хватает одной газеты», — возмущенно сказал отец. 5. Кон­
дуктор автобуса помог старой женщине войти. 6. Джим открыл дверь
и впустил мокрую от дождя собаку. 7. Вы сегодня в плохом настрое­
нии, не так ли? — Да, что-то мне не по себе. Я, пожалуй, лучше оста­
23
нусь дома и почитаю. 8. Джон помог жене снять пальто и усадил ее в
кресло у камина. 9. Разве вы не знаете, что контрольную работу не
пишут карандашом? 10. Мы сошли с поезда и отправились на по­
иски гостиницы. 11. Говорите шепотом. Анна, кажется, заснула.
12. Джордж отрезал кусок хлеба, намазал его маслом и принялся за
еду. 13. Этот студент уверен в своих знаниях и немного рисуется.
14. Краска не отходит от пальто, я не могу ее соскоблить. 15. Вы не
знаете, как у него дела с книгой, которую он пишет? — Я его давно
не видел, мы не ладим с ним. — Но почему? По-моему, вы придирае­
тесь к нему. При всех своих недостатках он очень порядочный чело­
век.

15. a) Give Russian equivalents for the following English proverbs and say­
ings (or translate them into Russian), b) Explain in English the meaning of each
proverb, c) Make up a dialogue to illustrate one of the proverbs:

1. G ossiping and lying go hand in hand. 2. He who w ould eat


the nut m ust first crack the shell. 3. Oil and w ater will never mix.
4. W ho has never tasted bitter, knows not w hat is sweet.

16. Write a narrative essay on one of the topics:

1. A river trip that w ent wrong.


2. How F ather did his best to cook dinner on the 8th of M arch.
3. The dream of a holiday-m aker on a rainy night.
4. A trying experience of a holiday-m aker during a river trip.

CONVERSATION AND DISCUSSION

CHANGING PATTERNS OF LEISURE

Topical Vocabulary

1. Choosing a route. Packing: hike, to go on a hike, to go hik­


ing, hiker; picnic; w alking tour, walker; to travel (to go) on foot;
to w ander; to roam; route, to choose a route; to discuss plans,
to plan a trip; guide-book; light (hand) luggage, heavy luggage;
rucksack; knapsack; ham per, basket; to pack clothes (supplies,
cooking utensils, etc.) into a rucksack, to pack a rucksack; damp-
proof; sleeping-bag, the spirit of the journey; to be open to all im ­
pressions; an inveterate anti-picnicker.
2. Nature. Weather: landscape, scenery; countryside, hilly or
level countryside; picturesque; vegetation; grove; slope; steep hill;
24
m editative silence of the m orning; to wind, winding; th e w eather
forecast (to forecast the weather); constant (steady) rain (wind);
dull, wet, damp, cloudy, foggy, w indy w eather (day); it is pouring;
to drizzle, it is beginning to drizzle; fog, thick fog, mist; to be
(to get) w et through; the things are dam p, soaked; the w ind rises,
drives the clouds away, brings rain, drops; it's a hot, stuffy day; the
heat is stifling, unbearable; there is hardly a breath of air; not a leaf
is stirring; it's 30 (degrees) above (zero) in the shade; a day to
tem pt anyone out.
3. Meals: m eals in the open air; cooking utensils; frying-pan;
saucepan; pot; kettle, tea-pot, to g et a kettle to boil; tin, tinned
food, tin-opener; pocket knife; gas-burner; w ater-container; eggs
and bacon, scram bled eggs; plain, nourishing breakfast; to peel,
to scrape potatoes; to stir, to mix; to crack, to squash, to smash;
to clean, to scrape out a frying-pan; to spill; odds and ends; flavour;
good stuff; like nothing else on earth; to m ake a fire, to p u t out the
fire; to light a gas-stove; to settle oneself for a meal; to squat dow n
to supper; burnt and unappetising-looking mess; to give smb.
a good appetite; to w ash up.
4. Sleep: to cam p out, to sleep out; a picnic site; to fix (to pitch)
a tent, to strike a tent; sleeping-bag; to be fast asleep, not to sleep
a wink; torch.
5. Bathing and boating: to look dow n at the river a n d shiver;
to throw w ater over oneself, a trem endous splash; to dive; to swim,
to have a swim; to run o n e's boat into a q u iet nook; to hire a boat;
to g et upset; to row up (down) the river (stream); to steer; bow,
stern; canoe, rowing-boat, m otor-boat, yacht; to land, to g et out;
to scull, tow, to punt; raft, to raft; strong current; a refreshing
bathe.

1. Read the following passage, comment on it and then answer the questions
which follow it.

A Walking Tour

To be properly enjoyed, a w alking tour should be gone upon


alone. If you go in a com pany, or even in pairs, it is no longer
a w alking tour in anything b u t name; it is som ething else an d m ore
in the nature of a picnic. A w alking tour should be gone u p o n alone
because you should be able to stop a n d go on, a n d follow this way
and that, as the whim takes you; a n d because you m ust have your
own pace, and n either trot alongside a cham pion w alker, nor
25
m ince in tim e w ith a girl. And you m ust be open to all im pressions
and let y our th o ughts tak e colour from w hat you see. You should
be as a pipe for an y w ind to play upon. T here should be no cackle
of voices a t your elbow, to jar on the m editative silence of the
m orning. And so long as a m an is reasoning he cannot surrender
him self to th at fine intoxication th at com es of m uch m otion in the
open air, th at begins in a sort of dazzle and sluggishness of the
brain, and ends in a peace th at passes com prehension.
D uring the first day or so of any tour there are m om ents of bit­
terness, w hen the traveller feels m ore than coldly towards his
knapsack, w hen he is half in a m ind to throw it bodily over the
hedge. Yet it soon acquires a p roperty of easiness. It becom es m ag­
netic; the spirit of the jo u rn ey enters into it again. And no sooner
have you passed the straps over your shoulder again than the less
of sleep are cleared from you, you pull yourself together with
a shake and fall at once into your stride. And surely, of all possible
m oods, this, in w hich a m an takes the road, is the best.
1. C om m ent on the w riter's use of the expression "in anything
b u t nam e". 2. W hat in the opinion of the w riter are the m ain disad­
vantages of having com pany on a w alking tour? 3. "You should be
as a pipe for any w ind to play on." W hat is the significance of this
statem ent? 4. How, according to the writer, is m an affected by pro­
longed w alking in the open air? 5. W hat im pression do we receive
from the use of the w ord "bodily"? 6. The w riter describes the
k n ap sack as becom ing m agnetic. In w hat way is this an accurate
description? 7. T aking the them e as a whole, w hat do you think is
"the spirit of the journey" referred to?

2. Give a summary of the text.

3. Use the Topical Vocabulary in answering the questions:

1. W hat are the advantages and the disadvantages of a hiking


tour? 2. W h at m ust you take w ith you if you are going on a w eek's
w alking tour? 3. W h at's your daily routine w hen on a hike? 4. How
w ould you plan your day in hot stuffy w eather? 5. W hat w ould you
do in cold and rainy w eather? 6. Do you take the w eather forecast
into account w hen going hiking? 7. W hat do you like for breakfast,
dinner and supper w hen on a hike? 8. W hat m ust you do to m ake a
fire, to cook scram bled eggs; to cook fish soup, to cook porridge?
9. Do you like sleeping out? 10. W hich w ould you prefer: sleeping
26
out or being p u t up at the village? Give reasons for your choice.
11. Do you m ake a point of having a swim every day no m atter w hat
the w eather is? 12. W hich w ould you rather choose: a hiking trip or
a river trip? W hy? 13. Have you or your friends ever gone fishing?
W hat is characteristic of an experienced angler? 14. W h at do you
do of an evening during a hiking tour?

4. Read the poem, comment on it and answer the questions.

Leisure

W hat is this life if, full of care.


W e have no tim e to stand and stare.

No tim e to stand b en eath the boughs


And stare as long as sheep or cows.

No tim e to see w hen w oods we pass,


W here squirrels hide their nuts in grass.

No tim e to see, in broad daylight,


Stream s full of stars, like skies at night.

No tim e to turn at B eauty's glance,


And w atch her feet, how they can dance.

No tim e to wait till her m outh can


Enrich that smile her eyes began.

A poor life this is if, full of care,


W e have no tim e to stand and stare.
W.H.Davis ( 1871— 1940)

1. W hat do you consider to be the au th o r's m essage of the


poem ? 2. W hat is the au th o r's attitu d e tow ards the life full of care?
3. Show how the reader is constantly rem inded of the poor life he
lives. 4. In view of the contents of the poem, w hat is hinted at in the
title "Leisure"? 5. O bserve w hether irony enters into the au th o r's
treatm ent of the subject. 6. C hoose two w ords or phrases w hich
you find particularly vivid. C om m ent on each of them so as to c o n ­
vey the reasons w hy you find them effective. 7. The p o et treats his
subject in a very lovely and interesting m anner. O ne w ay in w hich
he sustains interest is by using expressions w hich su g g est that
there is som ething "hum an" about nature. Find in the poem w hat is
27
often u sed w ith reference to hum an beings. 8. W hat do the im ages
of the poem su g g est are the p o e t’s feelings about nature? 9. Bring
out th e effectiveness of the repetition in the poem . 10. W ould you
recom m end the poem to a friend? Give your brief reasons. 11. Sup­
p ose that you had som e reasons to g et up an hour before dawn. De­
scribe the signs and stages by w hich the rest of the world "wakes
up". 12. As a tea c h e r you propose to introduce this poem to your
pupils. Prepare your introductory talk.

5. Work in pairs or in small groups. Use the phrase list of the Topical Vocab­
ulary:

1. Y ou've b e e n chatting to a friendly fellow -hiker on your w ay to


the m eeting place about your last year experience on a hiking tour.
2. You have b e e n invited to join your friend's family on a hiking
tour. Y ou've never b e e n before and you w ant to know m uch about
th e new experience.
3. A friend is saying good-bye to you as you are about to go off
on a short hiking tour. You are not convinced you are going to e n ­
jo y yourself.
4. You have arranged w ith your friend, M ike, to go out for a pic­
nic. But it is p o uring with rain.
5. At your English D epartm ent you have planned an end-of-
term w alking tour. You speak to your teacher about the arrange­
m ents.
6. You and som e friends are planning a hiking tour, b u t you
w ant to do som ething unusual.
7. You are going on a hiking tour and have discovered that you
have no rucksack. You rem em ber your friend Jan e has an old ruck­
sack th at she probably isn 't using. You telephone her.
8. Your friend Bob has agreed to com e w ith you and two other
friends on a h iking tour. Suddenly he changes his m ind and says
he w ants to go to th e seaside. You try to persuade him to stay
w ith you.
9. You an d your sister are on a w alking tour. Your sister has d e ­
cid ed th at you n e e d to slim and has placed two raw eggs in a glass
in front of you as your dinner.
10. Give two descriptions of hiking tours. In one of them d e ­
scribe th e tour from the point of view of an ard en t hiker, in the o th ­
e r describe the tour from the point of view of a tour-hater.
28
11. Im agine that you are a newly em ployed teach er and you are
anxious to im press on your H eadm istress the im portance of hiking
tours.

6. Telling a Story.

W e often w ant to tell people stories in th e form of long n arra­


tives. It m ay be the story of a film, or a book, or a true story of
events that have h appened to us — or even a jo k e or a funny
story.
To keep the narrative going you n eed various "narrative tec h ­
niques" to give variety and interest to the story.
So instead of saying: "He fell into the sea," you can say: "W hat
happened to him was that he fell into the sea," and instead of say­
ing: "He opened the letter," you can say: "W hat he did was open
the letter," or even: "W hat hap p en ed was that he o p en ed th e let­
ter."
A nother narrative technique is to involve the listener in the sto ­
ry by asking him or her to guess w hat h ap p en ed next, or how
som eone in the story felt:
You can guess how he felt.
W hat do you th ink he did?
And then do you know w hat he did?
Im agine m y surprise w hen he ...
You'll never guess w hat h ap p en ed next.
N arrative techniques like these will help m ake a story m ore d ra­
m atic.

7. Read the text and retell it. Use the narrative techniques of Ex. 6.

Picnic

M y elderly cousin cam e to sta y with us ju st before our y o u n g ­


est d a u g h ter's birthday. W e w ere a little apprehensive w h eth er we
ought to arrange the usual picnic celebration because m y cousin
loathes m eals in the open air.How ever she was determ in ed not to
spoil our plans and said she did not m ind being left a t hom e.
O n the day itself, seized by som e su d d en im pulse, she elected to
com e with us, m uch to ou r surprise. It was certainly a day to
tem pt anyone out, even the m ost inveterate anti-picnicker: a clear
blue sky, glorious sunshine and a gentle breeze.
29
W e duly arrived a t our favourite picnic site, a field beside a riv­
er, and everybody, ex cept m y cousin, had a lovely and m ost re­
freshing bath e before we settled ourselves for our m eal u n d er the
willow trees. W hile we w ere eating, a h erd of cows from the ad ­
joining field b eg an to am ble through the open gateway, u n ­
noticed by m y cousin. W e like cows b u t guessed that they would
be as little to her fancy as picnics and so hoped th at they would
go quietly back, satisfied th a t we w ere harm less. But one by one
they gradually advanced nearer and nearer. W hen my cousin
chanced to look up, their eyes confronted hers. W ith one shriek
of horror she leapt into the air and ran, not to the car, w here
she m ight have tak en refuge, b u t tow ards a gap in the hedge,
so small th at she could not possibly have craw led through it.
The cows, full of curiosity, gave chase. W e w ere convulsed with
lau g h ter b u t m y husband m anaged to pull him self together,
ro u n d ed up the cows, drove them back through the gatew ay and
shut the gate. W e th o u g h t th at disaster had b een averted but our
shaken guest, w alking unsteadily back to us through a m arshy bit
of th e field that the cows had tram pled into m ud, lost h er balance
and fell on her face. A hot cup of coffee did nothing to restore
her com posure, so we had no alternative but to pack up and go
hom e. N ever again, m y cousin vow ed bitterly, w ould she be so
foolish as to go out on a picnic.

8. a) Tell the story of "Picnic" as the cousin might have told to her boy-friend,
b) Work in pairs. You will tell each other the story in your own words. Keep in­
terrupting with questions, c) Imagine that you are an elderly cousin. Describe in
your own words what happened to you on the day after the picnic, d) Suppose
you had been present at this event. Describe what you would have seen when
the cows came into sight. Use your own words as far as possible and do not in­
clude anything that is not in the passage, e) Imagine that you are the cousin. De­
scribe what you saw and did.

9. In a narrative you can choose whether to report exactly what was said or
report the main points of what was said.
Here are some ways of reporting the main points of what was said:

He w anted to know ...


H e w ondered ...
H e tried to find o u t ...
He m entioned som ething a b o u t ...
H e hin ted t h a t ...
I found out t h a t ...
30
10. Read the following dialogue. Report the main points of what was said.
Use the opening phrases of Ex. 9.

Newsagent's shop. Sunday morning. A young married couple, Anne and Jim,
m eet Ronald Marcer, a middle-aged librarian, while buying the Sunday new spa­
pers.

R o n a l d : "Sunday Telegraph", please. T hank you.


J i m : W e w ould like all the Sunday papers. W hy ... hullo, Mr.
M arcer.
R o n a l d : Hullo.
J і m: You know m y wife, Anne, d o n 't you?
R o n a l d : Yes. W e've m et once or ... How are you?
A n n e : Yes, of course. How are you, Mr. M arcer?
R o n a l d : Buying up the w hole of the p a p e r shop this m orning?
J і m: W e ll... W e w ant to plan our sum m er holiday you see. And
it's about this tim e of year especially t h a t ... th at all th e holiday a d ­
verts appear in the ...
A n n e : So we tho u g h t w e'd have a good look at ab o u t every­
thing th at's going.
R o n a l d : I see ... Yes ... You have to book up early these days.
Are you thinking of going som ew here?
J і m: Yes ... we are. The trouble is ... the m oney.
R o n a l d : Ah yes. Now th ere's the rub. N ow w hy d o n 't you try
the same holiday as m y wife and I had last year? Does a package
holiday attract you?
J і m: W ell that sounds OK. W hat do you think, Anne*?
A n n e : A package holiday ... But ... well you know these o rg a­
nized holidays ... you know w hat th ey are like. E verybody doing
everything together, ... all at the sam e time. You som etim es n eed
to lose the others for a bit.
R o n a l d : That does surprise me. You w anting to escape from
the m adding crowd. As I rem em ber, you w ere always th e life and
soul o f ...
J i m : If th at's how y o u 'd care to p u t it. But gettin g aw ay from
the others at tim es ... you know ... never harm ed anyone.
R o n a l d : Look ... How about a w alking tour?
A n n e : But how do we go about arranging it?
R o n a l d : Let's walk, shall we? W e 're going the sam e way
I think. Let's cross here, shall we?
A n n e : W atch out. You will get run over.
J i m : W hew. N arrow escape. W e nearly d id n 't have any holi­
day ...
31
11. Decide how you can make your narrative of the story "Picnic” as interest­
ing as possible. Add detail and dialogue. Imagine what happened before the first
scene and after the last scene.

12. Dramatize the story "Picnic". Bring necessary accessories.

13. Work in pairs. Put the story "Picnic" into a dialogue form.

14. Controlling a narrative.

You can signal the beginning of a spoken personal narrative


like this:
Did I ever tell you about the tim e I ...
T hat rem inds m e of the tim e I ...
F unny you should m ention this, because som ething sim ilar h ap ­
p en ed to m e once ...
A story often has changes of direction and digression. You can
signal th e en d of digression like this:
A nyway ...
As I was saying ...
To g et b ack to the story ...
And we can speed up the end of the story by cutting out irrele­
vant detail and saying:
To cut a long story s h o r t ...
Anyway, w hat h a p p e n ed in the end was ...

15. Read this simple story and try to memorize the main points. When you
are ready tell your partner the story and be prepared for interruption. Tell the
story from memory. Use narrative technique. When you have told this story, lis­
ten to your partner's story and keep interrupting with questions.

A Traveller's Tale

In the au tu m n of 1935, w hen I was a young man, I was travel­


ling in the north-w est of India. O ne evening, after hunting in the
forest all day, I was returning alone to the place w here I had put
up m y tent. It was g etting dark, and I was w alking along
a narrow path. O n my right was a wide river; on my left,
a thick, d ark forest. Suddenly I saw two green eyes looking at me
from am ong the trees. A m an-eating tiger was getting ready
to jum p on me.
32
W hat could I do? Should I jum p into the river and ho p e to save
my life by swimming? I looked to the right. In the river th ere was
an im m ense crocodile w aiting to w elcom e m e w ith its m outh w ide
open.
I was so frightened that I shut m y eyes. I heard branches m ov­
ing as the tiger jum ped. I opened m y eyes. W hat do you th ink had
happened? The tiger had jum ped right over m e and was now in
the jaws of the crocodile. T hat's a true story, believe it or not.
1. Do you believe this story? 2. Try to describe a very im proba­
ble experience like the traveller in "A T raveller's Tale", m aking
your account sound as truthful as possible. 3. Do you know of any
stories (legends, popular beliefs) that m ight or m ight not be true?
Give all the details you can and express your a ttitu d e to them .

16. Work in pairs or small groups. Help each other to remember your hiking
tours:

1. An unforgettable evening.
2. An em barrassing situation.
3. A frightening experience.
4. An experience which m ade you laugh.
Listen to each other's narrative but don't interrupt except to find out more
details.

17. Sit in a circle. Every alternative person is A and the person on his or her
right is B. If you are A tell the person on your right a story, an experience, a joke
or a funny story about a walking tour. If you are B, listen to the story from the
person on your left and tell it to the person on your right. And so on round the
class until the story comes back to the person who told it first. Was the story you
told recognizable on its return? Tell the others how it had changed. Then it's B's
turn to tell a story to the person on his or her right. And so on round the circle.

18. Role-Playing.

Characters:
1. Mrs. Alla Gordon — a discussion leader. A writer, ag ed 40,
has been a m em ber of various hiking tours, know s their ad v an tag ­
es and disadvantages.
2. Mrs. Jane W ilson — a scientific research w orker. A lot of
tim e in the library, laboratories. An experienced hiker. H iking is
her hobby.
33
3. Mrs. M argaret D rew — a teacher, rather advanced in years.
Used to be a devoted hiker in her youth.
4. Mrs. Pauline Jenkins — a librarian, aged 25, a bit shy. W ishes
to have a lot of friends. Is a bit tired of her everyday routine. Feels
rath er lonely.
5. M iss A n n Thompson — a very experienced psychologist. T he­
oretically believes th at hiking can be of som e help to her patients
b u t thinks th a t it can hardly be regarded as an ideal way of
sp en d in g a holiday.
6. M iss H elen Green — a rom antic girl of 20. Loves nature. Tries
and sees b eau ty everyw here. W rites poem s about nature, sunsets,
seasons of the year, birds, flowers, etc. Is not in good health.
T hinks hiking can help.
7 Mrs. Katherine M orrow — a housewife. Has a large family. Is
k n ee-d eep in children having four of them . V ery busy at home.
A bit tired of cooking and the rest of housew ork.
8. M iss Diana H ubble — a student, goes on a hike every other
w eekend. H as b een to various places. Is fond of in d ependence and
freedom of choice.
9. Mrs. M orris C ardew — a journalist, travels m uch by air, by
train, by car, by sea. Always pressed for time. V ery seldom has a
possibility to walk. D oesn't think it necessary.

1. Mrs. Alla Gordon (opening)


W h en the people of the future will tu rn their attention to the
tw entieth century, th ey will surely choose the label "legless p e o ­
ple" describing us, people of the 20th century. D on't you th ink hik­
ing is certain ly a way out of this d angerous situation and thus a
splendid w ay to have a holiday. People of the 20th century are al­
ways in a hurry; th ey are short of time, travel a t high speeds. Very
often we are deprived of the use of our eyes. In our hurry we fail to
see anything on our way. H iking seem s to be the ideal w ay to see
everything w ith our own eyes, to touch everything. C ertain incon­
veniences. Lack of great comfort. D ependence on w eather and oth­
er things. But a lot of advantages. So, the pleasure one gets from
hiking is w orth th e trouble taken.
2. Mrs. Jane Wilson
1) 20th cen tu ry people forget how to use their legs. M en, wom ­
en, children m ove in cars, buses, etc. from a very early age. In
h o u s e s — lifts, escalators to prevent people from walking. H ik­
34
ing — a superb thing in this respect. (Ask for Mrs. M argaret Drew's
opinion.)
2) Inconveniences are not great, though th ey exist. M odern
cam ping sites are well eq u ipped w ith hot and cold ru n n in g water,
shops, even dance floors. Tents — com fortable. Portable furniture
is light. Gas stoves — excellent coffee and ten d er steaks. (Ask for
Pauline Jen k in s's opinion.)
3. Mrs. M argaret Drew
1) H iking — an ideal thing but only for the young. A lot of in ­
conveniences, significant for those not already young. M osqui­
toes, packing and re-erecting a tent, m any heavy things to carry.
No real comfort. Is it a kind of a holiday of relaxation to overcom e
lots of difficulties and inconveniences?
2) A grees that hiking is cheap. But you g et w hat you p ay for.
W hen hiking you d o n 't pay m uch and you d o n 't g et m uch.
4. Mrs. Pauline Jenkins
1) H otels provide m ore comfort, greater variety of food. But re ­
m ote strained atm osphere of hotels, cold and unfriendly form al
greetings betw een the residents. H iking — enorm ous o p p o rtu n ity
to m eet different people, share your pleasures, m ake friends.
2) H iking provides you w ith a real change from everyday liv­
ing. You get up earlier, go to bed earlier, develop a hearty a p p e ­
tite. (Ask for Mrs. K atherine M orrow 's opinion.)
5. M iss A nn Thompson
1) Ideal way of spending a holiday is gettin g relaxed an d away
from other people. C am ping sites are crow ded. M any p eo p le go
on a hike. You m ust m eet a lot of people, g et ac q u ain te d w ith
them . M aking friends is not an easy task for everybody. Even if
a place is beautiful, all the b eau ty is gone because of the n um ber
of people. (Ask H elen G reen's opinion.)
2) A person on a hike is quite helpless. Som ething goes wrong,
help is required. W here to go? W h at to do? (Ask D iana H ubble
or the hostess of the discussion.)
6. M iss H elen Green
1) N othing can spoil the b eau ty of nature. W alking is the best
w ay to enjoy nature. C an explore beautiful distant places w hich
cannot be done in a car, or sitting in front of the "one-eyed"
m onster — TV set.
2) Being in the open air is an advantage in itself. You im prove
your health, you train your body, you develop your senses.
35
7. Mrs. K atherine M orrow
1) H iking is n ot a real holiday for the family. No real rest. W ife
has to cook, to do w ashing up u n d er prim itive conditions. No
c h a n g e 'fo r her. You sit in front of TV, you see beautiful places,
you read a book, you live w onderful lives and you have a real hol­
iday. H otels also provide rest and freedom for everyone in the
family.
2) M uch d e p en d s upon the w eather. Rain, drizzle, dull w eather,
erecting a w et tent are n o t enjoym ent in them selves.
8. M iss Diana Hubble
1) H iking is an ideal w ay of spending a holiday. You are free to
choose. You d o n 't like the place or it is too crow ded, you can sim ­
ply get up an d go or stay as long as you like. Y ou're the boss, have
trem endous m obility.
2) A person seldom goes on a hike alone, in isolation. T elephone
booths, people eag er to cooperate. H iking has other advantages.
The ch eap est way of sp ending a holiday. D on't think m uch about
the clothes. A ny clothes will do.
9. Mrs. Morris Cardew
1) H iking seem s to be ideal, though hardly is. The 20th century
is the tim e of g reat em otional stress. Trying to escape from crowds,
from everyday routine people p u t them selves into the circum ­
stances th ey are not used to. Strain in itself.
2) In the 20th cen tu ry a lot of inform ation is required. Even on
a holiday you m ust see m any things, m ust move fast, be able to get
to m any places. Hiking, w alking can hardly be of any help.

U nit Two

SPEECH PATTERNS

1. If I were asked to cite a single reason, for your p re ­


em inence, I would point to your creation of
a special world.

If you could have shot this in colour, w ould you have?


I w ould certainly give you the num ber of m y room if I had one.
I w o u ld n 't have gone, if I h a d n 't m ade up m y mind.
36
2. W hen I was a child, I suffered from an alm ost com plete lack
of words.

The headm aster show ed a considerable lack of cooperation


with the governing body.
The plants died for lack of water.
His lack of wit was quite evident.

3. W as it only the accident of the p u p p e t th eatre that sent you


the w ay of theatre rather than of books?

It was a foolish rather than a m alicious rem ark.


H e relied on his w it rather th an his know ledge.
She is ignorant rather than stupid.

4. Do you direct it in your head ? — In a way.

Did the play im press you ? — In a way.


The w ork was well done in a way.
He is clever in a way.

5. W hat I need is to com e in contact with others.

W hat the child needs is punishm ent.


W hat the fellow n eed s is self-respect.
W hat I need is advice.

6. M y im pulse has nothing to do with intellect or symbolism.

It has nothing to do w ith the original plan.


M y decision has nothing to do w ith your explanation.
The answ er has n o thing to do w ith the question.
37
EXERCISES

1. Complete the following sentences using the Speech Patterns:

1. It was ... a w itty rem ark. 2. The officer is stubborn ... . 3. The
fam ily suffered for .... 4. If I w ere invited to the concert ... . 5. ... is
courage. 6. T he article ... art. 7. She is know n for ... . 8. ... to go and
see for yourself. 9. She is an experienced secretary ... . 10. Your re­
m ark ... w ith the problem u n d er discussion. 11. She should be in­
terested ... . 12. He spoke ungraciously ... . 13. She is poor and al­
w ays feels ... . 14. If Pete had m any friends ... . 15. ... is discretion.
16. ... with A dam 's arrival. 17. I liked M aurice ... until I got to know
him. 18. The children w ere noisy ... . 19. ... I w ould say he was right.

2. Paraphrase the following sentences using the Speech Patterns:

1. H e is not concerned with their accom m odation. 2. I think the


room was n ot so cold, it was very dam p. 3. The girl said she liked
hiking, th o u g h she disliked certain things. 4. I c a n 't accept her ex­
planation, b u t at least I can u n derstand it. 5. I wish you h a d n 't
m ade an ap p o in tm en t w ith the lady, but I am not in your place.
6. The girl w asn 't plain. She was clumsy. 7. I have no dealings with
the papers. 8. He show ed th at he was unable to find words with
w hich to express his thanks. 9. I think the group requires some
extra help. 10. He is a boring person. I d o n 't find him am using.
11. She has no relationship w ith the Browns. 12. Everybody knows
th at she has little wisdom. 13. She requires a good rest. 14. The
good -n atu red M arch girls m anaged to lead interesting lives d e ­
spite the fam ily's red u ced circum stances. 15. "Tell me all about it,
Jo. I m ust know everything."

3. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. Он скорее мудрый человек, нежели хитрый. 2. Безусловно,


ваши предложения по-своему значимы, но они не затрагивают глу­
бины процесса. 3. Его речь характеризуется недостатком такта.
4. Если не будет удушающей жары, мы отправимся в путешествие
уже завтра утром. 5. Отсутствие сплетен — вот, что вам необходимо.
6. Ко мне это не имеет никакого отношения. 7. Мы согласны, что это
скорее допустимое решение проблемы, а не разумный выход из по­
ложения. 8. Этот художник по-своему талантлив, но мне его картины
не нравятся. 9. Недостаток времени не позволил молодому ученому
завершить эксперимент. 10. Ваши замечания не затрагивают суще­
ства ее работы. 11. Спокойный, надежный человек для руководства
38
отделом— вот, что им нужно. 12. Если бы ты не положила столько
соли в воду, огурцы бы не горчили. 13. Я бы охарактеризовала его
скорее как опытного педагога, а не как талантливого учителя. 14. За­
труднительное материальное положение в семье не помешало ей по­
лучить высшее образование.

4. Make up two sentences of your own on each pattern.

5. Make up a dialogue using the Speech Patterns and act it out.

TEXT TW O

ENCOUNTERING DIRECTORS

By Ch.Sam uels

Interviewing Ingmar Bergman

(Extract)
Ingmar Bergman — a famous Swedish film director, writer and theatre pro­
ducer was born in 1918. His psychological films are well known all over the world.
Crisis (1945), Smiles of Summer Night (1956), Seventh Seal (1957), Wild Strawber­
ries (1958), The Silence (1963), Autum n Sonata (1978) are only a few films made by
him. I.Bergman himself wrote the scripts for most of his films and won awards for
many of them. In the focus of his attention people's fates are put. The people usu­
ally have a lot of problems. Bergman focuses attention on the fate of individuals,
on their problems and their search for life's meaning. M any of his»characters are
isolated people who suffer from the harsh realities of the cruel world in which they
live. It is difficult to understand the majority of Bergman's films since the distinc­
tion between reality and the world of the imagination is blurred.

S a m u e l s : Mr. Bergman, I'd like to start w ith a rather general


question: If I were asked to cite a single reason for your pre-em i­
nence am ong film directors, I w ould point to your creation of a sp e ­
cial world. You are, in fact, very m uch like a writer. W h y d id n 't you
becom e one?
B e r g m a n : W hen I was a child, I suffered from an alm ost com ­
plete lack of words. M y education was very rigid; m y father was
a priest. As a result, I lived in a private world of m y own dream s.
I played with my p u p p et theatre.
S.: And —
B.: Excuse me. I had very few contacts with reality or channels
to it. I was afraid of m y father, my m other, m y elder b rother — eve­
rything. Playing with this p u p p et theatre and a projection device

39
I had was m y only form of self-expression. I had great difficulty
w ith fiction and reality; as a small child I m ixed them up so m uch
th at m y fam ily always said I was a liar.
S.: I w ant to in terru p t you for ju st a m om ent. This description of
your childhood resem bles one classic description of the genesis of
a writer. W as it only the acqident of the p u p p et theatre that sent
you the w ay of theatre rather than of books?
B.: No. W h en I beg an w riting I liked it very m uch. But I never
felt that w riting was m y cup of tea. A nd I always lacked words; it
has always b een very difficult for m e to find the word I want. I have
always felt suspicious both of w hat I say and w hat others say to me.
I always feel som ething has b een left out. W hen I read a book,
I read very slowly. It takes m e a lot of tim e to read a play.
S.: Do you d irect it in your head?
B.: In a way. I have to translate the w ords into speeches, flesh
and blood. I have an enorm ous need for contact w ith an audience,
w ith other people. For me, w ords are not satisfying.
S.: W ith a book, the reader is elsewhere.
B.: W h en you read, w ords have to pass through your conscious
m ind to reach your em otions and your soul. In film and theatre,
things go d irectly to the em otions. W hat I need is to com e in con­
tact w ith others.
S.: I see that, b u t it raises a problem I'm sure you've often dis­
cussed. Your films have em otional impact, but since they are also
the m ost intellectually difficult of contem porary films, isn 't there
som etim es a contradiction betw een the two effects? How do you
react w hen I say that while I w atched "The Rite", m y feelings were
interfered w ith by m y baffled effort at com prehension?
B.: Your ap proach is wrong. I never asked you to understand,
I ask only th a t you feel.
S.; A nd the film asks me to understand. The film continuously
m akes us w onder w hat the spectacle m eans.
B.: But th a t's you.
S.: It's not th e film?
B.: No. "The Rite" m erely expresses m y resentm ent against the
critics, audience, and governm ent, w ith which I was in constant
b attle w hile I ran the theatre. A year after m y resignation from the
post, I sat dow n a n d w rote the script in five days. The picture is just
a gam e.
S.: To puzzle the audience?
40
В.: Exactly. I liked w riting it very m uch and even m ore m aking
it. W e had a lot of fun while we w ere shooting. M y purp o se was
ju st to am use m yself and the audience. Do you u n d e rsta n d w hat
I m ean?
S.: I understand, b ut certain m em bers of the aud ien ce c a n 't re ­
sist pointing out that Bergm an is sending m essages, he thinks, but
w hat are they and why?
B.: You m ust realize — this is very im portant! — I never ask
people to understand w hat I have m ade. Stravinsky once said, "I
have never understood a piece of m usic in m y life. I always only
feel."
S.: But Stravinsky was a com poser. By its nature, m usic is non-
discursive; we d o n 't have to und erstan d it. Films, plays, poem s,
novels all m ake propositions or observations, em body ideas or b e ­
liefs, and we go to these forms —
B.: But you m ust u n derstand th at y our view is distorted. You b e ­
long to a small m inority th at tries to understand. I never try to u n ­
derstand. Music, films, plays always w ork directly on th e em otions.
S.: I m ust disagree. I'm afraid I d id n 't m ake m yself clear —
В.: I m ust tell you before we go on to m ore com plicated things:
I m ake my pictures for use! They are m ade to p u t m e in contact
with other hum an beings. M y im pulse has nothing to do w ith in tel­
lect or symbolism: it has only to do w ith dream s and longing, with
hope and desire, with passion.
S.: Does it bother you w hen critics in terpret you th ro u g h these
items?
B.: N ot at all. And let m e tell you, I learn m ore from critics who
honestly criticize m y pictures than from those who are devout. And
they influence me. They help me change things. You know th at a c ­
tors often change a film, for b e tte r or worse.
S.: M ay I ask you how "The Touch" differs from the one you in ­
tended?
В.: I intended to paint a portrait of an ordinary wom an, for
whom everything around was a reflection. Bibi A nderson is a close
friend of m ine — a lovely and extrem ely talen ted actress. She is to ­
tally oriented tow ards reality, always need in g m otives for w hat she
does. I adm ire her and love her. But she ch anged the film. W hat
Bibi A nderson did m ade the film m ore com prehensible for ordi­
nary people and m ore im m ediately powerful. I ag reed w ith all her
changes.
S.: You use music less and less in your films. W hy?
41
В.: B ecause I th in k th at film itself is music, and I c a n 't p u t music
in music.
S.: If you could have shot all your films in colour, w ould you
have?
B.: No. B ecause it is m ore fascinating to shoot in black and
w hite and force people to im agine the colours.
S.: Do you w ork in colour n o w — to any d eg ree — because you
feel th a t the aud ien ce dem ands it?
B.: No. I like it. At the beginning, it was painful, b u t now I like it.
S.: W hy do you use so m uch dialogue in your films?
B.: B ecause hum an com m unication occurs through words.
I tried once to elim inate language, in "The Silence", and I feel that
picture is excessive.
S.: It's too abstract.
B.: Yes.
S.: Som e people have criticized your films for being too th eatri­
cal — particularly — the early ones. How do you answ er this
charge?
В.: I am a director —
S.: But a re n 't th e two forms different?
B.: C om pletely. In m y earlier pictures, it was very difficult for
m e to go from directing in the th eatre to directing films. I had al­
ways felt technically crippled — insecure w ith the crew, the cam er­
as, the sound eq u ipm ent — everything. Som etim es a film succeed­
ed, b u t I never got w hat I w anted to get. But in "Summer
Interlude", I su d d en ly felt th at I knew my profession.
S.: Do you have any idea why?
В.: I d o n 't know, b u t for heaven's sake a day m ust always come
along w hen finally one succeeds in u n d erstanding his profession!
I'm so im pressed by young directors now who know how to m ake
a film from the first m om ent.
S.: But th ey have nothing to say. (Bergman laughs.)

ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY

Vocabulary Notes

1. point л 1) the sharp end., tip, as the point of a pin (needle, knife,
stick, pen, pencil, weapon, tool, etc.); 2) a small dot or a full stop, as 4.6
(four point six); 3) the essential thing, part, the most important thing in a
42
speech, story, action, etc., e. g. The point is that it is no ordinary case.
I don't see your point. You've missed the whole point, to the point
relevant to the subject, as to come (to stick, to be) to the point,
e. д. I wish he would come to the point, to speak (to stick, to keep, to be)
to the point, e. g. Your answer is not to the point, ant. to be off the point,
e. g. Your answer is off the point, to make a point of doing smth.
to regard smth. as essential, e. g. He made a point of reading English
every day. 4) a single item; to agree (or disagree) on some points,
e. g. We disagreed on several points. 5) special quality, as one's
weak (strong) point, e. g. Singing is not his strong point. 6) purpose, use,
e. g. What's your point in coming? There is no (not much) point in doing
that. His remarks lack point. 7) a precise or particular moment, as
a turning point in one's life, e. g. At this point in his reflections he
paused. When it came to the point (when the moment for action came),
he refused to help, to be on the point of doing smth. to be about to do
smth., e. g. He was on the point of leaving. 8) a stage or degree, as the
boiling (freezing, melting) point; 9) a unit measuring gain or loss,
e. g. He scored 23 points. 10) a position from which something is viewed,
as a point of view, e. g. My point of view is different.
point vt/i 1) to call attention to, e. g. He pointed to a large building.
2) to point out. to show, e. g. The teacher pointed out several mistakes in
the composition (to the student).
pointless adj without aim or purpose, meaningless, as pointless
questions, remarks.
2. dream л 1) thoughts or images passing through the mind during
sleep, as to have bad dreams, to awake from a dream, e. д. I had a funny
dream last night. 2) something imagined, e. g. She had dreams of being
an actress.
dream vi 1) to imagine, fancy, e. g. Don't waste time dreaming.
I never dreamt of suspecting him. 2) to have dreams, see in a dream,
e. g. He often dreams. Stop dreaming and get on with your work.
dreamy adj given to reverie, fanciful, vague, as dreamy eyes,
e. g. John lay listening to the dreamy music.
dreamer л one who dreams; one who has impractical or romantic
ideas or plans.
3. mix vt/i 1) to make or prepare by putting together, e. g. Mix
the eggs with milk before you fry them. Oil and water will not mix. 2) to
mix up to confuse, e. g. Don't mix up these two words. She mixes up
these two sounds. 3) to be mixed up in smth. to be involved in smth.,
e. д. I won't be mixed up in this affair.
mixer л 1) a kitchen utensil or an electric appliance having one or
more beaters and used in mixing, beating, blending, etc. foodstuffs.
2) one who associates with others in society, e. g. He is a good mixer.
mixed adj 1) consisting of different things of the same general kind,
as a mixed school, mixed feelings, e. g. We were a mixed company.
43
2) confused, as to get mixed, e. g. Everything has got mixed in my head.
You are getting mixed.
4. suspicion n a feeling of doubt or distrust, as to arouse suspicion,
e. g. His manner aroused suspicion, above suspicion, e. g. He is above
suspicion, on suspicion, e. g. He was arrested on suspicion of murder,
under suspicion, e. g. He is under suspicion.
suspicious adj 1) causing suspicion, e. g. A suspicious-looking man
was seen in the street. 2) feeling or showing suspicion, to be (to get, to
feel) suspicious of smb. about smth. e. g. The people were at first
suspicious of the newcomer.
suspect vt 1) to believe in the possible or probable guilt of smb.; to
suspect smb. of smth., e. g. He was suspected of theft. 2) to think likely, to
suppose, e. д. I suspected that she was insincere.
5. conscious adj 1) feeling, realizing, as to be conscious of one's
mistakes, guilt, faults, danger, smb.'s presence, a pain, etc.; syn. aware;
ant. unconscious, unaware; 2) having the power to know that one can
think and feel, e. g. Man is a conscious being. He spoke with conscious
superiority. 3) (predic.) having possession of one's senses, e. g. The old
man was conscious to the last. ant. unconscious, e. g. She lay unconscious
until the doctor gave her an injection, self-conscious too keenly aware of
one's own manners and appearance, e. g. She is too self-conscious to feel
at ease among strangers.
consciousness n the state of being conscious; to lose consciousness to
faint, e. g. The blow caused him to lose consciousness, to recover (regain)
consciousness to come to, e. g. He did not recover (regain) consciousness
until two hours after the accident.
6. interfere vi 1) to meddle, as to interfere in a matter (in an argument,
in one's affairs); 2) to hinder, to bother, as to interfere with one's
independence, e. g. Don't interfere with me. Something always interferes.
I hope I'm not interfering?
interfering adj meddling, trying to get involved in other people's
affairs or to give them advice, as interfering people.
interference л interfering, e. g. He hated interference.
7. constant adj 1) going on all the time; frequently recurring, as
constant complaints, e. g. He suffered from constant sleeplessness.
2) firm, faithful, unchanging, as a constant friend, e. g. He has been
constant in his devotion to scientific studies, syn. permanent; ant.
temporary.
constantly adv continuously, frequently, e. g. His name is constantly
mentioned in the gossip column.
8. resist vt 1) to oppose, to use force against in order to prevent the
advance (of), as to resist the enemy (attack, authority, police), e. g. The
man was killed resisting arrest. 2) to try not to yield to, to keep oneself
44
back from, as resist temptation, e. g. He could resist no longer. She can't
resist chocolates (to resist is often used in the negative). He couldn't
resist her suggestion (will, charm, fascination), one cannot resist doing
smth. one cannot keep from doing smth., e. g. She couldn't resist
making jokes about his boldness.
resistance n 1) power of resisting, as to break down the enemy's
resistance, to make (offer) no (little) resistance; 2) opposing force, as
wrinkle-resistance fabric, e. g. An aircraft has to overcome the resistance
of the air. She baked the pie in a heat-resistant dish, the line of least
resistance direction in which a force meets least opposition, e. g. At the
beginning of his career Andrew Manson never followed the line of least
resistance.
irresistible adj too strong, convincing, delightful, etc. to be resisted,
as irresistible desires (temptation, fascination), e. g. On this hot day the
sea was irresistible.
9. reflect vt/i 1) to throw back (light, heat or sound); to give back an
image, e. g. The mirror reflected her face. 2) to cause, to be ascribed to,
e. g. His behavior reflects his upbringing. His success reflects credit on
his trainer. 3) to think back, to ponder, to meditate, to consider fully,
e. g. The old man reflected on his past. I must reflect upon what answer
to make.
reflection n 1) the act of reflecting, as the reflection of light;
2) profound thinking or consideration, e. g. He was lost in reflection, on
reflection after consideration, e. g. On reflection he agreed with our plan.
3) an opinion arrived at after consideration, e. g. We are waiting to hear
his reflections on the book's merits.
10. admire vt to look at with pleasure (satisfaction, respedt or wonder),
as to admire smb.'s presence of mind (smb. for his courage); to admire
a picture (a statue, etc.).
admirable ['aedmsrebl] adj very good indeed, e. g. I think it would be
an admirable opportunity.
admiration n wonder excited by beauty or excellence, as to have (to
feel) admiration for smb., to win (to arouse) smb.'s admiration.

Word Combinations and Phrases

to suffer from to have impact on smb.


as a result to make oneself clear
to have great difficulty with to react to smth.
to resemble smb./smth. to influence smb., to have an in­
to be smb.'s cup of tea fluence on smb.
to come in contact with smb. to (in) some degree
to raise a problem to succeed in smth.
45
READING COMPREHENSION EXERCISES

1. a) Listen to the recording of Text Two and mark the stresses and tunes,
b) Repeat the text in the intervals after the model.

2. Put twenty questions to the text.

3. N ote down from Text Two the sentences containing the word combina­
tions and phrases given on p. 45 and translate them into Russian.

4. Paraphrase the following sentences using the word combinations and


phrases (p. 45):

1. She gave the im pression th at she was deciding to change her


course of action a n d to get in touch w ith Miss Tant. 2. N obody
could consider O g d en Street very attractive b u t her w ords always
had a pow erful effect upon me. 3. Jo opened her lips to say som e­
thing rude, b u t ch eck ed herself to a certain extent. 4. ^ t last he a t­
tain ed a desired end. 5. H er only reply to this absurd protest was
a little peal of laughter. 6. H e vigorously u tte red his point of view:
"M y d ear young lady, I d o n 't believe you can read a m ap." 7. He
has co n stan t headaches. 8. M ajor D unker d o e sn 't think that poetry
interests or suits him. 9. His reaction to W alter's rem ark was very
am using. 10. Professor D ulw ick's lectures always produce a great
im pression u p o n his audience. 11. The object has a resem blance to
a lopsided vase. 12. Mrs. O akroyd says she has som e trouble with
h er children. 13. Louisa always acted as N elly w anted, the latter
had g reat pow er over her. 14. H ard w orkers always have success.
15. The effect of his speech on the audience was quite unexpected.
16. P erhaps curiosity m ight have co n quered resentm ent to a cer­
tain extent. 17. He replied sim ply but with great dignity and his an ­
swer left no doubt about his decision. 18. A com m ittee is to be set
up to investigate th e effect of television on children. 19. The group
accom plished their purpose.

5. Translate the following sentences into English using the word combina­
tions and phrases (p. 45):

1. Эта студентка чрезвычайно застенчива. Ей, возможно, будет


трудно наладить контакт с группой. 2. В некотором отношении ее
объяснениям можно верить. 3. Он преуспел в жизни. 4. Джо всегда
оказывал на нее большое влияние. 5. Ковры пострадали от сырости.
6. Ваш рассказ напоминает сюжет фильма, который я не так давно
видел. 7. Большое скопление ядерного оружия в современном мире
поднимает чрезвычайно важную проблему его скорейшего уничто­
46
жения. 8. Переход средней школы к одиннадцатилетнему обязатель­
ному образованию ставит разнообразные задачи перед учителями.
9. В результате их обсуждения мистер Мэйсон получит всю необхо­
димую информацию. 10. У режиссера были серьезные трудности
с новой труппой. 11. Как ты относишься к классической музыке? —
Она не в моем вкусе. Я больше люблю джаз. 12. Ученые надеются,
что в XXI веке жители Земли смогут вступить в контакт с иными ци­
вилизациями. 13. Обилие рек и озер имеет большое влияние на обра­
зование микроклимата местности. 14. Мистер Мэнсвес с достоин­
ством отреагировал на замечание своего брата. 15. Он высказался
достаточно ясно. 16. Его группа занимается изучением воздействия
этого вещества на жизнь микроорганизмов. 17. Эти овощи по форме
напоминают груши. Что это?

6. Make up and practise a short situation using the word combinations and
phrases (p. 45).

7. Make up and act out a dialogue using the word combinations and phrases
(p. 45).

8. Find in Text Two the English equivalents for:

привести хотя бы одну причину; исключительное положение сре­


ди режиссеров; соприкосновение с действительностью; кинопроек­
тор; рождение писателя; мне всегда не хватало слов; огромная по­
требность иметь контакт с аудиторией; обида на критиков;
руководить театром; музыка не исходит из веления разума; вы все
воспринимаете в искаженном свете; в фильме слишком много изоб­
ражения; ощущать техническую несостоятельность.

9. Explain what is meant by:

1 .1 had very few contacts w ith reality or channels to it. 2 . 1 never


felt that writing was m y cup of tea. 3. Always I feel som ething has
b een left out. 4. M y feelings w ere interfered w ith m y baffled effort
at com prehension. 5. I ran the theatre. 6. Bergm an is sending m es­
sages, he thinks, b u t w hat are th ey and why? 7. M usic is nondiscur-
sive. 8. She is totally oriented tow ards reality. 9 . 1 feel th a t picture is
excessive. 10. Some people have criticized your films for being too
theatrical. 11. I had always felt technically crippled ... . 12. I s u d ­
denly felt that I knew m y profession.

10. Answer the following questions and do the given tasks:

1. W hat do you know about I.Bergman? Have you seen a n y of


his films? W ould you agree w ith C h.Sam uels th at I.Bergm an has
47
created a special w orld in them ? Are th ey different from the films
the general public is used to? 2. W hat, in B ergm an's opinion, p re­
v en ted him from becom ing a writer? Do you think film directors'
and w riters' activities have som ething in com m on? If your answ er
is "yes" — w hat is it? If "no" — explain why. 3. How does the di­
rector explain the fact th at "words for him are not satisfying" ? Can
you a c ce p t such an explanation? Give your reasons. 4. W ould you
agree w ith I.Bergm an th at films and books have quite different im ­
pacts u p o n the audience? Justify your point of view. 5. Do you
th ink every film should have a certain m essage, convey various
ideas to th e aud ien ce or ju st rouse our feelings? W ould you agree
w ith the director th at th e audience should "only feel" w ithout u n ­
d erstanding w hat is hap p en in g on the screen? 6. C om m ent upon
Stravinsky's words: "I never understood a piece of m usic in m y life,
I always only feel." Do you th in k th e im pact of films and m usic on
the audience is com parable? 7. W ould you agree w ith I.Bergman
th at C h.S am uels's com prehension of films is distorted and that
m usic, films, plays always work directly on the em otions?
8. I.B ergm an's films are considered the m ost intellectually difficult
contem porary films. C an you explain why? 9. D uring the interview
Bergm an says th at w hat he needs is to com e in contact with others.
Do you th in k the d irector has achieved this contact in his films?
10. W h at do you think of the director's aim to create films "just to
am use him self" and the audience? Do you think such films should
be m ade? W hy? 11. W h at is I.B ergm an's reaction to criticism? Can
critics influence cinem a production? directors? 12. I. Bergman
thinks th at actors can change a film for better or worse. C an you
explain in w hat way? 13. W hy does the director use less and less
m usic in his films? Does his explanation sound convincing? W hat
is th e place of m usic in cinem a production as you see it? 14. W ould
you agree w ith the director's opinion that shooting in black and
w hite is preferable. Do you think that colour films produce a more
pow erful effect upon the audience? Justify your point of view.
15. W hat, in your opinion, is the role of dialogue in a film? Should
cam era-w ork or dialogues predom inate in films? Does it depend
u p o n the genre? 16. W hy do you think I.Bergm an felt technically
insecure w hen h e b eg an his job as a film director? 17. Do you think
th at experience a n d skill are of great im portance in the field of a c t­
ing? directing? other professions? Do you think it natural for
a person to have doubts as to his own proficiency, skill or do you
th ink people usually know w hat to do and how to do it from the
48
first m om ent? 18. Do you really th ink th at a day com es to each p e r­
son w hen he suddenly feels th at he knows his profession? Explain
w hat usually helps people to achieve this.

11. Retell Text Two a) in indirect speech; b) as if you were I.Bergman or


Ch.Samuels.

12. Give a summary of Text Two.

13. Make up and act out conversations between:

1. Two cinem a critics about I.B ergm an's films.


2. Two cinem a-goers about I.Bergm an's film w hich th ey d id n 't
understand.
3. I.Bergman and one of his colleagues discussing the interview.

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

1. Study the Vocabulary Notes and translate the illustrative examples into
Russian.

2. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the words
and word combinations in bold type:

A. 1. They had no sooner sat down to table, th at he went straight


to the point. 2. M yra w atched us both tensely, b u t I knew th at how ­
ever hard she listened, she was bound to m iss the point. 3. I have
made a point of travelling with a large sack filled to th e brim w ith
books to suit every possible occasion and every m ood. 4. "There is
no point in carrying your troubles hom e w ith you. Y ou're su p ­
posed to leave them in the office," said Tom. 5. W hat one w ould do
theoretically is not always w hat one will do w hen it com es to the
point. 6. I w oke up to find the hands of m y clock pointing to eight
o'clock. 7. There are som e dreams, know n to m ost people, in w hich
every action slows down, and each m ovem ent takes place as
though the dreamer's feet w ere stuck in treacle. 8. T he ship was to
be built at last. The dream was to be realized. 9. Strickland lived in
a dream and reality m eant nothing to him. 10. D ressed in white,
w ith her golden hair stream ing over her shoulders she looked a
perfect dream . 11. A dreamy look cam e into the m o th er's eyes. 12.
Last night I dreamed I w ent to M anderley again. 13. I am n o t sure
how ever th at the news inspires me with feelings of unm ixed de­
light. 14. I realized with mixed feelings th at an im portant p art of
49
her happiness consisted in looking after me. 15. He must have got
m ixed up in som ething in Chicago. 16. T hrough a mixture of good
luck and good m anagem ent I had done well in the Bar exam ina­
tions. 17. Did you get appointm ents mixed or som ething? 18. She
never seem ed to m ix with other children. 19. There was a smell of
petrol from th e Bayswater Road, mixed with the smell of spring.
20. The day he first drifted into their crow ded busy rooms, they all
suspected him of being a spy. 21. I am now p retty sure that my
first suspicion is justified. 22. The door was unlocked from inside
and the face of G eorge appeared, peering out suspiciously.
23. I suspected at once th at his unfortunate brother had been caus­
ing trouble again. 24. In th at rem ote village people were suspi­
cious of strangers. 25. Dick in an unconscious gesture, ran his
h an d over his hair and ajusted the scarf. 26. Both she and Jane
were rather conscious of their ages and conscious of having put
their first youth behind them. 27. For the first tim e she was con­
scious of a second self, w hose existence she had not suspected.
28. She was never at a loss for som ething to say, never conscious
of g roping around for a topic. 29. There was no noise, no effort, no
consciousness in any th in g he did; but in everything an indescrib­
able lightness, w hich was so graceful.
В. 1. You o u g h t to know m e well enough by now to know that
I w ould never let sentim ent interfere with business. 2. Evidently his
little adventure had not interfered w ith either his spirits or his ap ­
petite. 3. O ld Thom as had never interfered to the sm allest degree
in the affairs of others. 4. D on't you realize that any interference at
this stage can be extrem ely dangerous? 5. The constant chatter of
the children p rev en ted him from working. 6. His health was seri­
ously affected and he suffered from constant sleeplessness. 7. The
crops are high, th ey n eed constant care and the work is hard.
8. For centuries the atom resisted all attem pts to discover the se­
cret of its structure. 9. M y heart still resisted w hat my head was
telling me. 10. T hey caught him by th e wrist and led him; he w ent
w ithout resistance. 11. It was years since any w om an had spoken to
him in th a t way; Mr. H oney was irresistibly rem inded of his dead
wife. 12. This is only a short story b u t the au th o r's outlook is re­
flected in it. 13. A lan's lam plit figure w as reflected clearly in the
w indow beside his desk. 14. Sea voyages prom ote reflection. 15. At
this point in his reflections he arrived at Riskin Street. 16. He had
gone to Sw itzerland to admire the landscape. 17. As he sat at tea
w ith the fam ily all his admiration for the charm and prettiness of
50
the girl filled him afresh. 18. "Cecily lives at m y place in the co u n ­
try under the charge of her admirable governess," said Jack. 19. I
admired trem endously the w ay he defended us. 20. His self-control
aroused m y helpless admiration. 21.1 think you've c a u g h t the tune
admirably.

3. Paraphrase the following sentences using your active vocabulary:

A. 1. I d o n 't quite un d erstan d w hat you m ean. 2. I've m ade it


a rule to get up early every day, and I'm none th e w orse for it.
3. There seem s no reason for prolonging this interview. 4. H e ’s ju st
about to go, y o u 'd b e tte r speak to him right now. 5. H e called our
attention to the statue on w hich lay patches of snow. 6. H e c o u ld n 't
live w ithout his work, it w ould m ake life m eaningless. 7. D on't
w aste tim e im agining im possible things. 8. She w o u ld n 't even
think of doing such a thing. 9. He is quite an im practical person
and lives in a world of fantasy. 10. W hat ideas did you have during
sleep last night? 11. D on't get involved in the affair. 12. W e can
som etim es com bine business w ith pleasure. 13. H e does not g et on
well with other people. 14. Of course, I've confused th e two songs.
15. It was odd, w hat a variety of m otives I had. 16. As for him I have
no d oubt of his innocence. 17. Every eye was tu rn e d u p o n Bosin-
ney; all w aited w ith a strange distrustful look for his answer.
18. Still a feeling of doubt and distrust was in the air, and th ere was
m uch talk. 19. I know I've done wrong. 20. The blow c a u se d him
to faint. 21. He is too k een ly aw are of his draw back. 22. Emil was
aware of a new em ptiness in his life.
B. 1. D on't busy yourself with this, Frank, this is m y affair en tire­
ly. 2. T here's som ething hindering the telephone connection.
3. M axim always tries to take an active b u t unw elcom e p art in m y
activity. 4. H er unceasing nagging irritated Robert. 5. He is m y
faithful friend. 6. I d id n 't yield to an im pulse to m ove back. 7. The
m ovem ent against occupying forces was gettin g stronger. 8. After
thinking about it carefully, I found it necessary to w arn her. 9. The
pavem ents w ere dam p and th ey threw back th e yellow light. 10. He
roused him self unw illingly from his thoughts u p o n the p ast experi­
ences and rose to his feet. 11. Rudolf yielded to the tem ptation
w ithout feeling m ean about it afterw ards. 12. She is a w om an long
accustom ed to respect and flattery. 13. "D oesn't she look glori­
ous?" said a young m an at the ball-room door, w ith d eep w onder
excited by the girl's beauty.
51
4. Explain or comment on the following sentences:

A. 1. T h at's hardly th e point at the m om ent. 2. You're tired out


or y o u 'd see the point at once. 3. Y ou've m issed the w hole point of
the story. 4. His com m ents are always to the point. 5. Does he m ake
a p oint of always p reten d in g not to notice me? 6. Try and see it
from her p oint of view. 7. But w ith all her education, learning was
never K ate's strong point, she got on perfectly well w ithout it.
8. T here w a sn 't any point in arguing, so I gave in. 9. W e saw that
Robert had reached the breaking-point. 10. W hen it cam e to the
point, he proved to be unreliable. 11. I'll point out a turn w hen one
is required. 12. It's pointless to w orry about it now. 13. Goring
stared after him, tem p ted to catch him. 14. I m yself m ight have
p ain ted th e portrait. The forlorn d ark eyes gazed steadily back at
me, sharing, or at least understanding, as it seem ed, my foolish
boyish dream s. 15. It all h ap p en ed dream ily as though it were h ap ­
pening to som eone else. 16. Even Paul, she thought, only existed
now as som eone she had dream ed about. 17. Space travel used to
b e ju st a dream . 18. H er feelings w ere a m ixture of joy and anxiety.
19. At the u n ex p ected question everything got m ixed up in my
head. 20. If anything happens, m ind th at he isn 't m ixed up in that.
21. I still had m ixed feelings about seeing her. 22. He was
a good m ixer and soon m ade friends w ith everybody. 23. I have
a strong suspicion th at w hen I'm not with you, you d o n 't give me
m uch thought. 24. It was only then that I suspected him of teasing
me. 25. As th e door closed behind him, he looked round him w ith
fierce, startled eyes, like one who suspects a trap at every turn.
26. She w ent on talking quite unconscious that she had said the
w rong thing. 27. H e's well aware of w hat is going on at the office.
28. S he's aw are of h er shortcom ings and that m akes her self-con­
scious.
B. 1 .1 know Bella well enough to know that she w ouldn't p ut up
w ith any interference w ith her liberty of action. 2. If people inter­
fere w ith you it's because you like it. 3. O ur w ell-m eant inter­
ference was really rath er a pity. 4. H e was tired of his wife's con­
stan t com plaints. 5. I am indignant with her for her constant ab­
sence. 6. H e was too tired to resist the pain. 7. As soon as Finn
su g g ested this idea it seem ed to all of us an irresistible one.
8. A good advertisem ent should not arouse resistance in the public.
9. She felt an irresistible urge to go and order a new dress. 10. On
reflection she felt sure th at you have done the right thing. 11. But
52
then, I reflected, he m ay have been perfectly sincere. 12. The sun
was setting red behind the pine trees, the evening sky reflected it­
self in the pools. 13. I m ust reflect upon w hat answ er to give.
14. A m om ent's reflection m ade him realize th at she was right.
15. "That's fine," he m um bled in adm iration. 16. And I dare say I'll
m ake him an adm irable wife as wives go. 17. I adm ire y our ease in
answ ering such a question.

5. Give English equivalents for the following phrases:

упустить самое главное; говорить по существу; быть склонным


принять предложение; фантазер; страшный сон; видеть во сне; меч­
тать стать художником; быть замешанным в каком-л. деле; общитель­
ный человек; спутать адреса; смешать муку с сахаром; по подозре­
нию; подозревать в воровстве; вне подозрения; подозрительный
человек; прийти в сознание; вмешиваться в чужие дела; мешать ра­
боте; постоянная работа; постоянный успех; постоянные головные
боли; линия наименьшего сопротивления; не поддаться искушению;
неотразимое очарование; отразить нападение; поразмыслив; восхи­
тительная няня; восхищаться мудрым доктором; чувствовать восхи­
щение перед актерами

6. Translate the following sentences into English:

A. 1. Извините меня, но я не могу уделить вам много времени. Пе­


реходите, пожалуйста, сразу к сути дела. 2. Том вздохнул с облегче­
нием. «Никак не думал, что мы придем к соглашению по всем пунк­
там»,— сказал он. 3. Боюсь, что мало смысла чинить'эти старые
туфли, они от этого лучше не станут. 4. Когда дошло до дела, Руфь и
пальцем не пошевелила, чтобы помочь нам. 5. Мне бы хотелось ука­
зать вам на некоторые слабые места в вашей статье. 6. Сон был таким
необычным, что я проснулся. 7. Мне снилось, что я снова в деревне.
8. Я вчера опять видел вас во сне. 9. Мне бы никогда и в голову не
пришло задавать такие вопросы при посторонних. 10. Она весь день
ходила как во сне. 11. Я слушала его рассказ об экспедиции со сме­
шанным чувством страха и восхищения. 12. Почему вы всегда путае­
те их фамилии? Они же совсем непохожи. 13. Возьмите масло, яйца ,
муку и цукаты и хорошенько перемешайте все это. 14. Сначала нуж­
но развести крахмал в холодной воде, а потом уже добавлять кипя­
ток. 15. По-моему, преимущества школ совместного обучения маль­
чиков и девочек совершенно очевидны. 16. У них хорошая квартира,
но первое, что бросается в глаза, это смешение двух совершенно
различных вкусов. 17. Разве у тебя есть какие-либо основания подо­
зревать меня во лжи? 18. Когда Клайда арестовали по подозрению
в убийстве, он все еще надеялся, что сумеет скрыть свое страшное
преступление. 19. Вахтер уверял, что он не видел никаких подозри­
53
тельных субъектов. 20. Грей знал, что пройдут месяцы, прежде чем
возникнут какие-либо подозрения. 21. Может быть, он и хороший
специалист, но, право же, его манера говорить с сознанием соб­
ственного превосходства крайне неприятна. 22. Не чувствуя навис­
шей над ними опасности, геологи продолжали свой трудный путь.
23. Мальчик немного заикается; из-за этого он очень застенчив и не
решается произнести ни слова в присутствии посторонних. 24. Док­
тор наклонился над лежащим без сознания больным. Через некото­
рое время больной пришел в себя, открыл глаза и спросил: «Где я?»
25. Врач сказал, что у нее нет ничего серьезного, должно быть, она
потеряла сознание из-за духоты.
В. 1. Мы не должны допускать, чтобы развлечения мешали работе.
2. У меня было сильное желание сказать ей, чтобы она не вмешива-
лась в мои дела. 3. К сожалению, твоя старшая сестра всегда вмеши­
вается в наши споры. 4. Я поеду в деревню завтра, если мне ничто не
помешает. 5. Это нарушает мои планы. 6. Я полагаю, что ты покуша­
ешься на мою независимость. 7. Непрерывная болтовня детей раз­
дражала старушку. 8. Как я устала от твоих постоянных жалоб. 9. Че­
ловеку очень важно, чтобы рядом был верный друг. 10. Отряд
отразил атаку, но еще не добился превосходства над противником.
11. Враг уже не мог оказывать сопротивление. 12. Современные са­
молеты легко преодолевают сопротивление воздуха. 13. Боль была
такой сильной, что больной не мог удержаться, чтобы не закричать.
14. Я бы очень посоветовала вам сделать над собой усилие и не подда­
ваться ее влиянию. 15. Эндрю почувствовал очень сильное желание
расхохотаться. 16. Кто бы мог устоять против такого искушения!
17. Должна признаться, что в пении этой женщины есть какое-то
неотразимое очарование. 18. Яркие огни реклам отражались в тем­
ной воде реки. 19. Размышляя о приключении прошлой ночи, Фред­
ди восхищался своим другом, который проявил такое присутствие
духа. 20. Всем стало неловко, когда мальчик вмешался в разговор.
21. Он считает, что это помешает его карьере. 22. К сожалению, я не
мог дать вам ее постоянный адрес. 23. Туристы стояли перед старин­
ным собором, восхищаясь красотой его куполов. 24. Нельзя не вос­
хищаться людьми, которые добиваются своей цели, несмотря на
трудности. 25. Я не сомневаюсь, что из Марии выйдет превосходная
жена и любящая мать.

7. Review the Essential Vocabulary and use it in answering the following


questions:

1. W h at do we say if soldiers can repel an attack? 2. W hat do we


say of a person w ho c a n 't k eep him self from w atching television
from noon to night? 3. W hat should you do if you have blue and
yellow paints b ut n eed a green one? 4. W hat do we call a person
w ho has im practical or rom antic ideas or plans? 5. How can we re ­
54
fer to a school a tte n d ed by girls and boys? 6. How w ould you ch ar­
acterize a person's behaviour if he is always g ettin g involved in
things w hich are no concern of his? 7. W hat do we call a person
who feels at ease in any com pany and associates w ith others in so­
ciety? 8. W hat do people usually feel if the b e a u ty of a picture
m ade them gaze at it? 9. W hat w ould you say if a girl c a n 't keep
herself from eating chocolates? 10. W h at is an o th er w ay of saying
"to be involved in an unpleasant affair” ? 11. W h at do w e say if
a person confuses two songs? 12. If everybody yields to a lad y 's
charm w hat w ould you say about her? 13. W h at do you call a p e r­
son who is prepared to worship you? 14. W hat should you do w ith
the ingredients to prepare a salad? 15. W hat do we say of a person
who regularly visits the library? 16. W h at do we ex p ect of a person
before he gives us his answ er? 17. W hat w ould you say of a person
if you believe in his possible guilt? 18. W hat is an o th er w ay of say­
ing "to call attention to"? 19. How w ould you characterize a person
who is keenly aware of his own m anners and appearance?

8. Respond to the following statements and questions using the Essential


Vocabulary:

1. She is so fat. W hy c a n 't she stop eating so m uch? 2. W h at


kind of friend w ould everyone like to have? 3. T here w ere two ways
out of the situation. W hy has he chosen the sim plest? 4. The paint
is a bit thick. 5. I should never have th o u g h t th a t you w ould fall for
h er promises. 6. W hich of the two twins is Bob? 7. W h at are you
thinking about with those sleepy eyes of yours? 8. W hy are you go­
ing to bed so early? 9. W hatever did you go to the cinem a for if you
w ere really so pressed for tim e? 10. W h a t's so funny ab o u t th e sto­
ry? 11. I w onder if I should be telling you all this? 12. I was sur­
prised you d id n 't com e on tim e yesterday.

9. Make up and practise short situations in which you would say the follow­
ing:

1. She m ixed up the w ords "tale" and "tail". 2. I c o u ld n 't resist


the tem ptation. 3. Yes, I know the man. H e is our constant visitor.
4. I hope, I am not interfering? 5, O n reflection he answ ered in the
negative. 6. She has always been dream ing of this career. 7. The
girl is an adm irable nurse. 8. She had an irresistible desire to laugh.
9. D on't w aste tim e dream ing. 10. And still I th ink there is som e­
thing suspicious about his behaviour. 11. Your answ er is n o t to the
55
point. 12. You and m e do not see eye to eye on this point. 13. He
spoke w ith conscious superiority. 14. She is too self-conscious to
feel at ease am ong strangers.

10. Make up and act out dialogues using the following words and word com­
binations:

1. to resist o n e's charm , to yield, to feel adm iration for smb., on


reflection, suspicious-looking person;
2. to m ake a p o in t of doing smth., to interfere in sm b.'s affairs,
d eep in reflection, to mix up, to dream of smth.;
3. co n stan t friend, to be on the point of doing smth., to resist the
tem ptation, to feel self-conscious, to suspect smb. of smth.

11. Find in Text Two and note down phrases in which the prepositions (or ad­
verbs) sin ce and before are used.

12. Fill in since or before:

1. H e was a m an w ith no future ... him. 2. N obody dared speak


about it ... him. 3. Like his father ... him, he had an eye for a face.
4. H e k n e l t ... her. 5 . 1 was angry w ith him at the tim e but I have for­
given him lo n g .... 6. I'll give you a cup of t e a ... I explain to you what
has hap p en ed . 7. H e said he had never m et the g i r l .... 8. He left in
1950 and has not be e n heard o f .... 9. T hey cam e to London in 1937,
and have b e e n there ever ... . 10. ... we have no m oney,
we cannot buy it. 11. She h a sn 't been hom e ... her m arriage.

13. Translate the following sentences into English. Pay attention to the prep­
ositions and adverbs: \

1. Вскоре он увидел перед собой дорогу. 2. Он поднялся и встал пе­


ред картиной. 3. У меня талон на 10.15, вы идете передо мной. 4. Он
встал перед ней на колени. 5. Вы хотели унизить меня перед всеми.
6. С момента нашей встречи многое изменилось к лучшему. 7. Карти­
на пострадала от пожара и с тех пор не реставрировалась. 8. Сколько
же времени ты не стриг волосы? 9. Я хотела рассказать ей обо всем,
но на другой день она уехала, и с тех пор я ее не видела. 10. Прошла
неделя с тех пор как я наводила справки. Ответа пока нет.

14. a) Give the Russian equivalents of the following sayings and proverbs,
b) Explain in English the meaning of each proverb and saying, c) Make up and
practise a short situation to illustrate one of the proverbs or sayings:

1. Oil and w ater will never mix. 2. Suspicion always haunts the
guilty m ind. 3. Fam iliarity b reeds contem pt. 4. It’s not the gay
coat that m akes the gentlem an.
56
CONVERSATION AND DISCUSSION

MAN AND THE MOVIES

Topical Vocabulary

1. Cinema: cinem a (house), open-air theatre, cinem a w ith co n ­


tinuous perform ance, drive-in-theatre, film, movie, (motion) pic­
ture, to go to the cinem a (a movie, movies, pictures), norm al
screen, wide (large, broad) screen, the first (second) showing,
entrance (exit), showing (perform ance, program m e) begins at
... (ends a t ...), colour poster, the box office, to book tickets.
2. Films: docum entary, educational, popular scientific (or sci­
ence) film, feature film, science fiction film, anim ated cartoon, a d ­
venture film, musical, p u p p et film, thriller, com edy, horror film,
crim e film, W estern, children's film, theatrical film, w ide-screen,
colour (black-and-white, m ute, sound, dubbed, full-length, short-
length) film, short, two (three) part film, w artim e epic, newsreel,
serial, "X" film,1star-studded film, the screen version (adaptation)
of the novel.
3. Parts of films: scene, outdoor (indoor) scene, the opening
scene, the final scene, crowd scene, an episode, still, shot, long
shot, close-up, caption, subtitle, flash-back(s).
4. Cinema work: to shoot (produce, m ake) a film, to m ake
a screen version (adaptation) of a novel, to screen a novel (play,
story), to adapt a novel for the screen, to film a novel, t a play (act)
on the screen, to release a picture, to com e out (about a film), to go
into production, to rem ake a film, to reissue a film, to b e dubbed
in Russian, to p resent a film in Russian, co-production (joint p ro ­
duction), directed b y ..., scenery and costum es by ... , the songs set
to m usic b y ... .
5. Cinema workers: producer, film director, art director, cam ­
era-man, script-writer, anim ator, costum e designer.
6. Cinema-goers: film goers, audience, film fans, to w atch the
film (screen), to w atch smb. acting on the screen, to see a film.
7. Actors and acting: the cast, com edian, an actor of great
promise, leading actor, star, to play the m ain (leading, title, key) or
small (supporting, minor) role, to co-star, to portray a character, to
give a convincing (memorable, captivating, warm, brilliant, su ­
perb) portrayal of ... , to give a m agnificent perform ance as ... (in),
to take (gain) the best actress (actor) aw ard (title), to create a true-

1An "X" film — a film which may be seen by adults only. •

57
to-life im age, to m ake the m ost of the role, to bring to life on the
screen, to com e alive on the screen, a typical N role, to outshine
everybody else, a new N film, to star in a role, to be m iscast (ill-cho­
sen), to be cast to advantage.
8. Effect. Impression: the film deals w ith (depicts, presents, tells
of); the m essage of the film; to win universal acclaim; to praise u n ­
reservedly; to leave a d eep and lasting im pression on; to appeal so
m uch to the audience; to be (make) a hit with the public; a d elight­
ful, am using com edy; entertaining (powerful, gripping, absorbing,
vividly dram atic, technically brilliant, sad, depressing, slow-mov-
ing, dragged-out) film; to m ar a film; to leave smb. cold; em pty of
serious content; a flop; a good film, not w ithout flaws; a run-of-the-
mill film; not a film to everyone's taste; not an easy film to watch;
obscure and com plex ideas.

1. Read the text for obtaining its information:

N o o ther art form has had quite th e im pact on our lives that the
m otion pictures have. Indeed, the movies are truly an art of our
tim e — th ey w ere born and have com e of age in the tw entieth cen ­
tury, and th ey now dem and the serious consideration given to the
o ther arts.
Everybody loves a story. C hildren m esm erized for hours before
a television set w atching cartoons they are seeing for the fifth or
sixth time, or long lines of shivering m ovie-goers outside a th e a te r1
on a w inter night, convincingly dem onstrate that truth. And today
the love of story, as these exam ples suggest, is requited m uch m ore
often th an n ot w ith a narrative told in visual images.
T here can be no question about the suprem acy of the visual im ­
age in the realm of story. The fact m at im ages and movies have
m any uses besides story-telling sim ply adds gratuitous evidence in
support of the observation that the life of the m ind today receives
its nourishm ent prim arily from visual, rather than verbal sources.
Clearly, in term s of sheer quantity, visual narrative is the g reat­
est aesthetic and educational force in the world today, and the
movies, th e visual narrative m edia — qualify unchallenged as the
art of our time.
N o one has ever seriously doubted that the movies are a pow er­
ful force in contem porary life. Q uite the contrary. Their potential
for p ro p ag a n d a purposes was im m ediately recognized and in some

1 The spelling theater is common in the American variant of the English


language.

58
cases exploited. W hat has b een questioned is the capacity of the
movies for doing good. Youthful and perhaps too m uch a w ork
horse in the cultural m arket-place, they have b e e n vulnerable to
the charge that they are unable to aw aken and refresh the mind,
that they cannot tap the d eep est reaches of m an's spiritual life and
so, incapable of articulating anything of consequence, are at best
a rudim entary art.
Yet the movies are not now as disturbing for intellectuals as
they once were. O ne reason, no doubt, is that they are no longer,
at least in the U nited States, the popular art; television has stolen
the lim elight.
At present suspended som ew here betw een the hell of m ass cul­
ture and the heaven of high art, the m ovies are und erg o in g aes­
thetic purification.
M uch rem ains to be accom plished, however. Since we have to
live with the movies, we w ould prefer not to be em barrassed by
them ; we w ant the chance to exercise our hum anity in and th rough
the movies, and so we persist in dem anding th at the m ovies m ake
m ore room for m an w ithin their aesthetic boundaries.
W e w ould not, by any m eans take the fun off m ovies in ord er to
fit them into the traditional earnestness associated w ith education
... but the aim is, and should be a higher hedonism w hich m ore pro ­
foundly entertains the heart and mind. W ith the existing film clas­
sics and the fifteen to tw enty a year from around the world capable
of captivating attention — there are eno u g h good and g reat m ov­
ies for us to grow by. The movies arouse the m ind and eoul w hen
given undivided attention.

2. Answer the following questions:

1. The extract is w ritten by an A m erican critic. C an you find evi­


dence of this in the text? 2. W hy do you think m ovies are regarded
as "truly an art of our tim e"? 3. W hat facts given in the extract
prove the idea that now adays people prefer a narrative told in visu­
al im ages? Do you agree w ith this opinion? Support w hatever you
say. 4. How can movies be helpful for people besides relating sto­
ries? W hich of the spheres do you consider m ost significant? Give
your reasons. 5. W hy do you think movies possess the greatest a es­
thetic and educational force? 6. How can you account for the fact
that the capacity of the movies for doing good has b e e n q u e s­
tioned? 7. W hy in your opinion do som e people regard m ovies as
a rudim entary art? 8. W ould you agree that cinem a can be reg a rd ­
ed as the popular art, that it belongs to m ass culture? W hat do you
59
know ab o u t this art? 9. W h at kind of entertainm ent is now adays ri­
valling cinem a? W hy? 10. W hat is the place of cinema, as the a u ­
thor sees it, am ong the other arts? Do you agree with him? 11. Do
you think m ovies should be all fun or rather a thought-provoking
and earn est art? 12. W h at is the m ain aim of the movies as the a u ­
thor sees it? The only word he uses to denote this art is movies.
W h at synonym ous expression w ould a British critic use? W hat
o th er synonym s to this w ord do you know?

3. a) Find in the text the arguments the author gives to illustrate the follow­
ing:

1. c in e m a — a w ide-spread art and entertainm ent of the 20th


century; 2. its im pact on p e o p le 's lives; 3. cinem a and story-telling;
4. cinem a and education; 5. cinem a — an earnest, thought-provok­
ing or ru dim entary art; 6. the place of cinem a am ong the other arts,
its m ain aim.
Try and preserve the wording of the original. Add your arguments as well.

b) Summarize the text in four paragraphs specifying the role of the cinema in
our lives.

4. Use the Topical Vocabulary in answering the questions:

1. W h at does a usual cinem a show ing consist of? 2. How often


do you go to the pictures and w here do you prefer to sit? 3. W hat
types of films do you know? 4. W hat films appeal to you most?
5. Do you care for long films? 6. W hat is a film star? W hat does the
success of a film d e p e n d on? 8. W hich is m ore im portant — the
story, the acting, th e directing or ishe cam era-work? 9. W hat do we
m ean w hen w e say th at a film has\a m essage to convey? 10. W hy
does a d irector trying to in terpret a great w ork of literature on the
screen tak e u p o n him self a m ost responsible task? 11. How is the
cinem a u sed as an aid in teaching? 12. W hat do you know about
international film festivals? How often are M oscow Film Festivals
held? W h at is their m otto?

5. Give a review of a film you have recently seen and liked (disliked). Use the
Topical Vocabulary. Remember: A review should guide and inform. A mere tell­
ing of the story is not a review.

Outline for Motion Picture Review

1. Type of film: feature film, comedy, black-and-w hite,


short, etc.
60
2. Production: W hat studio released the film? W as it co-pro­
duction? W as the film dubbed?
3. Story (plot): Is it by a w ell-know n author? Is the story origi­
nal? True to life? W hat is the clim ax of the story? Is the ending
logical?
4. Direction: W ho directed the film? W as the in troduction of
characters and scenes skilful? Are useless scenes included?
5. Photography: Is it artistically done? Are th ere good shots?
Are close-ups used effectively?
6. Acting: N am e the leading characters. Are there an y stars?
Any outstanding perform ances of m inor roles? True-to-life in ter­
pretation of characters?
7. Sound effects: Does speaking or acting predom inate? Does
the dialogue seem real? Do actors speak effectively? Are ch arac­
teristic noises em ployed? Is the m usic suitable?
8. Critics: W hat do critics say about the picture? Are their opin­
ions sound? Do you share their points of view?
9. General impression and conclusion: The im pression the film
m ade on you. How was the effect achieved? Do you th in k this film
is w orth seeing?

6. You are asked to tell a group of English students about the best children's
film produced by Russian studios. Which film would you choose? (Describe the
film in about fifty words. Use the Topical Vocabulary, Outline for Motion Picture
Review of Ex. 5. and conversational formulas for giving opinion. See«Appendix.)

7. Work in pairs. Discuss the films you have recently seen. One of the stu­
dents is supposed to speak about a film he liked, the other about a different film
which he disliked. Try and interrupt each other with questions to get some more
information about the film you have not seen. Use the Topical Vocabulary.

M o d e l : A: I've seen a feature film th at was a hit w ith th e public.


I, myself, can praise it unreservedly. For one thing
the cam era-w ork was w onderful ....
В: I was less fortunate. The com edy I saw was a com ­
p lete flop. The leading actor was m iscast. As for the
cam era-w ork ....

8. Speak about the major problems of the cinema at the end of the 20th centu­
ry. Consider the following:

1. the financing of film ptoduction; 2. repertoire (the social and


ideological significance of the plots, the m ain aim of m otion pic-
61
tures, horror and crim e films, com m ercials); 3. acting profession
(possibility of choice; gu aran teed jobs; 4. p h otography and sound
effects; 5. a tten d an ce at cinem as; 6. prices of tickets; 7. videos.

9. In recent years cinema has become a challenge to the everlasting art and
entertainment of theatre. What do you think are the reasons for this? Consider
the following and expand on the points which you think are especially signifi­
cant:

1. cheap price of the entertainm ent; 2. films can be seen in


places w here there are no theatres; 3. m inim um of effort is spent to
g et entertainm ent; 4. casts of players are often m uch better than at
som e theatres; 5. varieties of films to suit all tastes; 6. cinem a is
w idely open to various experim ents; 7. certain scenic effects
(earthquakes, fires, horse races) can be created m uch better in
films.

10. Read the following dialogue. The expressions in bold type show the ways
English people express agreement and disagreement. Note them down. Be ready
to act out the dialogue in class.

The Reign of Disney

A: Now, I'd ju st like to say th a t W alt Disney has dom inated


the cartoon greatly. To m any people in the thirties — and that was
th e go ld en age of th e cartoon — to m any people th en and since the
cartoon has sim ply m eant W .D isney's work.
B: W ell, you have a point here, b u t I am not so sure about the
golden ag e of the cartoon. I th ink m any cartoons of later years
have m uch m ore interesting plots and technique.
A: Perhaps. But don't you think th at D isney's shorts have care­
fully w orked o u t plots, som etim es very neat? They are not sim ply
a string of violent gags, in the style of later A m erican cartoons.
W ell, you see what I mean.
B: Yes, I agree entirely here. There is a reassuring, hom ely qual­
ity about his shorts founded on th e resem blances betw een the ani­
mal and th e hum an world.
A; I couldn't agree more. His anim al characters are actually h u ­
m an beings in disguise and they behave like recognizable individ­
uals.
B: That's exactly what I think. M ickey is the quiet little chap,
who at the e n d of the race has outdistanced his m ore spectacular
62
rivals. H e and M innie both, are the innocents w ho trium ph over the
w icked world.
A: Yes, that's true. That's my w ay of looking at it too. D onald
D uck always flies into spluttering indignant passion. Pluto and
Goofy are not too bright but both have hearts of gold and m eet the
world w ith a bew ildered and bew ildering enthusiasm . D isney in
fact has p resented the world of the average A m erican, preaching
a moral, giving a m essage of optim ism , of success.
B: You may be right, but I think it goes further than that, a lot
further. His stories end happily, the characters are essentially good
fellows, the violence is not too extrem e, cruelty and trag ed y are e x ­
cluded. Any satire is m ore than gentle. This im itation w orld is p re ­
sented with suprem e technical com petence, and the various fac­
tors are blended to com fort and soothe the audience, to give it
som ething easy and undem anding.
A: I see what you mean, but there are potentially cruel and d a n ­
gerous characters in D isney's longer films. There is a case of "Snow
W hite" having b een given an "X" certificate. I m yself have know n
children terrified by "Pinocchio". Perhaps w hat frightens them are
situations in w hich the child hero or heroine is in d a n g e r or being
ill-treated.
B: W hat you say's perfectly true. But all the sam e W . D isney's
films are readily accepted by m ass audiences conditioned to the
D isney philosophy. All I know is th at these films are very se n ti­
m ental though they have been w idely popular.

11. Answer the following questions:

1. Have you seen a n y of W .D isney's shorts? longer films? W h at


is your im pression of them ? 2. Do you agree w ith all th at is said in
the dialogue? W ith which statem ents dealing with his w ork do you
disagree?

Use cliches expressing AGREEMENT and DISAGREEMENT given in the dia­


logue (Ex. 10). You may also use other phrases to express disagreement:

A. You can disagree mildly: W ell, I w o u ld n 't go q u ite th a t far;


I'm not so sure; That m ay be so ... but ... ; Yes, th a t's true, b u t take
my case; Oh, you w ouldn't th ink so ... ; I w o u ld n 't say th a t exactly;
It m ight be right b u t ... ; O n the other hand ....
B. You m ay disagree strongly w hen you can allow yourself to be
abrupt or even a bit rude: Rubbish!; T hat's totally • unfounded;
63
T h at's all right for you to talk b u t ... ; You seem to think that things
are different for me.

12. Work in pairs. Read the statements and agree or disagree with them.
Agreement or disagreement should be followed by some appropriate comment
where possible:

1. In the tw entieth century people are m uch m ore fascinated by


th eatre than by cinem a. 2. C inem a is an art of illusion. 3. It is neces­
sary for a film to leave certain shadows, unresolved fantasies.
4. C inem a can help a lot in the field of education. 5. In m ost films
m usic is seldom used to advantage as it is extrem ely difficult to
achieve a harm onious collaboration betw een the plot and music.
6. V iolence should not be shown on the screen. 7. The success of
a film m ainly d ep en d s on the film director. 8. C inem a is not an ear­
n est art. It is ju st entertainm ent. 9. Literary w orks should not be
a d a p te d for th e screen as people sim ply stop reading fiction: see­
ing a film is "easier" th an reading a book.

13. Read the following text. Look for arguments and counterarguments for
remaking films. Copy them out in two columns (I — "for", II — "against").

Make it Again

In the m otion picture industry, rem akes are a fact of life. They
have b e e n w ith us alm ost from the birth of the art form and as long
as good fresh story m aterial is scarce, they will rem ain.
A rem ade m ovie d o e sn 't have to be a bad movie. Produced with
a tale n te d cast, a capable director, an intelligent screen-play, an
am ple budget, and, m ost im portant, good judgem ent, these pic­
tures can be thoroughly entertaining and, in som e cases, surpass
th e quality of th e original.
Film -m akers are n ot absolutely opposed to the practice, al­
th o u g h there are a couple of schools of tho u g h t on the subject.
H enry Blanke, who has produced m any "second editions" in his
tim e declares: "N ever rem ake a picture that was previously suc­
cessful. R em ake one th at was miscast, m iswritten, or m isdirected.
In o th er words, a flop."
P roducer H.B.W allis takes the opposite viewpoint: "If you have
a good piece of m aterial th at has not b e e n filmed for a num ber of
years, th ere is probably a brand new audience for it. So, I w ouldn't
hesitate to re-do a script w ith a new set of characters."
64
14. Discuss the text in pairs. One of the pair will take the optimistic view
and insist that remakes should be done, the other will defend the opposite
point of view. Be sure to provide sound arguments for whatever you say. Con­
sider the following:

For: Against:
1. There is always a shortage of 1. Most subsequent renderings
new, fresh story material. of the great cinema classics
have been complete failures.
2. The public wouldn't notice or 2. The director doing a remake
wouldn't care that they were might decide to "improve" the
paying to see the same story. original story, to insert certain
things, characters or
eliminate others.
3. There is always a valid reason 3. It is dangerous to use the
for doing it (the theme is original script almost word for
timely, a new cast is available, word. Some stories require an
the economic situation is updating of the dialogue.
favourable).
4. The coming of new screen 4. In many cases, the moral
techniques (sound, colour, values of the situations in a
wide screen) inspired the once exciting story have
studios to film their more become so antiquated that the
popular pictures again. plot is not workable for
contemporary audiences.
5. A remake of the same director 5. There is always the audience's
gives the artist the memory of the earlier
opportunity to correct any successful production, which
mistakes he may have made in can prevent spectators from
the first version. receiving the film properly.
6. The public at large seems to
enjoy comparing the
performances of current stars
to the legendary ones.

15. The extracts given below present rather controversial subjects. Team up
with another student, work out arguments “for" and "against" and discuss the
extracts in pairs. Use the conversational formulas of agreement and disagree­
ment.

A. Does the audience influence the process of film -m aking?


It is obvious th at the audience of today, influenced by television
and space research is very different from the au d ien ce of years ago.
M ost films produced decades ago have little cu rren t im pact.
A m ore detailed analysis of hum an reaction is necessary, and will
be m uch m ore so in the future. Similarly a new kind of artist and
film -m aker will be needed.
B. Should the printed w ord or films be used in the classroom ?
Film is particularly useful for describing processes w hich can ­
n ot be easily d em onstrated in the classroom . So far, however, its
potentialities have only ju st b eg u n to be exploited. Conservative
teachers still resist breaking away from the printed word.
C. Should actors speak different languages in films ?
U sually a director, aim ing his film at an audience of com patriots,
has everything spoken in the native language. In som e films of
Federico Fellini each character speaks his native language, which
isn 't usual in films. The director says he often m ixes languages to
express the tru th of a given situation. But there is a language barrier.
D. C an critics give an objective ju d g em e n t of a film?
The critic m erely by saying, "I am a critic," inflates him self and
causes him self to see not w hat exists but w hat he thinks ought to
exist. But things are only w hat they are. Therefore, the critic is u su ­
ally m istaken. Som etim es he d o e sn 't refer to him self as such b ut
rath er to his experiences of w hat other artists have done in a sim i­
lar situation. But w hen a critic tells how the w ork should be accord­
ing to his taste, w hich has been form ed by a certain culture and
certain artists, he is still ju d g in g by w hat is congenial to him.

16. Role-Playing.

----- The Best Film of the Year

S i t u a t i o n : The annual spectators' conference is held at the


en d of the year w ith the aim of selecting the best film of the year.
Two films have w on universal acclaim — an am using com edy and
an earnest, thought-provoking feature film. W hich of them should
be aw arded the first prize?
Characters:
1. Sergey Tropov, ag ed 28, a young and prom ising scientist. Sci­
entific exploration is his life. R ather tired. Likes cinem a very m uch
b u t u n d erstan d s it as en tertainm ent versus art. He goes to the pic­
tures to relax and to enjoy himself. Believes th at all people go to
the cinem a to have a good laugh and to forget their worries. Thinks
th at th e com edy u n d e r discussion is the best film of the year: the
actors are in top form, the m usic in the picture creates a kind of
fram e-w ork for the story. The com edy he saw and liked has b e ­
com e a source of inspiration for his further investigation.
66
2. Oleg Kaladze, 20 year-old youth, a great cinem a fan. His
favourite actress is playing the leading role in the com edy, w hich
O leg likes very m uch. H e is struck by the artistic quality of certain
scenes. Is not im pressed by the feature film. Thinks th a t it is ah ead
of its tim e and in fact acting is m ost im portant for the success of the
film, while the plot is insignificant. O leg is for the com edy.
3. Alla Larina, aged 25, a teach er of Russian Literature. D oesn't
think it is possible to discuss these two films as th ey belong to dif­
ferent genres. Each is fine in its own way. The feature reflects a h u ­
m an creature, his ideas. It represents an individual consciousness.
Its excellence lies in its pow er over other p eo p le's m inds. The com ­
edy gives you a short and pleasant rest, a kind of relaxation. Both
films are superb, both are the best.
4. Boris Runin, aged 47, a w ell-know n film director who has
m ade quite a num ber of features and popular science films. Always
works in this genre. Thinks th at a com edy is a sim ple e n te rta in ­
m ent and the com edy u n d er discussion is no exception. It contains
pleasant im ages but teaches you nothing. You like it b ecau se it is
unreal, offers an escape. But it d o e sn 't affect th e spectator. He
leaves the theatre in the sam e darkness w ith w hich he e n te red it.
N aturally Boris is for the feature film.
5. Rita Strogova, aged 60, a pensioner, prefers the feature film
w hich m ade her think a lot and raised m any problem s. D espises
people who produce and like com edies and o ther films *for m ere
entertainm ent. Thinks th at people w ho go to these films d o n 't w ant
to be bothered, they d o n 't w ant responsibility, th ey w ant to rem ain
asleep. Rita's idea is th at "no m atter how spectacular, the film will
be a failure if it has no real m essage". Rita is for the feature film.
6. Helen Grabova, aged 45, a fam ous actress, starred in m any
films. Sees a lot of advantages in both films, b u t she never gives
judgem ents about her colleagues. Thinks th at an artist can no
m ore ju d g e another artist than one child can ju d g e other children.
Each artist has his particular vision. You c a n 't w ear som eone else's
glasses; they w ould fit badly, and you w o u ld n 't see. The artist's
glasses only w ork w hen they are p u t on non-artists, w hom they
move, touch, surprise. Thinks as both films have had long and su c ­
cessful runs they both should be equally rew arded.
N o t e : Divide your group into two teams, each of which should perform the
same role play. W hile discussing the films show their merits and imperfections.
Speak about the impression both films have produced on your character. Disagree
with some of the participants of the conference, share the others' points of view if

67
you feel like it, defend your own point of view. At the end of the conference you
should select the best film of the year (perhaps with a vote). Comments from the
class on each team 's performance and the value of the different arguments are in­
vited.

17. Group Discussion.


Give your own views on the problems below and speak against your oppo­
nent.

Topic 1. The role o f cinem a in our life

T a l k in g points:
1. D ifferent genres of films, their im pact on the spectators.
2. D evelopm ent of p eo p le's cultural level, taste.
3. Films for en tertainm ent and education.
4. C inem a in th e classroom (Geography, History, Literature,
Foreign Language).
5. Films to instruct: a) in an industry to teach people how to ac­
quire skills, to learn their profession; b) in m edicine to show the ac­
tion of heart and pulse and other organs, to w atch delicate opera­
tions being perform ed by noted surgeons, etc.; c) in science to see
the w orld of small things, etc.; d) in sport to give objective ju d g e ­
m ent d uring the com petition, etc.

Topic 2. Is the a b ility to perform


an inborn gift or is it an acqu ired skill?

T a lk in g points:
1. The artistic potential of a person, his tim ing.
2. Skilful directors, m odern techniques, the possibilities of the
cam era to accentuate.
3. The value of experience, necessity to acquire technique.

Topic 3. Should the actor "live" the part


or should he ju s t perform?
N o t e : The first would mean that the actor tries to sympathize with his charac­
ter, to fully understand and share his feelings — despairing with him, loving and
hating with him, shedding real tears. The second implies just going through the
motions of the role with cool head. The first school (e. g. K.S.Stanislavsky's m eth­
od) relies on both feeling and technique, the second, entirely on technique.

T a lk in g points:
1. N ecessity to look a t the character from a distance, to sym pa­
thize and criticize, to und erstan d him.
2. Practice in reproduction of the character before the audience.
68
3. Effect achieved: the less actors feel, the firm er their hold
upon their facial and bodily expression.
4. A possibility of reaching such a state of m echanical perfec­
tion that o ne's body is absolutely the slave of o n e 's m ind.
5. N ecessity for actors to w ork w ith their own tools. (Each actor
should choose the m ethod he feels is best for him.)

Unit Three

SPEECH PATTERNS

1. It was up to me to find som e w ay th rough to them .

It was up to their daughters to provide sm art clothing for th em ­


selves.
It was up to the elder boy to find som e w ay out.
It's up to the nurse to soothe the patient.

2. I felt angry and frustrated w hen they rudely in terru p ted


that w hich was being done purely for their own benefit.

I felt sick and dirtied.


The pastry smells good.
How sw eet the m usic sounds!
The grapes taste sour.

3. The act was in ten d ed to display their u tte r disrespect for


me.

The valet began to feel adm iration for his new m aster.
Scarlet looked at him with the affectionate contem pt th at m o th ­
ers feel for small sw aggering sons.
She d id n 't know anything about h er nephew 's love for the girl.
B ut: His love of learning can be respected.
69
4. I looked at her for som e m om ents before daring to open my
m outh.

They d id n 't dare to a ttack us, did they?


H e d ared to escape.
H e dared to m eet his enem y face to face.
But:' How dare you do such a thing?
H e d a re n 't say it m atters.
I dare say the difficulty will disappear.
I dare say it d o e sn 't m atter.

EXERCISES

1. Complete the following sentences using the Speech Patterns:

1. ... to retype the article. 2. ... to do the shopping. 3. ... to ex­


plain th e circum stances to the host. 4. H elen ... did not w ant to be
alone w ith him. 5. The answ er sounds ... . 6. It smells ... , d o e sn 't it?
7. T he cucum bers taste ... . 8. The child f e l t ... all night. 9. H er feel­
ing of ... the unknow n girl was increasing. 10. It was next to im pos­
sible to hide his ... the children. 11. She felt great ... her parents.
12. H er ... reading is well known. 13. How ... tell m e such things?
14. I ... say he will touch upon the subject. 15. The child ... (not)
open his m outh. 16. T hey have shown som e ... the authority.

2. Paraphrase the following sentences using the Speech Patterns:

1. You c o u ld n 't help adm iring her slim figure, bright eyes and
soft voice. 2. It's you who m ust go and see for yourself. 3. The chil­
d ren w ere u p set w hen th ey understood th a t th ey w ere despised by
their leader. 4. The stink of the stuff was unbearable. 5. M y little
d a u g h te r loves cartoons and p u p p e t films. Everybody knows it.
6. You o u g h tn 't ask for m ore. 7. I had enough courage to tell him
th at he w ould change his m ind. 8. I find the sound of the music
quite familiar. 9. W hat a nice tune. 10. All children knew that John
was devoted to his pets, and respected this feeling. 11. I was
shocked by the encounter. 12. You o u g h tn 't den y the fact. 13. It's
you who m ust decide.

1 Dare can be constructed either as main verb (with to-infinitive), or, under
restricted conditions, as modal auxiliary.

70
3. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. Как ты смеешь смеяться над старушкой? 2. С понедельника она


плохо себя чувствует. 3. Его любовь к книгам хорошо известна
в гр у п п е . 4. Как чудесно пахнут розы! 5. Ребенок не осмелился задать
свой вопрос учителю. 6. Чувство глубокого уважения к опекуну пе­
реполняло Джуди. 7. Твои слова прозвучали довольно глупо. 8. Мэри
рассердилась и расстроилась, когда услышала объяснения девочки.
9. Как вы смеете говорить со мной подобным образом? 10. В то осен­
нее утро она прекрасно себя чувствовала и была в превосходном на­
строении. 11. Именно ты должен показать город своему другу. 12. Им
было холодно, они проголодались и очень устали. 13. Я думаю, дети
сами должны помириться. 14. Елену всегда отличала удивительная
привязанность к своей младшей сестре. 15. В ее глазах можно было
видеть все то презрение, которое вызывал у нее молодой человек.

4. Make up two sentences of your own on each pattern.

5. Make up a dialogue using the Speech Patterns and act it out (to be done in
pairs).

TEXT THREE

TO SIR, WITH LOVE


By E.R.Braithwaite

The Guianan diplomatist Eustace Braithwaite was born in 1912 in British Gui­
ana. He flew with the R.A.F. 1 during the war years. After the war соїощ prejudice
precluded him from obtaining the kind of job for which his scientific qualifica­
tions fitted him. From 1950— 1957 he worked as a school-teacher. In the sixties he
was a Permanent Representative of Guiana to the UN. In 1959 Braithwaite won the
Ainsfield Wolff Literary Award for To Sir, with Love, a book about his experiences
as a teacher in a school in London's East End. The other books that came from his
pen are A Kind of Homecoming (1961), Paid Servant (1962), A Choice o f Straws
(1965), Reluctant Neighbours (1972).

C hapter 8
(Extract)

Each Friday m orning the w hole school spent the pre-recess p e ­


riod in writing their W eekly Review. This was one of the old M an 's2
pet schem es: and one about w hich he w ould brook no interference.
Each child w ould review the events of his school w eek in his own
words, in his own way; he was free to com m ent, to criticise, to
agree or disagree, with any person, subject or m ethod, as long as it
71
was in som e w ay associated w ith the school. N o one and nothing
was sacred, from the H eadm aster down, and the child, m oreover,
was safe from any form of reprisal.
"Look at it this way," M r. Florian said. "It is of advantage to
b o th pupils an d teacher. If a child w ants to write about som ething
w hich m atters to him, he will take som e pains to set it down as
carefully and w ith as m uch detail as possible; that m ust in some
w ay im prove his w ritten English in term s of spelling, construction
a n d style. W eek by w eek w e are able, through his review, to follow
and observe his progress in such things. As for the teachers, we
soon g e t a p retty good id ea w hat the children think of us and
w h eth er or not we are g etting close to them ... You will discover that
these children are reasonably fair, even w hen they com m ent on us.
If w e are careless about our clothing, m anners or person th ey will
soon notice it, and it w ould be pointless to be angry w ith them for
p ointing such things out. Finally, from the reviews, the sensible
tea c h e r will observe the trend of individual and collective interests
and plan his w ork accordingly."
O n the first Friday of m y association with the class I was anxious
to discover w hat sort of figure I cut in front of them , and w hat kind
of com m ent th ey w ould m ake about me. I read through som e of the
reviews at lunch-tim e, a n d m ust adm it to a m ixture of relief and dis­
ap p o in tm en t at discovering that, apart from m entioning that they
had a new "blackie" teacher, very little attention was given to m e ...
It occurred to m e th at they probably im agined I w ould be as
tran sien t as m y m any predecessors, and therefore saw no point in
w asting either tim e or effort in w riting about me. But if I had m ade
so little im pression on them , it m ust be m y own fault, I decided. It
was up to m e to find som e w ay to get through to them .
T hereafter I tried very hard to be a successful teacher with my
class, b u t som ehow, as day followed day in painful procession, I re­
alized th a t I was n ot m aking the grade. I bought and read books on
th e psychology of teach in g in an effort to discover som e way of
providing th e children w ith th e sort of intellectual challenge to
w hich th ey w ould respond, b u t the suggested m ethods som ehow
did not m eet m y p articular need, and ju st did not work. It was as if
I w ere trying to reach the children through a thick pane of glass, so
rem ote and u n in terested th ey seem ed.
Looking back, I realize th at in fact I passed through three
phases in m y relationship with them . The first was the silent
treatm ent, and during th at tim e, for m y first few weeks, th ey would
72
do any task I set them w ithout question or protest, b u t equally
w ithout interest or enthusiasm ; and if their in terest was not
required for the task in front of them w ould sit and stare at m e w ith
the sam e careful patient atten tio n a birdw atcher devotes to the rare
feathered visitor...
I took great pains w ith the planning of m y lessons, using illus­
trations from the fam iliar things of their own background... I c re a t­
ed various problem s w ithin the dom estic fram ework, and tried to
encourage their participation, b u t it was as th o u g h th ere w ere
a conspiracy of indifference, and m y attem pts a t inform ality fell
pitifully flat.
G radually they m oved on to the second and m ore annoying
phase of their cam paign, the "noisy" treatm ent. It is true to say th at
all of them did not actively join in this b u t those who did n o t w ere
obviously in som e sym pathy w ith those w ho did. D uring a lesson,
especially one in w hich it was necessary for m e to read or sp eak to
them , som eone w ould lift the lid of a desk and th en let it fall w ith
a loud bang; the culprit w ould m erely sit and look a t m e w ith w ide
innocent eyes as if it w ere an accident.
They knew as well as I did that there was n o thing I could do
about it, and I bore it w ith as m uch show of aplom b as I could m an ­
age. O ne or two such interruptions during a lesson w ere usually
enough to destroy its planned continuity... So I felt angry and frus­
trated w hen they rudely interrupted th at w hich was being done
purely for their own benefit.
O ne m orning I was reading to them som e sim ple poetry. Ju st
w hen I tho u g h t I had inveigled them into active in terest one of the
girls, M onica Page, let the top of the desk fall; the noise seem ed to
reverberate in every part of m y being and I felt a su d d en burning
anger. I looked at her for som e m om ents before daring to o p en my
m outh; she returned m y gaze, then casually rem arked to the class
at large: "The bleeding 3 thing w o n 't stay up." It was all rath er d e ­
liberate, the noisy interruption and the crude rem ark, and it h e r­
alded the third stage of their conduct. From th en on the w ords
"bloody" or "bleeding" w ere hardly ever absent from any rem ark
they m ade to one another especially in the classroom . T hey w ould
call out to each other on a n y silly pretext and refer to the "bleed­
ing" this or that, and always in a voice loud e n o u g h for m y ears.
O ne day during an arithm etic period I played right into their
hands. I was so overcom e by an g er and disgust th at I com pletely
lost my tem per ... I w ent upstairs and sat in the library, the only

73
place w here I could be alone for a little while. I felt sick at heart,
b ecau se it seem ed th at this latest act, above all others, was in te n d ­
ed to display their u tte r disrespect for me. T hey seem ed to have no
sense of decency, these children; everything th ey said or did was
coloured by an u gly viciousness, as if their m inds w ere forever
rooting after filth. "W hy, oh why," 1 asked myself, "did th ey b e ­
have like that? W h at was w rong w ith them ?"

EXPLANATORY NOTES

1. R.A.F.: Royal Air Force.


2. old Man: here School H eadm aster.
3. bleeding: vulg. bloody

ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY

Vocabulary Notes

1. school л 1) an educational establishment for children, as a nursery


school, primary school, secondary school, boarding school, compulsory
school age, e. g. The school leaving age has been raised to 16. Most
schools in England take football seriously. 2) (no article) the time when
teaching is given; the process of being educated; lessons, e. g. He was
very bright at school. It was nearly time for school. He left school when he
was fifteen. 3) all the pupils in an educational institution, e. g. The school
will have a holiday tomorrow. 4) any institution giving specialized
instruction, either to children or to adults; a specialized institution which
forms part of a university, as a ballet school, law school, London School of
Economics. 5) a group of persons having the same ideas about a subject,
as the Dutch school of painting.
Note: The English for «учиться в школе» is 'to go to school', ‘to be at school'
and not 'to study at school', e. g. He learnt to read before he went to school. M oth­
er and Mrs. D am es had been at school together.
D с p L r r £
schooling n education obtained at school, e. g. Schooling is
compulsory in Russia.
scholar n a learned and erudite person, especially one who is learned
in the classical languages and their literature, e. g. Dr. Grant is
a distinguished scholar.
scholarship n a sum of money given by an individual, a collective
body, or the state, to enable a person to study, e. g. He has won
a scholarship to Cambridge.
74
2. advantage n 1) smth. useful or helpful, smth. likely to bring success,
esp. success in competition with another or others, e. g. The advantages of
a good education are great. The shallowness of the seas round the British
Isles is in some ways an advantage, to have (gain, win, give smb.) an
advantage (over smb.) to have a better position or opportunity, e. g. He
has an advantage over other students, he is well-read, to have the
advantage of to be in a better position because of smth., as to have the
advantage of being modern (being cheap, etc.), e. g. He has the
advantage of being young. 2) benefit, profit; to take advantage of smth.
to make good use of smth., to profit by smth., as to take advantage of an
opportunity (of smb.'s weakness, ignorance, absence, etc.), e. g. Jack took
advantage of the opportunity to speak to Gwendolen, to advantage in
a way that shows its good points, as to be seen (heard, shown, exhibited)
to advantage, e. g. The picture is seen to (better) advantage from
a distance, ant. disadvantage,
3. admit vt/i 1) to allow a person to enter, e. g. The woman opened the
door and admitted me into the house. Children are not admitted. 2) to
accept as a member of, as to be admitted to an institute (school, party),
e. g. Only one hundred boys are admitted to the school every year. 3) to
have enough space for, e. g. The theatre admits only 200 persons. 4) to
acknowledge, confess, accept as true, as to admit one's mistake (fault,
that one's wrong), e. g. You must admit that the task is difficult, ant. deny,
e. д. I deny that the statement is true.
admission n 1) allowing to come, go in, being admitted, as admission
is free, admission by ticket, price of admission; to apply for admission to
an institute (party), e. g. Admission to the school is by examination only.
2) statement admitting smth., as an admission of guilt, e. g. The accused
refused to make an admission of his guilt.
4. waste vt/i 1) to use without a good purpose or result; to spend
uselessly, as to waste one's time (energy, money, work), e. g. All his
efforts were wasted. 2) to lose strength by degrees, e. g. He was wasting
away.
waste n unprofitable use; useless remains of smth. e. g. It's a waste
of time to wait any longer. There is too much waste in the house, to lay
waste to ravage, to destroy, as to lay waste a country, a city, a village.
waste adj useless; unwanted; thrown away, as waste paper, a waste
paper basket, waste effort.
wasteful adj using or spending too much or uselessly, as a wasteful
man, wasteful habits, wasteful process.
5. back vi/t 1) to go, or cause to go backwards, e. g. Montmorency
would growl and back at a rapid pace. 2) to give support to, to help (with
money, arguments, etc.), as to back smb. or smb.'s proposal (plans, etc.).
back n 1) the hinder part of the body, as to stand with one's back to the
window; to turn one's back to (the audience, the window, etc.), e. g. Turn
your back to me, I'll put your collar straight, to turn one's back on smb. to
turn away or run away from smb., e. g. It was mean of you to turn your back
75
on her when she needed your help, to do smth. behind smb.’s back to do
smth. without smb.'s knowledge, e. g. You ought not to criticize her behind
her back. 2) the part of a thing which is farthest from the front, as the back
of the house, the back of one's head, the back of a chair, at the back of one's
mind; 3) (modifying other nouns) away from the front, as
a back seat (street, vowel), back teeth (rows, etc.)
back adv to, in or into an earlier position or state, as to go (run, turn, be,
come) back; to go back on one's word to fail to keep a promise,
e. g. One cannot rely on a person who goes back on his word, to keep smth.
back from smb. to conceal, e. g. You needn't keep this news back from him.
back from at a distance from, e. g. The house stood back from the road,
back and forth to and fro, as to walk (run, fly) back and forth,
backbreaking adj very hard, as backbreaking work,
backbone n the row of bones joined together along the back; to the
backbone (fig.) completely, e. g. He is Russian to the backbone.
background л 1) contrasting surface; on (against) the background of
smth., e. g. The white house stood out on the background of the green
trees, on (against) a white (black, red) background, e. g. The girl wore
a dress with white spots on a blue background. 2) the part which is at the
back, as in the background (foreground) of a picture; to keep (stay,
remain, be) in the background to keep where one will not be noticed,
e. g. She is very shy and always keeps in the background. 3) origin, social
status and qualifications of a person, e. g. Tell me your background (tell me
about yourself).
backward adj behind others, as a backward district (child, people),
backwards adv with the back coming first, e. g. Can you spell the word
"backwards" ?
6. require vt to ask for, to need, as to require extra help, e. g. The matter
requires great care. He did all that was, required of him. syn. demand
(to ask for with authority, to insist on having), e. g. The policeman
demanded his name. The strikers demanded immediate payment.
requirement n thing required, as the requirements of the law, to meet
the requirements of people, e. g. What are the requirements for entering
this institute?
7. reference n 1) (instance of) alluding, e. g. You should make
reference to a dictionary. The book is full of references to places that
I know well. 2) a statement about a person's character or abilities,
e. g. The clerk has excellent references from former employers. 3) note,
direction, telling where certain information may be found, e. g. He
dislikes history books that are crowded with references to earlier
authorities.
refer v t/i 1) to send, take, hand over (to smb. or smth.), e. д. I was
referred to the manager. 2) to speak of, allude to; to apply to, e. g. Don't
refer to this matter again, please. Does that remark refer to me? 3) to turn
(to), go (to) for information, etc., e. g. The speaker often referred to his
notes.
76
8. temper n 1) a disposition, as a person of even (pleasant, fiery, etc.)
temper; to have an even (sweet, uncertain, quick, etc.) temper; hot-
tempered, good-tempered, bad-tempered; 2) a mood, as to be in a good
(bad, forgiving, calm, friendly) temper.
N o t e : W hen the word is used w ithout an adjective, the m eaning is always
"an angry state of mind".

to lose one's temper, to control (to keep) one's temper, to get (to fly)
into a temper about smth., to be in a temper, e. д. I was surprised but I did
not lose my temper. There is nothing to fly into a temper about. Joseph
saw that she was fighting to keep her temper.
9. display vt 1) to show, esp. spread out or place so that there is no
difficulty in seeing, as to display pictures (paintings) in a gallery; to
display goods in a shop-window; 2) to show signs of having, as to display
courage (heroism, anxiety, a contempt for one's feeling, no enthusiasm
about smth.).
display n displaying, showing or exhibiting, as a fine display of
courage, a display of bad temper, a fashion display, to make a display
of one's affection, e. g. There was a fine display of flowers at the ex­
hibition.
10. decent adj 1) proper and suitable, good for a particular time or
place, as decent clothes (conditions, marks); 2) modest, not likely to
cause people to feel shame, as a decent fellow (conduct, book, film).
decency n the quality of being decent, e. g. He doesn't know the
meaning of shame or common decency. Have the decency to admit it.

Word Combinations and Phrases

to take (some) paints to do smth. to set a task


to have a pretty good idea of to feel frustrated
reasonably fair to play into smb.'s hands
to make (no) comment utter disrespect
in fact

READING COMPREHENSION EXERCISES

1. a) Listen to the recording of Text Three and mark the stresses and tunes,
b) Repeat the text in the intervals after the model.

2. Put twenty questions to the text.

3. Note down from Text Three the sentences containing the word combina­
tions and phrases (p. 77) and translate them into Russian.

77
4. Paraphrase the following sentences using the word combinations and
phrases (p. 77):

1. She realized well en o u g h w hat kind of person Lydia was.


2. T he boy tried very hard to m ake his m other buy him a puppy.
3. She d id n 't say anything. 4. Ju lia was troubled about her p ar­
en ts' health. 5. The m anager explained to Jo h n w hat the latter
had to do. 6. Your actions h elp ed Katie to do w hat she m eant to.
7. The tea c h e r was w orried about his pupils' future. 8. The sums
are rath er difficult, b u t the pupils know the rules and will cope
w ith them . 9. The young m other was upset. She tho u g h t her baby
was developing too slowly. 10. Pam ela always acts in a w ay which
is m ore convenient for h er friends than for herself. 11. She is too
d iscreet to show that she never respected the fellow very much.
12. The doctor d id n 't give his opinion of the accident. 13. I have
sufficient know ledge ab o u t her plans for the future. 14. As
a m atter of fact we had a very pleasant voyage. 15. She worries
about the paintings. 16. I was prim arily w orried about keeping
them th a t way. 17. Ja n e Pucell felt upset because of the tense a t­
m osphere in the classroom .

5. Translate the following sentences into English using the word combina­
tions and phrases (p. 77).

1. Сердиться на вас — значит лить воду на вашу мельницу. 2. Пе­


редо мной поставили очень сложную задачу, и я должен был ее вы­
полнить. 3. Мы можем купить этот мебельный гарнитур, он дорог, но
в разумных пределах. 4. Молодой учитель был расстроен тем, что не
все ученики его класса обладали хорошими навыками выразительно­
го чтения. 5. Я не могу сказать, чтобы мне понравился этот спектакль,
в сущности, мне было до смерти скучно. 6. Судьба нам улыбнулась,
и мы нашли то, что искали. 7. Она всегда беспокоится о своем сыне,
когда он уезжает. 8. М-р Поттер ничего не сказал по поводу речи ора­
тора. 9. Я прекрасно отдаю себе отчет в том, почему они навещают
меня каждую неделю. 10. Я глубоко и искренне уважаю вас, но отсут­
ствие какого-либо уважения к вашему брату делает нашу дружбу не­
возможной. 11. В сущности он поставил перед нами задачу. 12. Не
стоит беспокоиться по поводу этих новостей. 13. Ее крайнее неува­
жение отнюдь не облегчало жизнь в семье.

6. Make up and practise a short situation using the word combinations and
phrases (p. 77).

7. Make up and act out a dialogue using the word combinations and phrases
(to be done in pairs).

78
8. Find in Text Three English equivalents for the following words and phras­
es. Use them in sentences:

последний урок перед большой переменой; не терпеть вмеша­


тельства; обязательное сочинение, которое пишется каждую неделю;
записать что-л.; совершенствовать навыки письменной английской
речи; достаточно честные (объективные); указать; узнать, что инте­
ресует учащихся; первое знакомство; быть вне себя от гнева; как я
выгляжу в их глазах; долго не задержусь; отсутствие всяческого ува­
жения; оказался не на высоте; давать пищу для размышлений; редкая
птичка; по всякому глупому поводу; держаться самоуверенно; сочув­
ствовали тем, кто; прерывать урок

9. Explain what is meant by:

1. Each Friday m orning the w hole school spent the pre-recess


period in w riting their W eekly Review. 2. ... he w ould b rook no in ­
terference. 3. No one and nothing was sacred ... . 4. It is of ad v an ­
tage to both pupils and teacher. 5. ... it w ould be pointless to be a n ­
gry with them for pointing such things out. 6. ... the sensible
teacher will observe the trend of individual and collective interests
.... 7.... I was anxious to discover w hat sort of figure I cu t in front of
them .... 8. ... they probably im agined I w ould be as tran sien t as m y
m any predecessors .... 9. It was up to m e to find som e w ay to get
through to them . 10. ...I was not m aking the grade. 11. ... an effort
to discover som e w ay of providing the children w ith th e sort of in ­
tellectual challenge to w hich they w ould respond .... 12.... w ith the
sam e careful attention a birdw atcher devotes to the rare feathered
visitor. 13. ... illustrations from th e fam iliar things of th eir own
background. 14.... it was as though there was a conspiracy of disin­
terest, and m y attem pts at inform ality fell pitifully flat. 15. ... I bore
it with as m uch show of aplom b as I could m anage. 16. ... it h e ra ld ­
ed the third stage of their conduct. 17. ... everything th ey said or
did was coloured by an ugly viciousness.

10. Answer the following questions and do the given tasks:

1. W h at occupation did the whole school have each Friday


mominxf? Do you think this is com m on in the m ajority of schools?
W hy not? 2. W hat advantages did the H eadm aster see in pupils'
w riting their W eekly Reviews? C an you find any disadvantages in
the schem e? W h a t's your opinion of it? W hat traits of character
are necessary for a teach er to be involved in a schem e of th e kind ?
3. W hy did the narrator feel “a m ixture of relief and d isappoint­
m ent" after having read a few of his pupils' reviews? 4. In w hat way

79
did the n arrato r try to explain his pupils' lack of interest concern­
ing his personality? 5. How did the narrator try to be a successful
teacher? H ow helpful is it for a young teacher to read specialist
books? Give reasons for your answer. 6. Do you find the children's
unresponsiveness natural? How can you account for it? 7. W hat
w as the first phase in the narrato r's relationship w ith his class? It
was rath er a q u iet stage, w asn't it? W hy then was the teacher dis­
satisfied w ith it? 8. In w hat w ay did he try to interest his pupils in
the subject? C an you find any reasons to explain his failure?
9. C haracterize th e second phase of the pupils' cam paign. Do you
th ink the tea c h e r is to blam e for it? Do you agree with the narrator
th at "there was n o thing he could do about it"? Do you think
a tea c h e r's aplom b can help u n d e r the circum stances? Do you find
the second phase m ore unpleasant? W hy? 10. Do you think the
tea c h e r's feelings are understandable? W ould you try to stop the
cam paign? How? 11. W hat do you think of the third phase of the
pupils' conduct? 12. The school described in the extract was situat­
ed in th e East End of London. The pupils atten d in g it had been
poorly fed, clothed and housed. Some w ere from hom es w here the
so-called bread-w inner was chronically unem ployed. Do you think
the ch ild ren 's back g ro u n d can account for their bad language and
m isconduct? C an a teach er expect such a behaviour u n d e r other
circum stances? 13. C an the pupils' behaviour be explained by the
fact th a t their teach er w as a Black? 14. The extract above describes
the n arrato r's first w eeks in school. Think of a possible develop­
m ent of his relations w ith the class. Do you think the teacher will
m anage in the e n d to gain the children's confidence and respect?
W h at m ethods and techniques w ould you advise him to use?
11. Retell Text Three a) d o se to the text; b) as if you were one of the pupils;
c) as if you were one of the narrator's colleagues.

12. Write a summary of Text Three.

13. Make up and act out dialogues between:

1. T he narrator and one of the pupils (discussing som e possible


ways of cooperation).
2. Two pupils of the class (discussing their new teacher and the
atm osphere in class).
3. The narrator an d his colleague (discussing the narrator's
problem s w ith his class).
14. Pick out from Text Three all words and phrases belonging to emotion
(irritation and annoyance) and use them in a situation of your own (a quarrel).

80
15. Use the following words and phrases to describe a mother's visit to
the school:

to be free to com m ent (criticize); n ot to be sacred; from the


H eadm aster down; u tte r disrespect for smb.; to tak e pains to do
smth.; to im prove w ritten English in th e term s of spelling, co n ­
struction and style; to have a p retty good idea; reasonably fair;
com m ent on smb.; to be angry w ith smb.; a m ixture of relief and
disappointm ent; no point in w asting either tim e or effort; it is up
to smb. to do smth.; intellectual challenge; to en courage smb.; lid
of the desk; loud bang; to look at smb. w ith w ide in n o cen t eyes;
to feel frustrated; to be rudely interrupted; to dare to o p en o n e ’s
m outh; deliberate rem arks; noisy interruption.

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

1. Study the Vocabulary Notes and translate the illustrative examples


into Russian.

2. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the words
and word combinations in bold type:

A. 1. A nthony's letters from school w ere now short and h u rried ­


ly w ritten. 2. No boy a t the school had ever tak en a scholarship
to the University. 3. She's b een here since the school started.
4. The school will be closed until the end of the term . 5. Htf had an
adm iration for Boucher, W atteau, and all th at school. 6. T here was
no doubt that in som e fashion C lark had a moral advantage over
him. 7. I knew that Sadie was a notorious liar and w ould tell any
falsehood to procure herself even a quite temporary advantage.
8. I mean, w hy not take advantage of the sunshine before th e fog
com es back? 9. You m ay feel th at all I've asked is th a t you should
spy upon people to my advantage. 10. The uniform set off his fig-
г л - . щ е to advantage. 11. M ary's attitu d e was one of frank adm ission
^ arid penitence.
..— 12. Mrs. T urton was the only
^ visitor adm itted to the
• ^ s i c k r o o m . 13TSome British Universities low ered their stan d ard s of
entry iiTsome subjects in order to admit m ore students. 14. It was
exciting to me to be adm itted to such com pany. 15. Y ou're afraid
th at if you admit the truth, I'll think you w ere m ixed u p in this w ith
W egler. 16. O ur new theatres can admit a g reat num ber of people.
17. But Auntie M arne was never one to admit defeat. 18. H e sm iled
at her unconscious adm ission that she w ould have b e e n happy
w ithout Charles. 19. C onsum ption is a w asting disease. 20. Turn
81
the w ater off, d o n 't let it waste. 21. M any houses are being built
on w aste land outside the city. 22. W aste not, w ant not. (proverb)
23. I felt half faded away, like som e figure in the background of
an old picture. 24. The backroom on the first floor was prepared for
her. 25. "Are you English?" I asked, perhaps tactlessly. "Rather.
You d o n 't th in k I look like an Am erican, do you? British to the
backbone, th a t's w hat I am." 26. W e sat on the ground with our
backs against th e wall. 27. Have you any p ap er left? — Oh, that'll
do, write on the back of the map. 28. They give you a look th at says
all th at can be said in a civilized com m unity, and you back out
prom ptly and shut th e door behind you. 29. W hen people say
things behind your back, th ere 's nothing you can deny. 30. The
w ork was heavy and backbreaking, but it had to be done.
В. 1. It requires the fem inine tem peram ent to repeat the sam e
th ing th ree tim es w ith un ab ated zest. 2. T ruly this is all Becky
asked of a m an, all she required, th at h e 'd have the pow er to m ake
her laugh. 3. I should have rem em bered that w hen one is going
to lead an entirely new life, one requires regular and w holesom e
m eals. 4. H e had replied to the telegram he had received th at he re­
quired no help. 5. It gave A ustin pleasure to read and m em orize the
g rea t sp eech es w h eth er th ey w ere required in the course or not.
6. Does he know what is required of him? 7. H e d id n 't refer to doc­
um ents, b u t answ ered o ut of his head. 8. H e always referred to her
father as Dr. Lam bert. 9 . 1 felt a certain shyness at referring to m at­
ters w hich w ere no concern of mine. 1 0 .1 m urm ured som ething p o ­
lite th at m ight equally have referred to her last remark or to the
g ard en itself. 11. She m ade no reference to our conversation of
th e n ig h t before. 12. She seem ed to be w orking in a reference li­
brary. 13. E xcellent references, th at's all w e need. 14. Old Mrs. Ra-
m age seem s to tak e pleasure in showing her temper. 15. Linda
went dead w hite with temper and disappointm ent. 16. Sam uel had
com pletely got over his bad temper. 17. In all sorts of political situ ­
ations he had learned to keep his temper, to take advantage of
m en w ho lost theirs. 18. H er temper was beginning to rise again at
th e th o u g h t th a t this ru d e and im pertinent m an had heard every­
thing. 19. C lark was a hospitable man, he liked displaying fruit on
th e sideboard. 20. T he peacock displayed its fine tail feathers.
21. The English gave m e a m edal for having displayed w hat they
called "conspicuous gallantry in the field". 22. Brodwen cam e bus­
tling into lunch w ith a great display of gaiety. 23. M ary was al­
read y earning a decent w age as a clerk to Larkins. 2 4 .1 d id n 't know
him well, b u t I felt th at at heart he was decent, sound and healthy.
82
25. I kept going as I was until he was a decent distance behind me.
26. It was a short letter, a letter of passionate reproach, to m y
young standards, rather indecent.

3. Paraphrase the following sentences using your active vocabulary:

A. 1. At twelve, he had b een obliged to quit studies and go to


work as a W estern U nion m essenger boy. 2. Are the educational
establishm ents for children any b e tte r in A ustralia? 3. All the
teachers and pupils tu rn ed out to w elcom e th e celebrity. 4. She has
a nice voice, b ut she h a sn 't had any (special) education. 5. I was in
possession of a better position w hich I d id n 't w ant to lose. 6. He
knows how to show good points in his know ledge. 7. The boy was
perm itted to sit up a few hours, but he never u sed the privilege
profitably. 8. I w onder at your capacity for facing facts. 9. The
U niversity accepted m any oversea students last year. 10. She was
short-sighted b u t h ated to say it was true. 11. I d o n 't d e n y I took
several things from m y u n c le 's drawer, b u t I w o n 't have it called
a theft. 12. The door o p en ed to let in a tall thin m an. 13. She
absolutely believes his version and will listen to no other. 14. Percy
is always so careful about m oney m atters. He h ates sp ending
uselessly. 15. He was losing w eight so m uch th at he constantly
seem ed to need a sm aller size. 16. The "natural m ethod" of
learning a language is adm irable for infants and horribly useless
and unprofitable for o ther people. 17.1 d o n 't see how you e x p ect to
recover strength if you d o n 't take som ething nourishing in to the
system . 18. W e all agreed we ought to support him. 19. You know,
Thomas, I d o n 't like discussing her in h er absence.
B. 1. This kind of w ork takes a lot of tim e. 2. H e said th ey did not
>ask for docum ents. 3. Let's hope th at no such terrible sacrifice will
be asked of you. 4. T here is no art, no skill n e e d ed for th at sort of
thing. 5. All the eq uipm ent necessary for experim ents w as sim ple.
6 . 1 soon learned how ever that m y services w ould be n e e d ed on the
stage th at evening. 7. The clerk had an excellent testim onial from
form er em ployers. 8. I was sent to the m anager. 9. D on't speak
about the m atter again. 10. Does this rem ark concern m e? 11. I'm
sure-siie d id n 't m ean it, she said it in a fit of anger. 12. I've never
seen her fly into a rage. 13. She is a w om an of a gen tle disposition.
14. You w ould never have said such an absurd thing if you had
not been angry and irritated. 15. I was u sed to his outbursts,
but still I had to m ake an effort to rem ain calm. 16. D epartm ent
stores show their goods in the windows. 17. She m anaged to hold
her em otions back whefr she was told of her son's illness. 18. He
83
was always kind and considerate to me. 19. Put on som e suitable
clothes before you go out. 20. H e gave us quite a good dinner.
21. H ere I was looking forward to a good n ig h t's sleep.

4. Explain or comment on the following sentences:

A. 1. H e belongs to a new school of tho u g h t in linguistics.


2. I have know n it since m y school days. 3. H e cam e hom e from
school w eeping, a bruise on his face. 4. At eig h teen A ndrew found
him self alone, a first-year stu d en t at St. A ndrew University, carry­
ing a scholarship w orth forty pounds a year, b u t otherw ise pen n i­
less. 5. A fter d in n er there is a period of recreation before afternoon
school. 6. H e did poorly in school. 7. R ain's arrival created a stir.
The eyes of th e School w ere turned aw ay from the cricket field.
8. I had an advantage of course, because I knew everybody there.
9. T hey took advantage of our disadvantages with rem arkable
speed. 10. She shone to such advantage am ong the other teachers.
11. B ecause one m an adm its defeat, it d o esn 't m ean th at everybody
else does. 12. Sam w as adm itted into his m aster's confidence.
13. I tried to spare you. You will do m e the justice to adm it that.
14. T he fascists laid w aste m any towns and villages. 15. There is
too m uch w aste in th e house. 16. C aroline had w asted herself in her
hopeless devotion to a m an who did not deserve it. 17. She looked
at th e girl a n d knew well th at argum ent or reason w ould be wasted.
18. H e is R ussian to th e backbone. 19. H e said he w ould help us
a n d th en b ack ed out. 20. I shall not go b ack on m y word. 21. C an
you say the alp h ab et backw ards? 22. W hy did you say the alphabet
backw ards? 23. W hy did you k eep back the fact? 24. I hope you
will b ack m y plan. 25. She always keeps in the background.
B. 1. W e require extra help, I think. 2. H aven't I done all that
was req u ired of m e? 3. Everyone m ust fulfil the requirem ents of
the law. 4. I'm sure docum ents are required there. 5. Anyway
y o u 're not required to see them again. 6. She had an infinite ca­
pacity for patien ce w hen p atience was required. 7. Two hours
w ould b e required to assem ble everybody. 8. The neighbour
heard the little girl refer to th e w om an as "m other". 9. W hat I
have to say refers to all of you. 10. H istorians refer the fall of
Rome to A.D. 410. 11. He referred his depressions to his childhood
illness. 12. All the parts have reference to one another. 13. You
can give the landlord m y respect, if you like, and tell him I hope
his tem per has im proved. 14. A m ong the m any excellent and d e ­
cided qualities w hich characterized G eneral Fesm ond's wife,
84
sw eetness of tem per was less obvious th an the rest. 15. If C harles
had inherited any of the qualities of the stern, fearless, ho t-tem ­
p ered soldier who had been his father... 16. Your y o u n g er son dis­
plays great intelligence. 17. He proudly displayed th e variegated
sm ears of paint on his heavy silk dressing gown. 18. The old m an
displayed an insatiable curiosity about the galleries an d th e p a in t­
ers who exhibited in them . 19. H e is q u ite a d e c en t fellow. 20. H e
has always treated m e decently. 21. Salvia had not show n th e d e ­
cency of even a second of hesitation.

5. Choose the right word:

school(s) — schooling

1. N ursery ... are for those who h av en 't yet reached com pulsory
... age. 2. C om pulsory ... is divided into a prim ary and secondary
stage. 3. C om puters and m icroelectronics can assist in settin g u n i­
form ... tests. 4. W hen does com pulsory ... begin in E ngland?

adm it — accept
1. Please ... my m ost affectionate thanks and g ratitu d e for your
constant assistance and sincere interest in m y every need. 2. A c­
cording to the U niversities' C entral C ouncil on A dm ission th e U ni­
versities ... significantly m ore overseas students. 3. To th eir u tte r
astonishm ent the picture was ... for the show. 4. The results of his
theoretical investigations w ere ... as a valuable contribution.

require — dem and

1. Teachers ... discipline. 2. The teach er ... th at the p upil should


stay at school after classes. 3. The strikers ... a rise. 4. A nsw er q u e s­
tions w hich ... short answer.

a n g e r— tem per

1. H er eyes grew steady w ith ... , like old Jo ly o n 's w hen his will
was crossed. 2. A ndrew reddened. But, m aking a great effort, he
conquered his ... and his pride. 3. She was determ ined not to lose
her .... 4. The g reatest rem edy for ... is delay.

decent — discreet (and their derivatives)

1. T here was a ... tap a t the door. 2. I d id n 't have anything to do


w ith him apart from the work. H e was always ... to me. 3. I'm not
85
going to let ... spoil a rom antic story. 4. C arrie desperately n eeded
... clothes. 5. I've b een afraid th at he and M argaret w ould do som e­
thing ... and bring disgrace upon the family.

6. Give English equivalents for the following phrases:

A. средняя школа; ученый; обучение в школе; получить право на


стипендию; учиться в школе; хореографическое училище; голландс­
кая школа живописи; школа-интернат; иметь преимущество; вос­
пользоваться чем-л.; в выгодном свете; принять в члены; принять
в институт; признавать; соглашаться; признаться в ошибке; вход
по билетам; входная плата; подавать заявление о приеме в институт;
признание своей вины; чахнуть; опустошать; пустырь; попусту тра­
тить слова; транжира; повернуться спиной к; делать что-л. за спиной
кого-л.; подсознательно; затылок; нарушить слово; скрывать что-л.;
до мозга костей; оставаться в тени; расскажи мне о себе.
B. удовлетворять потребности; выполнять требования; письма,
требующие ответа; рекомендация; справочник; иметь отношение
к чему-либо.; отсылать к кому-л.; ссылаться на что-л.; владеть собой;
необузданный нрав; вспыльчивый характер; быть в хорошем настро­
ении; быть раздраженным; вспылить; выставлять картины; демонст­
рировать товары; проявлять смелость; выставлять напоказ; прилич­
ные условия; скромное поведение; хороший обед.

7. Translate into English:

А. 1. Профессор Уайт — крупный ученый. Для нашей школы боль­


шая честь, что он приехал к нам. 2. Я знаю его очень давно. Мы учи­
лись в одной школе. 3. Девушка получила право на стипендию и
смогла изучать искусство в Италии. 4. Занятия к школе начинаются
в 8.30. 5. Завтра не будет занятий в школе. 6. У мальчика кашель, и по­
этому я его не пустила в школу. 7. У нее есть огромное преимущество
перед остальными студентами: она говорит по-английски дома.
8. У него преимущество в том, что он знает всех студентов без исклю­
чения. 9. Неужели вы думаете, что я не воспользуюсь этим случаем?
10. Это было совершенно простое платье, но оно выгодно подчерки­
вало ее красивую фигуру. 11. Она слишком горда, чтобы принять от
нас деньги, но признаться в этом не хочет. 12. Сколько студентов
было принято в институт в этом году? 13. Нас не пустили в зал, пото­
му что спектакль уже начался. 14. Не забудь, что сегодня вход в клуб
по билетам. 15. Стадион вмещает тринадцать тысяч зрителей. 16. Как
обидно, что столько усилий потрачено зря. 17. На мгновение я почув­
ствовала себя неловко, я думала, что он сейчас скажет мне, что я рас­
трачиваю драгоценное время на болтовню по телефону. 18. «Некото­
рые люди смотрят телепередачи часами, а, по-моему, это пустая
трата времени, — сказал Николай. — Для меня нет ничего лучше хо­
рошей книги». 19. Хотя она и очень устала, ей было приятно созна­
86
вать, что день не пропал даром. 20. Вы должны сказать мне правду.
Это единственный путь, если вы хотите, чтобы я вас поддержал.
21. Человек, который отказывается от своих слов, не может внушать
доверия. 22. Вы не думаете, что будет лучше рассказать мне все?
23. Преимущество их дачи в том, что она стоит в лесу, в стороне от
дороги. 24. Посмотрите, как красива эта сосна на фоне вечернего
неба. 25. Я не могу понять, что это там, на заднем плане картины.
26. Работа в старой шахте была тяжелой и изнурительной. 27. Моя
комната находилась в глубине дома.
В. 1. Статья неплохая, но, по-моему, следует дать больше приме­
ров. 2. Элиза отдавала себе отчет, что скоро они уже больше не будут
нуждаться в ее услугах. 3. Осталось только одно письмо, но оно не
требует ответа. 4. В нашей стране делается все, чтобы удовлетворить
растущие потребности населения. 5. Он отклонил наше приглаше­
ние, сказав, что его присутствие необходимо в другом месте. 6. Сле­
дует заблаговременно узнать, что требуется для поступления в этот
институт. 7. Если бы вы сделали все, что от вас требуется, вы бы не
оказались сейчас в затруднительном положении. 8. В своем докладе
ученый ссылался несколько раз на последние эксперименты. 9. Она
предъявила отличные рекомендации. 10. Меня отослали к редактору,
так как у него были все справочники. 11. Я осторожно наведу справ­
ки, но, по-моему, он не ссылался на ваши письма. 12. У вашего дя­
дюшки горячий нрав. Он не потерпит, чтобы ему мешали. 13. Неуже­
ли вы думаете, что я поддержу эту нелепую затею? 14. Стелла, что
с тобой? Ты не должна терять самообладания, хотя ты и проигрыва­
ешь партию. Это смешно. 15. Уолтер взял себе за правило не прини­
мать важных решений, когда он раздражен. 16. С того самого дня,
как Кэрри увидела платье (выставленное) в витрине магазина, она
мечтала о том, чтобы купить его. 17. Джеймс редко проявлял какие-
либо признаки волнения. 18. Я признаю, вы проявили мужество, ос­
тавшись один в лесу. 19. С вашей стороны было очень осмотрительно
избавить нас от необходимости встречаться с этим неприятным че­
ловеком. 20. Во всяком случае, при всех он хорошо ко мне относился.

8. Review the Essential Vocabulary and use it in answering the following


questions:

A. W hat do you say if: 1. your friend is in a b e tte r position b e ­


cause he knows two languages? 2. a school-leaver has successfully
passed his institute entrance exam s? 3. a stu d e n t has b e e n given
a stirrrof m oney to enable him to stu d y at a university? 4. too m uch
stuff is throw n away in the house? 5. your friend fails to k eep
a prom ise? 6. you like the way a picture is displayed in a gallery?
7. you accept as true the fact th at you are w rong? 8. you w ant to
know all about the origin, social status and qualifications of a p e r­
son? 9. you have spent a day uselessly?
87
В. W h at do you say if: 1. you need extra help? 2. you insist on
having extra help? 3. a quick-tem pered person becom es angry?
4. a person is always m odest an d respectable? 5. a person shows
signs of anxiety? 6. a speaker m akes use of his notes? 7. o n e's En­
glish is fairly good? 8. a stu d en t has an excellent record from his
supervisor on school practice?
9. Respond to the following statements and questions using the Essential
Vocabulary:
1. W hy w as his lecture so boring? Perhaps he consulted his p a ­
pers too often. 2. W h at is a school-leaver to do if he w ants to becom e
a student? 3. How can you explain th at it is so easy to do the shop­
p ing in this store? 4. W h at kind of person is he? H e seem s to treat
everyone w ith resp ect and care. 5. W hy do you think she is always in
an angry state of m ind ? 6. Do you think that everything has b een said
ab o u t th e m atter? Are all facts know n? 7. W hy do you think Ann
ignores her friend com pletely? 8. In w hat w ay can you describe
consum ption? 9. W ould you call the lady extravagant? 10. Is the
m aterial sufficient for the article? 11. A ren't you asham ed of discuss­
ing m y affairs w hen I am not present? 12. Is the job accom plished
properly? C an we let him go? 13. W hy is her English so good?
14. W hy are you still in two m inds about taking the girl as a secretary?
10. Use the following words and word combinations in situations:

1. I sh o u ld n 't have taken advantage of her w eakness. 2. How


dare you? 3 . 1 have a p retty good idea of the situation. 4. D on't dis­
play your ignorance in public. 5 . 1 adm it th at I was wrong. 6. He did
all th a t was required of him. 7. But the references w ere excellent.
8. She so easily flies into a tem per! 9. She always displays anxiety
w hen h er d a u g h te r is out. 10. Schooling is com pulsory for children
ag ed from 5 to 16 in England.
11. Use the following words and word combinations in dialogues (to be done
in pairs):
1. to take advantage of smth.; to admit; to display contem pt for
smb.; to feel frustrated; to play into sm b.'s hands.
2. to require help; to display concern; to have the decency to a d ­
mit; w asted efforts; an advantage over smb.; to back smth.
3. to k eep in the background; excellent references; m edical
school; to be in a bad tem per; to keep up o n e's tem per; to display
sym pathy; to refer to smb.
12. Find in Text Three and copy out phrases in which prepositions ‘o f, 'on
(upon)' are used. Translate the phrases into Russian.

88
13. Fill in prepositions:

1. Thus, ... the ten old Forsytes tw enty-one young Forsytes had
been born. 2. The blackberries tasted ... rain. 3. I d id n 't b u y the p i­
ano to b e s o n a te d o u t ... m y h o u s e ... an evening. 4. You a r e ... the few
who will be equal to it. 5 . 1 w ash m y hands ... it. 6. Tom d ecid ed that
he could be in d e p e n d e n t... Becky. 7. V egetarians live ... vegetables,
fruit and nuts. 8. H e plan ted the apple-trees ... the left and the pear
tr e e s ... the right of the path. 9. The house w a s ... fire. T hey th o u g h t it
had been s e t ... fire ... purpose. 10. T here are goods ... sale in all the
shop-windows. You are very slow, w hy d o n 't you hurry ... a bit?
11. H elp m e ... with m y coat. 12. The garage was built ... a c o n ­
venient site. 13. I stum bled ... som ething soft. 14. T here was no
objection ... the part ... the ow ner ... the car. 15. ... th e one hand
I was, of course, glad; ... the other hand I was a little bit frightened.
16. The doctor was ... the p o i n t ... leaving. 17. ... reflection I gave up
the idea. 18. He was arrested ... suspicion ... m urder. 19. The ghastly
story m ade my hair stand ... end. 20. Com e ...! Let's lock the tru n k to
be ... the safe side. 21. The question w asn't even to u ch ed ....

14. Translate the following sentences into English. Pay attention to the prep­
ositions:

1. По обеим сторонам улицы есть магазины. 2. Получив его теле­


грамму, я сразу отправился на вокзал. 3. Честное слово, я этого не
делал. 4. Как я ни старался, я не мог в тот вечер сосредоточиться на
игре актеров. 5. Держитесь за перила, здесь очень скользко. £. Про­
должайте, я вас внимательно слушаю. 7. Неужели вы хотите сказать,
что никогда не были в походе? 8. Теплым сентябрьским днем дети
впервые пришли в школу. 9. А ну-ка! Покажи мне, что у тебя в кор­
зине! 10. Анна очень страдала, когда родственники и друзья отвер­
нулись от нее. 11. Джону нравилось, когда Мэри по вечерам надева­
ла блузку с юбкой. 12. Такого учителя нелегко найти, таких на
тысячу— один. 13. Деревня находилась к северу от реки. 14. Он все­
гда старался сделать из меня бизнесмена. 15. С его стороны было
глупо даже думать о ней.

15. a) Give Russian equivalents for the following English proverbs and say­
ings (or translate them into Russian), b) Explain in English the meaning of each
proverb, c) Make up a dialogue to illustrate one of the proverbs:

1. It is the last straw th at breaks th e cam el's back. 2. Experience


keeps a dear school b u t fools learn in no other. 3. H aste m akes
waste. 4. D on't m ake a rod for your own back. 5. D on't tell tales out
of school.
89
CONVERSATION AND DISCUSSION

ENGLISH SCHOOLING

Topical Vocabulary

1. Types of schools: m aintained (state), county, voluntary, nurs­


ery, prim ary, infant, junior, secondary, gram m ar, secondary m od­
ern, technical, com prehensive, all-through, two-tier, first, middle,
upper, m ixed (co-educational), single-sex, special, independent
(fee-paying, private), pre-preparatory, preparatory, public, sixth-
form college, tertiary college.
2. Stages of education: com pulsory, pre-school, primary, sec­
ondary, further, higher.
3. Education policy: adm inistration, schooling, full-tim e e d u ­
cation, part-tim e education, tripartite system, class-divided and
selective system of education, to sustain inequality of opportuni­
ty, to go com prehensive, the D epartm ent of Education and Sci­
ence, Local E ducation A uthorities (LEAs), to be responsible for
national ed u cation policy, to run a school, to prescribe curricula
or textbooks, the provision of schools, to provide m aintained
school education.
4. M anagement: H ead T eacher (Master), Principal, Assistant
Principal, A cting H ead Teacher, staff, governing body, to have re ­
sponsibility, to em ploy teachers, provide and m aintain buildings,
supply equipm ent, provide grants, appointm ent and dism issal of
staff.
5. Admission: to adm it, to allocate, to apply for adm ission, se­
lective procedure, intelligence tests, substitute for the abolished
11 + exams, to m easure inborn abilities, to have a tim e limit, to
coach for, catch m en t area, w ithout any reference to a child's abili­
ty or aptitude, to transfer (promote) from one class to another.
6. Curriculum: broad curriculum , academ ic course, non-aca­
dem ic course, vocational bias, foundation course, foundation sub­
jects, to m eet special interests, com m on curriculum , simplified
curriculum , ed u cation w ith a practical slant for low er-attaining p u ­
pils, to be enco u rag ed to do smth., the three R's, subject teaching,
specialist teacher, to have set periods, rem edial teaching.
7. Examinations: GCSE (exam); to sit for an exam; "A" level
exam; C om m on Entrance Exam; to be set and m arked by ... ; to
han d the papers out; exam ining board; grades, "pass" grade; resits
90
and retakes; unsuccessful pupil; to rep eat the year; to pass an
exam, to keep up with the group; to fall behind.
8. Punishment: corporal punishm ent, d eten tio n (after school or
during the dinner hour), lines, exclusion from norm al routine, e x ­
clusion from privileges (loss of privilege), collection of litter, su s­
pension from school, w ithdraw al from lessons, setting extra work,
putting "on report", telling the parents.

NURSERY SCHOOL
(voluntary)

z
О
PRIMARY SCHOOL
0* (at least six years primary education)
« о
(Гш
10
11
12
1
_l SECONDARY SCHOOL
э (at least five years secondary education)
13 о.
14 5
о
15 о General Certificate of Secondary Education
(GCSE) examinations (taken at 15— 16)
16
17
Advanced level ('A' level) COLLEGE OF
18 examinations (taken at 17— 18) FURTHER
EDUCATION
(general, vocational,
HIGHER EDUCATION and techrfical)

COLLEGE OF
UNIVERSITY EDUCATION POLYTECHNIC
(teacher training)

Fig. Primary and Secondary Education in England and Wales

1. Read the text for obtaining its information.

Education is com pulsory from the age of five to sixteen, and


there is usually a move from prim ary to secondary school at about
the-age of eleven, b u t schools are organized in a num ber of differ­
ent ways. T here is no law w hich provides for ed u cation of the un-
derfives. In England about 47 per cent of three- and four-year-olds
receive education in nursery schools or classes. In addition m any
children atten d informal pre-school play groups organized by p ar­
ents and voluntary bodies.
91
For m any years the education service has been characterized by
change. The provision of m aintained school education is the re ­
sponsibility of local ed u cation authorities (LEAs). They em ploy
teachers and o th er staff, provide and m aintain buildings, supply
equ ip m en t and m aterials, provide grants to students proceeding to
further and h igher education. The D epartm ent of Education and
Science m aintains overall control although local education authori­
ties and h ead teachers have considerable powers in planning and
adm inistration. Plans w ere introduced into Parliam ent in 1988 for
m ore centralized control, including a national curriculum for all
schools.
Schools M aintained by the State. No fees are charged to parents
of the children at m aintained schools, and books and equipm ent are
free. Schools su p ported from public funds are of two m ain kinds in
E ngland and W ales: county schools and voluntary schools. C ounty
schools are provided and m aintained by LEAs w holly out of public
funds. V oluntary schools, m ostly established by religious denom i­
nations, are also w holly m aintained from public funds b u t the gov­
ernors of som e types of voluntary schools contribute to capital
costs. N early a third of prim ary and secondary m aintained schools
in E ngland and W ales are voluntary schools, m ost of them Anglican
or Rom an Catholic. All children in county or voluntary schools re­
ceive religious ed u cation by law and take part in a daily corporate
act of w orship unless their p arents choose otherwise.
Education w ithin the m aintained school system usually com ­
prises two stages — prim ary education and secondary education.
Primary Schooling. C om pulsory education begins at five w hen
children in E ngland and W ales go to infant schools or d e p a rt­
m ents; at seven m any go on to junior schools or departm ents. The
usual ag e of transfer from prim ary to secondary schools is 11, but
a num ber of LEAs in E ngland have established "first" schools for
pupils ag ed 5 to 8, 9 or 10 and "m iddle" schools covering various
age ranges betw een 8 and 14.
Secondary Schooling. The publicly m aintained system of ed u ca­
tion aim s to give all children an education suited to their particular
abilities. U ntil th e 1960s m ost children took an exam ination at the
end of prim ary school (the Eleven Plus): those who passed it suc­
cessfully w ent to gram m ar schools while those who did not w ent to
secondary m odern schools. A few areas especially in the south
of E ngland still have selective exam s at the age of eleven, but about
90 p er cen t of secondary schools in Britain are now com prehensive.
92
The school system
University and other higher education
‘A ’ Levels: 15% pass two subjects or more

6% 25% 14%
16-18
Sixth form 'A' Levels can be studied

Further Education
(‘public') schools
Only 45% continue with (a) in the sixth form of
full-time education

Independent
о a secondary school

Colleges of
after 16. The rest go to .g (state or private)
work or join employment
training schemes.
(b) in a separate
35 Sixth Form College

General Certificate of Secondary Education/Scottish Certificate of Education

84% 3% 6%

Secondary modern
They take children of all abilities Some areas still at 11 +
from their local area 5% Pass: go to grammar school
Fail: go to secondary modern school

schools
5-11 Can be either primary
Primary or secondary or both
school Common Entrance Eleven Plus

5% 95%

Independent fee-paying Most primary schools are


(preparatory or ‘prep’) schools state-funded although many
prepare children for the are run by the churches
Common Entrance Examination
set by the independent
secondary schools
®o
2-5
(/>

v>

3-5
Pre-school education
47% of 3- and 4-year-olds attend nursery
schoois or play groups. Most of these
are part-time private schools

20% start school before the age of 5

(from Britain Explored


by P. Harvey and R. Jones)
T hey take pupils w ithout reference to ability or ap titu d e and pro­
vide a w ide ran ge of secondary education for all or m ost of the chil­
d ren from their local area.
Special schools cater for a w ide variety of handicap.
The Curriculum. The co n ten t of the secular curriculum in m ain­
tain ed schools in E ngland and W ales is the responsibility of the
LEA and of the schools' governors. In practice, responsibility is
largely devolved on head teachers and their staff. The governm ent
has issued g u idance on the curriculum for both prim ary and sec­
o ndary school pupils. It considers that secondary pupils up to the
age of 16 should follow a broad curriculum including English,
M athem atics and Science, som e study of the hum anities including
History, Religion and Physical education, and opportunities for
b oth practical and aesthetic activities. M ost pupils should also
stu d y a foreign language. A program m e of developm ent projects
has b e e n in tro d u ced to provide a m ore effective education with
a practical slant for low er-attaining pupils w ho do not benefit fully
from existing courses.
Independent Schools. M ost parents choose to send their chil­
dren to free state schools financed from public funds but an in­
creasing num ber of secondary pupils atten d fee-paying in d ep en ­
d e n t schools outside the school system . M any of these are
boarding schools, w hich provide accom m odation for pupils during
term tim e. T here are about 2,500 in d ep en d en t schools educating
m ore than 500,000 pupils of all ages. They charge fees, varying
from about £ 100 a term for day pupils at nursery age to £ 2,000
a term for senior boarding pupils.
In d ep en d en t schools for older p u p ils — from 11, 12 or 13 to
1 8 /1 9 — include nearly 500. They are som etim es confusingly re­
ferred to as "public schools" 1 in England and W ales. Today the
term is becom ing less frequently used b ut refers to the m ainly
boys' schools (which are increasingly adm itting girls).
P reparatory schools prepare children for the C om m on En­
trance Exam ination to senior schools. The norm al age range is
from seven plus to 11, 12 or 13, b ut m any of the schools now have
p re-preparatory d epartm ents for younger children.

1The most notable public schools are Eton [’i:tn], Harrow [‘haerau], W inchester
[‘wintfista], Rugby ['глдЬі], O undle ['aundl], Uppingham ['лрщэт], Charterhouse
['tjaitshaus]. These schools are exclusive boarding schools, which train their pupils
for leading positions in society.

94
Examinations. Since 1988, m ost sixteen-year-olds have tak en
the G eneral C ertificate of Secondary E ducation (GCSE) in five, ten
or even fifteen subjects.
Pupils going on to higher education or professional training
usually take 'A' level exam inations in two or three subjects. These
require two m ore years of study after GCSE, eith er in the sixth
form of a secondary school, or in a separate sixth-form college.
O ther pupils m ay choose vocational subjects such as catering,
tourism, secretarial or building skills. Subsidized courses in these
subjects are run at colleges of further education.
School-leavers with jobs som etim es take part-tim e vocational
courses, on day-release from work. School-leavers w ithout jobs
get no m oney from the governm ent unless they join a y o u th train ­
ing schem e, which provides a living allow ance d uring two years of
work experience.

2. Study the text of Ex. 1 and the School System Scheme (p. 93) and get ready
to answer these questions:

1. W hat stages of education are there in E ngland and W ales?


W hich of them are com pulsory? 2. In w hat institutions can chil­
dren get pre-school education? 3. Do all prim ary and secondary
schools in England and W ales belong to th e state system ? D on't
you think th at in d ep en d en t schools sustain inequality in th e field
of education? 4. In w hat schools w ithin the m aintained system
can children get prim ary education? 5. At w hat age arfe pupils
usually transferred to secondary schools? How is it done in
Russia? 6. W hat secondary schools m aintained by th e state do
you know? Are all of them m ixed? 7. W h at kind of ed u catio n do
gram m ar schools offer? 8. W hat does the term "com prehensive"
imply? W hen did com prehensive education becom e a national
policy? W hat are the proclaim ed advantages of com prehensive
schools? 9. W hat does the term "in d ep en d en t school" imply?
W h at types of in d ep en d en t schools do you know? W hich are the
m ost notable public schools? W h at do th ey train their pupils for?
10. W hat are the principal exam inations taken by secondary
school pupils in England? W h at exam s are tak en at th e age of 18?

3. Find in the text of Ex. 1 arguments to illustrate the following:

1. The system of education in E ngland and W ales is com plex


and bew ildering. 2. A dm inistration of publicly provided schools is
95
rath er decentralized. 3. C om prehensive schools are the m ost pro­
gressive secondary schools in England. 4. Sixth-form pupils get
rath er narrow specialist education.

4. Summarize the text of Ex. 1 specifying the following items:

1. The system of education in England and W ales. G eneral prin­


ciples.
2. Pre-school education. Prim ary education.
3. C om prehensive system of secondary education vs selective
system .
4. The sixth-form curricullum . Specialist stu d y aim ed at univer­
sity entrance.

5. Use the Topical Vocabulary in answering the following questions:

1. Do m any children in England and W ales atten d pre-school


institutions? W hy? 2. Have all m aintained schools equal o pportu­
nities to provide the sam e level of education? Prove your point of
view. 3. How can you prove th at in spite of all changes and alter­
ations m ade during th e recen t years the system of education in
E ngland and W ales is still class-divided and selective? 4. W hat
are the British governm ent's education policies? W hat do you
think of the m ain aim of the publicly m aintained system of e d u ca­
tion w hich is officially stated as follows: "...to give all children an
ed u catio n suited to their particular abilities." Do you think En­
glish educationists have objective criteria to m easure these abili­
ties? 5. W h a t's your opinion of the fact that adm inistration of p u b ­
licly provided schools is not centralized? W hat do you think of
schools' freedom to choose textbooks, include various subjects
into the curriculum , specify the m aterial for learning, appoint and
dism iss teachers? 6. W h at subjects are usually included in a pri­
m ary school curriculum ? W hat is the aim of prim ary education?
W h at m ethods are used in prim ary schools? 7. W hat types of sec­
o ndary schools are there in Britain? 8. W hy do you think m ost
children in gram m ar schools are from rich families? 9. How can
you acco u n t for the fact th at the p ercen tag e of those attending
com prehensive schools is becom ing a bit lower nowadays?
10. How can you account for the fact th at in d ep en d en t schools
(especially public schools) w hich are not very num erous are the
m ost significant? 11. W hat is your opinion of the specialist
preparation in the sixth form?
96
6. Give a brief talk on the main features of schooling in England and Wales.
Use the Topical Vocabulary.

7. You are supposed to give a description of an imaginary primary or second­


ary school which is organized according to the English pattern. Don't forget to
give your imaginary school a name, as English schools have names not num­
bers. The names are often geographical (taken from the name of the town, dis­
trict, village or street in which the school is situated). Sometimes schools are
named after a well-known person, e. g. Cedar Grove School, Mary Hampden
Junior School.
The following questions can be helpful:

1. W hat kind of school is it? W hat system of educational provi­


sion is in use locally for children ag ed 5 — 18?
2. W hat is the size of the school? (num ber of children of either
sex, num ber of staff of either sex, age range of children, social
background of the school's catchm ent area if this is clear-cut)
3. W hat buildings and am enities does the school possess? (How
m any classroom s are there? Is there a hall, a library, specialist
rooms or areas, a staff room, playing fields? Are the buildings m od­
ern? Are there accom m odation problem s?)
4. How is teaching organized? (Stream ing? M ixed ability
grouping? Are classes generally tau g h t as a single u nit or is group
w ork or individual w ork the norm ? W hat about the physical orga­
nization of the classroom — do the children sit a t desks, in groups
at tables, random ly? Is the tim etable fixed or flexible?)
5. W hat subjects are included into the curriculum ? *What is
tau g h t at the various age levels w ithin the school? (Are specific
subjects taught, or is teaching arranged in m ore general areas like,
for exam ple, A esthetics, Physical skills, C om m unication?)
6. W hat forms of rew ard and punishm ent are norm ally used?
7. W hat testing is done in the school and w hat forms of records
are kept? (Are staff m eetings held to discuss ch ild ren 's progress
or is this done informally? How are children and p arents inform ed
of progress?)
8. W hat system of exam inations is used in the school?
9. In w hat w ay are parents involved w ith the school? (parents'
m eetings, parent-teacher association, parental help in or out of
school)
10. W hat do the school's general aim s ap p ear to be?

8. Say how any of the schools described by your fellow-students (Ex. 7) com­
pares with the school you yourself attended.

97
9. Team up with your fellow-student to discuss one of the following prob­
lems:

1. Pre-school and prim ary education in Russia and England.


2. S econdary education in Russia and England.
3. Exam inations in Russia and England.

O ne of the stu d en ts is supposed to play the role of an


Englishm an, w ho know s very little about schools in Russia. The
o th er will rep resen t a future teacher of English displaying m uch
in terest about pre-school institutions, prim ary and secondary
ed u cation in England. Try and interrupt each o ther with questions
to g et som e m ore inform ation. C om pare the two systems. Find
their m erits and disadvantages. A gree or disagree with your
p a rtn e r's statem ents if you feel like it (see A ppendix). Use the
Topical V ocabulary.

10. Read the following dialogue. The expressions in bold type show the ways
of INSTRUCTING PEOPLE HOW TO DO THINGS. Note them down. Be ready to
act out the dialogue in class.

Experienced Teacher: Jenny, I'm sorry to have k ep t you waiting.


W h at w as it you w anted to talk to m e about?
Beginner: Oh! I ju st d o n 't know w hat to do.
E. Т.: W h a t's the m atter?
B.: W ell, you know, it's again the problem of discipline in my
class. W hen the lunch bell rings everything becom es so awful,
and th e pupils so noisy.
E. Т.: Oh, com e on! First of all pull yourself together. Try and
look on th e b rig h ter side. It c a n 't be as bad as that.
B. Oh, honestly it is. The children slam their books shut, shuffle
their feet, splash their paint-w ater and rush tow ard food and
freedom , I'm at m y w its' end. W hat should I do?
E. Т.: The first and m ost important thing I have to tell you is that
you should have fixed rules for your pupils. And by the way,
don't forget to rehearse them at the beginning of each school
year.
B.: To rehearse the rules at the beginning of the year? But how?
E. Т.: I really do recommend th at you state them calm ly and dis­
passionately. W h en an electric buzzer shrills, your children
should sit q u ietly in their places. W hile in the classroom they
are not a t the b eck or call of m echanical noises.
98
В.: Oh yes, yes certainly.
E. Т.: After you've done that you should show them the w ay the
books are closed not slam m ed in the respectful m anner d u e to
books.
B.: Yes, of course.
E. Т.: The next thing you do is to g et them u sed to the following
com m ands: "A ttention please. The class will rise. T he class is
dism issed." Make sure you remember to avoid fam iliarity. Be
careful not to have m oods. You should always be a certainty, be
predictable.
В.: I think I u n derstand w hat you m ean. I should be to d ay w hat
I was yesterday and will be tomorrow.
E. Т.: Right. And th en w ithin lim its their behaviour will be also p re ­
dictable.

11. Learn the cliches, instructing people how to do things:

First of all you ...


The first thing you have to do is ...
After you've done th at you ...
The next thing you do is ...
Oh; and by the way, d o n 't forget to ...
M ake sure you rem em ber to ...
Oh, and be careful not to ...

12. Use the clich6s of Ex. 11 in the following situations:

1. The Hom e Econom ics teacher explains to th e girls how to


m ake a cup of tea.
The following expressions m a y be useful:
to fill the kettle, to boil the water, to w arm the teapot, to p u t the
tea in the teapot, to fill the pot w ith boiling w ater, to stir th e tea, to
leave the tea to brew for five m inutes.
2. In the course of professional studies a lectu rer helps a stu d e n t
teacher to arouse the class' in terest in the subject.
The word com binations to be used:
~to have informal classes, to express o n e 's w illingness to help, to
apply oneself enthusiastically to som e subject, to enco u rag e smb.
to express his views against the general back g ro u n d of textbook
inform ation, to stim ulate sm b.'s interest in school work, to use eve­
ry d evice one can think of.
99
3. An ex perienced teacher gives a piece of advice to a probation
teach er who finds som e difficulty in teaching East London children
the English language.
The word com binations to be used:
to feel a t ease w ith smb., to blend inform ality with a correctness
of expression, never to speak down to smb., to m ake the m eaning
sufficiently clear in context, to encourage smb., to ask for an expla­
nation any tim e one feels unsure.
4. The prim ary school principal who also trains teachers gives
advice, a "bag of tools" w hich will enable the students to have con­
trol over u n fortunate classes (difficult, badly-behaved classes).
The word com binations to be used:
to e n te r into the class as you wish, to start on time, to know in full
th e alibis of any late arrival, to allow no m ovem ent of furniture, to
forbid squabbling over w ho sits where, to learn who is who, to use in­
dividual nam es as m uch as possible, not to talk for long periods, to
require pupils to do a piece of w ork w ithin their capability, to keep
a note of those who are consistently w ithout w hat th ey should have,
to be strict b u t consistent, to finish in an orderly fashion.

13: Read the following text. Consider the penalties which are described in the
extract. Do you think they will have a positive effect? Which of them would you
use in class if any at all? Do you know any others? Do you think punishment in
general should be used in teaching?

Penalties Against the Fixed Rules

T here was no n eed to w aste tim e in prelim inary adm onitions.


M iss D ove's rules w ere as fixed as the signs of the zodiac. And they
w ere know n. The penalties for infractions of the rules w ere also
known. If a child introduced a foreign object — a pencil, let us say,
or a w ad of paper, or a lock of hair — into his m outh, he was re­
q u ired to w ash out his m outh w ith yellow laundry soap. If his pos­
tu re was incorrect he had to go and sit for a while upon a stool
w ithout a back-rest. If a page in his notebook was untidy, he had to
rew rite it. If he em itted an uncovered cough, he was expected to
rise im m ediately and fling open a window, no m atter how cold the
w eather, so th at a blast of fresh air could protect his fellows from
th e contam ination of his germ s. A gain if he felt obliged to disturb
the class routine by leaving the room for a drink of w ater (Miss
Dove loftily ignored any other necessity) he did so to an accom pa­
nim ent of d ead silence. M iss Dove w ould look at him — that was
100
all — following his d eparture and greeting his retu rn w ith her p e r­
fectly expressionless gaze and the w hole class w ould sit idle and
m otionless, until he was back in the fold again. It was easier —
even if one had eaten salt fish for breakfast — to rem ain and suffer.

14. Discuss the text of Ex. 13 and the problem of punishment in pairs. One of
the pair will insist that punishment should be abolished and never used in class,
the other will defend the opposite point of view. Be sure to provide sound argu­
ments for whatever you say. Consider the following and expand on the items
where possible.

Should Punishment Be Used in Class?


F or: A g a i n s t :

1. Punishment helps to do away 1. It is no good to discipline


with animal instincts such as children through fear.
greed, anger, idleness and
discourtesy which lie in the
depth of human nature.
2. It is impossible to bring up 2. Any punishment (corporal
self-confident,strong-willed punishment in particular)
citizens without any humiliates a human being.
punishment, as it keeps them
under control.
3. The thing that distinguishes a 3. Teachers who punish their
man from a brute is not pupils do not care for
instinct but performance, and children, they care only that
certain kinds of punishment children conform to the rules.
help here a lot.
4. Not all kinds of punishment 4. When one uses any kind of
are acceptable, but it is punishment he brings up
inevitable as a phenomenon to (produces) cruel and heartless
control discipline. people.
5. The means of punishment is 5. Punishment leads to lies, as
important, it should never be children would tell any lie to
humiliating, never prevent the unpleasant act.
contemptuous. Children are
not monsters, some of them
simply go a little further than
_they intend.
6. It is not punishment itself that 6. Punishment destroys a child's
is important, but the threat personality.
that it represents (it keeps
children from breaking the
rul£s).
101
15. The extracts given below present controversial subjects. Team up with
another student, work out arguments "for” and "against" and discuss the ex­
tracts in pairs. Use conversational formulas of agreement, disagreement, giving
opinion (see Appendix).

A. Should a teach er take hom e his pupils' w ork to check it?


"D on't fall into the habit of bringing w ork hom e, Rick. It indi­
cates a lack of planning, and you w ould eventually find yourself
stu ck indoors every night. T eaching is like having a bank account.
You can happily draw on it w hile it is well supplied with new funds;
otherw ise y o u 're in difficulties. Every teacher should have a fund
of read y inform ation on w hich to draw; he should keep that fund
su pplied regularly by new experiences, new thoughts and discov­
eries, b y read in g and m oving around am ong people from whom he
can acquire such things."
B. Should a teach er plan all the procedure of a lesson?
"The rest of th at sum m er M iss Dove m apped her strategies in
h er bed-cham ber. To represent a classroom she laid her father's
chessboard on a table by the north window. The squares were
desks. T he ivory m en w ere children. For hours on end, m oving
them ab o u t the board, speaking to them in unequivocal term s, she
did w hat m ight be called "practice teaching". To the last detail she
p lan n ed h er procedure. The greeting to each class, as it entered
the room, th e cerem ony of its dismissal, the rules and penalties and
forms w ere all settled upon. The presentation of her subject m atter
was carefully considered."
C. Should com pulsory school atten d an ce be abolished?
"W e should abolish com pulsory school attendance. O ur com ­
p u lso ry school a tten d an ce laws once served a hum ane and useful
purpose. T hey p ro tected children's rights to som e schooling,
against those adults who w ould otherw ise have denied it to them in
order to exploit their labour, in farm, shop, store, mine, or factory.
Today, the laws help nobody, not the schools, not the teachers, not
the children. To k eep kids in school who w ould rather not be there
costs the the schools an enorm ous am ount of tim e and trouble, to
say n othing of w hat it costs to repair the dam age that these angry
and resentful prisoners do w henever they get the chance. Every
tea c h e r knows that any kid in class who, for w hatever reason,
w ould rather n ot be there, not only d o e sn 't learn anything himself
b u t m akes learning h ard er for anyone else. For m any kids, not go­
ing to college, school is ju st a useless tim e-w asting obstacle pre­
venting them from n e e d ed m oney or doing som e useful work."
102
D. Should fixed curriculum be used in schools?
"Some harder reform s are required. Abolish the fixed, required
curriculum . People rem em ber only w hat is interesting a n d useful
to them , w hat helps m ake sense of the w orld or helps them enjoy or
get along in it. All else they quickly forget, if th ey ever learn it at
all. The idea of the "body of know ledge", to be p ick ed up a t school
and used for the rest of o n e's life, is nonsense in a w orld as com pli­
cated and rapidly changing as ours. Anyway, the m ost im portant
questions and problem s of our tim e are not in the curriculum , not
even in the hot-shot universities, let alone the schools. C h eck any
university catalogue and see how m any courses you can find on
such questions *as Peace, Poverty, Race, Environm ental Pollution
and so on."

16. Role -Playing.

Formal Versus Informal Teaching

The group of stu d en ts is divided into two team s, each of w hich


perform s the same role play. W hile discussing formal and inform al
styles of teaching be sure to show their advantages an d disadvan­
tages. Expand on the ideas of your character. D isagree w ith som e
participants and share the others' points of view. At th e end of the
conference you should com e to a conclusion about the desirable
style of teaching in school. (May be done by a vote.) C om m ents
from the class on each team 's perform ance and the value of the dif­
ferent argum ents are invited.
S i t u a t i o n : After studying the county reports on th e w ork of
form al/inform al classes in secondary schools of the co u n ty the
chief education officer who is at the h ead of the local ed u cation a u ­
thority) holds a conference to discuss the m ost controversial issue
in the area of "teaching style" th at is to say: are "inform al" styles of
teaching m ore effective than "formal" ones?
Characters:
1. Mr. Bernard Hudson, aged 33, an education officer, has no
definite view of his own, he is in two m inds after his inspection. P u­
pils seem to do b e tte r in term s of the basic skills in form al classes,
the superiority of formal teaching for basic subjects is evident.
C hildren taught in informal classes achieve low er academ ic o u t­
com es but are m ore independent, cooperative, ask m ore questions
seeking inform ation, are b e tte r at non-verbal problem solving, are
less frequently absent from classroom s. M uch individualised in ­
struction is used here.
103
2. M iss Susan Curry, aged 54, a G eography teacher in Stewart
C om prehensive School. Stands for firmness, principle and authori­
ty. N ever red u ces learning to th e level of entertainm ent. O rganises
her lessons well. Laughter is not her style. Ignores fashion. R espon­
sibility is th e air she breathes. She likes utilizing her strength to its
utm ost limits. Always shows her power. Likes m aking and keeping
rules. Insists u p o n her pupils' even m argins and correct posture,
pun ctu ality and industriousness.
3. Mrs. H ilary Bell, ag ed 42, a gram m ar school teacher. Likes her
w ork and h er school. Approves of its formality, its regard for order.
Is used to w orking briskly, w ithout a break. W rites in careful, legi­
ble script. H as cultivated felicity in the language." N ever perm its
h er pupils to use expressions w hich are inelegant, rude or im prop­
er. Always acts w ithin reason. Rem inds people of M ary Poppins, an
English nan n y from a fairy-tale w ith supernatural powers. Has the
sam e effect on children. K eeps pupils on their toes. Discipline in
h er class is strict. D iscourages m ovem ent during classes, pupil talk
is forbidden. All the sam e shows m uch respect for her pupils.
4. Mr. M ark Dawson, aged 27, principal of New lyn East Prim ary
School. Believes in being friends w ith the children, in classroom
dem ocracy. Is charm ed by his younger pupils. The infants are his
pets. Likes to join in their gam es a t break, to feel th at they love
him. In his lessons pupils take an active part. He lets children
sp eak and th ink th rough speaking. D oesn't approve of Hilary
Bell's didactic m ethods b u t adm its that they w ork if a teacher is
sincere since kids are fair. You c a n ’t fool them . If a teacher is doing
a sincere job, th ey know it.
5. A n n Bennett, 21 year-old stu d en t teacher. Uses informal
m ethods in h er class. M ovem ent during h er class is allowed, any
qu estion is encouraged. Interruption of the lesson d o e sn 't scare
Ann. She com m ents on all m arked w ork in the spirit of a teacher-
learn er dialogue. Likes to put problem s and encourages their dis­
cussion either in pairs or groups. T hough her class som etim es
lacks discipline she is quite hap p y with her work, m ethods and p u ­
pils. Believes th at in formal classes children w on't develop an abili­
ty to th in k an d feel for them selves. But her tim ing and planning are
not perfect. Som etim es d o e sn 't have tim e to explain and drill ev­
erything she is ex p ected to.
6. Mrs. Leonie Thorpe, aged 67, a pensioner, form er teacher of
English. T hinks th at th ere is no single right of handling classes or
individual children. Each teach er should find his own way. Leo-
104
n ie's experience shows that certain formal ways of behaving in the
classroom are m ore likely than others to lead to order. Is not sure
that children can say and do as th ey please in the classroom . The
m ore teachers take from children, the w orse it gets. T hinks it is
necessary to find som e w ay to show them w ho's "Boss". But b e ­
lieves that an olderly and highly drilled class who know exactly
w hat is expected of them at each point of the lesson m ay not a l­
ways develop personal qualities. Thinks th at friendliness and co­
operation are required on any tea c h e r's part.

17. Group Discussion.


Give your own views on the problems below and speak against your oppo­
nents.

Topic 1. M ixed-ability grouping


in the classroom

T a lk in g points:
1. M ixed-ability group — the usual basis of classroom organiza­
tion in Russia. Results.
2. M ixed-ability grouping — a controversial innovation for the
English, having occurred partly as a reaction against stream ing.
3. Introduction of m ixed-ability groups in English prim ary
schools (the dom inant form of organization), the first an d second
years of secondary schooling (relatively unproblem atic), later
years of secondary school (cautious and tentative).
' 4. C onsiderations relating to preparing pupils for public exam i­
n a tio n s — a m ajor obstacle to the introduction of m ixed-ability
groupings in senior years of secondary school in England,
5. M ixed-ability grouping m eans h arder w ork for teachers. En­
glish teachers' possible reactions. The ways to solve th e problem
used by Russian teachers.
6. A dvantages and disadvantages of m ixed-ability groups.

Topic 2. Is school a place for the im parting o f know ledge


(understood as certain material to m em orize)
or a place for the creation and developm ent
o f a child's personality?

T a lk in g points:
1. C hildren before school. Do th ey have opportunities to learn?
Are they eager to find and figure things out? Inquisitive? C onfi­
d e n t? Persistent? In dependent? Have th ey achieved a d e g re e of
105
success w ithout any formal instruction in school to help them
solve th e m ystery of the language?
2. L e a rn in g — a passive or an active process on the part of
a pupil? D o n 't teachers often m ake children feel that they are
inadequate, w orthless, unw orthy, fit only to tak e other people's or­
ders, a b lan k sh eet for other people to write on? Isn't w hat we say
ab o u t respect for th e child in school usually opposed to w hat
teachers do?
3. "To be wrong, uncertain and c o n fu se d — is a crime; right
answ ers are w hat the school w ants" — the m otto of certain (if not
many) schools. Do children in such schools or classes acquire
som e undesirable habits? Do they not learn to dodge, bluff, fake,
cheat, to be lazy, to be bored, to w ork w ith a small part of their
m ind, to escap e from the reality around them into daydream s and
fantasies?

Topic 3. Pupils’ norms o f behaviour


(The docum ent given below was produced by the Deputy Head of a large com­
prehensive school for discussion at a special staff meeting.)

T alking points:
1. Pupils should e n te r classroom s and sit down w ith books and
p ens read y for tea c h e r to arrive unless the room has a notice on the
door indicating th at pupils should not e n te r until the teacher ar­
rives.
2. a) Pupils should stand w hen teacher enters classroom (not
com pulsory for fourth and fifth years), b) Pupils should stop talk ­
ing as soon as the teach er enters the class.
3. A nyone arriving after the teacher has started the lesson
should w ait at th e front of the class until the teacher has asked for
explanation.
4. Ja ck e ts should be rem oved as soon as the pupils have entered
th e classroom .
5. A nyone bringing a m essage to a class should wait at the front
until asked by th e teach er to speak. O nly w ritten notes should be
accep ted .
6. W h en th e teach er is addressing the class nobody should raise
his han d b u t not call out.
7. A ny pupil w ishing to answ er a question or attract the teach ­
e r's a tte n tio n should raise his hand b ut not call out.
106
8. Chew ing should not be allow ed since it prevents articulate
speech and singing.
9. At the end of lessons pupils should not m ake an y m ove to
p ack up or leave until teacher has given perm ission and the class
should all sit quietly w hen th ey have p acked until dism issed by
teacher but teachers should not abuse this rule by d e ta in in g pupils
so causing them to be late for their n ex t lesson or, at th e en d of the
day, a school bus.

U nit Four

SPEECH PATTERNS

1. He pointed without looking ...

Mr. Finch poured him self out som e m ore tea, w ithout asking
me.
And w ithout w aiting for her answ er he tu rn ed a n d left us.

2. She hated it more than ever.

H e felt better than ever.


Paul w orks harder th an ever.
I love her m ore than ever.

3. W hy would anyone write about school?

W hy w ould I do a thing like that?


W hy w ould she go to them ? T hey dislike each other.

4. The m an isn't smart enough.

She was lucky eno u g h to g et a job on television.


She's p retty enough to twist any m an round h er little finger.
H e was kind enough to ask the sam e question every day.
107
5. M y father knows as much as my teacher.

H e likes swim m ing alm ost as m uch as his brother.


H e w orked as hard as the rest of the group.

Tom m y screamed with laughter.

The aud ien ce shrieked w ith laughter.


She squealed with excitem ent.
Katie flushed w ith pleasure.

7. How the kids m ust have loved it!

How w eak she m ust have been!


W h at a com fort you m ust have been to your mother!
How he m ust have loved her in the beginning!

EXERCISES

1. Complete the following sentences using the Speech Patterns:

1 .1 led him to th e stu d y w ith o u t.... 2. She tu rn ed away w ithout


... . 3. P ete ... th an ever. 4. The w eather ... than ever. 5. W hy would
h e ...? 6. W hy w o u ld n 't th e g i r l ...? 7. She was n ot clever enough ....
8. She was still y o u n g eno u g h ... . 9. The boy laughed as loudly as
... . 10. She c o u ld n 't jum p as high as ... .11. He grew m erry as
a cricket and ... . 12. The play was so comic that they ... . 13. How
tired she m u s t ...! 14. How they m u s t ...!

2. Paraphrase the following sentences using the Speech Patterns:

1. W hy should he come bothering you w hen he is not invited?


2. She d isappeared into the kitchen and did not notice the girl.
3. Now Jo h n plays th e piano b e tte r than he ever had. 4. M ary
speaks English b e tte r than she ever had. 5. W hy will he wish to
throw aside such an opportunity? 6. W hy do I wish to go to the
trouble of looking after him? 7. She was sufficiently clever to get
w hat she w anted. 8. H e was a nice kid sufficiently old to have his
driver's license. 9. The boy laughed very noisily w hen he took
108
a ride on a m erry-go-round. 10. Kate was very pleased an d her
cheeks becam e red.

3. Translate the following sentences into English

1. Мальчик отправился на каток, не сказав об этом матери. 2. Он


пришел без приглашения и чувствовал себя неловко. 3. В этих сорев­
нованиях у него было больше, чем когда-либо, преимуществ по срав­
нению с его соперниками. 4. Сильнее, чем когда-либо, ему хотелось
отправиться в путешествие. 5. С какой стати я стану принимать ее
приглашение? Она мне глубоко несимпатична. 6. С какой стати Том
будет щадить твои чувства? Ты сам был нетактичен. 7. Семейная
вражда (family feud) была достаточно глубокой, чтобы все отношения
между ними были порваны. 8. Она была достаточно решительна, что­
бы продолжать работу. 9. Кусты были густые, как щетка. 10. Так же
как и ты, я не люблю это блюдо. 11. Она выглядела хорошенькой,
словно картинка из иллюстрированного журнала. 12. Сидя перед те­
левизором, дети покатывались со смеху. 13. Энн вскрикнула от вол­
нения, когда увидела конверт в почтовом ящике. 14. Как он, должно
быть, восхищался этой картиной! 15. Как, должно быть, было тяжело
грести против течения!

4. Make up two sentences of your own on each pattern.

5. Make up situations in dialogue form using the Speech Patterns (to be done
in pairs).

TEXT FOUR

THE FUN THEY HAD

By LAsimov

A professor of biochemistry and a science writer, I.Asimov is well-known as


science fiction writer as well. In 1957 he won the Edison Foundation award for
Building Blocks of the Universe, and in 1960 the Howard W .Blakeslee award for
The Living River in which he analysed the chemical composition of the blood and
related it to other manifestations in our universe. H£is also the author of The Intel­
ligent M an's Guide to Sciences, an encyclopedic work covering in brief essay all of
science for the layman. Besides all this, Lucky Stars and The Pirates o f the Aster­
oids (1953), The Kingdom o f the Sun (i960), The End o f Eternity (1962) are only
a fe^vscience fiction books that came from under his pen.

M argie even w rote about it th at night in her diary.


O n the page h eaded M ay 17, 2157, she wrote, "Today Tom m y
found a real book!"
109
It was a very old book. M argie's grandfather once said that
w hen he was a little boy his grandfather 1 told him th at there was
a tim e w hen all stories w ere printed on paper.
T hey tu rn e d the pages, w hich w ere yellow and crinkly, and it
was awfully funny to read w ords that stood still instead of m oving
the w ay th ey w ere supposed to — on a screen, you know. And then,
w hen th ey tu rn e d back to the page before, it has been the same
w ords on it th at it h ad b e e n w hen th ey read it the first time.
" G e e ," 2 said Tommy, "what a w aste. W hen y o u 're through with
th e book, you ju st throw it away, I guess. 3 O ur television screen
m ust have h ad a m illion books on and it’s good for plenty more.
I w o u ld n 11 throw it away.
"Same w ith m ine," said M argie. She was eleven and h a d n 't seen
as m any telebooks 4 as Tom m y had. H e was thirteen.
She said, "W here did you find it?"
"In m y house." H e pointed-w ithout looking, because he was
bu sy reading. "In th e attic."
"W hat's it about?"
"School."
M argie w as scornful. "School? W h at's there to w rite about
school? I h ate school."
M argie always h a te d school, b ut now she hated it m ore than
ever. The m echanical teacher had b e e n giving her test after test in
geo g rap h y and she had been doing worse and worse until her
m other h ad sh ak en her h ead sorrowfully and sent for the C ounty
Inspector.
H e was a round little m an w ith a red face and a whole box of
tools, w ith dials and wires. H e sm iled at M argie and gave her
an apple, th en took the teacher apart. M argie had hoped he
w o u ld n 't know how to p u t it to g eth er again, b u t he knew all right,
and, after an h o u r or so, there it was again, large and black and
ugly, w ith a big screen on w hich all the lessons w ere shown and the
questions w ere asked. That w asn't so bad. The p art M argie hated
m ost was the slot w here she had to p u t hom ew ork and test papers.
She always h ad to w rite them out in a punch code they m ade her
learn w hen she was six years old and the m echanical teacher calcu­
lated th e m ark in no time.
The Inspector had sm iled after he was finished and p atted M ar­
g ie's head. H e said to h er m other, "It's not the little girl’s fault,
Mrs. Jones, I th in k th e geography sector was geared a little too
quick. Those things h ap p en som etim es. I’ve slowed it up to an av­
110
erage ten year level. Actually, the overall pattern of h e r progress is
quite satisfactory." And he p atted M argie's h ead again.
M argie was disappointed. She had b een hoping th ey w ould
take the teacher away altogether. They had once tak en Tom m y's
teacher away for nearly a m onth because the history sector had
blanked out com pletely.
So she said to Tommy. "W hy w ould anyone w rite about
school?"
Tom m y looked at her with very superior eyes. "Because it's not
our kind of school, s tu p id .5 This is the old kind of school th at they
had hundreds and hun d red s years ago." H e a d d ed loftily, pro­
nouncing the word carefully, "Centuries ago."
M argie was hurt. "Well, I d o n 't know w hat kind of school they
had all that tim e ago." She read the book over his shoulder for
a while, then said, "Anyway, they had a teacher."
"Sure, th ey had a teacher, b u t it w asn 't a regular teacher. It was
a man."
"A man? How could a m an be a teacher?"
"Well, he ju st told the boys and girls things and gave them
hom ew ork and asked them questions."
"A m an isn 't sm art enough."
"Sure 6 he is, M y father knows as m uch as m y teacher."
"He can't. A m an c a n 't know as m uch as a teacher."
"He knows alm ost as m uch, I b e tc h a .7" M argie w asn 't p rep ared
to dispute that. She said. "I w o u ld n 't w ant a strange m an in m y
house to teach me."
Tom m y scream ed w ith laughter. "You d o n 't know m uch, M ar­
gie. The teachers d id n 't live in the house. T hey had a special b u ild ­
ing and all the kids w ent there."
"And all the kids learned the sam e things?"
"Sure, if they w ere the sam e age."
"But m y m other says a teacher has to be adjusted to fit the m ind
of each boy and girl it teaches and th at each kid has to be tau g h t
differently."
"Just the sam e they d id n 't do it th at w ay then. If you d o n 't like
it, you d o n 't have to read the book."
"I d id n 't say I d id n 't like it," M argie said quickly. She w anted to
read-about those funny schools.
They w eren't even hall-finished, w hen M argie's m other called,
"Margie! School!"
M argie looked up. "N ot yet, M amma."
111
"Now!" said Mrs. Jones. "And it's probably tim e for Tommy,
too." M argie said to Tommy, "Can I read the book som e m ore with
you after school?" "M aybe," he said nonchalantly.
H e w alked away, whistling, the dusty old book tu ck ed b eneath
his arm.
M argie w ent into the schoolroom . It was right next to her b e d ­
room an d th e m echanical teacher was on and w aiting for her. It was
always on at the sam e tim e every day, except Saturday and Sun­
day, b ecau se her m other said little girls learned better if they
learned at reg u lar hours.
T he screen lit up, and it said:
"T oday's arithm etic lesson is on the addition of proper frac­
tions. Please insert y esterd ay 's hom ew ork in the proper slot."
M argie did so w ith a sigh. She was thinking about the old
schools th ey had w hen her grandfather's grandfather was a little
boy. All the kids from the w hole neighbourhood cam e laughing
and shouting in th e schoolyard, sitting to g eth er in schoolroom , go­
ing hom e to g eth e r at the end of the day. They learned the sam e
things, so th ey could help one another on the hom ew ork and talk
ab o u t it.
A nd the teachers w ere people ...
The m echanical teach er was flashing on the screen:
"W hen we add the fractions 1/2 and 1/4 8— "M argie was think­
ing ab o u t how the kids m ust have loved it in the old days. She was
thinking about the fun th ey had.

EXPLANATORY NOTES

1. his grandfather: graphic means (italics, bold type, etc.) are very
often used as expressive means of the language to enhance a part of the
utterance in order to convey in written form the emphatic intonation of
the speaker.
2. gee (interj.): a very common mild euphemism based on the first
syllable of the word "Jesus”. Used to express surprise or the like.
(Russian: Вот так так! Вот это да! Здорово!)
3 .1 guess (Am. colloq.): I think.
4. telebooks: authors of science fiction (SF) very often coin new words
to describe advanced technology of the future. The term is used by
I.Asimov in the meaning "books shown on a TV screen".
5. stupid (colloq.): a stupid person.
6. sure (Am. colloq.): inevitably, without fail.
112
7 .1 betcha (illit.): I am sure.
8. 1/2 and 1/4 — one half and one quarter; 1/8 — one eighth; 1/3 —
one third.

ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY

Vocabulary Notes

1. stand v; 1) to be in an upright position, as to stand still (straight,


motionless); to stand with one's back to smb.; to stand in one's light; to
stand leaning against smth., to stand in a line; to stand on end to rise up
on the head as a result of fright or astonishment, e. g. His hair stood on
end. to stand out to be outlined, to be prominent, e. g. The green roof
stood out against the clear sky. His work stands out from that of the
others, to stand up for smb. (smth.) to defend or support smb. (smth.),
e. g. George stood up for precedent, it stands to reason it goes without
saying, e. g. It stands to reason that we must do the job as well as possible.
2) to bear smth., e. g. Montmorency couldn't stand George's music.
I cannot stand heat (pain, his jokes, the climate, etc.). to stand one's
ground to be firm, e. g. Everybody was against him, but he stood his
ground. 3) to remain unchanged, e. g. The agreement stands. 4) to
provide and pay for, as to stand treat (г. e. pay the bill); 5) to support,
e. g. We must stand by each other. 6) to be, e. g. He stands 6 foot in
height, to stand for to mean, e. д. M.P. stands for Member of Parliament.
2. hate vt to have a strong dislike for; wish evil to; (colloq.) regret,
e. g. My cat hates dogs. I hate troubling you (to trouble you).
hate n hatred; extreme dislike or ill-will, e. g. He was filled with hate
for his enemy.
hateful adj feeling, showing or causing hate, as a hateful crime,
hateful glances, hateful lie.
hatred л hate; strong ill-will; (colloq.) strong dislike, e. g. He looked at
me with hatred in his eyes.
3. smile vi/t 1) to have a smile on one's face, e. g. He never smiles.
What are you smiling at? Fortune has always smiled on (upon) him. 2) to
express by smiling; drive away by smiling, as to smile away vexation
(grief), e. g. He is not a man to smile away vexation.
smile n 1) the act of smiling; a smiling expression, e. g. There was
a pleasant (cruel, ironical, etc.) smile on her face, to be all smiles to look
pleased, e. g. The little boy's face was all smiles when he saw his new toy.
2) pi._fa.vour, support, as to enjoy the smiles of fortune.
4. pat vi/t 1) to tap or hit smth. lightly (often as a sign of affection), as
to pat a dog, e. g. Amy patted her shoulder with warmth. 2) to carry out
the action of patting, make a patting sound, e. g. She patted the books
into a neat pile. He patted his foot listening to the music.
113
pat n 1) a slight tap or stroke given with the open hand, e. g. He gave
me a friendly pat on the shoulder. 2) a light sound made by striking
lightly with smth. flat.
5. take v i/t 1) to seize or lay hold of with the hand(s), or with
an instrument; to grasp, capture, as to take a person's hand, to take hold
of smth., to take a man prisoner; 2) to accept; receive; buy regularly,
e. g. He took the house for a year. Who took the first prize? I shall take
a holiday tomorrow. He was taking a nap. You must take your chance.
3) to carry; remove; borrow without permission; steal, e. g. Take these
letters to the post. He’s always taking other people's ideas. 4) to go with;
conduct; escort, as to take a guest home; 5) to feel; experience, as to take
pride in one's work, to take an interest in politics; 6) to eat; drink; receive
into the system, e. g. He took a deep breath. 7) to assume; presume;
conclude; suppose; regard; understand, e. д. I took him to be an honest
man. Do you take my meaning? We may take it for granted. 8) to assume
a certain attitude, e. g. Take care what you say. Did he take any notice of
you? He has taken a dislike to me. She took her little brother to task. He
took great pains to help me.
take after to resemble, e. g. Whom do you take after in your family?
take down 1) to pull down, take to pieces, as to take down an old
building; 2) to write down from dictation, e. g. The postmistress began to
take down the message.
take in 1) to receive, admit, as to take in lodgers; 2) to make smaller,
reduce, as to take in a dress; 3) to understand, as to take in a lecture; 4) to
deceive, cheat, as to be taken in when buying a watch.
take off 1) to remove, as to take off one's hat, coat; 2) to take one's
departure, to set off, e. g. The plane took off from Croydon airport. 3) to
leave, to depart (informal), e. g. Take yourself off.
take over to succeed to; assume control of (a business, management,
duties, etc.), e. g. When shall you be ready to take over?
take to 1) to form a liking for, e. g. The baby gas taken to her new
nursemaid. 2) to fall into the habit of, e. g. He took to gardening when he
retired.
take up 1) to occupy, e. g. The work takes up too much time. 2) to
admit, e. g. The bus stopped to take up passengers. A sponge takes up
water. 3) to continue; pursue further, as to take up one's story.
take up with to associate with, e. g. She had taken up lately with June.
6. level n a flat area of surface; a degree of height (lit. and fig.), as to be
above (below) sea-level; the level of knowledge (development); low (high,
average, cultural, intellectual, economic, scientific) level; to be on a level
with smth. (smb.), e. g. The water in the river was on a level with the
banks. His knowledge is quite on a level with a fourth-year student's, on
the level (colloq.) honest(ly), e. g. Is he on the level?
level adj 1) having a flat, horizontal surface, as level road, level
ground; to make a surface level; 2) even, well-balanced, steady, as to
speak in a level voice, e. g. He has a level head (is level-headed), syn. flat.
114
level vt 1) to make level or flat, as to level a building (a village, a city)
to the ground, e. g. The German fascists levelled many villages to the
ground. 2) to bring to a horizontal position; to raise and aim, e. g. The
hunter levelled his gun at the beast.
7. regular adj 1) unchanging, usual, habitual, as regular habits; to
keep regular hours, e. g. He has no regular work. 2) following, or arranged
according to a rule, a plan, or definite order; harmonious, as regular
features, a regular figure; 3) properly qualified; recognized, trained, as
a regular doctor; the regular army; 4) (colloq.) through; complete, as
a regular rascal.
regularly adv 1) in a regular manner, as a garden regularly laid out;
2) at regular intervals, constantly; habitually, e. g. He was practising
regularly for the last two weeks.
8. scream vi/t 1) (of human beings, birds and animals) to give a loud,
sharp cry, esp. of pain or strong emotion; (of human beings) to say in
a shrill loud voice, as to scream in anger, to scream with laughter,
e. g. The baby screamed all night. This parrot screams but does not talk.
2) (of wind, machines, etc.) to make a long loud shrill noise, e. g. The jets
screamed overhead.
scream n a loud, shrill, piercing cry, expressing pain, fear, anger, etc.,
e. g. The sound of the screams was loud enough for him to hear,
a (perfect) scream (colloq.) a person or thing that is very funny or
ridiculous, e. g. "Reginald, you are now the head of the family." —
"I know," I said. "Isn't it a scream?"
9. fit vi/t 1) to be the right shape orsize (for); to be fit or suitable (for),
e. g. This coat does not fit me. This key doesn't fit the lock. 2) to make
suitable or ready; cause (a thing or person) to be of the right or suitable
size, shape, condition, etc. (for), as to fit oneself for one's new duties; to fit
a plank in a floor; to fit smth. on to put on (a coat, etc.) in order to make it
fit, e. д. I am going to the tailor's to have my coat fitted on; to fit in to
occupy or have a suitable or right position or relation, e. g. How will my
arrangements for the holidays fit in with yours?
fit adj 1) suitable or suited (for); good enough (for), e. g. The man is
not fit for the position. Do as you think fit. We must decide on a fit time
and place. 2) proper, right, e. g. He didn't think fit to do what I suggested.
3) strong and well; in good health, e. д. I hope you're feeling quite fit. He
has been ill and is fit for nothing.
10. love vt 1) to have a strong affection or deep, tender feeling for; be
in love with, as to love one's parents, one's country; 2) to have kind
feeling towards, e. g. You ought to love children to become a teacher.
3) tcLbe very fond of; enjoy, find pleasure in, as to love comfort (golf, sea­
bathing), e. g. She loves to have (loves having) a lot of dogs round her.
"Will you come with me?" — "I should love to."
love n 1) strong liking; friendliness, tenderness, as a love of learning;
a love* of one's country, unrequited love; to give (send) one's love to

115
to give, send an affectionate greeting; not to be had for love or money
impossible to get by any means; 2) a feeling of affection, passion or desire
between the sexes; to be in love (with) to have this feeling, e. g. Learnder
was in love with Hero, to fall in love (with) to begin to love; to be (to fall)
head over heels in love (with) syn. affection, devotion.

Word Combinations and Phrases

to be through with to read (look at) smth.


to give smb. a test in over smb.'s shoulder
to take smth. apart to get (be) adjusted to
to put smth. together some more (of)
in no time next to
to flash smth. on a screen

READING COMPREHENSION EXERCISES

1. a) Listen to the recording of Text Four and mark the stresses and tunes,
b) Repeat the text in the intervals after the model.

2. Put twenty questions to the text.

3. Copy out from Text Four the sentences containing the word combinations
and phrases given on p. 116 and translate them into Russian.

4. Paraphrase the following sentences using the word combinations and


phrases (p. 116).

1. It m ay tak e a while to reach the end of that pile of w ork on


Saturday. 2. I shall have n o thing m ore to do w ith this fellow. 3. The
teach er exam ined us in English. 4. He exam ines the class on their
hom ew ork. 5. It's m uch easier to take the recorder to pieces than to
join them correctly again. 6. The dining-room was em pty, except
for the table nearest to ours. 7. She p u t down the box of pow der
and tu rn e d h er head round and looked back at me. 8. A piano stool
should be m ade suitable to the height of the player. 9. I was sur­
prised th at th ey retu rn ed very quickly. 10. The m echanical teacher
show ed a new picture on the screen.

5. Translate the following sentences into English using the word combina­
tions and phrases (p. 116):

1. Он был рад, что закончил свои дела. 2. Сегодня я дам своему


классу контрольную работу по английской литературе. 3. Он пожа­
116
лел, что взялся чинить бритву сам. Разобрать ее было легче, чем со­
брать. 4. Дети иногда ломают игрушки, чтобы посмотреть, как они
устроены. 5. Я оглянулся и увидел, что собака бежит за мной. 6. Я уве­
рен, что вы знаете человека, который сидел рядом с вами. 7. Его глаза
привыкли к темноте. 8. Умоляю, расскажите мне еще немного о ней.
9. Я оглянулся и посмотрел опять на залив. 10. На экране обучающей
машины вспыхнуло новое задание.

6. Use as many of the word combination and phrases (p. 116) as possible in
one situation.

7. Compose a short situation in a dialogue form for each of the word combi­
nations and phrases (to be done in pairs).

8. Find in Text Four English equivalents for the following words, word com­
binations and phrases. Use them in sentences:

записать в дневнике; покончить с чем-л.; покачать головой; разоб­


рать на части; какая расточительность; дела у нее шли все хуже
и хуже; мгновенно; смотреть на кого-л. с превосходством; быть заде­
тым за живое; приспособиться; с книгой под мышкой; помогать
делать домашние задания; складывать дроби; контрольная работа

9. Explain what is meant by:

1. O n the page h ead ed M ay 17, 2157 ... . 2. ... it was awfully


funny to read words that stood still instead of m oving the w ay they
w ere supposed to ... . 3. W hen you are th rough w ith th e book,
you just throw it away, I guess. 4. W h a t's there to w rite about
school? 5. The part M argie h ated m ost was th e slot w here she had
to p ut hom ew ork and test papers. 6. ... the m echanical tea c h e r cal­
culated the m ark in no time. 7. I think th e g eo g rap h y secto r was
geared a little too quick. 8. Actually, the overall p a tte rn of her
progress is quite satisfactory. 9.... a teach er has to be ad ju sted to fit
the m ind of each boy or girl it teaches ... . 10. T hey w e re n 't even
half-finished ....

10. Answer the following questions and do the given tasks:

1. The story by I.Asimov is science fiction. W hat facts in the


preseTit-day life m ade him w rite it? Is it w ritten to am use the reader
or to w arn him against possible problem s of the future? 2. W h at do
you think of the role of different technical aids th at m odern tec h n o l­
ogy puts at the disposal of th e teacher? 3. W hat is th e com position
117
of the story? In w hat parts does it fall? Are the details well chosen?
4. C om m ent on the closing lines of the story. How are they co nnect­
ed w ith the preced in g passages? Sum up the central idea of the sto­
ry. 5. A ccount for the w ord "regular" and others being set off g raphi­
cally. W h at effect is achieved by it? 6. M ark the features of
colloquial sp eech in the story. 7. M ake up a list of w ords and word
com binations describing school procedures.

11. Retell Text Four a) close to the text; b) as if you were Tommy; c) as if you
were Margie.

12. Write a summary of Text Four.

13. Act out dialogues between:

1. M argie and her grandfather talking about books.


2. Two children discussing th e school of th e future after reading
A sim ov's story.
3. Two foreign language teachers discussing the advantages
and disadvantages of "a m echanical teacher" if com pared to
"a m an teacher".

14. Choose a topic that interests you most and discuss it:

1. T eaching m achines have com e to stay.


2. C onceptions of the school of a non-distant and distant future
w hich you know.
3. Science fiction as genre and its place in m odern literature.
4. W hat o ther books, stories on the future of school and upbring­
ing of children do you know? Sum up their m ain points.

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

1. Study the Vocabulary Notes and translate the illustrative examples into
Russian.

2. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the words
and word combinations in bold type:

A. 1. For a m om ent th ey stood face to face quite close to each


other. 2. T he soldiers stood at attention w hen the com m ander
118
spoke to them. 3. Please help instead of m erely standing by.
4 .1can't stand people who laugh at other people. 5. It stands to rea­
son th at such things o ught not to be done. 6. The police beg an
throw ing tear-gas bom bs b u t the w orkers stood their ground.
7. Every tim e a car passed me, m y hair stood on end. 8. T he gray
front of the house stood out well from the b ack g ro u n d of
a rookery. 9. He usually hates town in A ugust, b u t w hen th ere 's
som e special reason he can stand it. 10. She flung the hateful piece
of paper in the fire. 1 1 .1 have never seen such hatred in som eone's
eyes before. 12. He smiled at m e over his cup of tea. 13. H e co n sid ­
ered me solem nly w ithout the trace of a smile. 14. R obert gave
him a flat weak smile. 15. His sister sm iled through tears.
16. He continued to pat h er gently on the shoulder. 1 7 .1 patted my
hair in front of the looking-glass. 18. I took great pains with the
planning of my lessons. 19. These are the term s. You can eith er take
them or leave them. 20. H e w o n 't take "no" for an answer.
21. His voice is rem arkably fine and he takes great pride in it.
22. She looked at m e as if I had taken leave of my senses. 2 3 .1 had
no suspicion that this new feeling had taken root so deeply. 24. W e
can take it for granted th at G arton and Brown w ere th e sam e man.
25. I could see th at he was not entirely taken in by m y words.
26. Every one of m y frocks m ust be taken in — it's such a skeleton
I'm growing. 27. Mr. A ngleby is taking over Mr. E rik's job as su p er­
intendent. 28. Then he took to w alking along th e street wjiich she
m ust pass through to get to the shops. 2 9 .1 could see by th e thin line
of C olonel Ju ly an 's m outh th at he had not taken to Favell.
В. 1 .1 c a n 't shut the w indow from ground level. 2. A t this eleva­
tion of m ore than a mile above sea level, Mrs. A drian found it diffi­
cult to m aintain a rapid pace. 3. The road ran straight for a long way
through level fields. 4. And th en his level mind tu rn e d an d tried to
see her point of view. 5. H er voice was level, dispirited an d show ed
no interest. 6. Do you have regular hours? — I w ork w hen Doc
works. 7. Dave ... is always urging m e to tak e a regular job.
8. He rather liked her severe regular features. 9. W h at brings you
here? Y ou're not one of our regulars? 10. The tru th scream ed in
th e irfa c e s and they did n ot see it. 11. Som ew here across the lake
sounded the thin scream of a wom an. 12. M ildred sto p p ed scream ­
ing as quickly as she started. 13. The dress they b o u g h t the nex t day
... fitted her slim body to perfection. 14. A nd Ava, fitting her key
119
into the lock g ot into the room. 15. I'm ... ju st me. A nd the thing
about being m e is th at I'd fit into the situation. 16. She also thought
how well th at p art w ould fit M aggie on the stage. 17. They w ere all
fitting into place, the jig-saw pieces. 1 8 .1 c a n 't fit in with that th eo ­
ry of yours. 19. Ask him som e questions and see w hat group h e's fit
for. 20. I'm always very fit, never had anything w rong with m e in my
life. 21. If she loved him she w ould wait for him through thick and
thin. 2 2 .1 love the play, it’s a brilliant piece of work. 23. She did not
adm it to herself th at she was falling in love.

3. Paraphrase the following sentences using your active vocabulary:

A. 1. I dislike the girl im m ensely. 2. O ur previous arrangem ent


rem ains unaltered. 3. I stick to m y opinion no m atter w hat is said.
4. I w ould strongly dislike any of you if you m istreat an animal.
5. His careful concealm ent of such an ill-will was a characteristic
feature of a m an of his iron self-restraint. 6. I have a strong dislike
to people who laugh at me. 7. She asked m e no further questions
b u t gave Rosalind an affectionate light tap on the shoulder. 8. She
stooped to stroke her dog. 9. She had a passion for gardening. It is
h er pastim e now. 1 0 .1 g ot to like him at first sight. 11. D on't you try
this gam e on me, you w o n 't deceive me. 12. The news was so over­
w helm ing, I c o u ld n 't un d erstan d it at once. 13. The plane was start­
ing off w hen he got to the airport. 14. These small houses are to be
cleared aw ay to m ake room for a new big building. 15. He form ed
a habit of cycling the 15 m iles to W allington. 16. She did not have
a liking for living in the country as m uch as I had hoped she would.
17. I d ropped m edicine and began to stu d y physics.
B. 1. At last he began to speak, his voice even and cold. 2. The
w ater rose until it was as high as the river banks. 3. His w ell-bal­
an ced com m on sense was always soothing. 4. She w ent upstairs to
accom plish h er habitual work. 5. T oday at the usual m eeting, the
q u estion of y our future was bro u g h t up. 6. A m om ent later they
h eard two people giving loud cries of pain from downstairs. 7. The
bird gave a shrill cry as if it w anted to w arn its m ate of danger.
8. The ring was the right size for the third finger of her right
hand. 9. W as the boat in a proper state to p u t to sea? 10. He is not
good eno u g h to w ipe the shoes of M onique’s father. 11. The book
is out of print an d I cannot g et it by any m eans.
120
4. Explain or comment on the following sentences:

A. 1. She stands five foot two. 2. The arran g em en t stands.


3. W ho's going to stand treat? 4. P. O. stands for post-office. 5. Stand
this ladder against the wall. 6. H e left the train on a m orning w hen
the therm om eter stood at over a hundred in the shade. 7. T hey knew
they w ould stand by each other in scrapes. 8. But M uriel, even if all
thought her wrong, had tak en her decision and stood her ground.
9. I hate the way he treats his sister. 10. For the first tim e in her life
she felt she hated a wom an. 11. Suzanne likes thrills, b u t she hates
being uncom fortable. 12. She had b eau ty th at endures and a smile
that was not forgotten. 13. His polite smile froze on his lips. 14.1 stood
up straight, patting m y hair into place. 15. She stopped ab ru p tly and
p atted my arm. 16. Justice m ust take its course. 17. She was the kind
of young w om an who could take care of herself w ith perfect ease.
18. So Elizabeth took herself to task very severely, and, of course,
rather overdid it. 19. Eden believes in taking his tim e, in g athering
other p eople's opinions. 20. You go back to th at school and see
w hether you can take up w here you left off. 21. A nd in d eed it looked
as though she took pains not to be alone with him. 2 2 .1 p roposed to
give up the scientific career and tak e to w riting novels. 23. H e gazed
at Mrs. Septim us Small w ho took after J a m e s — long and thin.
24. H e k ep t h er after hours to tak e dictation. 25. W h at do you take
m e for? A com plete fool? 26. .. M ichael took him in from h ead to
foot. 27. All w om en like to have atten tio n paid to them , to b e tak e n
out, given a good tim e ... . 28. I found th at she had tak en it for
granted th at m y wife and I d id n ' t g et on ....
B. 1. The bed was so high that, as I sat by its side, m y face was on
a level w ith his. 2. The old tram p steam er ch u g g ed gen tly an d al­
m ost noiselessly over the soft level sea. 3. A m an step p ed out from
behind one of the lorries and levelled a rifle. 4. T im othy's eyes left
the fly and levelled them selves on his visitor. 5. She shifted the
conversation to a less dangerous level. 6. Pason looked at him, with
a level gaze. 7. The tables w ere on a level w ith each other. 8. "Do
you w ant m e to start scream ing?" she asked angrily. 9. It's
a scream the w ay the girls in his office have fallen for him. 10. Any
one has a right to scream if he does not obtain a position, w hen he
is fitted for it. 11. I should like to try on this d re s s .— W ell, M a­
dam e, step into the fitting-room . 12. H e tried a half-dozen keys be-
fore^tie found one th at fitted the lock. 13. Sir R euben had th e place
fitted up as a bedroom . 14. I have p u t m ost of th e b ro k en parts to ­
gether but I c a n 't fit this piece in. 15. Ja n e loves w hen you tak e her
out fpr a ride in your car.
121
5. Translate the following sentences into English:

A. 1. Отойдите, пожалуйста, немного в сторону: вы мне загоражи­


ваете свет. 2. Никогда бы не подумала, что этот робкий с виду человек
будет так твердо отстаивать свои права. 3. Само собой разумеется, что
эти изменения временные, и мы вернемся к старому порядку, когда
наш руководитель поправится и возобновит работу. 4. Он слишком
болен, чтобы ехать куда-нибудь: он не перенесет поездки. 5. Я был
уверен, что прав, и твердо решил стоять на своем. 6. Я не понимаю, что
символизируют эти буквы. 7. Такие вещи надо говорить в лицо, а не за
глаза. 8. Он терпеть не может суеты. 9. Я буду ненавидеть Эдди до са­
мой смерти. Мое равнодушие к ней превратилось в ненависть. 11. Она
поздоровалась с ним с приветливой улыбкой. 12. Лицо ребенка засия­
ло, когда он увидел новогоднюю елку. 13. «Грег, ты для меня такое уте­
шение!» — сестра улыбнулась сквозь слезы. 14. Меня раздражал глу­
хой шум дождя, барабанившего по крыше. 15. Он продолжал нежно
гладить ее по плечу, ожидая, пока она успокоится. 16. Он выровнял
книги, уложив их аккуратной стопкой. 17. Миссис Ролсон попроща­
лась и ушла, чтобы успеть на поезд. 18. Он очень гордился успехами
своего класса по английскому языку. 19. Друзья приложили большие
усилия (очень старались), чтобы приготовить ирландское рагу.
20. Когда няня увидела, как мальчик перепачкался, она отчитала его
очень сердито. 21. Дети принимали как само собой разумеющееся,
что отец должен любить и баловать их. 22. Я приняла вас за вашу сест­
ру. Вы похожи как близнецы. 23. Она решила начать новую жизнь и
занялась живописью. 24. Каждый день, после его бесед с клиентами,
она писала стенограмму под его диктовку.
B. 1. Если мы найдем раненого в доме, я поверю, что старик честен
и говорил правду. 2. На мили и мили кругом это было единственное
плоское место. 3. Когда Анна начала говорить, ее голос был спокой­
ным и холодным. 4. Том выхватил пистолет из его руки и прицелился
в Сандерса. 5. Прямые брови Джейн сошлись, когда она нахмури­
лась. 6. Он всегда вел размеренную жизнь и редко ездил в город.
7. Почему бы тебе не найти постоянную работу? 8. Пронзительный
крик совы достиг невероятно высокой ноты, упал и затих в ночи.
9. Руфь отрезала кусок серебряной бумаги по размеру книги и стала
заворачивать ее. 10. У нее не было платья, подходящего к случаю.
11. Погода такая плохая, что не подходит для прогулок. 12. Том очень
общителен и может приноровиться к любой компании. 13. Ее черные
волосы гармонировали с ее круглым лицом и раскосыми глазами.
14. Она отправилась примерять новое платье и вернется нескоро.
15. Кэт, не присоединитесь ли вы к нам? — Спасибо, с удовольстви­
ем. 16. Я была влюблена в него, как говорится, по уши.

6. Give English equivalents for the following words and phrases:

само собой разумеется; поддерживать; выдерживать испытание


(боль, жару); заплатить за угощение; символизировать; мне очень
неудобно беспокоить вас; злобный взгляд; отвратительное преступ­
122
ление; фортуна всегда улыбается ему (ему всегда везет); иметь до­
вольно сияющий вид; взять в плен; получить первый приз; рискнуть;
гордиться чем-л.; стараться изо всех сил; вздремнуть; принять как
само собой разумеющееся; сильно удивиться; выше (ниже) уровня
моря; средний уровень; на одном уровне с ...; честно; ровная дорога;
ровный голос; иметь спокойный (уравновешенный) характер; наце­
ливать ружье; правильные черты лица; постоянная работа; неудер­
жимо смеяться; умора; примерять; подогнать половицу; совпадать с
подходящее время и место; с охотой (удовольствием); передать
привет; ни за какие деньги.

7. Give situations in which you would say the following:

1. She'd a sharp tongue and sh e 'd stand up to anybody. 2 . 1 c a n 't


stand it! 3. All right, if you w ant to stand up for him, it's n o thing to
me. 4. I've never seen such hatred in som eone's eyes before. 5 .1 shall
hate you till the day I die. 6. N ever fear — I will take care of myself.
7, But it will take hours. 8. Easy, we d id n 't call that com m ittee
m eeting; d o n 't take it out on us. 9. T ake a w eek to think it over.
10. He is a sound level-headed m an. 11. I am sure she is on the
level and has nothing in com m on w ith these people. 12. H e is
always urging m e to take a regular job. 13. Yes, it all fits so far. But
w hat does it m ean? 14. Oh, it does fit me! And do you really think
I look nice in it? 15. I love the book, it's a brilliant piece of work.
16. I'd love to come.

8. Make up and act out a dialogue using the word combinations and phrases:

1. to fit to perfection; to smile to oneself; to take it for granted;


to p u t smth. into place; to stand out; to fall in love with.
2. to scream with laughter; level voice; to pat ... affectionately;
tolerant smile; I'd love to
3. to keep regular hours; to take to; to be tak en aback; to take
care of; to hate; it stands to reason; to stand o n e's ground, level­
h eaded

9. Find in Text Four and copy out phrases in which the preposition or adverb
‘up’ is used. Translate the phrases into Russian.

10. Fill in "up" or "down" where necessary:

l."M y sister was very ill and I had to sit ... all n ig h t w ith her.
2. This little stream never dries .... 3. You have w orked very well so
far, keep it ... . 4. You have got the story all m ixed ... . 5. I brushed
... m y recollections of the m ap of England. 6. I'll clear ... this .mess.
7. A heavy snowfall held ... the trains from the N orth. 8 . 1 cam e ... to
123
the country cottage for the w eek-end. 9. They w ent ... the sq u eak ­
ing stair. 10. A red tractor craw led slowly ... and ... a large field.
11. D on't tu rn ... the com ers of the pages of your books.

11. Translate the following sentences into English. Pay attention to the prep­
ositions:

1. В пять утра я была уже на ногах и, не теряя времени, принялась


за работу. 2. Повесьте ваше пальто здесь, я покажу вам, как пройти
в его комнату. 3. Я подняла носовой платок. Это не ваш? 4. Ее родите­
ли умерли, когда она еще была маленькой, и ее воспитала тетя.
5. Мальчик перевернул ящик вверх дном, и игрушки рассыпались по
всему полу. 6. Я не ложилась всю ночь и сейчас с ног валюсь от уста­
лости. 7. Давайте поднимемся на этот холм, оттуда очень красивый
вид на реку. 8. Я неважно себя чувствую, пожалуй, я пойду прилягу.
9. Я не люблю смотреть вниз с большой высоты, у меня кружится го­
лова. 10. Лучше запишите мой адрес в записную книжку, вы можете
потерять этот листок бумаги. 11. Радио говорит слишком громко,
приглуши его.

12. a) Give the Russian equivalents for the following English proverbs and
sayings, b) Make up situations to illustrate their meanings:

1. A friend's frown is b e tte r than a foe's smile. 2. An em pty


sack cannot stand upright. 3. Borrowed garm ents never fit well.
4. Faults are thick w here love is thin. 5. Love will creep w here it
m ay not go.

CONVERSATION AND DISCUSSION

BRINGING UP CHILDREN

Topical Vocabulary

1. Basic principles: to bring up (raise) children, to avoid pitfalls,


th e form ative years, to progress (regress) in o n e's developm ent,
stu n ted developm ent, physical and m ental developm ent, to en ­
courage a child, to let children grow naturally, to treat children
like ..., to develop m ore quickly th an previous generations, to gain
in d ep e n d e n c e from parents, to grow up, to be m ature, an effective
approach, a peaceful and relaxed m anner.
2. Basic qualities: love, security, care, affection, respect, p a­
tience, reassurance, hap p y hom e backgrounds, responsible
adults, not to feel neglected, to be sensitive to o n e's feelings, to
124
be too wise to argue, to speak firmly, to be consistent, to be fair,
to have no favourites, to show m uch patience (plenty of love).
3. Handling children: to have full faith in, to k eep an g er u n d e r
control, capacity to restrain anger, to cause enorm ous dam age, n ot
to force o ne's will on a child, to avoid labelling children (stupid, sil­
ly, foolish), to listen to children w ith u n d erstan d in g and sym pathy,
to win smb. over, to avoid statem ents (comments) w hich can create
argum ents and tension, to shake sm b.'s confidence, to offend
sm b.'s self-respect, to prevent crises.
4. Atmosphere: friendly, not authoritarian, dignified, un co m ­
fortable, em barrassing, an atm osphere of calm and quiet, to let
steam off, to put fat in the fire, to lose o ne's tem per, not to create
tension (s), to be said in the h eat of the m om ent.
5. Praise: direct praise of personality, realistic (idealized) p ic­
ture of sm b.'s personality, to exaggerate praise out of all p ro p o r­
tion, to give a realistic picture of a child's accom plishm ents, to
concentrate on a child's strength and not his w eakness, to keep
away from general rem arks about anyone's personality.
6. Punishment: to scream and yell at, not to h it children, to be
bound to lose, spanking, to cause m ental illnesses (psychological
dam age), to beat the daylights out of smb., to shake the life out of
smb., to be asham ed of oneself, the best w ay to criticize, to say
nothing, a direct reprim and, to answ er back, a beating, to lock chil­
dren up, not to speak with a child deliberately, to ignore a child,
an undesirable form of punishm ent, sarcasm , to w ork out all sorts
of schem es for revenge, to tell smb. off (to give smb. a telling off).
7. Discipline. Behaviour. Manner: to discipline smb., a w ay of
teaching politeness, to be punctual, to in terru p t a conversation, to
get quarrelsom e, the art of living together, to lead to frayed nerves
for days on end, to develop a conscience in smb., not a w ord of
blam e, not to im pose anything on children, to en courage inner d e ­
velopm ent, to give children a choice, to h eighten sm b.'s self-confi-
dence, a beneficial and corrective influence on smb., to leave a d e ­
cision to the child, to teach smb. m anners.
8. Children's reaction: to live up to sm b.'s expectation, to do
smth. on purpose, to have adm onitions and w arnings, to b e e n co u r­
aged to ask questions, to be curious and inquisitive, to learn by im ­
itation, to feel part of the family, to hate questions w hich try to
trap, to be pushed into m aking up lies, to choose betw een telling
a lie or giving em barrassing answers, to ap preciate sm th, to be-
corfte full of resentm ent, to becom e a nuisance (resentful, spirit­
less, delinquent).
125
1. Read the text for obtaining its information.

Parents are Too Permissive


with Their Children Nowadays

Few people w ould defend the V ictorian attitu d e to children, but


if you w ere a p a re n t in those days, at least you knew w here you
stood: children w ere to be seen and not heard. Freud and com pany
did aw ay w ith all that and p arents have b een bew ildered ever since.
... The ch ild's happiness is all-im portant, the psychologists say,
b u t w hat about the paren ts' happiness? Parents suffer constantly
from fear a n d g uilt while their children gaily rom p ab o u t pulling the
p lace apart. A good old-fashioned spanking is out of the question:
no m odern child-rearing m anual w ould perm it such barbarity. The
trouble is you are not allow ed even to shout ... C ertainly a child
n e e d s love ... and a lot of it. But the excessive perm issiveness of
m odern p arents is surely doing m ore harm than good.
Psychologists have succeed ed in underm ining parents' confi­
d ence in their own authority. And it h a sn 't tak en children long to
g et w ind of the fact. In addition to the great m odern classics on child
care, th ere are countless articles in m agazines and new spapers.
W ith so m uch unsolicited advice flying about, m um and dad just
d o n 't know w hat to do any m ore. In th e end, th ey do nothing at all.
So, from early childhood, the kids are in charge and parents' lives
are reg u lated according to the needs of their offspring. W hen the
little dears develop into teenagers, they take com plete control. Lax
au thority over the years m akes adolescent rebellion against parents
all the m ore violent. If th e young people are going to have a party,
for instance, p arents are asked to leave the house. Their presence
m erely spoils the fun. W hat else can the poor parents do but obey?
C hildren are h ardy creatures (far hardier than the psychologists
w ould have us believe) and m ost of them survive the harm ful influ­
ence of extrem e perm issiveness w hich is the norm al condition in
the m odern household. But a great m any do not. T he spread of ju ­
venile d elin q u en cy in our own age is largely d ue to parental laxity.
M other, believing th at little J o h n n y can look after himself, is not at
hom e w hen he returns from school, so little Jo h n n y roam s the
streets. The dividing line betw een perm issiveness and sheer negli­
g ence is very fine indeed.
The psychologists have m uch to answer. They should keep their
m ouths sh u t and let parents g et on with the job. A nd if children are
k n ocked ab o u t a little bit in the process, it m ay not really m atter
too m uch ... Perhaps, th ere 's som e tru th in the idea that children
126
w ho've had a surfeit of happiness in their childhood em erge like
stodgy puddings and fail to m ake a success of life.

2. Answer the following questions:

1. W hat are m odern psychological ideas in the field of bringing up


children? 2. W hy do you think the author of the text rejects them ?
3. The author regrets the fact that parents are not allowed "even to
shout". Do you think that shouting can lead to understanding and is
good w hen speaking with children? W ould you say th at anger does
nothing but harm? Give reasons for your answer. 4. W h at's your
attitude towards "good old-fashioned spanking" and physical
punishm ent in general? D on't you regard it as the line of least
resistance w hich is resorted to w hen a parent is just too exhausted to
think of better ways if dealing with a child? 5. W hat is the result of
the underm ined parents' confidence in their own authority accor­
ding to the author's point of view? 6. Do you think doing nothing
with children is the best solution? 7. To w hat results can lax authority
lead? 8. Do you think that children should always obey their p a ­
rents? W hat about parents obeying their children to m ake them h a p ­
py? 9. W ould you agree with the author that extrem e perm issiveness
is harmful for children and can result in negative developm ent?
10. Two extrem es discussed in the text do not seem to produce good
effect. W hat do you think is im portant in order to have norm al
relations betw een parents and children? Is tolerance necessary?

3. Find in the text the arguments the author gives to illustrate the following:

1. im possibility to defend V ictorian attitu d e to children; 2. p a r­


ents' sufferings due to u nderm ined confidence in authority;
3. harm ful effect of excessive parents' perm issiveness; 4. p arents'
decision to regulate lives according to ch ildren's needs; 5. paren tal
la x ity — dividing line betw een perm issiveness an d negligence;
6. people to blam e.
Try and preserve the wording of the original. Add your arguments as well.

4. Summarize the text in four paragraphs showing that love and care so im­
portant in the process of bringing up children is not the same as permissiveness
and negligence.

5. Use the Topical Vocabulary in answering the questions:

,1. W hat is done in this country to m ake the child a responsible


person? 2. W hat are the basic pattern s of upbringing, b o th w ithin
127
the fam ily and in collective situations? W hat roles do parents,
school and age-segregated groups play in bringing up children?
4. W hat is th e role of m other and father in a m odern family? 5. Is a
young m other m ore eager than previous generations to enroll her
child in nursery? W hy? 6. Do you consider grandparents and their
influence im portant in the process of upbringing? 7. How does the
regular school using the w ell-proven techniques of collective u p ­
bringing care for the individual needs of a child? 8. W hat is m ore
im portant in the process of upbringing school (teachers, collective)
or hom e (parents) background? 9. W hat hom e atm osphere encour­
ages a child's developm ent? 10. W hat are the best ways, in your
opinion, to praise and punish a child? 11. Do you think child-care
books necessary for young parents? W hat else can be helpful?

6. What solution can you offer for the following problems?

1. "To th e average child his parents are kill-joys. They are al­
ways saying "No". No gettin g dirty, no jum ping on the sofa, no
ru nning around naked, no hitting the little sister."
2. “M uch m ore th an a direct rebuke, sarcasm infuriates chil­
dren. It m akes them com pletely irrational and they direct all their
energies to planning counter-attacks. They will be com pletely
p reoccupied with revenge fantasies. Sarcasm not only serves to
deflate a child's standing in his own eyes b u t in the eyes of his
friends as well."
3. "I d o n 't like Jam es to play with Paul next door. Paul uses very
bad language, and Jam es will pick it up. But Paul is Jam es's best
friend and he sneaks out an d sees him very often. So I lock him up
in the bathroom as a punishm ent. Som etim es I deliberately d o n 't
sp eak to him for hours on end."

7. Read the following dialogue between Mrs. Brent and Mr. Alden, a teacher.
The expressions in bold type show the WAYS ENGLISH PEOPLE COMPLAIN.
Note them down. Be ready to act out the dialogue in class.

A: W ould you like an o th er cup of tea or som ething?


B: W ell, n o .......Thanks ju st the same.
A: I am sorry to have to say this, b ut w hat w ould our youngsters
do w ithout the youth centre? T hey'd be p retty lost, w ouldn't they?
B: It's all right I suppose.
A: Er ... w ould you care to dance, Mrs. Brent?
B: T hank you ... b u t no. The m usic isn 't of m y generation. You
know ... the generation gap. W hen I was young I'd never dared
speak as our children do. Especially w ith a teacher present.
128
A: We've got a bit of a problem here, you see. It's part of m y job
to know people ... and especially young people ... as th ey are. And
really the so-called generation gap is a m yth you know. T eenagers
a re n 't really so different. As a teacher I find them quite traditional
in their attitudes.
B: I'm sorry to disagree with you, but look at th e w ay th ey dress
... and their hair!
A: I d o n 't think you get the point. Those things are quite superfi­
cial. But basically their attitu d es are very sim ilar to those of our g e n ­
eration.
B: There is no excuse for their language and you seem to a p ­
prove of the kind of language we hear from our children.
A: Now, I d id n 't say that. Anyway the concepts of "approval"
and "disapproval" tend to over-sim plify m atters. Every generation
creates its own special language ju st as it creates its own styles in
clothes and music.
B: I'd like to point out th at the styles and habits of to d ay 's te e n ­
agers are so ... W ell basically ... unacceptable.
A: You m ean unacceptable to you. In fact their clothes are very
practical and very simple.
В: I do wish you had a teen ag e son or d a u g h te r of your own,
Mr. Alden.
A: But I have m ore contact w ith them . You see, we have regular
discussions. You could com e and sit in som etim e if you like. And
y ou'll realize I think how traditional their a ttitu d es are. .

8. Answer the following questions:

1. W hat do you think of the problem of the g en eration gap?


2. Do you agree with all th at is said in the dialogue? W ith w hich
statem ents do you disagree? (In answ ering this you m ay use the
form ulas of agreem ent and disagreem ent. See A ppendix.) 3. W hat
is Mrs. Brent com plaining about? Are her com plaints justified?

9. Work in pairs. Take turns to make complaints about the following and to
respond appropriately. Use the expressions and cliches of complaint and
apology:
V
Expressions of complaint and apology: A direct com plaint in
English sounds very rude indeed. To be polite one usually "breaks
it gently" and uses expressions like these before one actually
com es to the point:
129
I w onder if you could help me...
Look, I'm sorry to trouble you, b u t ...
I've got a bit of a problem here, you see ...
I'm sorry to have to say this, b u t ...

It is usually b e tte r to break it gently like this than to say, for ex­
am ple: "Look here! I wish y o u 'd arrive on tim e or I've just about
had eno u g h of your unpu n ctu ality (of your com ing late)."
The following expressions can also be used:

I have a com plaint to m ake.


It's ju st not good enough. You m ust try to ...
T h ere's no excuse for doing it.
It's com pletely unjustified (unfair).
I'd like to point out t h a t ...
N ext — a n d this is very serious — I feel t h a t ...
It gives us real cause for grievance.
N o t e : It is often not enough to just say “Sorry" and promise it w on’t happen
again. You may need to apologize more profusely, like this:

O h dear, I'm most awfully sorry.


I can't tell you how sorry I am.
I’m so sorry, I d idn't realize.
I just don't know what to say.
I’m ever so sorry.

1. You find som e pages torn out of a book. Com plain to the li­
brarian. 2. You have ordered the TV Times but you have been
b ro u g h t the Radio Times. C om plain to the new sagent. 3. You have
b o u g h t a colour TV set w hich is not correctly adjusted. Com plain
to th e m echanic. 4. You c a n 't sleep because of the noise m ade by
people in the nex t door flat. C om plain to the neighbour. 5. You
booked a hotel room w ith a bath and have not b een given it. C om ­
plain to th e receptionist. 6. You d o n 't know w hat to do about your
pupils' discipline during your classes. C om plain to the head
teacher. 7. You c a n 't m ake your child follow the doctor's orders
and stay in bed. C om plain to your m other. 8. You c a n 't m anage
your children during bed-tim e. Com plain to your husband.
9. Your child c a n 't overcom e his fear of anim als. Com plain to the
doctor. 10. You th ink your 15-month-old child is backw ard (he's
so very quiet, he hardly moves, he can barely w alk). Com plain to
the psychologist.
130
10. Work in pairs.

O ne of the students is supposed to be an em inent educationist


and child-psychologist. The other is to play the role of an affection­
ate m other having a difficult teen ag e son who is always in a state of
rebellion and resentm ent and regards his p arents' anxiety over him
as sheer interference. The psychologist should convince his visitor
not to w orry about her child and und erstan d th at his peculiar b e ­
haviour is due to adolescence. Advise her also not to give sym pa­
thy and advice but to show an interest in the child.

11. Read the following text. You can find in it some ways of teaching children
responsibility. In fact the main problem is whether to leave final decisions to
children, without criticizing them. You can find some arguments for this view in
the text. Note them down.

Teaching Responsibility

N aturally, every paren t is anxious to teach responsibility to


their children. But responsibility cannot be im posed on children. It
m ust grow from within. C hildren who are always told w hat to do
m ay do their tasks very well, b u t th ey g et little o p p o rtu n ity to use
their own ju d g em en t and to develop a sense of responsibility. This
only com es if they are given opportunities for choosing and d e c id ­
ing things for them selves.
A child is learning all the tim e. But if he is constantly criticized
about his actions, he certainly d o e sn 't learn responsibility. So the
first lesson in inculcating a sense of responsibility is not to criticize.
Even if the answ er to a child's request is a certain "Yes", it's so
m uch better to leave the decision to the child. These are som e of
the ways in w hich you can build up their sense of responsibility
and also heighten their self-confidence. W herever and w henever
you can, let them m ake the decisions them selves.
A child should be given the responsibility of choosing his own
friends. But this is a delicate m atter and needs careful handling.
Obviously, it w ould be preferable for a shy child to have a friend
who is an extrovert. And friends can also help to exert a beneficial
and corrective influence on each other. In spite of all this, a child
should always feel th at he is free to choose th e friends he wishes.
Let the child spend his allow ance his way. If he w ants to spend
the whole lot on chew ing gum or toffee, it's his decision. D o n 't in ­
terfere. These are ju st som e of m any ways in w hich responsibility is
ta'ught.
131
12. Discuss the text in pairs. One of the pair will take the author's point of
view and insist that children should be given opportunities to choose and decide
things for themselves without any criticism on their parents' part. The other will
defend the opposite point of view. Be sure to provide sound arguments for what­
ever you say. Consider the following and expand if possible:

F о r: Against:
(This column is to be filled by 1. Children have no experience.
the students on the basis of Parents' judgement and
Ex. 9. Consider also taking advice are necessary.
children into confidence.) 2. Children will make mistakes
(some of them dangerous) and
at least sometimes they are
sure to be in the wrong.
Parents should explain such
things to them, criticizing
their actions.
3. The problem can be confusing
and complicated for the child
and even a simple one can be
solved in the wrong way. Who
will bear the consequences?
4. Children are too young to
decide whose influence is
good for them. They can't
distinguish petty features in
other children. So parents
should guide their children's
friendship.
5. Money is not to be wasted.
Children don't realize its
value and cannot use their
own discretion in spending it.
6. Children can gain experience
and responsibility taking after
their parents, following other
good examples.

13. The extracts given below present rather controversial subjects. Team up
with another student, work out arguments "for" and "against" and discuss the
extracts in pairs. Use conversational formulas (see Appendix).

A. Should a child be allow ed to do anything he likes w hen he is


ill?
“O ne of the w orst tortures for a child is to stay in bed, especially
w hen he is n o t terribly ill. So anything done to keep his m ind occu­
132
pied in som e way will pay w onderful dividends. It will enable you
to get on with your work and prevent your child being peevish and
crotchety while h e 's in bed."
B. Should parents help their children w ith th eir hom ew ork?
"John m ust be a com plete dud. H e keeps on p esterin g m e for
help with his hom ew ork. But I c a n 't be bothered: I have a lot of
housew ork. Besides I know nothing about teaching. How can
I help Jo h n w ith his hom ew ork?"
C. Is play work for children?
" — I d o n 't know w hat to do about m y G eorge. He ju st plays the
w hole time. He w ants to touch and grab everything. As for being
inquisitive — my, he w ants to know everything in the world.
— Play m ay be recreation for an adult, b u t for a child it is work.
T hrough play G eorge gains experience; he learns by playing. He
m ay play doctor, soldier, policem an, lawyer. But through play, he
exercises not only his body but also his m ind."

14. Role-Playing.

The Sitting of the Teachers' Council


S i t u a t i o n : T eachers and other m em bers of school personnel
have gathered to discuss O leg R atnikov's behaviour. O leg Ratnik-
ov, a 14-year-old y outh is a pupil of the 7th form. H e is not only n o ­
torious in his school, b u t his nam e is also know n to m any people in
the district w here he lives. O leg always has his own w ay.‘R esents
any advice. Talks back. Fights. C an tell lies. Seem s to have lost in­
terest in school. Q uarrels w ith m any classm ates. Seem s to be al­
ways to blam e. The m em bers of the teachers' council should d e ­
cide w hether suspension from school is the only solution or
w hether there are any other alternatives. R atnikov's p aren ts are in ­
vited.
Characters:
1. Peter Ratnikov, O leg's father, ag ed 45, an engineer. Spends
all his spare tim e inventing. Always busy. R ather clever, full of sar­
casm. No real contact w ith his son. Thinks th a t problem s of bring-
ing up children are for school to solve. His only m ethod of com m u­
nication with his son is his belt or a raised voice. D em ands absolute
obedience.
2. Алла Ratnikova, O leg's m other, ag ed 40, a librarian. Lives in
so,me im aginary world of her favourite fictional characters. V ery
shy, with a mild character, a bit afraid of her husband, is u n d e r his
133
thum b. A dores h er son. E xaggerates his positive features (kind­
ness, love for anim als, ability to im agine, eagerness to help).
T hinks all the rest are in the wrong.
3. Elena Plavskaya, aged 26, teacher of Russian Literature.
H ates the boy. H e is always "a pain in the neck", a real trouble­
m aker. His language is awful. Som etim es you can barely u n d e r­
stand w hat he says. His opinions are ridiculous. H e m akes fun of
everybody, teachers included. Elena thinks it necessary to isolate
Oleg, to prevent spreading his bad influence (shoulder-length hair,
w eird clothes, m isbehaviour, etc.) on other pupils. Insists on O leg's
suspension from school.
4. Rita Izmaijlova, ag ed 50, teacher of History, dislikes the boy's
behaviour an d attitu d e tow ards school, her subject, and his class­
m ates. Is irritated by his lack of discipline, responsibility and m an­
ners. Tries to analyse his feelings and to find an explanation for
such behaviour. Finds his influence on the class disastrous in m any
respects. Is n o t quite sure, b u t thinks th at O leg's suspension from
school and further practical training will do m ore good for the boy
th an his staying on at school.
5. A u d rey Pavlov, aged 45, a teacher of Biology, school H ead
T eacher. H as seen m any cases of the type. Rather likes the boy, his
devotion to his lessons, the interesting questions he asks. Thinks
th a t O leg is passing th rough a difficult period of his life. Is sure
th a t he will g et over it. C ertainly he often behaves strangely, his
m oods are always changing. It irritates both adults and classm ates.
In A. Pavlov's opinion O leg needs m ore contact with his father.
T hinks th a t O leg has am bitions. Isn't it possible to give him some
real responsibility? O leg m ay rise to it.
6. Zoya Zubina, aged 22, a psychologist, a university graduate
having ju st b e g u n working. Thinks that parents and teachers m ust
rem em ber th at O leg is "shedding the dep en d en ce of childhood
and enterin g into adulthood", w here he has to be on his own. The
thing to do is ju st to do nothing. You'll find that very difficult in­
deed: it requires a lot of will-power and tolerance. M ake O leg feel
th at you are behind him n ot after him. He certainly needs your
presence, b u t d o e sn 't w ant you to live his life for him. H elp him —
b u t stay in th e background. Suspension from school is out of the
question.
N o t e : The group of students is divided into two teams, each of which per­
forms the same role play. W hile discussing O leg's problems, try to understand
each other's point of view, ask questions. Try and find the reasons for O leg's b e­

134
haviour. Disagree with some of the participants of the council sitting, support oth­
ers' points of view, defend your opinion. Complain about some of O leg's actions.
At the end you should come to the conclusion as to w hether or not to suspend
Oleg from school. Comments from the class on each team 's perform ance and the
value of the different argum ents are invited.

15. Group Discussion.


Give your own views on the problems below and speak in rebuttal of your
opponent. If possible make complaints about certain points.

Topic 1. Youth clubs

T a lk in g points:
1. Links betw een educational establishm ents and y outh club
activities.
2. Aims of a youth club.
3. Activities to be encouraged in a y outh club.
4. Q ualities for a youth club leader.
5. M em bership.
6. The ways a youth club can interest a group of 16-year-olds
w ith no apparent interests of their own.

Topic 2. Children's interest in school

T a lk in g points:
1. Prelim inary hom e preparation in reading, w riting counting.
2. Proper clim ate at hom e.
3. Possibility of blam ing teachers, school adm inistration; criti­
cism w hen children are present.
4. A dm onitions and w arnings given by p arents before children
start school.
5. N ecessity to back teachers and school staff u n d e r all circum ­
stances.
6. C ooperation betw een school and parents.

Topic 3. M usic lessons in the process o f upbringing

T a lk in g points:
1. M usic lessons — necessity of the tim e or p a re n ts' vanity?
^2. The idea of a m usic education — to give a child an effective
outlet for his feelings.
3. Parents' interest: a) a child's skill in reproducing m elodies;
b) the effect of m usic on a child's feelings.
4. Practising music. W hose responsibility?
135
5. C onsideration of ch ildren's wish to have m usic lessons.
6. Im portant factors in developing children's interest in music.
7. Tim e a n d m oney sp en t on m usic lessons.

16. Comment on the following quotations:

1. C hildren b eg in by loving their parents. After a tim e they


ju d g e them . Rarely, if ever, do th ey forgive them . (O.Wilde) 2. The
childhood shows the m an as m orning shows the day. (J.Milton)
3. It is a wise father th at knows his own child. (W .Shakespeare)
4. W hen child ren are doing nothing, th ey are doing mischief.
(H.Fielding)

U nit Five

SPEECH PATTERNS

1. I can't do a thing with him. He won't take his pineapple


juice.

I c a n 't do a thing w ith th e boy. H e w on't let anyone com e into


the room.
I c a n 't do a thing w ith her. She w o n 't take the m edicine.

2. He had done som e constructive thinking since his last vis­


it.

I do th e cooking myself.
H e was doing som e careful listening.
I've done eno u g h reading for today.

This w as no ordinary case.

W illiam Strand was no ordinary hum an.


This was no p e tty offence.
It was no small achievem ent.
136
4. The suggestion proved too much for the p a tie n t's heart.

The letter proved to be of little consequence.


He had no prem onition th at this call w ould prove unusual.

5. I just suggested it, th at's all.

W e ju st thought it necessary to m ake the inquiries, th a t's all.


I ju st w anted to know, th at's all.
I ju st d o n 't feel like eating, th at's all.

6. Let's try and draw that vase over there on th e m antelpiece.

Try and behave better.


Let's try and g et there on time.
Try and come, w o n 't you?

Good. Let's make it M onday, W ednesday a n d Friday.

Good. Let's m ake it next week.


W ell. Let's m ake it S aturday then.
W hy, let's m ake it four o'clock.

EXERCISES

1. Complete the following sentences:

1. Steve is awfully stubborn. M other c a n 't do ... . H e w o n 't ... .


2. M ary is as obstinate as a m ule. I .... 3. W here did you find this
brute of a dog? I ... . 4. I w asted no tim e. I listened a n d I did ... .
5. W here did you go for your holidays? Did you do an y .. ? 6. Even
the police w ere afraid of him. H e was no .... 7. You seem to forget
that we deal w ith no ... . 8. T here is som ething fishy ab o u t the
whole thing. This is no ... . 9. I'd never have believed th at Ja c k
w ould prove ... . 10. The young actress had no prem onition th a t the
perform ance ... . 11. They had to leave India before th e year was
over. The clim ate .... 12. W hy do you m ind his com ing so m uch? —
137
I j u s t .... 13. D on't be an gry w ith me. I j u s t ... 14. He is not to blame.
H e ju st ... . 15. You know how m uch I look forward to your letters.
Try and .... 16. It is a very difficult sound. Try and .... 17. The task is
urgent. Try and ... . 18. I'd like to suit your convenience. Let's m ake
it ... . 19. It's a go then. Let's ... . 20. C ould you spare the tim e to
com e twice a w eek? — Sure. — Good. Let's ... .

2. Translate the following into Russian:

1. Y ou'd lose less tim e if you stopped talking and stam ping your
feet and did a little painting for a change. 2. M artin excused him ­
self — he had to do som e w riting before dinner. 3. Mrs. Strickland
did little typing herself, b u t spent h er tim e correcting the w ork of
th e four girls she em ployed. 4. She was u tterly astonished at being
th e one who was loved, n ot the one doing the loving. 5. Soam es
w anted to im press on Bosinney th at his house m ust be no com m on
edifice. 6. G ainsborough had a good ear for m usic and was no in­
different perform er on the violin. 7. I was no tim id girl to turn and
flee sim ply because no one had m ade m e welcome. 8. It was no
m ere assertion. She pro d u ced facts and figures to support her con­
tention. 9. I ju st becam e fascinated, th at's all. N ot the writing. He
w rites very technically. But the ideas, the way he correlates m an
and his e n v iro n m e n t...

3. Paraphrase the following sentences as in the models.

M o d e 1:1 th in k you o u g h t to explain it.


I th in k it's u p to you to do the explaining.

1. O ne afternoon Beatrice asked me if I rode and I explained


th a t I had a little experience in riding but was far from proficient in
the art. 2. Mrs. K ettle is not the kind of w om an to w ash her clothes
herself. 3. H er eyes w ere red and swollen, it was clear th at M ary
had b een crying. 4. I used to go fishing in m y younger days. 5. He
talked him self all the tim e, and th ey th o u g h t he was stupid. 6. I've
b e e n thinking ab o u t it a good deal.

M о d e 1:1 am out of p atience w ith him because he does not w ant to


do his lessons.
I can't do a thing with him. He won't do his lessons.

1. I am a t m y w its' end, Paul refuses to go to school. 2. Like


a n a u g h ty child N elly refuses to listen to m e and put on her w inter
138
coat. 3. H er m other despaired of persuading M ary to tak e up m u ­
sic. 4. No m atter how hard I try I c a n 't com pel him to tell th e truth.
5. U nfortunately I c a n 't m ake her eat porridge in the m orning.

M o d e l : W e had no prem onition that the trip w ould bring only


disappointm ent.
W e had no prem onition that the trip would prove so dis­
appointing.

1. I had not expected th at the film m ight be so thrilling. 2. I'd


never have believed th at Jacob w ould turn out to be a hero. 3. Be­
fore the m onth was over N ick show ed th at he was a brig h t pupil.
4. I w on't be surprised if M orris gives evidence of being an ex cel­
lent scholar. 5. W e abandoned the attem p t as it becam e clear that
the experim ent was dangerous.

M о d e 1: H e show ed very little skill.


H e show ed no great skill.
1. I have very little respect for her. 2. This was an extraordinary
case. 3. It was by no m eans a m ere slip of the tongue. 4. H e ex ­
pressed his opinion in term s anything b u t uncertain. 5. R ebecca's
dress excited adm iration w hich was not at all small. 6. H ilary was
a scholar of great ability (whose ability was not m ean ).

4. Make up two sentences of your own on each pattern.

5. Translate into English using the Speech Patterns:

Выходя из дома, Розмари не подозревала, что последующие два


часа ее жизни окажутся такими необычными.
— Мадам, не дадите ли вы мне на чашку чая?
Розмари обернулась. Она увидела маленькое существо, с огром­
ными глазами, девушку ее возраста, которая сжимала воротник
пальто покрасневшими руками и дрожала от холода.
— У вас совсем нет денег? — спросила Розмари.
— Нет, мадам, — сказала девушка и расплакалась.
Как необычно! Это было похоже на сцену из романа. Она не была
простой нищенкой. А что если взять ее домой? И она представила
себе, как потом она будет говорить друзьям: «Я просто взяла ее с со­
бой домой, вот и все!», и она сказала вслух:
Чч'=т- А не хотите ли вы поехать пить чай ко мне?
Легкий завтрак преобразил девушку. Она перестала смущаться и
лежала, откинувшись в глубоком кресле. Глядя на нее, трудно было
поверить, что совсем еще недавно она проливала слезы. Розмари
продолжала украдкой наблюдать за ней.
139
Неожиданно в комнату вошел муж Розмари. Извинившись, он по­
просил Розмари пройти с ним в библиотеку.
— Объясни, кто она? — спросил Филипп. — Что все это значит?
Смеясь, Розмари сказала:
— Я подобрала ее на Курзон Стрит.
— Но что ты собираешься с ней делать?
— Я просто хочу быть добра с ней. Заботиться о ней, вот и все!
— Но, — произнес Филипп медленно, — она ведь изумительно
красива.
— Красива? — Розмари так удивилась, что покраснела до корней
волос. — Ты так думаешь?
Через полчаса Розмари вернулась в библиотеку.
— Я только хотела сказать тебе, что мисс Смит не будет обедать
с нами сегодня. Я ничего не могла с ней поделать. Она не захотела
даже взять деньги.
(По рассказу «Чашка чая» К. Мэнсфилд)

6. Make up and act out in front of the class a suitable dialogue using the
Speech Patterns.

TEXT FIVE

ART FOR HEARTS SAKE

By R.Goldberg

Reuben Lucius Goldberg (1883— 1970), an American sculptor, cartoonist and


writer was bom in San Francisco. After graduating from the University of Califor­
nia in 1904 he worked as a cartoonist for a num ber of newspapers and magazines.
H e produced several series of cartoons all of which were highly popular.
Among his best works are Is There a Doctor in the House? (1929), Rube Gold­
berg's Guide to Europe (1954) and I M ade M y Bed (1960).

"Here, tak e your pineapple juice," gently persuaded Koppel,


th e m ale nurse.
"N ope!" g ru n ted Collis P.Ellsworth.
"But it's good for you, sir."
"N ope!"
"It's d o cto r's orders."
"N ope!"
K oppel heard the front door bell and was glad to leave the
room. H e found D octor Caswell in the hall downstairs. "I c a n 't do
a th in g w ith him," he told the doctor. "H e w o n 't tak e his pineapple
140
juice. He d o esn 't w ant m e to read to him. H e hates th e radio. He
do esn 't like anything!"
D octor Caswell received the inform ation w ith his usual profes­
sional calm. He had done som e constructive thinking since his last
visit. This was no ordinary case. The old gentlem an w as in p retty
good shape for a m an of seventy-six. But he had to be k e p t from
buying things. He had suffered his last heart a ttack after his disas­
trous purchase of that jerkw ater 1 railroad 2 out in Iowa. 3 All his
purchases of recent years had to be liquidated a t a g reat sacrifice
both to his health and his pocketbook.
The doctor drew up a chair and sat dow n close to the old m an.
"I've got a proposition for you," he said quietly.
O ld Ellsworth looked suspiciously over his spectacles.
"H ow 'd you like to take up art?" The doctor had his ste th o ­
scope ready in case the abruptness of the suggestion proved too
m uch for the p atien t's heart.
But the old gentlem an's answ er was a vigorous " R o t!" 4
"I d o n 't m ean seriously," said the doctor, relieved th at disaster
had b een averted. "Just fool around w ith chalk an d crayons. It'll be
fun."
"Bosh!" 5
"All right." The doctor stood up. "I ju st su g g ested it, th a t's all."
"But, Caswell, how do I start playing w ith the chalk — th at is, if
I'm foolish enough to start?"
"I've thought of that, too. I can g et a stu d e n t from one erf the art
schools to com e here once a w eek and show you."
D octor Caswell w ent to his friend, Ju d so n Livingston, h ead of
the A tlantic Art Institute, and explained the situation. Livingston
had ju st the young m an — Frank Swain, eig h teen years old and
a prom ising student. He n eed ed the m oney. Ran an elevator at
night to pay tuition. How m uch w ould he get? Five dollars a visit.
Fine.
N ext afternoon young Swain was shown into th e big living
room. Collis P. Ellsworth looked at him appraisingly.
"Sir, I'm not an artist yet," answ ered the young m an.
"Um ph?" 6
\ S w a i n arranged som e pap er and crayons on th e table. "Let's try
and draw th at vase over there on the m antelpiece," he suggested.
"Try it, M ister Ellsworth, please."
"Umph!" The old m an took a piece of crayon in a shaky hand
and m ade a scrawl. He m ade another scrawl and c o n n ected the
141
two w ith a couple of crude lines. "There it is, young man," he
sn ap p ed w ith a g ru n t of satisfaction. "Such foolishness. Poppy­
cock!" 7
F rank Swain was patient. H e n eed ed the five dollars. "If you
w ant to draw you will have to look at w hat yo u 're drawing, sir."
O ld Ellsw orth sq uinted and looked. "By gum, 8 it's kinda 9 p re t­
ty, I never noticed it before."
W h en the art stu d e n t cam e the following w eek there was
a draw ing on th e table th at had a slight resem blance to the vase.
The w rinkles d e e p en e d at the corners of the old gentlem an's
eyes as he asked elfishly, 10 "Well, w hat do you think of it?"
"N ot bad, sir," answ ered Swain. "But it's a bit lopsided."
"By gum ," O ld Ellsworth chuckled. "I see. The halves d o n 't
m atch." He ad d e d a few lines w ith a palsied hand and colored 11 the
o pen spaces blue like a child playing with a picture book. Then he
looked tow ards the door. "Listen, young m an," he w hispered,
"I w ant to ask you som ething before old pineapple juice comes
back."
"Yes, sir," resp o n d ed Swain respectively.
"I w as thinking could you spare the tim e to com e twice a w eek
or p erhaps th ree tim es?"
"Sure, M ister Ellsworth."
"Good. Let's m ake it M onday, W ednesday and Friday. Four
o'clock."
As th e w eeks w ent by Sw ain's visits grew m ore frequent. He
b ro u g h t the old m an a box of w ater-colors and som e tubes of oils.
W h en D octor Caswell called Ellsworth w ould talk about the
graceful lines of th e andirons. H e w ould dwell on the rich variety of
color in a bowl of fruit. H e proudly displayed the variegated smears
of paint on his heavy silk dressing gown. He w ould not allow his
valet to send it to the cleaner's. He w anted to show the doctor how
hard h e 'd b een working.
The treatm en t was w orking perfectly. No m ore trips downtown
to becom e involved in purchases of enterprises of doubtful solven­
cy.
T he d o cto r tho u g h t it safe to allow Ellsworth to visit the M etro­
politan, 12 th e M useum of M odern Art 13 and o ther exhibits with
Swain. An entirely new w orld opened up its charm ing mysteries.
The old m an displayed an insatiable curiosity about the galleries
and th e painters who exhibited in them . How w ere the galleries
142
run? W ho selected the canvases for the exhibitions? An idea was
form ing in his brain.
W hen the late spring sun beg an to cloak the fields and gardens
w ith color, Ellsworth executed a god-aw ful sm udge w hich he
called "Trees D ressed in W hite". Then he m ade a startling a n ­
nouncem ent. H e was going to exhibit it in the Sum m er show at the
Lathrop Gallery!
For the Sum m er show at the Lathrop G allery was th e b iggest art
exhibit of the year in quality, if not in size. The lifetim e dream of
every m ature artist in the U nited States was a Lathrop prize. Upon
this distinguished group Ellsworth was going to foist his "Trees
Dressed in W hite", w hich resem bled a gob 14 of salad dressing
throw n violently up against the side of a house!
"If the papers g et hold of this, M ister Ellsworth will becom e
a laughing-stock. W e've got to stop him," groaned Koppel.
"No," adm onished 15 the doctor. "W e c a n 't interfere w ith him
now and take a chance of spoiling all the good w ork th at w e've ac­
com plished."
To the u tter astonishm ent of all three — and especially Swain —
"Trees D ressed in W hite" was accepted for the Lathrop show.
Fortunately, the painting was h u n g in an inconspicuous place
w here it could not excite any noticeable com m ent. Young Swain
sneaked into the G allery one afternoon and b lushed to the top of
his ears w hen he saw "Trees D ressed in W hite", a loud, raucous
splash on the wall. As two giggling stu d en ts sto p p ed bfefore the
strange anom aly Swain fled in terror. H e could not b ear to hear
w hat they had to say.
D uring the course of the exhibition the old m an k e p t on taking
his lessons, seldom m entioning his entry in the exhibit. H e was u n ­
usually cheerful.
Two days before the close of the exhibition a special m essenger
b rought a long official-looking envelope to M ister Ellsw orth while
Swain, Koppel and the doctor w ere in th e room. "Read it to me,"
requested the old man. "M y eyes are tired from painting."
"It gives the Lathrop G allery pleasure to an n o u n ce th a t the First
Landscape Prize of $1,000 has b e e n aw arded to Collis P.Ellsworth
^fgr his painting, "Trees D ressed in W hite"."
Swain and Koppel uttered a series of inarticulate gurgles. D oc­
tor Caswell, exercising his professional self-control w ith a suprem e
effort, said: "C ongratulations, M ister Ellsworth. Fine, fine ... See,
see ... Of course, I d id n 't expect such great news. B u t , b u t — well,
143
now, y ou'll have to adm it th at art is m uch m ore satisfying than
business."
"A rt's nothing," snapped the old man. "I bought the Lathrop
G allery last m onth."

EXPLANATORY NOTES

1. jerkwater (Ал?, colloq.): small, unimportant.


2. railroad (Am.): railway. The lexical differences between the British
and American English are not great in number but they are considerable
enough to make the mixture of the two variants sound strange and
unnatural. A student of English should bear in mind that different words
are used for the same objects, such as can, candy, truck, mailbox, subway
instead of tin, sweets, lorry, pillar-box (or letter-box), underground.
3. Iowa [’агэиэ] or ['aiawaj: a north central state of the USA. The
noun is derived from the name of an Indian tribe. Quite a number of
states, towns, rivers and the like in America are named by Indian words,
e. g. Massachusetts, Illinois, Ohio, Kansas, Mississippi, Missouri,
Michigan.
4. rot (si): foolish remarks or ideas.
5. bosh (si.): empty talk, nonsense.
6. umph [Amf]: an inteijection expressing uncertainty or suspicion.
7. poppycock: foolish nonsense.
8. by gum (dial.): by God.
9. kinda: the spelling fixes contraction of the preposition 'of and its
assimilation with the preceding noun which is a characteristic trait of
American pronunciation.
10. elfish: (becoming rare) (of people or behaviour) having the guality
or habit of playing tricks on people like an elf; mischievous.
11. colored: the American spelling is somewhat simpler than its British
counterpart. The suffix -our is spelled -or.
12. the Metropolitan Museum of Art: the leading museum in America,
was founded in 1870. Its collections cover a period of 5,000 years,
representing the cultures of the Ancient world and Near and Far East as well
as the arts of Europe and America. Among the collections are the paintings,
which include oils, pastels, water-colours, miniatures and drawings. There
are over 5,000 exhibits, among which are the works of Italian, Spanish,
Dutch, Flemish, German, French , English and American artists.
13. the Museum of Modern Art: a repository of art peculiar to the
twentieth century, was opened in 1929. It has several departments among
which are the department of architecture and design, the department of
painting and sculpture, the department of photography.
14. gob (si.): a mass of smth. sticky.
15. admonish: to scold or warn gently.
144
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY

Vocabulary Notes

1. relieve W 1) to lessen or remove (pain or distress), e. g. The remedy


relieved his pain at once. Nothing could relieve her anxiety, to relieve
one's feelings to make oneself feel better by using strong language,
shedding tears, etc., e. g. She burst out crying and that relieved her
feelings, to feel relieved (to hear or at hearing, to see or at the sight of, to
know smth.), e. g. They felt relieved to hear that he was safe. syn. ease, as
to ease the pain of a wound; to ease a person's anxiety, e. g. This medicine
will ease the pain quickly. 2) to take another's place on duty, as to relieve
a sentry; 3) to take smth. from a person, e. g. Let me relieve you of your
bag.
relief n lessening or ending of pain, anxiety, etc., as to sigh with relief;
to give (to bring) relief (no relief, some relief) to smb., e. g. The medicine
brought (gave) him immediate relief. Tears brought her no relief. What
a relief! syn. comfort, e. g. The news that her son was getting well and
strong brought great comfort to her.
2. art л 1) creation of beautifil things, as a work of art; art-lover; art
critic; genuine art; pretence of art; graphic art; applied art; folk art; the
Fine Arts (painting, music, sculpture), e. д. I am interested in the new
trends in art. 2) pi. the Humanities, e. g. History and literature are among
the arts. Bachelor (Master) of Arts (a university degree); 3) skill, craft,
e. g. The making of such rafts has become a lost art.
artist n a person who practises one of the Fine Arts, esp. paintings, as a
professional artist, amateur artist, e. g. Reynolds was the most prominent
artist of his day.
artistic adj done with skill and good taste, as artistic skill; artistic
taste; artistic person, e. g. Gainsborough was essentially an artistic
person.
artificial adj 1) not natural, as artificial flowers (light, silk, etc.),
e. g. Andrew Manson had to use artificial respiration to revive the baby.
2) not genuine or sincere, e. g. Her smile is so artificial that I don't trust
her.
3. draw vt/i 1) to pull or cause to move from one place to another,
e. g. Draw your chair nearer to the table. 2) to pull, to take out, e. g. He put
his hand in his pocket and drew out a ring. 3) to make smb. talk esp. one
who is unwilling to talk, e. g. It's very difficult to draw him out. 4) to
attract, e. g. The exhibition is sure to draw crowds. 5) to get; to obtain,
ё~ g. He draws his inspiration from nature. They drew different
conclusions from the same facts. 6) to make lines on paper, as to draw
well; to draw in pencil; to draw a bunch of flowers, e. g. He drew a picture
of his niece. I can draw a map of the area for you. 7) to move or come
towards, e. g. The concert season is drawing to a close.
145
draw л something that attracts attention, e. g. The new play proved
a great draw.
drawing n the art of making pictures; a picture, e. g. Turner left a vast
mass of work, oil paintings, water-colours and drawings.
4. picture n 1) painting, drawing, sketch, as a picture gallery; in the
foreground (background) of the picture, e. g. There is nothing of unusual
interest in the subject matter of the picture. Every detail in the picture
plays its part in the composition, syn. piece, as a flower piece,
a conversation piece. 2) photograph, e. g. The picture I took of you last
week turned out very well. 3) a perfect type, an embodiment, e. g. You
look the picture of health. 4) a film, e. д. I like to see a good picture once
in a while.
picture vt 1) to make a picture, describe in words, e. g. The novel
pictures life in Russia before the Revolution. 2) to imagine, e. д. I can't
quite picture you as a teacher.
depict vt to make a picture of, e. g. Perov liked to depict the scenes
and types of common life. syn. represent, portray, e. g. The picture
represented two Italian women talking. Turner tried to portray the mood
of the sea.
picturesque adj giving vivid impression of nature or reality; romantic,
e. д. I wonder who lives in that picturesque cottage over there.
5. paint n, e. g. Constable sometimes used a palette knife to apply the
paint instead of a brush.
paint v t/i 1) to put paint on, e. g. They painted the door white. 2) to
make a picture by using paint, as to paint from nature, e. g. Ceremonial
portraits were painted according to formula. Turner excelled in painting
marine subjects. 3) to describe vividly in words, e. g. You are painting the
situation too dark.
painter n an artist, as painter of battle-pieces, genre painter,
landscape painter, portrait painter.
painting n 1) the act, art or occupation of laying on colours,
e. g. Painting has become his world. 2) a painted picture, as an oil
paintings, still life paintings, a collection of paintings, an exquisite piece
of painting, syn. canvas, e. g. An oil-painting caught and held him ... he
forgot his awkward walk and came closer to the painting, very close. The
beauty faded out of the canvas.
6. colour л 1) as bright (dark, rich, cool, warm, dull, faded) colours,
e, g. The dancers wore tight-fitting dresses of richly glowing colours,
colour scheme combination of colours, e. g. Gainsborough's pictures are
painted in clear and transparent tone, in a colour scheme where blue and
green predominate. 2) materials used by painters, e. g. Turner constantly
used water-colour for immediate studies from nature, to paint smth. in
(dark) bright colours to describe smth. (un) favourably, e. g. The
headmaster painted the school's future in bright colours. 3) the red or
146
pink in the cheeks, e. g. She has very little colour today, off colour not
feeling well; in low spirits, e. g. He's been feeling rather off colour lately.
colour vt/i 1) to become coloured, e. g. The leaves have begun to
colour. 2) (fig.) to change in some way, to make a description more
exciting, e. g. News is often coloured in newspapers.
coloured adj having colour, as cream-coloured; flesh-coloured;
a coloured print; a multicoloured handkerchief, e. g. I'll make myself one
white and one coloured dress for the summer. When they were wet the
pebbles were multicoloured and beautiful.
colourless adj without colour; pale; (fig.) without interest or character,
as a colourless story (person); ant. colourful.
colouring n style in which the thing is coloured, as gaudy (subtle)
colouring, e. g. His drawing is good but his colouring is poor.
colourist n an artist whose works are characterized by beauty of
colour, e. g. As a colourist Gainsborough had few rivals among English
painters.
7. doubt n uncertainty of mind; lack of certainty; a state of uncertainty,
e. g. There is (there can be) no (not much, some, great, slight) doubt about
it. I have no (not much, little, not the slightest) doubt that he will come.
I have doubts as to his intentions, no doubt certainly, e. g. She will no
doubt cope with the work.
doubt vt/i to be uncertain, as to doubt the truth of smth. (the facts,
smb.'s ability to do smth., etc.), e. g. Do you doubt his honesty? to doubt if
(whether) smth. is correct (true, wrong, smb. will do smth.), e. д. I doubt
whether he will come, not to doubt that, e. д. I don't doubt that he will
come. Do you doubt that he will come?
doubtful adj uncertain; not definite; hesitating, e. g. Tha weather
' looks very doubtful. He's a doubtful character, to be (feel) doubtful as to,
e. g. I'm doubtful as to what I ought to do.
8. select vt to pick out, esp. for its superior qualities, as to select a gift
(a suitable person, the best singers, the most typical cases, the best
samples, etc.), e. g. They selected a site for the monument, syn. choose,
pick, e. g. The small girl chose the biggest apple in the dish. I picked this
way because it was the shortest.
selection n choice; a collection of specially chosen examples, as
natural (artificial) selection; selections from Shakespeare (Russian
composers, etc.); poetry, prose selections; a good selection of paintings
(goods, etc.), e. g. This department store has a good selection of hats.
9. size n 1) a degree of largeness or smallness, e. g. It was about the
size of a pea-nut. 2) one of a series of numbered classes, e. g. What size
shoes (gloves, collar) do you wear? — Size 36 shoes. I want a hat a size
smaller (larger). They bought him a coat a size (two sizes) too large
(small) for him.
-sized adj (in compounds) having a certain size, as medium-sized;
a life-sized portrait, e. д. I want medium-sized pajamas.
147
10. effort л trying hard, as a heroic (tremendous, last, strong, great,
desperate, etc.) effort; continued (constant, vain) efforts, e. g. It was such
an effort to get up on those dark winter mornings, to do smth. with an
effort (without effort), e. g. He collected himself with an effort. He lifted
the box without effort, to make an (every, no) effort, e. д. I will make
every (no) effort to help him. to cost smb. much effort to do smth., e. g. It
cost me much effort of will to give up tobacco, to spare no effort(s),
e. g. The police promised to spare no effort(s) in their search/in searching
for the missing child.

Word Combinations and Phrases

to be in good (bad) shape to exhibit (smth.) in a show


at a great sacrifice to one's health a lifetime dream
to take up art (painting) a mature artist
to avert a disaster to become a laughing-stock
to look at smb./smth. appraisingly to be accepted for the show
a box of water-colours an inconspicuous place
a tube of oils to blush to the top of one's ears
to send smth. to the cleaner's the close of the exhibition
to become involved in smth. to award a prize (a medal)
to execute a picture (a statue)

READING COMPREHENSION EXERCISES

1. a) Listen to the recording of Text Five and mark the stresses and tunes,
b) Repeat the text in the intervals after the model.

2. Put fifteen questions to the text.

3. Copy out from Text Five the sentences containing the word combinations
and phrases given on p. 148 and translate them into Russian.

4. Paraphrase the following sentences using the word combinations and


phrases (p. 148).

1. Pygm alion fell in love with a statue of G alatea which he had


m ade in ivory, and at his prayer A phrodite gave it life. 2. The art
dealer looked a t the picture trying to ju d g e its w orth but refused to
com m it himself. 3. A nother of his am bitions — a cherished
d jeam — was one day to have a library. 4. Is it possible to d e te r­
m ine w hat w orks will be given prizes before the close of the exhibi­
tion? 5. T here is no denying the fact that the pictures are well done
148
technically. 6. U nfortunately I do not rem em ber the nam e of the
young artist who is giving an exhibition at the gallery. 7. W h en did
Ja n e first begin to take an interest in painting? 8. D on't g e t m ixed
up in the quarrels of other people. 9. It's the m addest idea I've ever
heard. It w ould m ake A lexander an object of ridicule. 10. She
blushed furiously for sham e. 11. Y ou're in w onderful form, Diana.
W here did you get th at divine dress? 12. It's no use sending m y
clothes to be cleaned, th ey are past repair. 13. O ur g ard en is in
good condition after the rain.

5. Translate the following sentences into English using the word combina­
tions and phrases given on p. 148.

1. Дела Герствуда были в плачевном состоянии, и, казалось, ничто


не могло предотвратить катастрофу. 2. Он боялся, что станет посме­
шищем города. 3. Человек, которого вы называете многообещающим
учеником, по-моему, зрелый художник, и чем скорее мы покажем
его картины на выставке, тем лучше. 4. Карлтон стал крупным уче­
ным, принеся в жертву здоровье. 5. Кто-то уронил на пол тюбик
с красками, а я наступил на него. Теперь придется отдавать ковер в
чистку. 6. Не говори глупостей (не будь смешным). Если бы ты поло­
жил записку на видном месте, я бы заметил ее. 7. Джон покраснел до
корней волос, когда мать уличила его во лжи. 8. Статуя, которую со­
здал Пигмалион, была так прекрасна, что он влюбился в нее. 9. После
закрытия выставки 1882 года, будучи уже зрелым художником, Ку-
инджи сделал ошеломляющее заявление, что он больше не будет де­
монстрировать свои картины на выставках. 10. Констебл, был на­
гражден золотой медалью за картину «Воз сена» ("Hay Wain"),
которая была выставлена в Париже в 1824 году. 11. К огромному
удивлению хозяина мазня обезьяны была принята для показа на выс­
тавке. 12. Члены жюри пришли к выводу, что картины молодого ху­
дожника выполнены с большим мастерством, и присудили ему пер­
вую премию. 13. Соме и Флер договорились, что пойдут на выставку
современного искусства вместе. Соме пришел первым. С любопыт­
ством разглядывая произведения экспрессионистов, он не переста­
вал удивляться, почему их приняли на выставку и поместили на са­
мых видных местах. «Юнона», созданная «многообещающим»
молодым скульптором Полем Поустом, была похожа на кривобокий
насос с двумя ручками. Настоящее посмешище!

6. Make up and practise a short situation using the word combinations and
phrases.

7. Make up and act out a dialogue using the word combinations and phrases.

149
8. Find in Text Five equivalents for the following words and phrases and use
them in sentences of your own:

to think over carefully; at the expense of o n e's health; to devel­


op an in terest in art; to prevent a great m isfortune; a stu d en t likely
to succeed; low er on one side th an on the other; speak about smth.
for a long time; to produce the desired effect; to g et m ixed up in
smth.; to thirst for inform ation; cherished dream ; highly-skilled
artist; object of ridicule or teasing; to caution against smth.; to
o n e 's great surprise; not easily seen or noticed; to move silently
and secretly, usually for a bad purpose; to blush furiously; to give
a prize; to speak quickly and sharply

9. Find in Text Five English equivalents for the following phrases and write
them out:

1. Это для вас очень полезно. 2. Ничего не могу с ним поделать!


3. Он детально обдумал этот вопрос. 4. Случай был незаурядный.
5. С ущербом для здоровья и кошелька. 6. Я хочу вам что-то предло­
жить. 7. Сердце больного не справилось с такой нагрузкой. 8. Катаст­
рофу удалось предотвратить. 9. Это будет интересно. 10. Мое дело
предложить. 11. Работал по ночам лифтером, чтобы заработать день­
ги на учебу в колледже. 12. Он смотрел на него оценивающим взгля­
дом. 13. Давайте попробуем нарисовать вот ту вазу на камине. 14. Ри­
сунок на столе отдаленно напоминал вазу. 15. Ну, как вам это
нравится? 16. Вы не могли бы приходить два раза в неделю? 17. Да­
вайте договоримся на понедельник и среду. 18. Он разглагольствовал
о переливах красок в вазе с фруктами. 19. Лечение шло успешно.
20. Совершенно новый мир предстал перед его зачарованным взо­
ром. 21. Он ошеломил всех своим заявлением. 22. Крупнейшая выс­
тавка года, если не по величине, то по значению. 23. Заветная мечта
каждого зрелого мастера. 24. Картина была повешена так, что она не
привлекала внимания. 25. Против обыкновения он был бодр и весел.

10. Explain what is meant by:

1. D octor Caswell received the inform ation w ith his usual pro­
fessional calm. 2. H e h ad done som e constructive thinking since
his last visit. 3. The old gentlem an was in p retty good shape for
a m an of seventy-six. 4. All his purchases of recen t years had to be
liq u id ated at a g reat sacrifice both to his health and his pocket-
book. 5. The doctor had his stethoscope ready in case the ab ru p t­
ness of the suggestion proved too m uch for the p atien t's heart.
6. But the old gen tlem an 's answ er was a vigorous "Rot!" 7. Collis P.
Ellsw orth looked a t him appraisingly. 8. "There it is, young man,"
150
he snapped with a grunt of satisfaction. 9. H e w ould dwell on the
rich variety of colour in a bowl of fruit. 10. The treatm en t was w ork­
ing perfectly. 11. An entirely new w orld o p ened up its charm ing
m ysteries. 12. The old m an displayed insatiable curiosity ab o u t the
galleries and the painters who exhibited in them . 13. T he lifetim e
dream of every m ature artist in the U nited States w as a Lathrop
prize. 14. Fortunately, the painting was hung in an inconspicuous
place w here it could not excite any noticeable com m ent. 15. Young
Swain sneaked into the G allery one afternoon and b lushed to the
top of his ears w hen he saw "Trees D ressed in W hite", a loud, ra u ­
cous splash on the wall. 16. As two giggling stu d en ts sto p p ed b e ­
fore the strange anom aly Swain fled in terror. 17. Swain a n d K op­
pel uttered a series of inarticulate gurgles.

11. Answer the following questions or do the given tasks:

1. How does the story begin? W hat does the w ord "N ope" (re­
p eated three times) suggest? C om plaining of O ld Ellsw orth his
m ale nurse speaks in short abrupt sentences, four of w hich begin
with the pronoun "he". W hat effect is achieved? 2. W h at can you
say about the health and spirits of the old m an? 3. Do you feel
a ring of irony in the sentence "All his purchases of recen t years
had to be liquidated at a g reat sacrifice b oth to his health an d his
pocketbook"? W hat other cases of irony can you p oint out?
4. W hat interjections does O ld Ellsworth use in his speech? W h at
trait of his character do they em phasize? 5. W h at is the -stylistic
value of the slang w ords in the text? 6. W hy did th e w rinkles d e e p ­
en at the com ers of his eyes as O ld Ellsworth spoke to Swain? How
do you understand the word "elfishly"? 7. W hom did he call "old
pineapple juice" and why? 8. W hat progress did th e old m an m ake
in art? W hy is he com pared w ith a child playing w ith
a picture book? W hat is said about the first draw ings he m ade and
the painting accepted for the Lathrop Show? Disclose the stylistic
value of the simile "resem bled a gob of salad dressing throw n vio­
lently up against the side of a house". 9. How can you acco u n t for
the inverted word order in the sentence "Upon this distinguished
group Ellsworth/was going to foist his "Trees D ressed in W hite"?
10. W hat is the im plication of the verb "sneak" u sed to c h aracter­
ize Swain's appearance at the exhibition? 11. How had Ellsworth
changed since he took up art? C an you see any reflection of this
change in his speech? 12. W hat sentences in the second p art of the
story suggest th at O ld Ellsworth was up to som ething? C om m ent
151
on the sen ten ce "An entirely new w orld opened up its charm ing
m ysteries". 13. W hy was it easy for Old Ellsworth to wind every­
b o d y round his finger? Do you think th at a story like this could
have h ap p en ed in N ew York? 14. How is the profession of the a u ­
thor reflected in the story? Speak on the elem ent of the grotesque
and satire. 15. W hy was the story entitled the w ay it was? An allu­
sion to w hat doctrine is present here?

12. a) Find in Text Five three adjectives with the negative prefix 'in-' and use
them in sentences of your own. b) Add the negative prefix ‘in-' to the following
stems and translate the words into Russian:

accurate, attentive, capable, cautious, com plete, considerate,


convenient, correct, decent, discreet, distinct, experienced, h u ­
m an, sensible, significant, sociable, visible

13. Comment on the American peculiarities of the text and find the Ameri­
canisms for the following:

sm all and unim portant; railway; to play with; lift; central part

14. Pick out from Text Five the verbs that introduce the direct speech. Com­
ment on their usage and shades of meaning.

15. Pick out from Text Five sentences describing the main characters. Give
character sketches of Old Ellsworth, Doctor Caswell and Frank Swain.

16. Retell Text Five: a) close to the text; b) in indirect speech; c) as if you were
one of the characters.

17. Give a summary of Text Five.

18. Make up a dialogue between:

1. D octor Caswell and Ju d so n Livingston about the old man.


2. T he giggling stu d en ts th at stopped before "Trees Dressed in
W hite".
3. The old m an and Frank Swain about art galleries and exhibi­
tions.
4. D octor Caswell and the old m an about art and his apprecia­
tion of it.

19. Dramatize the story "Art for Heart's Sake". Be sure to bring the necessary
accessories into the classroom. Discuss the value of the performances.

152
20. Use the following phrases from Text Five to describe a drawing lesson:

to arrange paper and crayons on the table; a box of w ater-co­


lours; to draw a bowl of fruit; to talk of the graceful lines of; a rich
variety of colour; to be lopsided; "If you w ant to draw you will have
to look at w hat yo u 're drawing"; to b lush to the top of o n e 's ears; to
add a few lines with a steady hand; to select draw ings for th e exhi­
bition; to award a prize

21. Use the following phrases from Text Five to describe an art exhibition
(picture gallery):

a lifetime dream; to take up art; to display insatiable curiosity;


to visit the exhibition; to grow frequent; to open up its charm ing
mysteries; a rich variety of colour; m ature artist; to be h u n g in
a conspicuous place

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

1. Study the Vocabulary Notes and translate the illustrative examples into
Russian.

2. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the words
and word combinations in bold type:

A. 1. See at w hat intervals the guard is relieved at th at bridge.


2. The thief relieved him of his watch. 3. A nn was grateful*to him
for relieving her of the other girl's presence . 4. H er husband was
annoyed because nothing had b e e n said to him before, a n d re­
lieved his feelings by shouting b ack at Johnny. 5. It was rather
a relief to have him out of the way. 6. Sooner than ren o u n ce their
principles Kramskoi and twelve others resigned from the A cadem y
of Arts. 7. From the beginning to the end of his life T u rn er's one
param ount artistic aim was the representation of light a n d atm o­
sphere. 8. You could tell th at th e flowers she was w earing w ere arti­
ficial. 9. In those days conversation was still cultivated as an art.
10. This is a convenient tool for drawing nails out. 11. The snail
draws in its horns w hen it is frightened. 12. Mr. M cIntosh has
m any interesting stories of his travels if you can draw him out.
13. M oths are drawn by a light. 14. C ertainly his nam e w ould still
be a great draw for bourgeois audiences. 15. G ainsborough is fa­
m ous for the elegance of his portraits and his pictures of w om en in
particular have an extrem e delicacy and refinem ent. 16. G oing in
and out of the court-room he was calm and courteous, the picture
153
of rationality. 17. The picture was released three m onths later, and
by th at tim e th ey w ere b ack in N ew York. 18. Each of G ainsbor­
o u g h 's portraits is distinct and individual, even though taken as a
w hole th ey depict an entire society in its significant m anifesta­
tions. 19. In his "View Across the Tham es" T urner has represented
a scene looking directly into the rays of the afternoon sun, a condi­
tion w hich the hum an eyes norm ally cannot tolerate. W ith scientif­
ic precision he has portrayed the golden path of the reflection on
the w ater and the sparkle of light on the w et lawn. 20. It was
a strange situation, and very different from any rom antic picture
w hich his fancy m ight have painted.
В. 1. H e stood w atching the play of colours upon the water.
2. Before us, in this strange m ountain world of grass, the colours
w ere soft and d e lic a te — fawns, pale greens, warm browns and
golds. 3. The subject is neith er p retty nor young, yet by subtle co­
louring and a rhythm ic flow of sim ple lines an extraordinary feel­
ing of b e a u ty is created. 4 . 1 have little doubt that he will be as p o p ­
ular as he deserves here. 5. Doubtless, by this time, they are well on
their w ay in qu ite an o th er direction. 6. All this doubt and un cer­
tain ty m ade her very unhappy. 7 . 1 doubt if he is going to get away
w ith it. 8. A series of Italian views decked the walls, a connoisseur
had selected them , th ey w ere genuine and valuable. 9. The party
was adm irably selected. 10. Jo an sat down at the piano in front of
the platform to play a selection from a m usical comedy. 11. They
are both of a size. 12. "I d o n 't w ant a life-sized portrait of myself,"
answ ered th e lad, sw inging round on the m usic-stool. 13. They m et
Edgar com ing out of the house in a G. I. khaki shirt three sizes too
big for him. 14. As a result the town rem ained the sam e size for
a h u n d red years. 15. A fair-sized m aple tree stood in front of the
girl's private school. 16. W ith an alm ost visible effort the young
m an regained his control. 17. He m ade an effort to rise but his legs
w o u ld n 't support him. 18. W ith a strong m ental effort Sir Lawrence
tried to place him self in a like dilemm a.

3. Paraphrase the following sentences using your active vocabulary:

A. 1. The d o cto r's treatm en t did not ease his pain. 2. It was a
g reat com fort to know th at the children w ere safe. 3. H e felt
him self som ehow free of further responsibility. 4. I'm on d u ty until
2 p. m. And th en Peter is com ing to take my place. 5. The little boy
said, "I can w histle w ith m y m outh," and was eager to dem onstrate
his skill. 6. She has a kind of forced smile. 7. They know how to be
pleasant. T hey've cultivated th at accom plishm ent for centuries.
154
8. H er beauty attracted them as the m oon the sea. 9. She crossed
the room, pulled the curtains apart and o p ened those low windows.
1 0 .1 could not obtain any inform ation from him. 11. W ell know n as
it is, this is a painting one can go b ack to again an d again, w ithout
com ing to the end of its fascination. 12. C onstable m anaged to
paint the English countryside in all its m oods. 13. You look an em ­
bodim ent of health. 14. This doctor is a m ild-looking m an, not w hat
I'd im agined at all. 15. I w ant to execute a really good likeness of
your father. 16. Dirk Stroeve had a taste for m usic and literature
w hich gave d ep th and variety to his com prehension of pictorial art.
В. 1. She was a dull, undistinguished-looking little thing.
2. Donald blushed violently and th en looked away. 3. M onet p re­
ferred transparent light tints. 4. S he'd be p retty if her com plexion
w eren 't bad. 5. The flowers ad d ed freshness and brightness to the
room. 6. It's quite certain. 7. I'm un certain as to w hat we o u g h t to
do under the circum stances. 8. H arris's shirt was in a questionable
taste. 9. I secretly distrusted the accuracy of both descriptions a p ­
plied to one girl. 10. H aving looked through the catalogue the sci­
entist carefully chose the books w hich he n e e d ed for his research
work. 11. The choice of paintings for the exhibition was adm irable.
12. The bum p on the boy's forehead was as big as a d u c k 's egg.
13. He noticed that S trickland's canvases w ere of different m agni­
tude. 14. I d o n 't w ant to cam p out and spend the n ig h t in a ten t
no bigger than a tablecloth. 15. She found it a strain to talk of
anything else with Bart. 16. Please try and com e. 17. The giant lift­
ed up the big rock quite easily. 18. Pouring o ut the cod-liver-oil
she w rinkled her nose in an attem p t to keep her nostrils closed.

4. Explain or comment on the following sentences:

A. 1. He relieved Poirot deftly of his overcoat. 2. M allory's chief


reaction was one of relief: he w ould have hated to have to sp eak to
him again. 3. But Hilary could not relieve him self of his own b u r­
dens in that way. 4. Have you heard the news? W h at a relief!
5. Your room is arranged very artistically. 6. The arts of the painter
and sculptor had b een em ployed to m ake the palace beautiful.
7. "Every portrait that is painted w ith feeling is a portrait of the
artist, not of the sitter," said Basil Hallward. 8. It was not long
before I found, to my own surprise, th at the difficult art of fishing
I was attem pting had, indeed, a pow erful fascination. 9. W h en it
was over he drew a deep breath. 10. B eauty drew him irresistibly.
11. If the reporter could n ot g et facts for his stories, he often drew
on his im agination. 12. A considerate host always tries to draw a
155
left-out guest into conversation. 13. Mr. Strickland has drawn the
portrait of an excellent husband and father, a m an of kindly tem ­
per, industrious habits, and m oral disposition. 14. I h av en 't had my
p icture tak en for years. 15. "M ousehold H e a th ” is a m agnificent
p icture by Jo h n Crom e. It depicts a shepherd-boy and his dog with
a few sheep on a piece of broken, tufted ground. 16. He pictured
the house half-way to Plyn hill, ivy-covered and with a view of
the harbour, and J a n e t w aiting for him w hen the day's w ork was
done. 17. Leonardo da Vinci loved to portray the smile and used
it to give life a n d reality and the illusion of spiritual depth to
his characters. 18. The p resident w asted no words, yet m anaged
to paint a detailed and vivid picture of the n atio n 's strength.
19. The Russian art students w ere anxious to paint national them es
and to choose the subjects of their paintings them selves. Classical
subjects did n ot appeal to them , for their hearts lay in realism and
'p u rp o se' painting. 20. C ezanne w ould never have painted his ex­
quisite pictures if he had b een able to draw as well as the academ ic
Ingres. 21. She pain ted his ingratitude in the blackest colours.
В. 1. H e m et her challenge with a bitter smile though all colour
had left his face. 2. T ristram 's face w ent stern as death, and he bit
his lips, w hile his bride becam e the colour of the red roses on the
table in front of her. 3. His reputation was a trifle off colour.
4. These pages form th e record of events that really happened. All
th at has b e e n done is to colour them . 5. Mr. Gaitskill never for
a m om ent d o u b ted his divine right to do, w ithin the accepted lim ­
its, exactly w hat he liked. 6. The w eather looks very doubtful.
7. I sh o u ld n 't like to live in such a doubtful neighbourhood.
8. Doris had now m ade it clear th at she doubted the sincerity of
Laura's d eep affection for Conrad. 9. The w hole art was to stay si­
lent, to select o n e's time, and th en pick off the enem ies. 10. The
bo y 's sailor-suit had b een selected in the thrifty expectation of his
"grow ing into it". 11. Books are often displayed on the counter to
let the custom ers select w hat th ey like. 12. The m an who had
charge of th e canoes w as a trem endous fellow, brown all over, who
had b e e n selected for his strength. 13. H e felt, as other m en felt in
h er presence, a size larger than life. 14. Harris suggested that
G eorge never ought to com e into an ordinary sized boat with feet
th at length. 15. W e saw th e ruins overgrown with creepers, half­
buried in vegetation, b u t still gigantic in size. 16. I m yself m ight
have p ain ted the portrait. The forlorn dark eyes gazed steadily
back at me, sharing, or at least understanding, as it seem ed, my
foolish boyish dream s. 17. The "Young M an" seem s to gaze a t us
156
w ith such an intense and soulful look th at it is alm ost im possible to
believe that these dream y eyes are only a bit of coloured earth
spread on a rough piece of canvas. 18. H e m ade a g en tle effort to
introduce his friends into Bertolini society and the effort had
failed. 19. Roy becam e aw are th at som eone was app ro ach in g him,
and pulled him self to g eth er w ith a strong effort. 20. H e ab an d o n ed
his fruitless efforts to sleep. 21. Lam pton joined in th e lau g h ter but
it was a considerable effort.

5. Choose the right word:

draw — paint

1. She placed the paper and pencil before m e and told me


I could ... anything I liked. 2. The picture was ... so th at the eyes
seem to follow you no m atter w here you are.

colours — paints

1. This possible picture she painted in glow ing ... , until the
child's pathetic dark eyes glistened w ith pleasure. 2. If you w ant
cornflow er blue y o u ’d b e tte r m ix these two ... . 3. The w arm ... are
red, yellow and orange.

picture — portray — represent

1. R oerich's paintings for the Kazan railw ay station in M oscow


... com bats betw een Russians and Tatars. 2. I could h ardly C har­
lie in this role. 3. The great tragic actress is ... in h er d ay dress.
4. The artist was concerned m ore w ith re-creating th e radiance of
V enice than w ith ... the solid structure of its m onum ents.

choose — select

1. M eg had ... h er second d a u g h te r to acco m p an y h e r to the


w edding. 2. The books w ere specially ... to a ttra c t an d develop
the youthful m ind. 3. M em bers of the com m ittee w ere ... b y e le c ­
tion. ^

6. Give English equivalents for the following phrases:

снять напряжение; облегчить боль; усомниться в чем-л.; выбрать


новогодний подарок; воплощение здоровья; отобрать лучших испол­
нителей; разные по величине; иметь широкий ассортимент чего-л.;
на номер больше, чем нужно; сделать большое усилие; сомневаться
в чьей-л. искренности; сгущать краски; заставить кого-л. разгово-
157
риться; успокоить, утешить кого-л.; фальшивая улыбка; заурядный
человек; неясный ответ; дать выход своим чувствам; скрасить одно­
образие; близиться к концу; выглядеть бледным; говорить с трудом;
вздох облегчения; сделать вывод; представлять себе; сфотографиро­
вать кого-л.; платье кремового цвета; самый большой, если не по ве­
личине, то по значению; приложить все силы; черпать вдохновение;
написать картину; писать с натуры; портрет в натуральную величи­
ну; яркие, сочные краски; тусклые тона; учитель рисования; искусст­
вовед; художник-любитель; артистическая личность; портретист;
пейзажист; живописное место; цветная репродукция; формат карти­
ны; художественная выставка; художественный вкус; изображать
сцены из жизни простых людей

7. Translate the following sentences into English:

A. 1. Оливер с облегчением заметил, что человек напротив не уз­


нал его. 2. Как часто меняются часовые у ворот? 3. Какое блажен­
ство! Наконец я могу вытянуть ноги. 4. Молодая женщина вздохнула
с облегчением, когда Шерлок Холмс согласился взяться за ее дело.
5 . Новое лекарство не помогло ему. 6. Оскар Уайльд был представи­
телем теории «искусство ради искусства». 7. Этот предмет скорее по­
хож на чайник, чем на произведение искусства. 8. Никогда бы не по­
верил, что эта картина написана художником-любителем. 9. Хотя
Дирк Стрёв сам был плохим художником, он обладал тонким худо­
жественным вкусом, и ходить с ним на выставки было одно удоволь­
ствие (a rare treat). 10. Выставка прикладного искусства оказалась
очень интересной, и мы бродили по залам час или два. 11. Старый
негр не захотел раскрыть секреты своего искусства врачевания.
12. Рози отдернула занавеску и выглянула из окна. 13. Человек со
шрамом вытащил платок и вытер лицо. 14. Чем больше сыщик ста­
рался вызвать Джерри на откровенность, тем меньше ему это удава­
лось. 15. Пьеса такого рода наверняка привлечет публику. 16. Маль­
чик очень хорошо рисует, но родители не одобряют его решения
стать художником. 17. Я люблю рассматривать старые семейные фо­
тографии. 18. Что касается младенца, он воплощение здоровья.
19. Сюжет картины очень прост. На ней изображен мальчик-пастух
на фоне вечернего неба. 20. Женщина изображена сидящей перед
зеркалом. 21. Ж изнь столицы изображена в этом романе в самых
мрачных тонах. 22. Известно, что Мона Лиза слушала музыку, в то
время как Леонардо да Винчи писал ее портрет.
B. 1. О красках картин Рейнольдса, выдающегося английского жи­
вописца, трудно судить в настоящее время, потому что многие его
картины потрескались и поблекли. 2. Н. Рерих много путешествовал
по Индии и Тибету, и краски, которые он там видел, оказали влияние
на его палитру. 3. Современники ценили в Гейнсборо портретиста, а
сам художник всю жизнь считал себя пейзажистом. 4. Импрессиони­
сты пытались передать игру красок на поверхности предметов.
158
5. У ребенка не совсем здоровый вид сегодня. 6. Дженет улыбалась,
ее глаза блестели, и на щеках был румянец. 7. Не может быть сомне­
ния в том, что мы должны воспользоваться моментом. 8. Джемма со­
мневалась, что листовки могут принести пользу. 9. У меня нет ни ма­
лейшего сомнения, что он просто пытается выманить у вас эту
ценную книгу. 10. Вы зашли слишком далеко, вы сомневаетесь в чес­
тности вашего старого друга. 11. Не сомневаюсь, что она постарается
устроить сцену. 12. У нас не хватит времени, чтобы выбрать хороший
подарок к Новому году. 13. Товары были выставлены таким образом,
чтобы покупатели могли выбирать то, что им нравится. 14. Он гово­
рил медленно, останавливаясь время от времени, тщательно подби­
рая нужные слова. 15. Вот пара ботинок вашего размера. 16. Мне
нужны перчатки на размер меньше. 17. Незнакомец вытащил из кар­
мана предмет величиной со спичечный коробок. 18. Усилием воли
Эндрю взял себя в руки. 19. Не отчаивайтесь, ваши старания будут
вознаграждены. 20. Мне стоило большого труда уговорить его со­
трудничать в нашей газете.

8. Review the Essential Vocabulary and answer the following questions:

1. How is one likely to feel on learning th at th e d a n g er is avert­


ed? 2. W hat is the usual effect of a sedative? 3. W h at do w e call
a person w ith a university degree? 4. If the walls of th e house are
peeling off, w hat does the house w ant? 5. If a person deliberately
em phasizes the gloom y aspects of the situation, w hat is he doing?
6. W hat do we say about a person who sticks at no th in g to achieve
his aim? 7. W hat is another w ay of saying th at a person is pale?
8. How can we refer to a person who looks strong a n d healthy?
9. W hat often happens to the news in the tabloid press? 10. W hat
do we call a person who is fond of the arts? 11. W h at do we call
a person w ho practises one of the arts? 12. If an artist turns to n a ­
ture for inspiration, w hat do we say about him? 13. W hom do we
usually refer to as "Old M asters"? 14. W hat kinds of pictu res a c ­
cording to execution do you know? 15. W h at do you value m ost in
a picture? 16. W hom do we call a colourist? 17. W here are w orks of
art displayed? 18. How do we usually refer to w orks of u n d isp u ted
greatness in character and execution? 19. W h at do we call a p a in t­
ing of inanim ate objects, fruit and flowers in particular?

9. Respond to the following statements and questions using the Essential


Vocabulary:

1. I'll m ake every effort to com e. 2. T hey are both of a size. 3. It's
h er own selection. 4. W hat a relief! 5. It's doubtless a w ork of art.
6. H ow 'd you like to take up art professionally? 7. I know, it's next
159
to im possible to draw him out. 8. It's a great draw all right. 9. W hy
should you paint it in such d ark colours? 10. There isn 't the slight­
est doubt ab o u t it. 11. U nfortunately, it's a size too large. 12. W hat
a nice colour you have got!

10. Use the following words and word combinations in situations:

1. tubes of oils; a box of water-colours; crayons; palette; to paint


a picture; to d o u b t if; no ordinary painting; to depict; colours; cost
smb. m uch effort; to sigh w ith relief;
2. a lifetim e dream ; to exhibit smth. in a show; selection com m it­
tee; to be accep ted for the show; to hang in an inconspicuous
place; sm all in size; art critics; to be distinguished by a m arvellous
sense of colour and com position; a m ature artist; to have no doubt;
to excite som e noticeable com m ent; to award a prize;
3. to have a p ain ter for a neighbour; to display an insatiable curi­
osity about o n e 's studio; to take advantage of the opportunity; to
sigh w ith relief; to draw a curtain aside; a life-sized portrait; to
paint against the back g ro u n d of smth.; glowing colours; to be
draw n w ith utm ost care and precision; to be lost in adm iration; to
becom e aw are of sm b.'s presence; to blush to the top of o n e's ears.

11. Find in Text Five and copy out phrases in which the prepositions or ad­
verbs ‘from', ‘to’, 4vith' are used. Translate the phrases into Russian.

12. Fill in prepositions or adverbs:

1. This train starts ... Plym outh and goes ... London. 2. W hat
co u n try do you com e ...? 3. You m ust try to look ... the m atter ... my
p o i n t ... view. 4. Stop that boy ... spoiling the book. 5. Johnson nev­
e r m ade a n y provision ... the future, he ju st lived ... hand ... m outh.
6. ... tim e ... tim e I will exam ine you on the w ork you have done.
7 . 1know i t ... m y own experience. 8. W e m ust k eep them ... getting
to know ou r plans. 9. The speaker never referred ... his notes, he
spoke ... m em ory. 10. His arrival was a surprise ... me. 11. D on't pay
a tte n tio n ... w hat he is doing. 12. The guide drew our attention
... a n old church, w hich was a fine specim en of R enaissance archi­
tecture. 13. It was rough ... the A tlantic and the girl had to keep
... her cabin. 14. The b a n q u e t drew ... its close. 15. The fact is, it
never occurred ... me. 16. The chances are ten ... one. 17. T urner's
colours w ere tru e ... nature. 18. The bus was filled ... the bursting
point. 19. Everybody was scared alm ost ... death. 20. Mr. W olfe
took a g reat fancy ... his niece. 21. Sybil's father and m other m ight
possibly object ... the m arriage. 22. I am going ... hom e ... about
160
T h o m a s G a in sb o r o u g h
The M arket Cart. 1786—1787

1
T hom as G ain sb orough
Road through Wood, with Boy Resting and Dog. 1747
2
T h o m a s G a in sb o r o u g h
Mrs Sarah Siddons. 1783—1785
3
T hom as G ainsb orough
Jo n a th an Buttall ("The Blue Boy"). 1770

4
Sir J o sh u a R eynolds
Lady E lizabeth D elm e an d H er C hildren. 1777 — 1780

5
jB iin i-onsiaoie
The HaywaM, 1821

J o h n C onstable
Dedham Lock and Mill. 1820
6
З і -Мі W.'Turner-
;5і;< "Г iqn i,.q 7 ('iu''roij“ ' 'Svqnc-п !o H'-r L-)v Bpilii !;, И'- Brol.on Up. 1330

J. M, W . T urner
Fire at Sea. 1834
7
Joh n C on stable
The Cornfield. 1826

8
three days. Of course, I shall take only the things I c a n 't do ... .
23. He is ... exception the best pupil I have ever had. 2 4 .1 know you
will w ork hard, th at goes ... saying.

13. Translate the following sentences into English. Pay attention to the prep­
ositions and adverbs:

1. Хлеб пекут (делают) из муки. 2. «Какая жалость, что вы вынуж­


дены не пускать ребенка в школу», — сказал Эндрю. 3. Поэты и ху­
дожники часто черпают вдохновение у природы. 4. Братья так похо­
жи друг на друга, что я не могу отличить одного от другого. 5. Если я
советую вам это сделать, то я говорю на основании собственного
опыта. 6. Вот картина в моем вкусе. 7. Дверь захлопнулась. 8. Гвендо-
лен сказала, что она помолвлена с Эрнестом. 9. Как можно быть та­
ким безразличным к своей работе? 10. Такое упрямство любого мо­
жет довести до отчаяния. 11. Вам следовало бы извиниться перед
хозяйкой за ваше опоздание. 12. Друзья подняли тост за счастливое
окончание путешествия. 13. Не принимайте это так близко к сердцу.
14. Луиза с нетерпением ждала того дня, когда она пойдет в школу.
15. Он приобрел привычку читать газету за едой. 16. За свою работу
он почти ничего не получал. 17. Майкл несколько раз делал Флер
предложение. 18. Визит дружбы способствовал взаимному понима­
нию. 19. Это было сделано без моего согласия. 20. Он легко решает
такие задачи. 21. Нет дыма без огня.

14. a) Give Russian equivalents for the following English proverbs and say­
ings (or translate them into Russian), b) Explain in English the meaning of each
proverb, c) Make up a dialogue to illustrate one of the proverbs:

1. W hen one loves his art no service seem s too hard. 2. T he devil
is not so black as he is painted. 3. W hen in doubt leave it out. 4. Art
is long, life is short. 5. T hat's a horse of an o th er colour. 6. A th ing of
beau ty is a joy forever. 7. Art lies in concealing art. 8. Art has no
enem y except ignorance.

CONVERSATION AND DISCUSSION


Ґ
PAINTING

Topical Vocabulary

1. Painters and their craft: a fash io n a b le /se lf-ta u g h t/m a tu re


artist, a p o rtrait/lan d scap e painter, to paint from n a tu re /m e m o ry /
im agination, to paint m ythological/historical subjects, to special­
161
ize in p o rtra itu re /still life, to portray p eo p le/em o tio n s w ith m ov­
ing sin cerity/w ith restraint, to depict a p e rs o n /a scene of comm on
life /th e m ood of..., to re n d e r/in te rp re t the personality of..., to re ­
veal the p erso n 's nature, to capture the sitter's v itality/transient
expression, to develop o n e's own style of painting; to conform to
the taste of the period, to b reak w ith the tradition, to be in advance
of o n e's tim e, to expose the dark sides of life, to becom e famous
overnight, to die forgotten and penniless.
2. Paintings. Genres: an oil painting, a canvas, a w ater-colour/
pastel picture; a sk etch /stu d y ; a family g ro u p /c e re m o n ia l/in ti­
m ate portrait, a self-portrait, a sh o u ld e r/le n g th /h a lf-le n g th /k n e e -
len g th /fu ll-le n g th portrait; a landscape, a seascape, a g e n re /h is ­
torical painting, a still life, a battle piece, a flower piece,
a m asterpiece.
3. Com position and drawing: in the foreground/background, in
the to p /b o tto m /le ft-h a n d com er; to arrange sym m etrically/asym ­
m etrically /in a p y ram id /in a vertical format; to divide the picture
space diagonally, to define the nearer figures m ore sharply, to em ­
phasize contours purposely, to be scarcely discernible, to convey
a sense of space, to place the figures against the landscape b a c k ­
ground, to m erge into a single entity, to blend w ith the landscape,
to indicate the sitter's profession, to be rep resen ted stan d in g .../sit­
ting.../talking..., to be p o s e d / silhouetted against an open s k y /a
classic p illa r/th e snow; to accen tu ate smth.
4. Colouring. Light and shade effects: su b tle /g a u d y colouring,
to com bine form an d colour into harm onious unity; brilliant/low -
k ey ed colour schem e, th e colour schem e w here ... predom inate;
m uted in colour; th e colours m ay be cool and restfu l/h o t and ag i­
ta te d /so ft and d elicate/d u ll, oppressive, harsh; the delicacy of
tones m ay be lost in a reproduction.
5. Impression. Judgem ent: the picture m ay be moving, lyrical,
rom antic, original, poetic in tone and atm osphere, an exquisite
piece of painting, an unsurpassed m asterpiece, distinguished by
a m arvellous sense of colour and com position.
The picture m ay be dull, crude, chaotic, a colourless daub of
paint, obscure and unintelligible, gaudy, depressing, disappoint­
ing, cheap and vulgar.

1. Read the following text for obtaining its information:

T hom as G ainsborough was born in Sudbury, Suffolk, in 1727,


the son of Jo h n G ainsborough, a cloth m erchant. He soon evinced
162
a m arked inclination for draw ing and in 1740 his father sent him to
London to study art. He stayed in London for eig h t years, w orking
under the rococo portrait-engraver Gravelot; he also becam e fam il­
iar with the Flemish tradition of painting, w hich was highly prized
by London art dealers at that time. "Road through W ood, w ith Boy
Resting and Dog", 1747 is a typical 'genre painting', obviously in ­
fluenced by Ruisdael. In M any aspects this w ork recalls
C onstable's "Cornfield".
In 1750 G ainsborough m oved to Ipswich w here his professional
career began in earnest. H e executed a great m any sm all-sized
portraits as well as landscapes of a decorative nature. In O ctober
1759 G ainsborough m oved to Bath. In Bath he becam e a m uch
sought-after and fashionable artist, portraying th e aristocracy,
w ealthy m erchants, artists and m en of letters. H e no longer p ro ­
duced small paintings but, in the m anner of V an Dyck, tu rn e d to
full-length, life-size portraits. From 1774 to 1788 (the year of his
death) G ainsborough lived in London w here he divided his tim e
betw een portraits and pictorial com positions, inspired by Geior-
gione, w hich Reynolds defined as "fancy pictures" ("The W ood
G atherers", 1787). As a self-taught artist, he did n o t m ake th e tra d i­
tional grand tour or the ritual jo u rn ey to Italy, but relied on his own
rem arkable instinct in painting.
G ainsborough is fam ous for the elegance of his portraits and his
pictures of w om en in particular have an extrem e delicacy a n d re ­
finem ent. As a colourist he has had few rivals am ong English p a in t­
ers. His best works have those delicate brush strokes w hich are
found in Rubens and Renoir. T hey are painted in clear and tra n s­
paren t tone, in a colour schem e w here blue and g reen pred o m i­
nate.
The particular discovery of G ainsborough was the creation of
a form of art in which the sitters and the back g ro u n d m erge into
a single entity. The landscape is not k e p t in the background, b u t in
m ost cases m an and nature are fused in a single w hole th rough the
atm ospheric harm ony of mood; he em phasized th a t th e natural
background for his characters neither was, nor o u g h t to be, the
draw ing-room or a reconstruction of historical events, b u t the
changeable and harm onious m anifestations of nature, as revealed
both in the fleeting m om ent and in the slowly evolving seasons. In
the portrait of "Robert Andrews and M ary, His W ife", for exam ple,
the beauty of the green English sum m er is com m unicated to the
view er through the sense of w ell-being an d delig h t w hich th e a t­
m osphere visibly creates in the sitters. G ainsborough shows the
163
pleasure of resting on a rustic ben ch in the cool shade of an oak
tree, w hile all around the ripe harvest throbs in a hot atm osphere
enveloped by a golden light.
Em phasis is nearly always placed on the season in b oth the
landscapes and the portraits, from the tim e of G ainsborough's ear­
ly w orks until the years of his late m aturity: from the burning sum ­
m er sun in "Robert A ndrew s and Mary, His W ife" to the early a u ­
tum n scene in "The M arket Cart", painted in 1786— 1787, a work
p e n e trate d thro u g h o u t by the richness and warm th of colour of the
season, by its scents of d renched earth and m arshy undergrow th.
It is because his art does not easily fall w ithin a w ell-defined th e ­
oretical system th at it becam e a forerunner of the rom antic m ove­
m ent, w ith its feeling for natu re and the uncertainty and anxiety
ex p erien ced by sensitive m en w hen confronted w ith nature:
"Mary, C ountess Howe" (1765), "The Blue Boy" (1770), "Elizabeth
and M ary Linley" (1772), "Mrs. H am ilton N isbet" (1785).
The m arriage portrait "The M orning W alk", painted in 1785,
rep resen ts the perfection of G ainsborough's later style and goes
beyond portraiture to an ideal conception of dignity and grace in
the harm ony of landscape and figures.
G ainsborough neith er had not desired pupils, but his art —
ideologically an d technically entirely different from th at of his ri­
val Reynolds — had a considerable influence on the artists of the
English school who followed him. The landscapes, especially those
of his late m anner, anticipate Constable, the m arine paintings,
T urner. His o u tp u t includes about eight h u n d red portraits and
m ore than two h u n d red landscapes.

2. Answer the following questions:

1. H ow did G ainsborough start his career? 2. W hat is known


ab o u t th e Ipswich period of his life? 3. W hat kind of practice did
G ainsborough acquire in Bath? 4. W hat is a self-taught artist?
5. W h at do you know about the Flem ish tradition (school) of paint­
ing? 6. W hat contribution did Van Dyck m ake to the English
school of painting? 7. W h at are Rubens and Renoir fam ous for?
8. W hy did G ainsborough place the sitter in direct contact with the
landscape? 9. How is his conception of the relationship betw een
m an and n a tu re reflected in the portrait of "Robert Andrews and
M ary, His W ife"? 10. W h at distinguishes "The M arket Cart"?
11. W h at do you know about the portrait of Jo n ath an Buttall ("The
Blue Boy")? 12. W ho was Sir Jo sh u a Reynolds? W hat role did he
164
play in the history of English art? 13. H ow did C onstable and T u rn ­
er distinguish them selves?

3. Summarize the text in three paragraphs specifying the contribution Gains­


borough made to the English arts.

4. Use the Topical Vocabulary in answering the questions:

1. W hat service do you think the artist perform s for m ankind?


2. H istorically there have b e e n various reasons for th e m aking of
pictures, apart from the artist's desire to create a w ork of visual
beauty. C an you point out som e of them ? 3. How does pictorial art
serve as a valuable historical record? W hat can it preserve for the
posterity? 4. There are certain rules of com position ten d in g to give
u n ity and coherence to the w ork of art as a whole. H ave you ever
observed that triangular or pyram idal com position gives th e effect
of stability and repose, w hile a division of the picture space d iag o ­
nally tends to give bread th and vigour? Be specific. 5. The pain ter
who knows his own craft and nothing else will tu rn o ut to be a very
superficial artist. W hat are som e of the qualities a tru e artist m ust
possess? 6. W hy does it som etim es h ap p en th at an artist is n o t a p ­
preciated in his lifetim e and yet highly prized b y the su cceed in g
generations? 7. The heyday of th e R enaissance is to b e placed b e ­
tw een the 15th and 16th centuries. Artists beg an to stu d y anatom y
and the effects of light and shadow, w hich m ade their w ork m ore
life-like. W hich g reat representatives of the period do уоц know ?
8. W h at national schools of painting are usually d istinguished in
E uropean art? 9. Classicism a ttach ed the m ain im portance to com ­
position and figure painting w hile rom anticism laid stress on p e r­
sonal and em otional expression, especially in colour an d dram atic
effect. W hat is typical of realism /im p ressio n ism /cu b ism /ex p res-
sionism /surrealism ? 10. W hat kinds of p ictures are th ere acco rd ­
ing to the artist's them e? 11. Artists can give psychological tru th to
portraiture not sim ply by stressing certain m ain physical features,
b u t by the subtlety of light and shade. In this respect Rokotov, Lev­
itsky and Borovikovsky stand out as unique. Isn 't it surprising th at
they n/anaged to im part an air of dignity and good b reed in g to so
m any of their portraits? 12. Is the figure pain ter justified in reso rt­
ing to exaggeration and distortion if the effect he has in m ind re ­
quires it? 13. Landscape is one of the principal m eans b y w hich a rt­
ists express their d elight in the visible world. Do we expect
topographical accuracy from th e landscape painter? 14. W h at kind
of painting do you prefer? W hy?
165
5. Give a brief talk about an outstanding portrait painter. Choose one you re­
ally have a liking for.

6. You are an expert on an outstanding landscape painter. Note down about


five pieces of factual information and five pieces of personal information. Your
fellow-students will ask you questions to find out what you know about it.

7. Make a note of the title of the picture that is reasonably well known. Tell
the others in the group about the picture. See if they can guess the title.

8. You are an expert on the Peredvizhniki/the Society of Travelling Art Exhi­


bitions. Your partner is a foreigner who is completely ignorant of this period in
Russian history.

9. A painting can be studied on several levels and from a variety of perspec­


tives. Here are a few examples of how pictures can be described, analyzed, inter­
preted and evaluated. Use the following texts for making imaginary dialogues
about the pictures and act them out in class.

"Lady Elizabeth Delm e and H er C hildren" by Reynolds is a typ­


ical fam ily group portrait in the G rand Style of English portrait
painting. Lady D elm e was the wife of a m em ber of Parliam ent and
b elo n g ed to the privileged class of the landed nobility. Here, with
an air of ap p aren tly casual informality, she is shown on the terrace
before her country-house, w hile behind stretch the broad acres of
her fam ily estate.
Reynolds has tak e n care th at the gestures, facial expressions,
an d poses of his subjects are appropriate to their age, character,
and social status. "The joy of a m onarch," D ryden once wrote, "for
the new s of a victory m ust n ot be expressed like the ecstasy of
a harleq u in on the receipt of a letter from his m istress." So, in this
portrait, Lady Delm e is dignified and gracious, secure in the
know ledge of her b e a u ty and w ealth. H er son John, aged five, as if
sensing the responsibilities of m anhood, gazes sternly toward the
distant horizon. H er other son, Em elias H enry, in unm asculine
skirts as befits his three years, is coy and winsome. The fourth
m em ber of th e group, the unk em p t Skye terrier, is the em bodim ent
of loyal affection. N ote the sim plicity of the pyram idal design and
th e low -keyed colour schem e. These features w ere for Reynolds
sym bols of d ignity and good taste.

В
The "Mrs. Sarah Siddons" by G ainsborough has the distinction
of being not only a rem arkable w ork of art, but a unique in terpreta­
166
tion of a unique personality. It is not only one of the artist's finest
portraits, b u t also one of the best of the m any likenesses of the
great tragic actress, who sat to m ost of the celebrated m asters of
h er day. It was painted in 1783— 1785, w hen the q u een of th e tragic
dram a was in her tw enty-ninth year and at the zenith of h er fame.
An enthusiastic adm irer who saw it in the M anchester exhibi­
tion of 1857 w rote as follows: "The great tragic actress, who in ter­
preted the passions with such en erg y and such feeling, and who
felt them so strongly herself, is better portrayed in this sim ple half-
length in her day dress, than in allegorical portraits as th e Tragic
M use or in character parts. This portrait is so original, so individu­
al, as a poetic expression of character, as a deliberate selection of
pose, as bold colour and free handling, that it is like the w ork of no
other painter.

С
"D edham Lock and Mill" (1820)

This is a brilliant exam ple of C onstable's view painting a t its


com plete m aturity. The salient features of the landscape are tre a t­
ed in sharp relief — even those not strictly necessary — y et they
m erge perfectly u n d er a serene, perfect light. This p ainting co n ­
tains, in synthesis, all the elem ents of landscape w hich C onstable
loved best: the river, the boats, the soaked logs, th e river v e g e ta ­
tion, the sun shining through the foliage of the tall trees, th e scenes
of rural life and, above all, D edham Mill. The cultural origins of
this w ork are apparent in the traditional com position, in th e use of
chiaroscuro, in the way the landscape fades into the distance, after
the Dutch m anner, and in the com plex, laboured palette. The com ­
pact tree m ass in the foreground is blocked in against a sky filled
with m ovem ent, reflected in the calm and transparent w aters over
w hich plays a pallid sun, as w e find in Ruisdael.

D
For C onstable I have an affection th at goes back to m y earliest
reco^ections. In the first years of m y childhood, there h u n g in the
halls of m y father's house a large steel engraving of "The C orn­
field". O ften in the long hot sum m ers of the M iddle W est, I used
to lie on the floor, gazing for hours into this English landscape
carried from the dry an d burning w orld around m e into a vista of
blessed coolness, thick verdure, dam pness and everlasting peace.
167
I lived in th at picture. To m e it was m ore beautiful than a dream:
th e boy, flat on the ground drinking from a running brook; the
sheep dog w aiting patiently w ith turned head; the am bling flock;
th e old silent trees; the fat clouds reeking m oisture ...
Som e years later, w hen I w ent to London to study pictures, I
saw "The C ornfield" and m any others by Constable, and m y first
im pressions w ere confirm ed. In his grasp of th e stable, one m ight
alm ost say form idable, repose that m an feels in the presence of
nature, and in com m unicating the spiritual contentm ent induced
by com panionships with nature, C onstable is the m aster of the
English school.

C onstable never travelled outside England. H e was slow to d e ­


velop as an artist, and slow to becom e famous. In all these things he
was the very opposite of Turner. If he was W ordsw orthian in his a t­
titu d e to nature, T urner was Byronic. The elem ents w hich seem so
dom esticated in C onstable's pictures are at their m ost extrem e and
b attling in T u rn er's g ran d est pictures. The large "Fire at Sea" d e ­
picts m an 's hopeless fight am id storm and disaster. H um an beings
are literal flotsam in a raging sea. T urner him self actually experi­
enced th e "Snowstorm: Steam boat off a H arbour M outh" in which
w ind and snow an d spray sport with the unfortunate steam boat un­
til it is barely visible ex cept for a straining mast. T here is a trem en­
dous exhilarating terror in this m om ent w hen all natu re's forces
are unleashed. Som ething of the sam e dram a is in "Rain, Steam,
and Speed", w here the glowing train forces its way over the high
viad u ct th rough the driving m ist and rain — and here m an is w in­
ning through, th anks to the new ly invented steam engine. But
T u rn er's intense receptivity to n a tu re 's m oods m ade him able to
cap tu re also m om ents of u tte r tranquility. In the "Evening Star"
th ere is n o thing b u t the m erging of sea and sky, d ay and night, as
evening slowly sucks the colour from things; and only the diam ond
point of th e single star shines out, caught trem blingly on the dark
water. The sam e poignancy hovers about "The Fighting Tem eraire"
in w hich betw een dusk and day an old ship is tu g g ed to its last
berth. The ghostly hulk floats over the calm glassy sea, and the sun
sinks like a bonfire in the west, seem ing a sym bol of the life that is
ended, stirring us to a quite irrational sadness for days gone by.
Such is T urner's poetry.
168
10. Select a reproduction of a portrait painting and discuss it according to
the following outline:

1. The general effect. (The title and nam e of the artist. T he p e ri­
od or trend represented. Does it ap p ear natural and sp o n tan eo u s or
contrived and artificial?)
2. The contents of the picture. (Place, tim e and setting. T he ag e
and physical appearance of the sitter. The accessories, th e dress
and environm ent. Any attem p t to ren d er the personality an d em o­
tions of the m odel. W hat does th e artist accen tu ate in his subject?)
3. The composition and colouring. (How is the sitter represented?
Against w hat background? Any prevailing format? Is the posture
bold or rigid? Do the hands (head, body) look natural and informal?
How do the eyes gaze? Does the painter concentrate on the analysis
of details? W hat tints predom inate in the colour schem e? Do the
colours blend im perceptibly? Are the brushstrokes left visible ?)
4. Interpretation and evaluation. (Does it exem plify a high d e ­
gree of artistic skill? W hat feelings, m oods or ideas does it evoke in
the viewer?)

11. Because of their special environment, museums and picture galleries of­
fer the kind of conditions that allow a student to experience the intrinsic quali­
ties of the art object. The atmosphere of museums evokes marvel. When our
emotions are roused, we are more sensitive, we openly explore, make discover­
ies, and ultimately are more receptive to the learning experience. Enlarge on the
benefits of museums and picture galleries.

12. Give an account of your own visit to a picture gallery.

13. Communication Work:

a) Get your fellow -student to give you inform ation ab o u t h is /


her favourite m useum . Try to get as m any details as you can.
b) You are a novice teacher g etting ready to tak e your charges
to the Tretyakov G allery /th e Russian M u seu m /th e H erm itage.
Ask for advice and suggestions from an expert.
c) Persuade your p artner to agree w ith your opinion that life is
m ade m uch m ore colourful if you regularly visit art exhibitions.
d) O ne of you has recently returned from England. The o th er is
questioning h im /h e r on the im pressions of the N ational G allery /
the Tate Gallery.
e) T h e g re a t value of visiting a m useum and studying w orks of
art first-hand is that one becom es aw are of the qualitative differ­
ence betw een original art and photographic reproductions. W ork
in pairs and enlarge on this statem ent.
169
14. Read the following dialogues. The expressions in bold type show the
WAYS ENGLISH PEOPLE EXPRESS LIKES AND DISLIKES. Note them down. Be
ready to act out the dialogues in class:

— Isn't that lovely?


— W hat a dull picture! W hy, there's no colour in it.
— T hat a dull picture! W hy, it's beautiful, it's perfect, if it had
any m ore colour it w ould be wrong.
— But I d o n 't th ink so. Each to our own opinion, dear Simon.
— ... Forgive me, darling. To lose m y tem per because you didn't
like th at picture, how childish!
— Yes, you w ere funny; I have never seen you like that before,
quite a baby, Simon. If I really tho u g h t you liked th at thing, Simon,
I'd b eg in to w onder at your taste.
— But I did like it. I haven't seen a picture for years I have
liked so much.

T hey paused before the prizewinner.


— I think that one's got som ething. For once I believe that I'd
agree w ith the judges.
— I hate it like hell.
— W hat don't you like about it?
— Everything. To m e it's ju st phoney. N o pilot in his senses
w ould be flying as low as th at with therm o-nuclear bom bs going off
all around.
— It's got good com position and good colouring.
— Oh, sure. But the subject's phoney.

15. Discussing and evaluating things often involves stating your preference.
Here are some ways of expressing likes and dislikes. Notice that you need to be
very polite when criticizing things in English — even speaking to someone you
know quite well.

Expressing likes
I like ... very m uch indeed.
I (really) enjoy...
I've always lik e d /lo v e d ...
T h ere's n othing I lik e /e n jo y m ore than ...
I'm (really) very fond o f ...
... is (really) terrific/great, etc.
It's too lovely for words.
Expressing dislikes
(I'm afraid) I d o n 't like ...
I've never liked ..., I'm afraid.
... is not one of m y favourite ...
I (really) hate...
I think ... is p retty a w ful/really unpleasant.
I'm not (really) very k een on ...
... is ghastly/rubbish.
I c a n 't say ... appeals to m e very m uch.
I m ust say I'm not too fond o f ...

16. Work in pairs, a) Find out each other's feelings about these subjects. Use
the clich6s of likes and dislikes:

1. An art book for a b irthday present. 2. Snapshots from a fam ily


album . 3. Pupils' draw ings for the school exhibition. 4. Your g ra n d ­
m a's picture postcards. 5. A guided tour of a m useum . 6. Land­
scape paintinq. 7. Im pressionism . 8. G enre painting. 9. A nim als in
art. 10. Still life.
b) Report your partner’s opinion to the students in another group.

17. Read the following text. Find in it arguments for including popular arts in
the art curriculum and against it. Copy them out into two columns (I — "for",
II — "against"):
A new issue in aesthetic education to d ay has to do w ith the
choice of art exam ples to use in the classroom , specifically, w h eth ­
er they should be restricted to recognized w orks of fine art or al­
lowed to include such art forms as posters, album covers, bill­
boards, and particularly cinem a and television.
Since the popular arts are a reflection and p ro d u ct of popular
culture, exploring the popular culture should be a valid m ethod of
inquiry. Popular arts are already a p art of th e ch ild ren 's lives and
they enable the teacher to "start w here the kids are". Further, they
facilitate the responses the children are already having w ith their
preferred art forms rather than im posing ad u lt m iddle class sta n ­
dards on them . W e know also th at art w hich stu d en ts en co u n ter in
schools — the official or high art em bodied in the official curricu­
lum — stands in an adversary relation to the m edia of p o p u lar e n ­
tertainm ent. A critical analysis of the forms reflected in p o p u lar art
is im perative if we w ant to elicit m eaningful dialogue ab o u t art.
N ot all w riters in art education have tak e n a positive position in
regard to the popular arts. An opinion exists th at fine art objects
171
are th e only objects w ith the pow er to im part a m arkedly aesthetic
asp ect to hum an experience. C ertain scholars "refuse to cheapen
a rt's m agnificent and suprem e excellence by com paring it to com ­
ic strips and o th er essentially vulgar com m odities", claim ing that
p o p u lar c ulture w as the result of the public's inability to appreciate
h igh art. Even those w ho recognize popular arts as art forms su g ­
gest th a t th e schools should go beyond them , because "serious a rt”
m akes m ore d em ands on the viewer.
Som e a rt educators argue th at concepts of fine art and popular
a rt are relative and th at th e distinction betw een the two is slight if
n ot illusory. W h at w e see in art m useum s and art galleries includes
a lot of different things from all over the world, from cultures and
p eriods of tim e in w hich the concept of art, as we know it, did not
exist. In their original contexts, such objects often served a variety
of functions, such as m agical, ritualistic, narrative, or utilitarian but
alm ost never aesthetic.
It is well know n th a t m any of the things we regard so highly to ­
day, such as G othic cathedrals, El Grecos, Rem brandts, Goyas or
C ezannes, w ere ignored or scorned at different periods of time.
M any things we ignore or scorn today, such as the w ork of the
F rench or Royal A cadem ies in the 19th century, w ere at one tim e
highly regarded. A w ork's reputation can be affected precipitously
by th e accident of reattribution. A highly regarded Rem brandt,
su b seq u en tly discovered to be not by R em brandt drops in value
im m ediately. T he sam e thing can h appen in reverse. Finally, there
a re cases in w hich objects have lost not only their m onetary and in­
trinsic value, b u t also their status as art objects because they are
fakes.

18. Discuss the text in pairs. One partner will take the optimistic view and in­
sist that popular arts should be included in the art curriculum. The other will de­
fend the opposite point of view.
Consider the following:

For: A g a i n s t :

1. The differences between 1. Fine arts in each epoch


popular and fine art are often supplied the models from
matters of classification. which the rules and principles
were derived.
2. Popular art facilitates the 2. Fine arts are more noble, more
aesthetic experience and worthy than all the other
therefore is appropriate for opportunities available for
study in the field of art visual aesthetic experience
education. around us.
172
3. The content of the popular 3. Tastes should be developed
arts is of relevance to the through images of high artistic
students and, through art culture, whereas works of
criticism, can lead to a more popular culture as a rule meet
penetrating analysis of these consumer's tastes.
and other art forms.
4. The popular arts allow 4. Excellent, or fine art is better
students to talk about than poor art for providing
emotionally meaningful students with a strong
experiences. personal and cultural
awareness.
5. They can aid the student's 5. A lot of popular art is debased
understanding of his culture and meretricious.
as well as the cultures of other
peoples.
6. Once the teacher is able to 6. We have no right to
establish a trusting "condemn" students to the
relationship and a rapport easily comprehensible forms
with his students, the students of popular art. Any student
might be more responsive to can develop an appreciation
the forms of art which the of the fine arts.
teacher wishes to introduce.
7. The habit of looking at good
pictures is in itself a means by
which taste can be formed.

19. Role-Playing.

The Thing They Need

S i t u a t i o n : A group of students from a teach er training insti­


tute now on school practice and their instructor are discussing
w hat sort of social event to organize for the pupils of form 9 "A".
In the course of the discussion opinions differ. You m ust decide
w hose argum ents sound m ore convincing.
Characters:
1. A nna K., aged 23, is fond of pictorial art and suggests visiting
the tow n's art gallery w here the w orks of M .Vrubel are on display
at p resent ("Pan", "The Swan Princess", "Seated D em on" am ong
th£m). The harm onious com bination of the fantastic and th e real,
the gorgeous colour schem es are sure to app eal to the pupils of
form 9 "A". W hat they w ant is som ething noble and worthy, an u p ­
lifting experience.
173
2. Victor М., aged 25, does not share A nn's enthusiasm for clas­
sical art. He has nothing against it personally but thinks that te e n ­
agers n e e d a different kind of artistic experience, som ething that
th ey can possibly share in. He w ants to take the pupils to a pop
co n cert to be held in the near future not far from the school. Ac­
cording to him young people prefer pop to the classical arts. It is
closer to their own experience of life, and provides an em otional
outlet and release. Picture galleries are for elderly spinsters with
no th in g to do.
3. K atherine L , ag e d 51, resents V ictor’s outburst a n d tells of
h er own school days: they used to visit the T retyakov Gallery every
w eek and studied the art of the fam ous Russian painters of the 18th
and 19th centuries. A professional artist show ed them round the
Gallery. It was all thanks to this very artist th at she fell in love with
classical art. She rem em bers as if it w ere y esterday the joy of listen­
ing to his lively descriptions of the subtleties of the com position
an d colour com binations. It is unacceptable to her that the young­
er g en eration should be allow ed to rem ain indifferent to such
a w ealth of classical heritage.
4. M arina K., ag ed 24, listened with pleasure to the views
of h er supervisor K. L. and c o u ld n 't agree more. She suggests invit­
ing a specialist from the M useum of Fine Arts to give a lecture on the
history of English painting. She had b een p resent at the lecture on
the French im pressionists and loved every m inute of it. The slides
w ere a dream . "English painters" m ight be great fun too. She knows
the telep h o n e num ber and offers to do it herself.
5. A lexandra Т., aged 23, is rather sceptical about M arina's
project. E xperience ten d s to show that pupils from 9 "A" m ake
a p o in t of n ot participating in any of the schools activities, they are
unlikely to be attracted to som ething so sophisticated and dry as
a lectu re on art, slides or no slides. She puts forward the idea of
a film, p erhaps even about a painter, b u t not on any account
a lecture.
6. H elen B., ag ed 23, adm its she is no great art specialist her­
self, nevertheless she believes in han d in g down o ne's cultural h er­
itage from one gen eratio n to the next. W hy not take the pupils on
an excursion to Abram tsevo, the form er estate of the fam ous art-
p atro n M am ontov, w here Korovin and V rubel w orked on stage
decorations and V alentin Serov painted his fam ous "Girl with
Peaches". Even if the pupils fail to appreciate the works of art, a
day in the open air is sure to do them a world of good.
174
7. Lucy В., aged 24, does not care for fine arts and is not
asham ed to adm it it. 9 "A" has w orked hard all year. How can one
expect them at the end of term to continue taking an active in te r­
est in serious, heavy subjects such as classical art. W hat th ey need
now is diversion, relaxation, a chance to unw ind. W hy n o t orga­
nize a picnic, perhaps on bicycles. She knows som e fine w oods
not too far away w here they could escape from the bustle of the
city and play volleyball, badm inton or w hatever.

20. Group Discussion.

Topic 1. Is the appreciation o f pictures


a special faculty which only a few
can possess?

T a lk in g points:
1. The excellency of style is not on the surface, b u t lies deep. It
is the florid style which strikes at once. T here is no n eed to be
asham ed of o ne's ap parent dullness.
2. The habit of looking at good pictures is in itself a m eans by
w hich taste can be form ed and the scope of o n e's enjoym ent w id­
ened and developed.
3. The acquisition of good taste is a m atter of tim e. Painting in
this respect does not differ from other arts (poetry, music).

Topic 2. A great painting enriches


our experience o f life, ju s t as a great poem does
or a great m usical com position

T a lk in g points:
1. The m ore we look at it the m ore it reveals and this is not
necessarily because of the am ount of detail and incid en t it c o n ­
tains.
2. G reat painters m ake us see and think a g reat deal m ore than
the objects before us, they teach us to look a t a scene through
their eyes, with som ething of their own im agination.
3. The m asterpieces of painting, like the m asterpieces of m us­
ic and poetry transform experience; they are an inexhaustible
source of beauty which derives from the originality of the artist's
outlook, his capacity for com bining form and colour into a h ar­
m onious unity.
175
Topic 3. "Aesthetic effects" m ake art
e sp e c ia lly en g a g in g an d illum inating

Talking points:
1. M ood: O ften w orks of art project powerful moods, the
m oods of p eo p le or anim als, or even the m oods of landscapes,
buildings. T he view er who m isses this paradoxical capturing of
ch aracter in m ere paint loses m uch of the value that art offers.
2. M otion: This includes not only renderings of objects in m o­
tion — the horse race, a hunting scene but also qualities of motion in
a m etaphorical sense. Novice viewers see the energy of depicted
action in a Delacroix but not the equal energy in the brush strokes of a
V an Gogh, or the upyeam ing of the elongated figures in an El Greco.
3. Sym ptom s and reinforcers: These are tactics th at intensify an
effect w ithout really having anything to do w ith the effect. For in­
stance, an artist m ight arrange the light in a painting so that shad­
ows fall u p o n the face of a sad person; a bright background m ight
intensify a figu re's sadness by contrast, or a dark one intensify it
by concordance.

U nit Six

SPEECH PATTERNS

1. You tricked that blockhead out of them.

G eorge always m anaged to trick Tom out of som e money.


At th e m arket I was cheated out of three roubles.

2. I am not to be trifled with.

I am not to be shouted at.


H e is not to be interfered with.
She is not to be laughed at.

3. Lady (giving w ay to her temper).

N ever give w ay to your despair.


She gave w ay to her tears.
D on't give w ay to panic.
176
4 . W ho are you that you should presume to sp eak to m e in
that coarse way?

W ho are you that you should shout at m e?


W ho is she that we should wait for her?
W ho is he that he should order us about?

5. The moment he takes them, she hurries across to the o ther


side of the room.

T he m om ent he saw Jane, he rushed to her.


The m om ent she turns up, send for me.
The m om ent you n eed me, I'll come.

6. It will cost you nothing to give it to me.

It cost him a lot of trouble to help us.


It required m e m uch effort to m ove th e furniture.
It will take you little tim e to do the job.

7. It has b een sent to you out of sheer malice.

I did it out of despair.


She acted out of fear.
He contradicted her out of sheer spite.

8. Then w hy not send it to her husband?

W hy not go there at once?


W hy not open the window?
W hy not tell her the truth?

EXERCISES

1. Complete the following sentences using the Speech Patterns:

1. W hy did you give A nn the tickets? — She tricked .... 2. It was


only w hen I cam e hom e that I noticed that I had b een .... 3. W hy on
177
earth are you shouting? I'm not ... . 4. It's no concern of yours. I'm
n o t ... . 5. She was m aking every effort n o t .... 6. It was the first time
he ... . 7. She m ust have realized she was wrong. She ju st stuck to
h er p oint ... . 8. She isn 't really interested in m y affairs. She asked
... . 9. Y ou're in no condition to speak to her now. W hy not ...?
10. It's a splendid opportunity for us to get together. W hy n o t ...?

2. Suggest the beginning matching the end using the Speech Patterns:

1. ... th at you should shout at m e? 2. ... that he should interfere


in m y affairs? 3. ... I'm free, I'll let you know. 4. ... he comes, tell
him I'm in th e library. 5. ... an hour or so to do the job. 6. ... about
2,000 roubles.

3. Paraphrase the following using the Speech Patterns:

1. She m ade m e give her the letter saying that she already had
your perm ission to read it. 2. It was the first tim e he lost his tem per
w ith her. 3. She h ated crying in public. 4. W hy does she think that
she can k eep everyone w aiting? 5. W hy does he think that every­
one should always stand up for him? 6. As soon as he stirred, the
dog growled. 7. As soon as G eorge started playing the banjo,
M ontm orency beg an howling. 8. I should never have thought
y o u 'd be so long about answ ering m y letter. 9. O ne m ust have skill
to m ake a fire in the rain. 10. I did it because I was sorry for her.
11. You n e e d n 't stay ju st to be polite. I'll be perfectly all right
alone. 12. D on't you think you should be frank if you w ant m y a d ­
vice? 13. You can always sell your piano if you d o n 't really need it.

4. Complete the answers:

1. W hy do you dislike Jim so m uch? — H e's dishonest. He can


easily ... . 2. Are you still angry w ith her? — I am. She ... . 3. W hat
did she answ er I w onder? —. She d i d n 't ... . 4. Did the girl cry when
she fell? — She d id n 't ... . 5. Shall we go and help him? — No, he
said he was n o t ... . 6. I'm at m y wits' end w hat to do. — Oh, come,
d o n 't ... . 7. Do you think h e'll take the news calmly? — Oh, no,
h e 's sure ... . 8. W hy d id n 't you tell Ja n et that you disapproved of
her decision? — How could I? W ho do you think I ... ? 9. W ho are
we w aiting for now? — Jane. She ... . 10. I'm afraid I sh an 't m anage
to drop in on her. — But you live next door to her. It .... 11. Shall
I w ait for you? — If you will. It'll ... . 12. W hy w on't you come? She
invited you, d id n 't she? — She did, b u t it was only ... .
178
5. M ake up tw o se n te n ce s o f y o u r ow n on e a ch p a tte rn .

6. Translate into English using the Speech Patterns:

О днаж ды Алек заявил, что в в оск р есен ь е мы и дем на лы жах. «Мы


слишком много торчим дома, — сказал он. — П оч ем у бы н е п р о б е ­
жать километров десять-пятнадцать по лесу? Это н е отни м ет у нас
м ного врем ени, зато всю неделю будем хор ош о себя чувствовать».
Когда в точно н азн ач ен н ое врем я я приш ла на вокзал, я увидела
на платф орм е несколько человек, ож и давш их п оезд, н о Алека ср еди
н и х не было. «Мало ли что могло его задерж ать», — подум ала я и р е ­
шила нем ного подождать.
Ветер пронизы вал м еня до костей, и вскоре я начала злиться.
«Кто он такой, что я долж н а его ждать?» Н о как р аз в тот момент,
когда я у ж е собралась уходить, появился Алек с оп о зд а н и ем на
10 минут и не очень вразумительно стал говорить что-то о часах, к о­
торы е он забы л завести. Я н е удер ж ал ась и сказала ем у, что я о нем
дум аю . В конце концов я н е и з тех, с кем м ож н о так поступать.
Мы все-таки поехали, но н астр оен и е было и сп ор ч ен о у обои х.
Когда мы сош ли с п оезда на маленькой станции, мы отправились
в лес: я впереди, Алек за мной. О н сказал, что так у м еня н е б у д ет в о з­
м ож н ости отстать.
Всю ночь шел снег, и лы жни ещ е никто н е пролож ил. М н е было
трудно идти первой, и я сказала: «П очем у бы нам н е пом еняться м е с ­
тами? Т ебе н е придется прилагать столько усилий, чтобы идти в п ер е­
ди, ты ж е хорош и й лы жник». Н о Алек н е захотел. «Это он со зл о­
сти», — подумала я. Н о когда ч ер ез несколько м инут я оглянулась, то
к м о ем у великом у удивлению , увидела, что о н тащ ится где-то‘позади,
явно н е в состоянии держ аться со мной наравне.
Все стало ясно: он п росто н е ум ел ходить на лы жах. Я очень п о ж а ­
лела, что поехала с ним. Д ело н е в том, что он оказался плохим лы ж ­
ником. Он был лгун и хвастун. А с этим я н е могла смириться.

7. Make up and act out in front of the class a suitable dialogue using the
Speech Patterns.

TEXT SIX

THE MAN OF DESTINY

By G.B.Shaw

"^George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950), a prom inent playwright, was born of an im­
poverished middle-class family in Dublin where he attended a college. In 1876 he
started working as a journalist in London. He becam e a socialist in 1882 and in
1884 joined the Fabian Society, an organization of petty bourgeois intellectuals.

179
In 1879 G.В.Shaw took up writing plays, in which he criticized the vices of bour­
geois society.
Bernard Shaw is famous for his brilliant dialogues, full of witty paradoxes and
often bitterly satirical.
In his play The M an of Destiny ' (1895) he depicts N apoleon as a practical
business-like man who makes his career at the cost of human lives.
Bernard Shaw was a friend of the Soviet Union which he visited in 1931.

A little inn in N orth Italy. N apoleon has ju st put under arrest the
lieu ten a n t who arrived w ithout the letters and dispatches he had
been sent for, saying that an unknow n youth had tricked him out o f
them.
T h e L a d y ' s v o i c e (outside, as before): Giuseppe!
L i e u t e n a n t (petrified ): W hat was that?
G i u s e p p e : O nly a lady upstairs, lieutenant, calling me.
L i e u t e n a n t : Lady! It's his voice, I tell you.
The Strange L ady steps in. She is tall and extraordinarily grace­
ful with a delicately intelligent face: character in the chin: all keen,
refined, and original. She's very fem inine, but by no m eans weak.
L i e u t e n a n t : So I've got you, m y lad. So you've disguised
yourself, have you? [In a voice o f thunder, seizing her wrist.) Take
o ff th at skirt.
L a d y (affrighted, but highly indignant at his having dared to
touch her): G entlem an: I appeal to you (To Napoleon.) You, sir, are
an officer: a general. You will protect me, will you not?
L i e u t e n a n t : N ever you m ind him, G eneral. Leave m e to deal
w ith him.
N a p o l e o n : W ith him! W ith whom, sir? W hy do you treat this
lad y in such a fashion?
L i e u t e n a n t : Lady! H e's a man! the m an I sh e w e d 2 my confi­
d ence in. (Raising his sword.) Here, you —
L a d y (running behind N apoleon and in her agitation clasping
to her breast the arm which he extends before her as a fortification):
Oh, th an k you, G eneral. K eep him away.
N a p o l e o n : N onsense, sir. This is certainly a lady and you are
u n d e r arrest. Put dow n your sword, sir, instantly. I order you to
leave th e room.
G i u s e p p e (discreetly): Come, lieutenant. (He opens the door
and follows the lieutenant.)
L a d y : How can I th an k you, General, for your protection?
N a p o l e o n (turning on her suddenly): M y despatches: come!
(He p u ts out his hand for them.)
180
L a d y : General! (She {involuntarily p u ts h er h an ds on h er fichu 3
a s if to p ro tect so m eth in g there.)
N a p o l e o n : You tricked that blockhead out of them . You dis­
guised yourself as a man. I w ant m y despatches. T hey are there in
the bosom of your dress u n d er your hands.
L a d y (qu ickly rem ovin g h er hands) : Oh, how un k in d ly you are
speaking to me! (She takes h er h an dkerch ief from h er fichu.) You
frighten me. (She touches h er eyes as if to w ipe a w a y a tear.)
N a p o l e o n : I see you d o n 't know me, m adam , or you w ould
save yourself the trouble of p retending to cry.
L a d y (producing an effect o f sm ilin g through h er tears): Yes,
I do know you. You are the fam ous G eneral B uonaparte.4
N a p o l e o n (angrily): The papers, if you please.
L a d y : But I assure you — (He sn atch es the h an dkerch ief
rudely.) General! (In dign an tly .)
N a p o l e o n ( taking the oth er h an dkerch ief from h is breast):
You lent one of your handkerchiefs to my lieu ten an t w hen you
robbed him. (He lo oks a t the tw o handkerchiefs.) T hey m atch one
another. (He sm ells them.) The sam e scent. (He flings them dow n
on the table.) I am w aiting for m y despatches. I shall tak e them , if
necessary, with as little cerem ony as I took the handkerchief.
L a d y (in d ig n ified reproof): General: do you th re a te n w om en?
N a p o l e o n (bluntly): Yes. (H oldin g ou t h is hand.) Yes: I am
w aiting for them.
L a d y : General: I only w ant to k eep one little private letter.
O nly one. Let m e have it.
N a p o l e o n (cold an d stern): Is th at a reasonable dem and,
m adam ?
L a d y (relaxed b y h is n o t refusing p o in t blank): No, b u t th a t is
w hy you m ust grant it. Are your own dem ands reasonable?
thousands of lives for the sake of your victories, your am bitions,
your destiny! And w hat I ask is such a little thing. A nd I am only a
w eak woman, and you a brave man. W hat is the secret of your
power? O nly that you believe in yourself. You can fight and
conquer for yourself and for nobody else. You are not afraid of your
own destiny. You teach us w hat we all m ight be if we had the will
and courage: and that (su d d en ly sin kin g on k n ees before him) is
why we all begin to worship you. (She k isses his hands.)
N a p o l e o n (em barrassed ): Tut! Tut! 5 Pray rise, m adam .
L a d y : M y Emperor!
N a p o l e o n (overcom e, raisin g her): Pray! pray! No, no: this is
folly. Come: be calm, be calm. (P ettin gh er.) There! there! m y girl.
181
L a d y (stru gglin g with h a p p y tears): Yes, I know it is an
im pertinence in m e to tell you w hat you m ust know far better than I
do. But you are n ot angry w ith me, are you?
N a p o l e o n : Angry! No, no: not a bit. Come: you are a very
clever and sensible and interesting wom an. (He p a ts h er on the
cheek.) Shall we be friends?
L a d y (en ra ptu red ): Your friend! You will let me be your friend!
Oh! (She offers him both h er h an ds w ith a radian t sm ile.) You see: I
shew m y confidence in you.
This incautiou s echo o f the lieu ten a n t u ndoes her.
N a poleon starts; h is ey es flash; he utters a yell o f rage.
N a p o l e o n : W h a t!!!
L a d y : W h a t's the m atter?
N a p o l e o n : Shew your confidence in me! So th at I m ay shew
m y confidence in you in retu rn by letting you give m e the slip
w ith the despatches, eh? Dalila, Dalila,6 you have been trying your
tricks on me; and I have b een as gross a gull as m y jackass of a lieu­
tenant. (M en a cin gly .) Come: the despatches. Quick: I am not to be
trifled w ith now.
L a d y (flying round the cou ch ): G eneral —
N a p o l e o n : Q uick, I tell you.
L a d y (at bay, confronting him and givin g w a y to h er tem per ):
You dare address me in th at tone.
N a p o l e o n : Dare!
L a d y : Yes, dare. W ho are you that you should presum e to
sp eak to m e in th at coarse way? Oh, the vile, vulgar C orsican a d ­
v en tu rer com es out in you very easily.
N a p o l e o n (beside himself): You she-devil! (Savagely.) O nce
m ore, and only once, will you give m e those papers or shall I tear
them from you? — by force!
L a d y : T ear them from me: by force!
The L a d y w ith ou t speakin g, sta n d s upright, and takes a p a ck et
o f p a p ers from h er bosom . She h an ds them p o lite ly to N apoleon. The
m o m en t h e ta k es them, she hurries across to the other sid e o f the
room; sits dow n an d covers h er face with h er hands.
N a p o l e o n (gloating over the papers): Aha! T hat's right. (Be­
fore h e o pen s them, h e looks at h er and says.) Excuse me. (He sees
th at sh e is h id in g h er face.) V ery angry with me, eh? (He unties the
pa ck et, the sea l o f which is a lrea d y broken, and p u ts it on the table
to exam in e its contents.)
182
L a d y (quietly, takin g dow n h er h an ds an d sh ew in g th at sh e is
n o t crying, but o n ly thinking ): No. You w ere right. But I am sorry
for you.
N a p o l e o n (pau sing in the act o f takin g the u pperm ost p a p e r
from the packet): Sorry for me! W hy?
L a d y : I am going to see you lose your honor.
N a p o l e o n : Hm! N othing w orse than that? (He takes up the
paper.)
L a d y : And your happiness.
N a p o l e o n : H appiness! H appiness is th e m ost tedious thing
in the w orld to me. Should I be w hat I am if I cared for happiness.
A nything else?
L a d y : N othing.
N a p o l e o n : Good.
L a d y : Except that you will cut a very foolish figure in the eyes
of France.
N a p o l e o n (quickly): W hat? (He throws the le tte r dow n and
breaks o u t into a torrent o f scolding.) W h at do you m ean? Eh? Are
you at your tricks again? Do you think I d o n 't know w hat these
papers contain? I'll tell you. First, m y inform ation as to B eau­
lieu's 7 retreat. You are one of his spies: he has discovered th a t he
had been betrayed, and has sent you to in tercep t th e inform ation.
As if that could save him from me, the old fool! The o th er papers
are only m y private letters from Paris, of w hich you know nothing.
L a d y (prom pt and business-like): General: let us m ake § fair di­
vision. Take the inform ation your spies have sent you about the
A ustrian army; and give me the Paris correspondence. T hat will
content me.
N a p o l e o n (his breath taken a w a y b y the cooln ess o f h er p ro ­
posal): A fair di — (he gasps). It seem s to me, m adam , th a t you have
com e to regard my letters as your own property, of w hich I am try ­
ing to rob you.
L a d y (earnestly): No: on m y honor I ask for no letter of yours:
not a word that has b een w ritten by you or to you. T hat p a c k et c o n ­
tains a stolen letter: a letter w ritten by a w om an to a man: a m an not
her husband: a letter th at m eans disgrace, infam y —
^ N a p о 1e о n: A love letter?
L a d y (bitter-sw eetly): W hat else b u t a love lette r could stir up
so m uch hate?
N a p o l e o n : W hy is it sent to m e? To p u t th e h usband in my
power?
183
L a d y : No, no: it can be of no use to you: I swear that it will cost
you nothing to give it to me. It has b een sent to you out of sheer
m alice: solely to injure the w om an who w rote it.
N a p o l e o n : Then w hy not send it to h er husband instead of to
me?
L a d y (co m p letely taken aback): Oh! {Sinking back into the
chair.) I — I d o n 't know. (She breaks down.)
N a p o l e o n : Aha! I th o u g h t so: a little rom ance to get the p a ­
pers back. Per Bacco,8 1 c a n ’t help adm iring you. I wish I could lie
like that. It w ould save m e a great deal of trouble.
L a d y (w ringing h er hands) : O h how I wish I really had told you
som e lie! You w ould have believed m e then. The tru th is the one
thing nobody will believe.
N a p o l e o n (with coarse fam iliarity): Capital! Capital! Come:
I am a true C orsican in m y love for stories. But I could tell them
b e tte r than you if I set m y m ind to it. N ext tim e you are asked w hy
a letter com prom ising a wife should n ot b e sent to her husband, an ­
swer sim ply th at the husband w o u ld n 't read it. Do you suppose,
you goose, th at a m an w ants to be com pelled by public opinion to
m ake a scene, to fight a duel, to break up his household, to injure
his career by a scandal, w hen he can avoid it all by taking care not
to know?
L a d y (revolted): Suppose th at packet contained a letter about
your own wife?
N a p o l e o n (offended): You are im pertinent, m adam .
L a d y (humbly): I beg your pardon. C aesar's wife is above sus­
picion.9
N a p o l e o n : You have com m itted an indiscretion. I pardon
you. In future, do not perm it yourself to introduce real persons
in y our rom ances.
L a d y : General: there really is a w om an's letter there. (Pointing
to the packet.) Give it to me.
N a p o l e o n : W hy?
L a d y : She is an old friend: we w ere at school together. She has
w ritten to m e im ploring m e to prevent the letter falling into your
hands.
N a p о 1e о n: W hy has it b een sent to me?
L a d y : B ecause it com prom ises the director Barras! 10
N a p o l e o n (frowning, e v id e n tly startled): Barras! (Haughtily.)
Take care, m adam . The director Barras is m y attached personal
friend.
184
L a d y (n oddin g placidly): Yes. You becam e friends th rough
your wife.
N a p o l e o n : Again! H ave I n ot forbidden you to sp eak of m y
wife? Barras? Barras? (V ery threateningly, h is face darkening.)
Take care. Take care: do you hear? You m ay go too far.
L a d y (innocently turning h er face to him): W h a t's the m atter?
N a p o l e o n : W hat are you hinting at? W ho is this w om an?
L a d y (m eetin g h is a n gry search in g g a z e w ith tranquil indiffer­
en ce as sh e sits lo o k in g up a t him): A vain, silly, extravagant c re a ­
ture, with a very able and am bitious husband who know s her
through and through: knows that she had lied to him about
her age, her incom e, her social position, about everything th at sil­
ly w om en lie about: knows that she is incapable of fidelity to any
principle or any person; and y et cannot help loving her — cannot
help his m an's instinct to m ake use of her for his own ad v an ce­
m ent with Barras.
N a p о 1 e о n (in a stea lth y co ld ly furious whisper): This is your
revenge, you she-cat, for having had to give m e th e letters.
L a d y : Nonsense! Or do you m ean that you are that sort of m an?
N a p o l e o n (exasperated, clasps h is h an ds beh in d him, h is
fingers twitching, and says, as h e w alks irritably a w a y from h er to the
fireplace): This w om an will drive m e out of m y senses. (To her.) Be­
go n e."
L a d y (springing up w ith a bright flush in h er cheeks): Oh, you
are too bad. K eep your letters. Read the story of your own disho­
nour in them; and m uch good m ay th ey do you. Goodbye. (She
g o es in dign an tly tow ards the inner door.)

EXPLANATORY NOTES

1. The Man of Destiny: Napoleon regarded himself as an instrument in


the hands of destiny.
2. shew, shewed: show, showed — in standard English.
3. fichu (Fr.) [fi'Ju:]: woman's triangular shawl of lace for shoulders and
neck.
4. Buonaparte: Bonaparte ['Ьзипэра:!].
5. Tut! Tut! [tA t]: an exclamation of contempt, impatience or
annoyance.
__6. Dalila [di'laib]: a biblical name used as a symbol of a treacherous,
faithless woman.
7. Beaulieu Jean Pirre ['bjidi]: Commander-in-chief of the Austrian
army in Italy defeated in 1796 by Napoleon.
8. Per Bacco (Lat.): I swear by god. Bacchus: in Greek and Roman
mythology god of wine and revelry.
185
9. Caesar's w ife is a b o v e su sp icion : the words ascribed to Julius
Caesar {’cfeuiljss ’sr.za],
10. Barras Paul: a reactionary politician, a member of the Directory
which governed France at that time.
11. B egone: go away.

ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY

Vocabulary Notes
1. character n 1) mental or moral nature, e. g. He is a man of fine (strong,
weak, independent) character. In order to know a person's character we
must know how he thinks, feels and acts. They differ in character. 2) the
qualities that make a thing what it is, as the character of the work, soil,
climate, etc.; 3) moral strength, e. g. He is a man of character. Character-
building is not an easy thing. 4) a person in a play or novel, as the
characters in the novel; good (bad, important) characters, e. g. Many
characters of the novel are real people, others are fictional. 5) a person who
does something unusual, e. g. He's quite a character. 6) a description of a
person's abilities, e. g. He came to our office with a good character.
characteristic adj showing the character of a thing, as the
characteristic enthusiasm of the youth, e. g. It's characteristic of her.
characterize vt to show the character of, e. g. His work is characterized
by lack of attention to detail. The camel is characterized by an ability to
go for many days without water.
2. threat n 1) a statement of an intention to punish or hurt,
e. g. Nobody is afraid of your threats. 2) a sign or warning of coming
trouble, danger, etc., e. g. There was a threat of rain in the dark sky.
threaten vt/i 1) to give warning of, e. g. The clouds threatened rain.
2) to seem likely to come or occur, e. g. He was unconscious of the danger
that threatened him. 3) to use threats towards; to threaten to do smth.,
e. g. Andrew threatened to report the incident to the authorities, to threaten
smb. with smth., e. g. The criminal threatened his enemy with death.
threatening adj full of threat, as a threatening attitude (voice); to give
smb. a threatening look.
3. sink (sank, sunk) vi/t 1) to go slowly downward; to go below the
horizon or under the surface of water, e. g. The sun was sinking in the
west. Wood does not sink in water. The ship sank. The drowning man
sank like a stone. 2) to become lower or weaker, e. g. My spirits sank.
Having displayed his cowardice, he sank in our estimation. 3) to fall; to
allow oneself to fall, e. g. He sank to the ground wounded. She sank into
the chair and burst into tears.
sink л a basin with a drain, usually under a water tap in a kitchen,
e. g. Put the dirty dishes into the kitchen sink and ask your sister to help
you to wash up.
4. sense n 1) any of the special faculties of the body, e. g. The five
senses are sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch. 2) a feeling,
186
understanding, as a sense of duty (humour, beauty, proportion, time,
security, danger, pain, cold, etc.), e. g. He has a strong sense of duty.
3) pi. a normal, ordinary state of mind, as in one's right senses, ant. to be
out of one's senses to be insane, e. g. Are you out of your senses that you
talk such nonsense? 4) intelligence; practical wisdom, e. g. He is a man of
sense. He has plenty of sense (common sense). There is a lot of sense in
what he says. There is no sense in doing it. W hat's the sense of doing
that? 5) a meaning, e. g. in a strict (literal, figurative, good, bad) sense,
e. g. This word cannot be used in this sense, to make sense to have
a meaning that can be understood, e. д. I cannot make sense of what he is
saying, ant. to make no sense., e. g. It makes no sense.
sensitive adj easily hurt, as to have a sensitive skin; to be sensitive to
pain (other people's suffering, blame, criticism); to be sensitive about
one's physical defects.
sensible adj reasonable, as a sensible fellow (idea, suggestion),
e. g. That was very sensible of you.
5. cautious adj careful, e. g. A cautious thinker does not believe things
without proof. Be cautious when crossing a busy street, ant. careless,
indiscreet.
caution n carefulness, e. g. When you cross a busy street you should
use caution.
caution vt (against) to give a caution to, e. g. The teacher cautioned
us against being late.
precaution n a measure to avoid risk or to bring success, e. g. They
took precautions against the flood.
6. slip vt/i 1) to slide, to glide; to escape from, e. g. The tablecloth
slipped off the table. The fish slipped out of his hands. 2) to lose one's
balance, e. g. She slipped and would have fallen if I had not steadied her.
3) to forget, e. g. The name has slipped my attention (my «memory,
my mind). 4) to go unnoticed, quickly or quietly, e. g. He slipped out of the
house unnoticed. She slipped away for half an hour or so. Happiness
slipped by me. 5) to make a careless mistake, e. g. He slips in his grammar.
6) to pull on or off quickly, e. g. He hurriedly slipped on (off) his clothes.
7) to put into, e. g. She slipped the letter into an envelope and sealed it.
slip n 1) a narrow strip of paper, e. g. May I use this slip of paper
to mark a page? 2) fault, a slight mistake in speech, writing or conduct, as
a slip of the tongue; a slip of the pen; 3) a sudden slide; to give smb. the
slip to avoid him or escape from him.
slippery adj so smooth (wet or polished) that it is hard to stand on,
e. g. It's so slippery today, please be careful!
slippers n pi. shoes for indoor wear.
---- 7. bitter adj sharp; tasting like quinine; painful; severe, as bitter words
(complaints, disappointment); a bitter smile (remark, wind, enemy),
e. g. Her lips twisted into a bitter smile. A bitter wind beat into the face.
bitterly adv 1) with bitterness, e. g. He laughed bitterly. "How could
you be so blind?" she said bitterly. 2) very, e. g. It was bitterly cold. syn.
bitter (colloq.), e. g. It was bitter cold.
187
8. stir v t/i 1) (vt) to move around, esp. with a spoon; mix thoroughly,
as to stir tea (coffee, porridge); 2) (vt) to cause to move, e. g. The wind
stirred the leaves, not to stir a finger to make no effort to help,
e. g. What kind of friend is he? He wouldn't stir a finger to help me. not
to stir an eyelid to show no surprise or alarm, e. g. It's amazing how
calmly Ruth took the news: she did not stir an eyelid. 3) (vf) to move, to
be in motion, e. g. It was so still, not a leaf stirred. Nobody stirred in the
house.
9. injure vt to hurt; to do harm or damage to, as to injure one's health
(part of the body, smb.'s feelings, reputation, etc.); to injure smth.
accidentally (badly, seriously, slightly, etc.); to be injured in an accident
(in a fire, in the war, etc.).
injured adj insulted, hurt, as smb.'s injured pride (feelings, look, tone,
voice, etc.).
injury л harm, damage, as to receive (suffer) an injury (injuries) to the
head, to the back, etc.
10. revenge v t/t to pay back evil or injury for, as to revenge an insult (an
injustice), e. g. He swore to revenge the insult, to revenge oneself on
(upon) a person to inflict injury on another in return for injury done to
oneself, e. g. Yago revenged himself on Othello, to be revenged to revenge
oneself, e. g. She was revenged but that brought her little satisfaction.
revenge n the act of paying back evil for evil; to have/get/take (one's)
revenge on (upon) smb. to revenge oneself on (upon) smb., e. g. I'll have
my revenge on you for what you did. to do smth. in revenge to injure smb.
paying back evil, e. g. Andrew was aware that the man might do much
harm in revenge.
revengeful adj desiring revenge, as revengeful people.

Word Combinations and Phrases


to disguise oneself to refuse pointblank
to be under arrest to break down
to smile through one's tears to make a scene
to rob smb. of smth. to try one's tricks on smb.
to fling smth. to be beside oneself
to cut a foolish figure to go too far
to intercept information to make use of smb. (or smth.)
to be taken aback

READING COMPREHENSION EXERCISES

1. a) Listen to the recording of Text Six and mark the stresses and tunes,
b) Repeat the text in the intervals after the model.

2. Put twenty questions to the text.

188
3. Copy out from Text Six the sentences containing the word combinations
and phrases given above. Translate them into Russian.

4. Paraphrase the following sentences using the word combinations and


phrases given on p. 188.

1. Brown was held as a prisoner for a m onth. 2. O n his first d ay in


N ew York Jo h n 's m oney was stolen and he had no one to tu rn to for
help. 3. A ren't you asham ed of throw ing stones a t th e dog?
It h a sn 't done you any harm, has it? 4 . 1 asked him to jo in us, b u t he
w ouldn't. 5. "No use trying to cheat m e. I see you through," said
Nick. 6 . 1 found Bret m ad w ith anger, he was evidently in no state to
listen to reason. 7. N othing you say will com pel m e to do it.
8. You know how proud and touchy he is, he w ould rath er k e e p in
the background than show him self in a ridiculous light. 9. "It was
awfully m ean of him to seize the letter th a t was not m eant for him,"
said Janet. 10. T aken unaw ares, she lost her p resen ce of m ind.
11. W hen she was left alone, her nerve failed h er and she cried b it­
terly. 12. W e evidently c a n 't agree on this point, b u t w hy shout in
public? 13. T hat's saying too m uch, so far we d o n 't know anything
for certain. 14. The way Ann is exploiting her sister's kindness is re ­
ally shameful.

5. Translate the following sentences into English using the word combina­
tions and phrases (p. 188):

1. Кривз находился под арестом уж е месяц, но все ещ е категори­


чески отказывался давать показания. 2. Из окна вагона Д ж он видел,
как она улыбнулась сквозь слезы и помахала ем у рукой. 3. Говорили,
что у старого Тима припрятаны денеж ки и что держ ит он их у себя
дома, недаром ж е он так боялся, что его дом ограбят. 4. Андрей бро­
сил письмо на стол, но через минуту снова взял его и стал читать.
5. Не пытайтесь одурачить меня. Из этого все равно ничего не вый­
дет. 6. Д жейн была вне себя, и ей стоило большого труда сдержаться.
7. Больше всего он боялся показаться смешным. 8. Ребекка прекрас­
но понимала, что грозит ей, если только ей не удастся перехватить
письмо. 9. Неожиданный вопрос так ошеломил Джо, что он сразу ж е
потерял самообладание. 10. Когда старый Джолион ушел, Д ж ун не
выдержала и дала волю слезам. 11. После того как миссис П ейдж уст­
роила ему сцену из-за денег, Эндрю твердо решил искать другую ра­
боту. 12. «На что вы намекаете? — сказала Норин. — Осторож нее,
вы можете зайти слишком далеко». 13. «Вы используете его в своих
собственных интересах, а называете это дружбой», — с возмущ ени­
ем сказал Питер.

6. Make up and practise a short situation using the word combinations and
phrases (p. 188).

189
7. Make up and act out a dialogue using the word combinations and phrases
(p. 188).

8. Find in Text Six equivalents for the following words and phrases and use
them in sentences of your own:

wom anly; to m ake an earnest request to smb.; to hold tightly;


not to let go near; to face smb. in a hostile way; to stretch out one's
hand; to take away; to seize; to be exactly alike; in an im polite
m anner; a strong desire for fame; to feel respect and adm iration for
smb.; in a difficult position; to face smb. boldly; to stand in an erect
position; to give smb. aw ay to the enem y; loss of good name; not
show ing respect; obviously frightened.

9. Find in Text Six English equivalents for the following words and phrases
and write them out:

необычайно изящная; умное лицо; избавиться от необходимости;


погладить по щеке; с сияющей улыбкой; самая скучная штука; разра­
зиться потоком брани; поделить что-л. по-честному; задыхаться; за­
ламывать руки; грубо и фамильярно; компрометировать кого-л.; об­
щ ественное мнение; драться на дуэли; быть выше подозрения;
попасть кому-л. в руки; надменно; честолюбивый муж; социальное
положение; выведенный из себя.

10. Explain in English what is meant by the following phrases and sentences:

1. ch aracter in the chin. 2. keen, refined and original. 3. N ever


you m ind him, G eneral. 4. Leave m e to deal w ith him. 5. Producing
an effect of sm iling th ro u g h her tears. 6. in dignified reproof.
7. This incautious echo of the lieutenant undoes her. 8. Dalila, Dali­
la, you have b e e n trying your tricks on me. 9. The vile, vulgar Corsi­
can ad v en tu rer com es out in you very easily. 10. G loating over the
papers. 11. Bitter-sweetly. 12.1am a true C orsican in m y love for sto­
ries. 13. C aesar's wife is above suspicion. 14. You have com m itted an
indiscretion. 15. You m ay go too far. 16. Do you m ean that you are
th at sort of m an?

11. Answer the following questions or do the given tasks:

1. W hat do you know of Bernard Shaw and his place am ong the
English playw rights? 2. W hat is the historical and social b ack ­
g round of the play "The M an of Destiny" ? 3. C om m ent upon the n a ­
tu re of Shaw 's long stage directions. Are they typical of his art?
4. W hat do you know of Julius Caesar? Of Paul Barras? 5. W rite out
190
from the text all the phraseological units. C om m ent on their stylistic
value and suggest neutral equivalents. 6. W h y is Dalila
a symbol of a treacherous w om an? 7. Pick out the elem ents (lexical
and syntactical) of colloquial speech and com m ent on them .
8. Find in the text sentences containing repetition and syntactical
parallelism . W hat is the effect achieved? 9. W rite out from th e text
all the adverbs form ed from adjectives by adding the suffix -ly and
translate them into Russian. W hich of them are epithets? 10. The
following words are bookish: 'affrighted', 'unvoluntarily', 're p ro o f,
'e n ra p tu re d 1, 'tranquil', 'confronting (him)'. W hat are their syn­
onym s in colloquial English? 11. Pick out m etaphors from the text
and com m ent on them . 12. How do the following w ords of th e Lady
characterize N apoleon? A) “T housands of lives for the sake of your
victories, your am bitions, your destiny!" b) "The vile, vulgar C orsi­
can adventurer com es out in you very easily." c) "C aesar's wife is
above suspicion." d) "You becam e friends th rough your wife."
e) "A vain, silly, extravagant creature, w ith a husband who ...
cannot help his m an's instinct to m ake use, of h er for his own
advancem ent.” 13. How do the following rem arks m ade by N a p o ­
leon characterize him? a) "I see you d o n 't know me, m adam , or you
w ould save yourself the trouble of preten d in g to cry." b) "I am w ait­
ing for my despatches. I shall take them , if necessary, w ith
as little cerem ony as I took the handkerchief." с) "I am not to be tri­
fled with now." d) "I am a true C orsican in m y love for stories." ‘
e) "N ext tim e you are asked w hy a letter com prom ising a wife
should not be sent to her husband, answ er sim ply th at the Jiusband
w ouldn't read it." 14. How does N ap o leo n 's attitu d e tow ards h o ­
nour and happiness and his fear of looking ridiculous characterize
him? 15. W hat is the Lady like as show n th rough h er w ords, actions
and the au thor's rem arks? 16. W hat kind of person is N apoleon a c ­
cording to Bernard Shaw?

12. Retell Text Six in indirect speech.

13. Give a summary of Text Six.

14. a) Render the following text in English:

Великий полководец, знаменитый государственный деятель, че­


ловек необыкновенной судьбы Наполеон Бонапарт сошел с истори­
ческой сцены в июле 1815 года.
Шесть лет после этого на затерянном в океане скалистом острове
еще теплилась жизнь человека, переживш его свою славу. Это была
растянувшаяся на долгие месяцы агония узника, обреченного на мед-

191
ленную смерть. Английское правительство, на великодушие которого
рассчитывал Наполеон, не оправдало его ожиданий. Оно поставило
своего пленника в тяжелые и унизительные условия мелочной и при­
дирчивой опеки, отравлявшей последние годы его жизни. В эти дол­
гие дни испытаний и несчастья он показал мужество и твердость духа,
заставившие забыть о многих его прежних преступлениях.
С расстояния в сто пятьдесят— сто восемьдесят лет голоса ми­
нувшей эпохи доходят до нас приглушеннее. Но историк, восстанав­
ливающий картину давно ушедшего времени и его героев, уж е сво­
боден от пристрастий и предубежденности ушедш ей эпохи;
проверенные строгой мерой времени исторические явления и исто­
рические герои обретают свои истинные размеры; история каждому
отводит свое место.
Наполеон Бонапарт с этого дальнего расстояния предстает во
всей своей противоречивости. Он воспринимается прежде всего как
сын своего времени — переломной эпохи, эпохи перехода от старо­
го, феодального мира к новому, ш едшему ем у на смену буржуазному
обществу. Его имя ассоциируется с безмерным честолюбием, с д ес ­
потической властью, с ж естокими и кровавыми войнами, с ненасыт­
ной ж аж дой завоеваний.
Наверное, будет правильно сказать, что Наполеон Бонапарт был
один из самых выдающихся представителей бурж уазии в пору, когда
она была ещ е молодым, смелым, восходящим классом, что он наибо­
лее полно воплотил все присущ ие ей тогда сильные черты и все свой­
ственные ей даж е на ранней стадии пороки и недостатки.
Д о тех пор пока в действиях Наполеона Бонапарта элементы про­
грессивного оставались преобладающими, удачи, победы сопутство­
вали ему. Когда ж е наполеоновские войны превратились в чисто зах­
ватнические, империалистические войны, несш ие народам Европы
порабощ ение и гнет, тогда никакие личные дарования Наполеона, ни
огромные усилия, прилагаемые им, не могли уж е принести победу.
Он с неотвратимостью шел к крушению своей империи и личному
своем у крушению. Его восхож дение и его падение были вполне за­
кономерны.
Наполеон Бонапарт был сыном своего времени и запечатлел
в своем образе черты своей эпохи. Все последующие деятели бурж у­
азии, претендовавшие на роль Наполеона, отражая историческую
эволюцию класса, который они представляли, мельчали, вырожда­
лись в злую пародию или карикатуру на образ, который они пыта­
лись имитировать.
И все-таки из летописей истории не вычеркнуть имени Наполео­
на Бонапарта. В 1968 году был отмечен его двухсотлетний юбилей:
сотни книг и статей, конгрессы, конференции, телепередачи— и
снова споры. Общественный интерес к человеку, полководцу, госу­
дарственному деятелю давно минувшего времени все ещ е велик.
О чем ж е спорят? Одни хулят и клянут Бонапарта, другие возно­
сят ему хвалу, третьи стараются найти объяснение противоречивое -

192
ти ж изненного пути, столь непохож его на все остальные. Впрочем,
сколь резко не различаются мнения, все сходятся на том, что то был
человек неповторимой, удивительной судьбы, навсегда запечатлев­
шейся в памяти поколений.
(О тры вок из эпилога к к н и ге
«Наполеон Бонапарт» А .З .М анф р еда)

b) Compare the two points of view on Napoleon. Are they different or similar?
Which point of view do you share?

15. Choose an extract from the talk between Napoleon and the Lady (one
page long), learn it by heart and reproduce it with a partner.

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

1. Study the Vocabulary Notes and translate the illustrative examples into
Russian.

2. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the words
and word combinations in bold type:

A. 1. W hat nonsense people talked w hen th ey said you could


tell character from faces. 2. She was usually cast for character
parts. 3. The portrayal of the two characters is b uilt on the co n ­
trast betw een appearance and reality. 4. His behaviour seem ed
out of character. 5. It had never occurred to him th at after
25 years of com plete happiness his character w ould gradually
lose its strength. 6. But it is not at all characteristic of him. 7. But
it was a new kind of m oodiness, w ith tears threatening.
8. Knowing that danger threatened, the sentry was on the alert.
9. As for this man, there was no sign th at th e threats w ould com e
to anything. 10. D runken drivers pose a grave threat to road u s­
ers. 11. Mrs. Davis was boiling a pot of grub. She b ad e us sit
down, stirred the pot and th en sank into a w icker chair. 12. He
looked at her and his heart sank: she seem ed to be in one of her
m oods and w ould not concentrate on w hat he w as saying.
13. I knew that Fred was untrustw orthy, but I'd no idea he'd ever
sink to doing a thing like that. 14. Robert had learn t a valuable
Tesson if he had the sense to hold on to it. 15. The b eau ty of the
picture stirred in m e a m ost enthusiastic sense of admiration.
16. A strange sense of loss cam e over him. 17. Common sense told
her it was useless at this stage to say anything about w hat she had
seen yesterday. 18. A gnes was one of those sensitive ty p es who
193
go th rough life looking for any offence left lying about for the
taking. 19. T here was a sudden sense of strain in the atm osphere.
20. Do have som e sense of proportion, M artin. 21. O ne could al­
ways ap peal to C arlyon's sense of humour. 22. "You're a very
sensible boy," Mr. Bowles said approvingly. 23. It was useless ar­
g uing w ith Jan. O ne c o u ld n 't talk sense into her. 24. W hen N ed
was angry he lost his sense of the ridiculous.
В. 1. She was in a qu eer spirit and I was cautious enough not
to insist on m y offer. 2. Caution visibly held him back. 3. I've already
seen en o u g h to insist th at ordinary precautions be taken. 4. So far
his interview w ith M ike had p roceeded cautiously — on both sides.
5. It seem ed th at caution was the one virtue he recognized. 6 . 1 was
in m y room w hen Paul slipped in, his eyes shining. 7. He knew h e'd
gone out on som e errand and it absolutely slipped his memory.
8. Lucy slipped quickly out of bed and w ent along the passage to
h er sister's room. 9. I dream ed of dreadful abysses am ongst which
I was w andering know ing that a slip of the foot m eant death. 10. She
m oved to the door, and slipped hom e the little bolt. 11. He tore the
slip of paper in two, a n d tossed it into the fire. 12. It was no mere slip
of the tongue th a t had caused Branwell to m ake th at gross error.
13. Mrs. Reed looked frightened; her w ork had Slipped from her
knee. 14. H e lau g h ed again, and it struck m e that his laugh was u n ­
usually bitter. 15. T here was a terrible bitter row over G eorge's go­
ing to college. 16. He th o u g h t of Ju n e and her dead m other, and the
w hole story, w ith all his old bitterness. 17. W hen he tu rn ed there
was bitter h a tre d in his face. 18. A sheep dog stirred in the shade and
o p en ed a cautious eye as he passed. 19. H e poured out coffee for us
both and b eg an stirring his slowly, thoughtfully. 20. It was a sum ­
m er m orning full of stir and life. 21. He hurried to Mr. D om bey's
room, stirred the fire, p u t the chair ready. 22. For long tim es he set­
tled down, an d in those tim es he would not stir a finger to lift a guin­
ea a yard off. 23. W ashington was hum m ing w ith excitem ent like a
stirred w asps' nest. 24. O ur fates w ere linked together. I could not
injure him w ithout injuring myself. 25. W om en forgive injuries, but
never forget slights. 26. W hen you testified at the trial, you did not
point out th at Jack so n received his injury through trying to save the
m achinery from dam age. 27. R eggie sighed, and his round face was
plaintive w ith the m elancholy of an injured child. 28. She w anted to
go away and cry and hate C onstance and think of im possible but
terrific ways of taking her revenge on her. 29. G eorge Sand re­
venged herself upon the poet M usset for w riting "He and She" by
publishing th e novel "She and He".

194
3. P a ra p h ra se th e follow ing se n te n c e s u sin g th e E ssen tial V o c ab u lary :

A- 1. She is not, I think, an interesting personality. 2. The w rit­


er's skill in creating vivid and original im ages is com bined w ith the
refinem ent of language and style. 3. The people d ep icted by the
w riter are all very m uch alike. 4. His conversation was typical of a
retired officer. 5. Look at the clouds. It looks like raining. 6. The
teacher said he was going to punish the pupil unless he did his
hom ew ork properly. 7. Ja p dropped into a chair, looked a t m e and
tapped his forehead significantly. 8. His voice had risen, b u t now it
dropped alm ost to a whisper. 9. At last he subsided into heavy
slum ber. 10. You are her friend — in the b est m eaning of the word.
Surely that gives you special privileges. 11. The drugs had relieved
the pain and she was left w ith a feeling of g reat fatigue. 12. N ora
never m ade scenes. She was reasonable eno u g h to know th a t they
w ould only irritate Roger. 13. The tru th was too obvious, and Julia
had too m uch intelligence to miss it. 14. I think she b ehaved w ith
great practical wisdom. 15. H e never w arned m e ab o u t th a t until
yesterday.
В. 1. M y friend and I m oved quietly out of the room. 2. W e knew
w hat you intended to do and we took m easures. 3. I m ean t to give
the book back to you this m orning, b u t in the h eat of our discussion,
it had escaped my m em ory. 4. She p u t her h an d into his an d gave
him her old smile. 5. It m ust be awful to see y ear after y ear pass by
and live in a place w here nothing can happen. 6. His life had b een a
severe struggle against every sort of difficulty. 7. G orky's d e a th was
a heavy loss to all the people. 8. His failure to pass th e exam ination
was a painful disappointm ent to him. 9. She was afraid to m ake the
slightest m ovem ent for fear she m ight w aken the child. 10. Poetry,
like music, excited him profoundly. 11. He had no pity, an d her tears
aroused no em otion, b u t he d id n 't w ant hysterics. 12. "There!" he
w ould say in a h urt tone. “Now the nail's gone." 13. Isn 't it a bit too
hot for sun-bathing? — N ot for me. I like it hot. The sun c a n 't do m e
any harm. 14. The doctor tho u g h t th at the w ound was inflicted by a
heavy blow from som e blu n t instrum ent. 15. She is vindictive to any-
- e n e who has hurt her. 16. He told Kate that, in practical affairs, p ay ­
ing back evil for evil was a luxury he could not afford. 17. T hat was
how he could inflict injury on those people in retu rn for their m ock­
ery. 18. Ann knew she could get even w ith them , b u t she no longer
felt angry.
195
4. E xplain or c o m m e n t o n th e follow ing sen ten ces:

A. 1. Is th at likely from w hat you know of his character? —


V ery unlikely. 2. His appearance did not answ er his true charac­
ter. 3. I like the w ay the actor reveals the character. 4. The old
gentlem an was decidedly a character. 5. I know that Blanche has
a quick tem per. It's part of her strong character. 6. The w riter's
favourite character is a m an who is poor and alone in the world.
7. His style is characterized by great laconism. 8. The father
th reaten ed to cut the boy off with a shilling if he disobeyed him.
9. W e had had cloudy days before, but not dull days, threatening
rain. 10. W ho was the "her" th ey w ere talking about? M y heart
sank: me. 11. "But w hy should they g et so dam ned suspicious?"
M iller asked. "It d o e sn 't m ake sense to me, boss." 12. He was able
to look after her and th at was a comfort. In fact he gave a sense of
sup p o rt to all who w ere near him. 13. H e was sensible enough to
accep t the inevitable. 14. I think she behaved w ith great sense.
15. C om e on, let's talk sense. 16. Y ou're ridiculously over­
sensitive. Everyone is sure to w elcom e you. 17. No sense in catch­
ing cold. Put on your sweater. 18. H e has an im m ense sense of his
own im portance. 19. She broke in: "W e cannot be too cautious of
how w e talk before children." 20. W hen he returned, he said the
d o cto r o u g h t to see her, if only as a precaution. 21. Mrs. Ebberly
always took precautions against being exposed to draughts.
B. 1. She slipped the ring on h er finger and stretched out her
arm to have a b e tte r look at his present. 2. The m inutes slipped by
into an hour. 3. "If you m ake another slip of the tongue, it will be
the last," said the exam iner. 4. He slipped off his boots and coat
and slid into the w ater. 5. The b itter cold of late autum n, u n p re ­
p ared for an d unforeseen, is m ore bitter than the cold of winter.
6. He reproached m e bitterly for not having let him know. 7. "But
th at w a sn 't m uch im provem ent," he said w ith a quiet and bitter
sarcasm . 8. I was so u tterly exhausted th at I c o u ld n 't stir hand or
foot. 9. H allw ard stirred in his chair as if he w ere going to rise.
10. In her day she h ad m ade a great stir in the little world of Lon­
don. 11. Do n ot let the children injure the bushes in the park.
12. H e received injuries to his head in the accident. 13. W hy
should she always have an injured look? 14. The doctor said that
sort of thing m ight injure the girl's m entality for life. 15. In taking
revenge a m an is b u t equal to his enem y, b u t in passing it over
he is superior. 16. The young peasant swore to revenge himself
u p o n the m an w ho had insulted his sister. 17. His grief and sense
of loss w ere replaced by a desire for revenge.
196
5. C hoose th e rig h t w ord:

caution — warn

1. His friends ... him against a p p ro ach in g d a n g e r a n d ... him


against ru n n in g into it. 2. W e ... her ag ain st sp eak in g rashly an d
... her of th e co n seq u en ces. 3. I ... him ag a in st b e in g late.
4. The boys m ust be ... not to go sk ating on the pond: th e ice is
too thin.
stir — move

1.. He held his breath, afraid ... . 2. ... aside, please. 3. He


w o u ld n 't ... a finger to help anyone. 4. H e is able ... anyone to ac­
tion. 5. His kind attitu d e ... m e to tears. 6. She was afraid ... not to
w ake up the children.

injure — dam age

1. The crops were ... by a storm. 2. H e was ... in the war. 3. Lots
of buildings w ere ... by the earthquake. 4. H e was th e only one
to escape from the train w reck w ithout ... . 5. The car was ... in an
accident.

6. Translate the following sentences into English:

A. 1. Когда Тед появился в нашей компании, мы сразу почувство­


вали силу его характера. 2. В «паблик скулз» действительно воспиты­
вают характер, и соверш енно определенный — характер лидера.
3. Когда мы стали обсуждать главного героя рассказа, мнения разде­
лились. 4. Решение ждать, ничего не предпринимая, очень характер­
но для него. 5. «Во всяком случае ты мог бы обойтись без угроз, —
сказала Джун, — угрозами ты ничего не добьешься». 6. Никто, кроме
руководителя экспедиции, не отдавал себе отчета в том, какая опас­
ность грозит им, если пурга не стихнет к утру. 7. "Титаник", пасса­
жирский пароход, затонул в 1912 году. 8. Солнце клонилось к гори­
зонту. Повеяло сыростью. 9. Во время шторма на море их лодка
затонула, но рыбакам удалось спастись. 10. Вы не находите, что этот
актер переигрывает? У него нет чувства меры. 11. «Ты ж е разумный
человек. Как ты не понимаешь, что нет смысла спорить об этом, пока
мы не выясним в с е ? » — сказал Тэд. 12. Это предложение бессмы с­
л е н н о , тут, должно быть, опечатка. 13. Д ж ейн очень болезненно вос­
принимает критику; ее обижает лю бое замечание, какое бы оно ни
было. 14. Ты бы лучше прислушалась к словам Роджера: он дело гово­
рит. 15. Настойчивость и здравый см ы сл— вот что мне нравится в
ней. 16. Будьте осторожны, это очень плохая дорога, и по ней нельзя
ехать с большой скоростью. 17. Я ж е предупреждал вас, чтобы вы не

197
опаздывали, а вы приходите с опозданием на час. 18. Против гриппа
были приняты все меры предосторожности.
В. 1. Она вздрогнула, и чашка выскользнула у нее из рук.
2. Эта тропинка очень скользкая, пойдемте лучше по дороге.
3. Когда вечер был в разгаре, Анне удалось незаметно выскользнуть
из дома. 4. Он очень бегло говорит по-немецки, но у него «хромает»
грамматика. 5. Я хотела позвонить вам вчера вечером, но, когда
я пришла домой, я совсем забыла об этом. 6. М иссис Дауэлс посмотре­
ла вокруг: Тома нигде не было видно, должно быть, он опять улизнул
от нее. 7. Его провал на экзамене был для него горьким разочаровани­
ем. 8. Когда Дорин осталась одна, она дала волю слезам и долго и горь­
ко плакала от обиды. 9. Сегодня уж асно холодно. Почему бы не отло­
жить нашу поездку до завтра? 10. Ветра сосем не было, ни один листок
не шевелился. 11. Помешайте кашу, а то она подгорит. 12. В доме ни­
кого ещ е не было слышно, я открыл дверь и вышел. 13. Марион и гла­
зом не моргнула, когда услышала эту потрясающую новость, должно
быть, она знала об этом раньше. 14. Когда Джон попал в автомобиль­
ную катастрофу, он получил серьезны е повреждения спины и до сих
пор ещ е недостаточно хорош о себя чувствует. 15. Боюсь, не повреди­
ло бы ребенку это лекарство. 16. Будьте потактичнее, чтобы не задеть
ее. Она очень обидчива. 17. Думаю, что она расплакалась из-за уязв­
ленного самолюбия. 18. Она сделала это из мести, ты ж е тож е не очень
хорош о с ней обошлась. 19. «Никогда бы не подумала, — сказала
Нора, — что она способна мстить за небольшую обиду, которую ей, к
тому ж е, нанесли случайно». 20. Такие мстительные люди никогда не
забывают обид и всегда надеются когда-нибудь отомстить своему
обидчику.

7. Review the Vocabulary Notes and answer the following questions:

1. W hat do you say of a person who is easily influenced by o th ­


ers? 2. W h at do you say of a person who often does strange or u n ­
usual things? 3. W hat do you call people who are easily hurt?
4. W h at do you call people who desire for revenge? 5. W hat do
som e people do if th ey w ant to pay back evil? 6. W h at's paying
back evil called? 7. W hat w ould you do if you d id n 't w ant to show
your sorrow? 8. W hat m ust be done during an epidem ic? 9. How
m ust one w alk along a street slippery with ice? 10. W hat m ay h a p ­
p en if one is not cautious? 11. W hat m ay h appen if one slips and
falls? 12. W h at kind of shoes are usually w orn at hom e?
13. W h at kind of people cannot see a good joke? 14. W hat is a n ­
other w ay of saying "This is typical of him"? 15. W hat do you call
a basin w ith a drain in the kitchen? 16. W hat kind of person would
you ask for advice?
198
8. Respond to the following statements and questions using the Essential
Vocabulary:

1. O ne can never know w hat to expect of her. 2. W hy on e arth did


you em ploy him? He w o n 't stir a finger to do the w ork properly.
3. Do you think it was m ere chance that she w ou ld n 't stay an d finish
the job? I w on't have you doing it! 4. O ne always has to w ait for Ann.
5. W hy are you asking me for advice? 6. Do you u n d erstan d w hat he
sa id ? 7. W hy d id n 't you ring me up last n ig h t? 8. You look frozen. Is
it as cold as that? 9. W a sn 't she surprised to hear the news? 10.1hear
h e's in hospital. W h at's the m atter with him? 11. W hatever m ade
her say such a thing? W as she angry w ith you? 12. You o u g h t to
have stood your ground. 13. I'm th rough w ith m y work. 14. A ren 't
you asham ed? 15. W hat a boring party, I wish I w ere at hom e.
16.You're hours late! W h at's the m atter? 17. I hear h e 's dropped
hockey.

9. Use as many word combinations from the Essential Vocabulary as possi­


ble in one situation.

10. Use the following words and word combinations in dialogues:

1. Two girls are discussing the plot of a play or story, (the m ain
character, to intercept inform ation, to take precautions, to trick
smb. out of smth., a slip of the tongue, not to stir an eyelid, the m o­
m ent he ... , an injured air, to give smb. the slip)
2. Two first-year students are talking of their im pressions of
the college, (the character of, to caution against, characteristic
of, to give way to, why not?)

11. Find in Text Six and copy out phrases in which the prepositions (or ad­
verbs) 'out', 'out o f and 'into' are used. Translate the sentences into Russian.

12. Fill in prepositions or adverbs where necessary:

1. N orm an is .... H e'll be b ack ... an hour or so. 2. "Let's forget the
quarrel and be friends," he said holding ... his hand. 3. Let's g et ...
the car and stretch our legs. 4. I really c a n ’t w alk ... such a rate. I'm
quite ... breath. 5 . 1 rem em ber th at I was scared ... m y wits then, but
the details have faded ... my m emory. 6. ... respect to her feelings
yx>u ought to be discreet. 7. The door w on't lock. All the locks in this
cottage are ... order. 8. Are you ... your senses to act like this? 9. The
lady succeeded ... tricking the lie u te n a n t... the despatches. 10. Are
you ...your tricks again? You'll drive m e ... m y senses. 11. The first
introduction of French ... English dates from the tim e ... th e Saxon
199
kings. 12. A m erican slang is forcing its w ay ... English. 13. It's good
to be able to turn sorrow ... joy. 14. W hy did you b u r s t ... the room
... so m uch noise? 15. H e sat staring ... the fire.

13. Translate the following sentences into English. Pay attention to the prep­
ositions and adverbs:
1. Когда вечер был в разгаре, Руфь незаметно выскользнула из
дома. 2. Я не могу разобрать некоторые слова, у вас ужасный по­
черк. 3. День оказался прекрасным, и мы пожалели, что остались
в городе. 4. С глаз долой, из сердца вон. 5. Кейт улыбнулась сквозь
слезы и сказала: «Извини меня, у меня нервы не в порядке». 6. Он
живет за городом, и ему нужно полтора часа, чтобы добраться до ра­
боты. 7. Вы попадете в беду. И не говорите тогда, что я не предосте­
регал вас. 8. Узнав, что отъезд опять отменен, Кейт залилась слеза­
ми. 9. Джим ворвался в комнату, схватил что-то, и через минуту его
уж е снова не было в доме. 10. Теперь, когда они были вне опаснос­
ти, они могли, наконец, передохнуть. 11. Он не выходит уж е месяц.
12. Дверь не запирается: должно быть, замок не в порядке. 13. Не
в его характере спорить просто из упрямства.

14. a) Give Russian equivalents for the following English proverbs and say­
ings (or translate them into Russian), b) Make up situations to illustrate their
meanings:

1. It is sink or swim. 2. C aution is the parent of safety. 3. W ho


has never tasted bitter, knows not w hat is sweet. 4. A threatened
blow is seldom given. 5. Better the foot slip than the tongue. 6. Be­
tw een the cup and the lip a m orsel m ay slip.

15. Write an essay on one of the following topics:

1. A Russian national hero of the war of 1812.


2. A play b y B. Shaw on Russian stage.

CONVERSATION AND DISCUSSION

FEELINGS AND EMOTIONS

Topical Vocabulary
1. Positive feelings: adm iration, enthusiasm , excitem ent, ela­
tion, joy, love, pride, zest.
2. N egative feelings: anger, annoyance, irritation, anxiety, d e­
spair, hum iliation, em barrassm ent, tension, envy, hate, jealousy,
fear, sham e, guilt, rage, terror.
200
3. Emotional condition: a) to feel good, to feel fine, to feel great,
to feel pride and joy, to be bright and happy, to be in a good mood;
b) to feel bad, to feel u n e a sy /a n x io u s/lo n e ly /sc a re d /m ise ra b le /
guilty, to feel put upon, to be upset, to be tense and jum py, to be
furious, to be in a bad tem per.
4. Display of emotions: to e x p re s s /h id e /d is g u is e /c o n tro l/re -
veal/relieve o ne's feelings, to cope with o n e's feelings, an outlet
for one's feelings, to get angry at sm th./sm b., to let off steam , to
b urst out laughing/crying, to behave calm ly and coolly, to take
o ne's irritation out on smb., to throw tantrum s, to scream and yell
at smb., to k e e p /lo se o ne's tem per, to fly into a rage.

1. Read the following text for obtaining its information:

O ne day you feel good and the next you feel bad, and b etw een
those two poles are com pressed all the joys of heaven a n d the a n ­
guish of hell. The events th at prom pt feelings, the justification for
the feelings, even the reality of the perceptions th at lead to them are
all unim portant. It is the feeling th at counts.
D espite its im portance, there is an incredible am ount of confu­
sion about feelings and em otions in both the m inds of the public
and th e attention of the "experts". "Emotion" is the general term
which encom passes the feeling tone, the biophysiological state,
and even the chem ical changes we are beginning to und erstan d
underline the sensations we experience; "feeling" is our subjec­
tive aw areness of our own em otional state. It is th at w hich we e x ­
perience; that which we know about our current em otional co n d i­
tion.
Feelings, particularly the com plex and subtle range of feelings in
hum an beings, are testam ent to our capacity for choice a n d learn ­
ing. Feelings are the instrum ents of rationality, not — as som e
w ould have it — alternatives to it. Because we are intelligent c re a ­
tures, we are capable of, and d ep e n d en t on, using rational choice to
decide our futures. Feelings becom e guides to th a t choice. W e are
rujt ju st passive responders, as som e lower life form s are, to th at
w hich the environm ent offers us. W e can avoid certain conditions,
select out others, and anticipate both and, m oreover, via a n tic ip a ­
tion we can even m odify the nature of the environm ent. Feelings are
fine tunings directing the ways in w hich we will m eet and m an ip u ­
late our environm ent.
201
Feelings of anxiety, boredom , tension and agitation alert us to
the sense of som ething wrong, and, m ore im portantly, by the subtle
distinctions of their m essages they indicate som ething of the nature
of the im pending d a n g er and direct us to specific kinds of adaptive
m anoeuvres to avoid, prevent, or change the incipient threat. Feel­
ings of guilt allow us to m odel our behaviour against certain ideals
and register w hen we have m oved away from these ideals, or have
n ot y et achieved them . If there is a com m on ingredient to the vari­
ous sources and forms of pleasure, the only one th at can be identi­
fied is th a t th ey all seem to contribute to an enhanced sense of self.
Pleasurable events either intensify our sense of ourselves or enlarge
our view of ourselves. Jo y stem s from an altered sense of self and, in
turn, alters our view of our world and the way we are viewed.

2. Answer the following questions:

1. How do you und erstan d the statem ent "it is the feeling that
counts"? 2. W hy is it difficult to classify sensations and w hat term s
are su g g ested in this article? 3. How does "em otion" differ from
"feeling"? 4. Do you agree that feelings are "the instrum ents of ra ­
tionality, not alternatives to it" ? 5. How do feelings of anxiety, bore­
dom, tension and agitation serve adoptive purposes? 6. Of w hat im ­
p o rtance are feelings of guilt? 7. W hat do the positive feelings have
in com m on? 8. How do pleasurable events affect our feelings?

3. Summarize the text in two paragraphs emphasizing the importance of


emotions and feelings in our life.

4. Use the Topical Vocabulary in answering the questions:

1. W hy do people have em otions and feelings? W hat good are


they? 2. W hat em otions and feelings are usually classified as posi­
tive and negative? Is there a strict border line betw een them ?
3. If you have a look at the topical vocabulary list, you'll notice that
it deals w ith painful feelings and em otions rather than joyous ones.
H ow can you account for it? 4. The first and sim plest pleasure is
th e pleasure of our senses. How can you illustrate the joys of taste,
smells, sounds, and sights? 5. T here are various sources of pleasure
such as discovery, the im m ersion of ourselves in an activity, con­
frontation w ith natu re and the thrill one gets in all cooperative ef­
fort, to m ention but a few. W hich of these gives you the m ost joy­
ous experience? 6. It isn 't always easy for us to keep our tem per
w hen things go wrong. W hat do you do or say to let off steam ?
202
7. W hen we d o n 't care one w ay or th e o ther about som ething,
we can be really boring. W hat is the best w ay to m ake som eone
take an interest?

5. Make a list of some of the things which have happened to you that really
made you angry. Imagine they have all happened today. Tell your friend about
them. Use the Topical Vocabulary.

6. You have been asked to give a talk to all the students in the school about
the meaning of feelings and the propriety of their public expression. The maga­
zines and brochures you wanted haven't arrived. The talk begins in ten minutes.
You haven't prepared it well enough. You can't get out of it now. Tell your friend.

7. There are different degrees of anger and different ways of showing it. Read
the following text and comment on it:

If we could listen in on classroom s w ithout b ein g seen, we


would hear m any kinds of an g er being expressed by teachers. O ne
teacher frequently scream s and yells at her children. A nother furi­
ously bangs on his desk. A third teacher throw s an eraser across
the room. A nother sarcastically insults a child. O ne teach er grabs
a child furiously and shakes him. O ne teacher slaps a child; a n o th ­
er raps children on the knucles. M any angry threats are heard: "I'll
show you who 'is the boss'. D on't talk to m e th at way." O ne teacher
is furiously tearing up papers, an o th er charges b ack and forth
across the front of the room, letting off steam .

8. The teacher can't but react emotionally to what is happening in class.


Read the following text and comment on the feelings involved:

I’ve had to learn how free I could be. T hat’s the h ardest th ing for
a new teacher. At first everybody w orked. I thought, m an, this is
n e a t — everybody does w hat th ey 're told. T hen I thought, w hat
a bore. It's no fun. And I got a little too free. N ow I know th ey can
sense w hen I start setting m y jaw even before I know I’m doing it.
They know w here to settle it down. T he h ard est thing for m e w as to
learn how to balance teacher control and class freedom .

9. We cannot always be bright and happy. Sometimes we have moods of de­


pression or sadness. It's been one of those days — tell your friend about these
evSnts which have made you feel really depressed:

1. You've lost your purse. 2. You've got to b u y a present. 3. You


got very w et in the rain because you left your um brella at hom e.
4. You've got an exam tom orrow and y o u 're going to fail. 5. You've
ju st had a row with your girlfriend (or boyfriend).
203
10. Have a close look at this cartoon by Bidstrupp. How do different people
react to one and the same incident? What type of temperament does their reac­
tion reveal?

The Four Temperaments

204
11. Very often an expression of anger on the part of children is met by pun­
ishment from parents and teachers. Enlarge on the humour of the cartoon.

“I'll teach you to hit other children."

12. Read the following dialogues. Observe the WAY PEOPLE TALK ABOUT
THEIR FEELINGS:

— W hat's the m atter? You d o n 't look well.


— I'm rather worried.
— W hat about?
— M y exam.
— Oh! Is that all?
— I feel very nervous.
— Don't worry about it. Try to look on the bright side of
things.

— I just can't stand that Robbins boy.


X — Millie is having one of her days, and it's driving me crazy.
— I w onder w hat I can m ake for supper tonight.
— Today is just one of those days.
— Oh, you poor thing, I had him last year, and he is im possi­
ble.
205
— I've m ade up m y m ind. W e 're going to Estonia for the holi­
days.
— H ow marvellous!
— I’ve got a w hole m onth off this year!
— A w hole m onth. T hat's terrific.
— W e'll leave in early June.
— Good! Are we taking the bicycles?
— The bicycles? O h no, w e're going on a package tour.
— Oh no!
— And I th o u g h t w e'd take au n t A nn with us.
— Oh heavens! Do we have to ?

13. Work in pairs. Use cliches dealing with moods and feelings.

Joy and enthusiasm:


G re a t/T h a t's great!
M arvellous! Terrific! Fantastic!
How wonderful! How exciting! How thrilling!
Annoyance:
How annoying! W hat a nuisance! W hat a bore!
T h at's ju st w hat I needed!
I've ju st ab o u t had enough of ...
Distress:
I'm worried. I ju st d o n 't know w hat to do ...
I feel terrible. I've g ot a lot on m y m ind.
I d o n 't feel at all happy.
I'm fed up.
I c a n 't take m uch m ore of this.
Indifference:
I c a n 't say I'm interested.
I c o u ld n 't care less.
Please yourself.
I d o n 't m ind w hat you do.
T he w hole thing bores m e to death.
Reassurance:
C heer up. T ake it easy.
D on't you th ink y o u 're over-reacting a bit?
T h ere's no n e e d to g et so upset.
206
D on't let it get you down.
It's not as bad as all that, surely?
Oh, come on, it's actually quite interesting.
I see w hat you m ean, but on the other hand ...
1. O ne of your flat-m ates (room-mates) is always listening to
records of opera on your hi-fi. Last n ight it w oke you up a t 2 a. m.
You hate opera. Also, h e /s h e never does h is/h e r share of the w ash­
ing-up and cleaning. Tell your friend how a ngry you are.
2. Your friend is late and in a bad tem per. Find o ut w hat's
the m atter and try to calm h im /h e r down.
3. You have a toothache. And a headache. It's Sunday. A nd it's
pouring with rain. And your girlfriend/boyfriend has left you. You
had an argum ent and s h e /h e left the city and you c a n 't contact
h e r/h im to m ake it up. Tell your friend about it.
4. This tim e it's your friend w ho's depressed. Ask w hat's w rong
and listen sym pathetically. Try to cheer your friend up. Perhaps of­
fer some advice or suggest som ething to take your friend's m ind
off h is/h e r problem s. W hen your friend seem s happier discuss
w hat you did w ith the rest of the class.
5. You feel fine today. It's a sunny day and y o u 're enjoying
yourself. Your friend d o e sn 't seem so cheerful, though. Find out
w hat the m atter is and be sym pathetic.
6. Try to interest your friend in these plans: going to the cinem a;
spending som e tim e studying together; reading a good book
you've just read; helping you w ith som e shopping; w atching TV
this evening; going to a m useum .
W hen you have succeeded in arousing h is/h e r interest, discuss
w hat you did w ith the rest of the class.
7. Listen to your friend's ideas and p rete n d to be indifferent. All
your p artn er's plans seem really boring to you. Even talking to o th ­
er people in the class bores you to death.

14. Read the following text. Find in it arguments for accepting anger as nor­
mal and against it. Copy them out in two columns (I — "for", II — "against").

Anger is Normal. Or Is It?

\ In term s of frequency of expression, an g er is norm al. It exists


everyw here and is in all of us. But m ost teachers and p arents find
it difficult to accept anger as norm al and inevitable. The real issue
for the teacher and paren t becom es the question of how to deal
with anger in oneself.
207
The pressures on us to control or hide our anger are very pow er­
ful. T eachers ask, "Will this be held against m e as a sign of incom ­
p e te n c e or im m aturity?" O ther concerns are: "W hat will the kids
tell their parents?" and "Will this get back to the principal?"
Teachers, in addition, have real concern for their children: "Will
a child becom e frightened? W ill it dam age him in som e way?" or,
even m ore upsetting, "Will the child get angry at me, becom e re ­
bellious, and no longer like m e as a teacher?"
T hese concerns are so real that m ost teachers try to hide their
anger. The results of this are quite predictable: at b est the teacher
w ho is straining to k eep in an g er is tense, irritable, and im patient;
at w orst the an g er slips o ut in sarcasm or explodes in a rage of ac­
cum ulated fury.
Som e teachers rep o rt th at th ey never g et angry in th e class­
room. In further discussions with teachers regarding situations
or behaviour w hich typically arouses anger som e teachers recog­
nize all th e signs of anger, b u t actually did n o t feel anger
in the classroom . But usually an observer or the children in the
classroom recognize the signs of anger. C ertain teachers are m ore
successful at hiding anger, but unless anger is in a mild form, it will
be out one w ay or another.
H ow do children react to anger? All of us, as we recall our own
childhood experiences in school, can rem em ber instances
of teach ers expressing an g er in the classroom . T hough children
frequently face anger from adults, they do not always adjust to it in
ways th at foster their own grow th and learning. Teachers report
th at children often react w ith confusion; th ey 're bothered, or their
faces ap p ear troubled. Some children are especially sensitive and
h urt at the tea c h e r's anger, and a few children are even frightened.
Sarcasm or biting rem arks that touch areas of special concern for
children can be rem em bered with special m isery for m any years.

15. Discuss the text in pairs. One partner will take the view that anger is nor­
mal on the part of a teacher. The other will defend the opposite point of view:

For: Against:
1. The teacher faces numerous 1. The teacher is expected to
occasions when anger is behave calmly and coolly at
normal and inevitable. Anger all times. No matter how
often occurs as the result of excited or tired, the teacher
accumulated irritation, should be emotionally stable
annoyance and stress. and consistent.
208
2. Feelings should be considered 2. Anger in a teacher is a sign of
honestly and realistically. It is weakness. A person who
superhuman never to feel expresses anger often feels
anger, shakiness or childish, immature, guilty.
helplessness.
3. Children or other outsiders 3. No matter how joyous or
are rarely fooled by the efforts angry the feelings must be
of teachers to hide the controlled, hidden, disguised.
emotions that are bursting
underneath.
4. A teacher who denies his own 4. Children's feelings are more
feelings is wrapped in stress important than teacher's
and struggle. Excitement, feelings.
interest, and enthusiasm are
blunted, if not completely
obliterated.
5. The first important criterion of 5. Teachers who make fun of
acceptable anger release is children or pick out certain
that the child not be blamed, weaknesses or deficiencies
attacked, or insulted. can leave lasting scars on a
child's attitude toward school.

16. Role-Playing.

The class is divided into four groups. Each group is in a differ­


ent mood.
Group A. You are all in a bad tem per.
Group B. You are all depressed
Group C. You are all in a good mood.
Group D. You are all bored and indifferent.
W hen each group has established its m ood by talking together,
everyone goes round the class talking to different people. Try to
m ake the people you m eet share your mood! At the en d tell every­
one w hat you did and how successful you were. Did anyone m an­
age to change your m ood?

17. Group Discussion.

Topic 1. N egative feelings seem to change


j character with intensity

T a lk in g points:
1. A certain am ount of fear can alm ost be fun.
2. Pregam e anxiety for a com petitive athlete, w hile still anxiety
is an excitem ent he often relishes.
209
3. Sham e and guilt are essential for the developm ent of some
noble qualities such as generosity, unselfishness, duty.
4. M any teachers recognize that the excitem ent of anxiety and
challenge is the very zest of teaching.
Topic 2. Em otions are p erfectly
perm issible signs o f the h ealth y body's
respon se to distress
T a lk in g points:
1. W hen we feel anger, physical tension develops spontaneous­
ly, autom atically. W e n eed to release this tension through action
of som e kind — to run, bang, even to hit.
2. A nger th at is expressed spontaneously clears the air, can both
rem ove the tension and the disturbing cause.
3. A ccum ulation of irritation, annoyance and stress leads to
headaches, sickness of various kinds and proverbial ulcers.
4. P eople's inner feelings have no claim to public recognition.
W e have a resp o n sib ility — not only to the social unit, but also
to our personal dignity — to keep "it" in.
Topic 3. W ho has n ever ta sted bitter,
kn ow s n o t w hat is sw eet
T alking points:
1. The fact of succeeding despite difficulties excites us, contrib­
u tes to our self-confidence and self-esteem .
2. A rem oval of pain or revival of hope m akes us feel good.
3. M ost things that involve great pleasure also involve sweat,
toil, p erseverance and agony.
4. Satiation an d easy gratification ultim ately destroy pleasure.

U nit Seven

SPEECH PATTERNS

1. I have always hesitated to give advice.

I hesitated to ask him for help.


He d id n 't hesitate to take such a big risk.
D on't h esitate to refuse the offer if you d o n 't like it.
210
How can one advise an o th er unless one knows th at o th er as
well as one knows himself?

They w on't accept your plan unless you alter it.


You'll fail unless you w ork hard.
Unless I'm m istaken, h e 's an artist.
Unless h e's done the work properly, I sh a n 't accep t it.

He had some difficulty in lighting it.

I have some difficulty in un d erstan d in g spoken Germ an.


She had some difficulty in finding the house.
W e had som e difficulty in selecting a p resent for her.
I had som e difficulty in writing an essay.

He gave an apologetic laugh.


I had not given him m ore than a cursory glance.

The girl gave a deep sigh.


Jim gave a loud cry (groan).
She gave me a critical look.

It's precisely what they are going to do.


That's what I've got to look forward to.
That's all I've got to look forward to.

This is precisely w hat I object to.


T hat's w hat they've got to expect.
T hat's all they've got to hope for.

He was dressed in a blue suit a good deal the worse for


wear.
This is an old coat, b u t it is none the worse for wear.

The road is a good deal the worse for the rain.


W e are none the happier for learning the truth.
I like you none the worse for being frank.
211
7. He looked to m e as though he knew a good bottle of wine
when he saw it.

H e know s a good book w hen he sees it.


The m an knew a good painting w hen he saw it.
I know a good play w hen I see it.

8. You could n ot have im agined a more delightful person to


drink a glass of wine with.

I c a n 't im agine a b e tte r place to have a rest in.


I d o n ’t know a w orse place to go for holidays to.
H e never saw a m ore interesting person to speak with.

EXERCISES

1. Complete the following sentences using the Speech Patterns:

1. C aution m ade Jim hesitate to ... . 2. He did not hesitate to ... .


3. I sh a n 't touch upon the subject unless .... 4. No use discussing
the m atter with m e unless ... . 5. W e thought we knew Italian hav­
ing studied it from books, b u t we had som e difficulty ... . 6. It’s not
always easy to teach children to read. Some children have special
.... 7. The door was so narrow th at we had som e .... 8. W ith so m any
o th er things to occupy m y mind, I had not given W ilson .... 9. The
two old gentlem en w ere obviously displeased w ith the interru p ­
tion. T hey gave us a ... . 10. I’m not astonished at his refusal to help
us at all. T hat is precisely ... .11. Now it’s quite evident that we
sh a n 't be able to finish the w ork on time. T hat's ... . 12. I know that
h e 's sorry about w hat happened, b ut I am none ... . 13. The boy is
naughty, b u t I like him none ... . 14. I think it only fair to tell you
th at th a t's all ... .15. H e's a connoisseur of art and he surely knows
a good p ainting w hen ... . 16. This young actress has got real talent.
I assure you I know a good actress w hen ... . 17. You cannot im ag­
ine a m ore delightful person to.... 18. If y ou're in need
of advice, you cannot find a better person to ... .

2. Suggest the beginning matching up the end:

1. ... to go further because he was afraid. 2. ... to refuse if you


th ink the plan is unwise. 3. ... we ought to have a good trip there.
212
4 ... we sh an 't g et hom e before dark. 5. ... in gettin g the inform a­
tion. So d o n 't fret. 6. ... in u n d erstanding w hat she said b ecau se of
her bad French. 7. ... , seem ed to hesitate and th en w alked on.
8. "... a ring, it's urgent." 9. ... w hat it's going to be if we c a n 't find
som e better explanation. 10. ... w hat you ex p ected
a teacher to be. 11 ... for know ing the truth. 12. ... for being frank
and straightforw ard. 13. ... to hope for. 14. ... w hen he h eard it.
15. ... to have a chat with. 16. ... to w ork with.

3. Paraphrase the following sentences using the Speech Patterns:

1. He seem ed unw illing to give advice, afraid of responsibility,


I think. 2. D on't be shy of calling if you n eed me. 3. If I'm not m is­
taken, this is but a tem porary job. 4. D on't do anything if you d o n 't
hear from me. 5. W e're going on a hike next Saturday, if th e w eath ­
er does not turn out nasty. 6. I always find it difficult to rem em ber
dates, they ju st slip my m emory. 7. It was rath er difficult for m e to
understand the article. 8. He laughed apologetically and said, "So
th at's it. How on earth did you guess the truth?" 9. Tom shrugged
his shoulders. "W hat next, I w onder?" 10. The lan d lad y looked
critically at the three young m en and closed the door in their faces.
11. At seeing me Jovella sighed w ith relief. 12. It's ju st the thing
I was afraid of. 13. If I had m y tim e over again, I should act exactly
in the sam e way. 14. I did not like the boy less for being a bit
naughty. 15. W ealth did not m ake him happier in the least.«16. "I'm
aware th at th at's m y only hope," said the man. 17. "Is th ere nothing
else for me to look forward to?" asked Cora. Allan m ade no com ­
m ent. 18. Soam es was a good ju d g e of paintings. 19. H e is
a well-read person and a real connoisseur of French poetry. 20. I'm
fond of the South-W est of Moscow. I d o n 't th ink there is a b e tte r
district to live in. 21. He thinks there is no b e tte r place to have
a rest in than Scotland.

4. Respond to the following statements and questions using the Speech Pat­
terns:

1. W hy on earth d id n 't you turn to m e for help at once? 2. Do


you think it's absolutely necessary for m e to com e? 3. Do you think
h ere's anyone else who krtows about it? 4. Y ou're an h our late.
I thought you would never come. 5. How did you m anage to g et the
book? It's no longer on sale. 6. Did the girl scream w hen she was
given an injection? 7. I hear h e 's had a bad fall. 8. W ill you let him
213
know of the change in our plans? 9. I think I m ust have the m atter
out w ith her. 10. W hatever m akes you go to this village every sum ­
m er? 11. I'm only asking you to dust the flat. 12. Are you sure the
p ainting is w orth buying? 13. Is this young poet really a prom ising
one? 14. W ould you advise m e to wait a little?

5. Translate the following sentences into English using the Speech Patterns:

1. Сью взялась за ручку двери, но все еще не решалась войти


в комнату. 2. Если вам понадобится моя помощь, не стесняйтесь
и звоните мне в любое время. 3. Если я не ошибаюсь, собрание отло­
жили до понедельника. 4. Я бы предпочла остановиться в гостинице,
если только она не переполнена. 5. Нам было нелегко найти эту ули­
цу, потому что ее еще нет на плане и никто не знал, где она находит­
ся. 6. Я так долго переводила статью потому, что у меня были трудно­
сти с техническими терминами. 7. Генри глубоко вздохнул и сказал:
«Никогда бы не подумал, что эта работа окажется такой трудной».
8. Энн бросила беглый взгляд на заголовки статей в газете и отложи­
ла ее. 9. Я все рассказала ей. — Именно этого вы и не должны были
делать. 10. Не надо было поднимать одной этот ящик! — Право же со
мной от этого ничего не случилось. Вы зря беспокоитесь. 11. Вы мо­
жете звонить ей весь день и все же ничего не добьетесь: она не под­
нимает трубку. 12. Джим прекрасно знал, что это все, на что он мог
надеяться. И все же он не отчаивался. 13. Вот все, что я должен ска­
зав тебе. Надеюсь, ты отнесешься к этому серьезно. 14. Кирилл пре­
красно разбирается в старинных вещах. Вы бы лучше спросили
у него, стоит ли эта ваза таких денег. 15. Никогда не встречал челове­
ка, с которым было бы так интересно поговорить.

6. Make up two sentences of your own on each pattern.

7. Make up and act out in front of the class a suitable dialogue using the
Speech Patterns.

TEXT SEVEN

THE HAPPY MAN

By Somerset Maugham

W illiam Somerset M augham (1874-1966), a well-known English novelist,


short-story writer, playwright and essayist, was the son of a British diplomat.
He was educated at King's School in Canterbury, studied painting in Paris, went
to H eidelberg University in Germany and studied to be a doctor at St. Thomas
Hospital in England. Although Somerset M augham did not denounce the contem ­
porary social order, he was critical of the morals, the narrow-mindedness and hy­

214
pocrisy of bourgeois society. It was his autobiographical novel O f Human
Bondage (1951) and the novel The Moon and Sixpence (1919) based on the life of
the French artist Paul Gauguin, that won him fame. Somerset M augham was also a
master of the short story.
Somerset M augham 's style of writing is clear and precise. He does not impose
his views on the reader. He puts a question and leaves it to the reader to answer it.
W hen criticizing something he sounds rather am used than otherwise.

It is a dangerous thing to order the lives of others a n d I have of­


ten w ondered at the self-confidence of th e politicians, reform ers
and s jirhlik-p who are prepared to force upon their fellows m ea­
sures that m ust alter their m anners, habits, and points of view.
I have always hesitated to give advice, for how can one advise a n ­
other how to act unless one knows that other as well as one knows
himself? H eaven knows, I know little eno u g h of myself: I know
nothing of others. W e can only guess at the tho u g h ts and em otions
of our neighbours. Each one of us is a prisoner in a solitary tower
and he com m unicates w ith the other prisoners, who form m ankind,
by conventional signs that have not quite the sam e m eaning for
them as for himself. And life, unfortunately, is som ething th at you
can lead b u t once; m istakes are often irreparable and w ho am Г th a t
I should tell this one and that how he should lead it? LTfels a diffi-
cult business and I have found it hard enough to m ake m y own
a com plete and rounded thing; I have not b een tem p ted to teach
my neighbour w hat he should do w ith his. But there are m en who
flounder at the jo u rney's start, the w ay before them is confused
and hazardous, and on occasion, how ever unwillingly, I have been
forced to point the finger of fate. Som etim es m en have said to me,
w hat shall I do with my life? and I have seen m yself for a m om ent
w rapped in the dark cloak of Destiny.
O nce I know that I advised well.
I was a young man, and I lived in a m odest ap artm en t in London
near V ictoria Station. 1 Late one afternoon, w hen I was beg in n in g
to think that I had w orked enough for th at day, I heard a ring at the
bell. I opened the door to a total stranger. He asked m e m y nam e;
I told him. He asked if he m ight com e in.
"Certainly."
I led him into my sitting-room and b eg g ed him to sit down. He
seem ed a trifle em barrassed. I offered him a cigarette and he had
som e difficulty in lighting it w ithout lettin g go off his hat. W h en
he had satisfactorily achieved this feat I asked him if I should not
p u t it on a chair for him. H e quickly did this and while doing it
dropped his um brella.
215
"I hope you d o n 't m ind m y com ing to see you like this," he said.
"M y nam e is Stephens and I am a doctor. Y ou're in the m edical,
I believe?"
"Yes, but I d o n 't practise."
"No, I know. I've ju st read a book of yours about Spain and
I w anted to ask you about it."
"It's not a very good book, I'm afraid."
"The fact rem ains th at you know som ething about Spain and
th e re 's no one else I know who does. And I thought perhaps you
w o u ld n 't m ind giving m e som e inform ation."
"I shall be very glad."
H e was silent for a m om ent. H e reached out for his hat and hold­
ing it in one hand absent-m indedly stroked it w ith the other. I sur­
m ised th at it gave him confidence.
' "I hope you w o n 't th in k it very odd for a perfect stranger to talk
to you like this." H e gave an apologetic laugh. "I'm not going to
tell you the story of m y life."
W h e n people say this to me I always know that it is precisely
w hat th ey are going to do. I do n ot m ind. In fact I rather like it.
"I was bro u g h t up by two old aunts. I've never been anywhere.
I've never done anything. I've b een m arried for six years. I have no
children. I'm a m edical officer at the Cam berw ell Infirm ary.2
I c a n 't stick it any more."
T here was som ething very striking in the short, sharp sentences
he used. T hey had a forcible ring. I had n ot given him m ore than
a cursory glance, but now I looked at him with curiosity. He was
a little man, thick-set a n d stout, of thirty perhaps, with a round red
face from w hich shone small, dark and very bright eyes. His black
hair was c ro p p ed close to a bullet-shaped head. H e was dressed
in a blue suit a good deal th e w orse for wear. It was bag g y at the
knees and th e pockets bulged untidily.
"You know w hat the duties are of a m edical officer in an infirm a­
ry. O ne day is p retty m uch like another. And th at's all I've got
to look forw ard to for the rest of m y life. Do you think it’s w orth it? "
"It's a m eans of livelihood," I answered.
"Yes, I know. The m oney's p retty good."
"I d o n 't exactly know w hy you've com e to me."
"Well, I w anted to know w hether you tho u g h t there w ould be
any chance for an English doctor in Spain?"
"W hy Spain?"

216
"I d o n 't know, I ju st have a fancy for it."
"It's not like Carmen, you know."
"But th ere's sunshine there, and th ere 's good wine, and th ere 's
colour, and th ere's air you can breathe. Let m e say w hat I have
to say straight out. I heard by accident that there was no English
doctor in S ev ille.3 Do you th ink I could earn a living there? Is it
m adness to give up a good safe job for an u n c e rtain ty ? " »
"W hat does your wife think about it? "
"She's willing."
"It's a great risk."
"I know. But if you say take it, I will; if you say stay w here you
are, I'll stay."
H e was looking at me in tently w ith those bright dark eyes of his
and I knew th at he m eant w hat he said. I reflected for a m om ent.
"Your w hole future is concerned: you m ust decide for yourself.
But this I can tell you: if you d o n 't w ant m oney but are c o n ten t to
earn ju st enough to k e ep body and soul together, th en go. For you
will lead a wonderful life."
He left me, I thought about him for a day or two, and th en for­
got. The episode passed com pletely from m y m emory.
M any years later, fifteen at least, I hap p en ed to be in Seville and
having som e trifling indisposition asked the hotel porter w hether
there was an English doctor in the town. He said there w as and
gave me the address. I took a cab and as I drove up to the house
a little fat m an cam e out of it. H e hesitated w hen he c au g h t sight
of me.
"Have you com e to see m e?" he said. "I'm the English doctor."
I explained m y _girand and he asked m e to com e in. H e lived
in an ordinary Spanish house, w ith a p a tio ,4 and his consulting
room which led out of it littered w ith papers, books, m edical ap p li­
ances, and lum ber. The sight of it w ould have startled
a sq ueam ish patient. W e did our business and th en I asked
the doctor w hat his fee was. He shook his h ead and smiled.
"There's no fee."
"W hy on earth not?"
"D on't /foxi rem em ber me? W hy, I'm here because of som e­
thing you said to me. You changed m y w hole life for me. I'm
Stephens."
I had not the least notion w hat he was talking about. H e rem ind­
ed m e of our interview, he rep eated to m e w hat we had said, and
217
gradually, out of the night, a dim recollection of the incident cam e
back to me.
"I was w ondering if I'd ever see you again," he said, "I was w on­
dering if ever I’d have a chance of thanking you for all you've done
for me."
"It's b een a success then?"
I looked at him. H e was very fat now and bald, b u t his eyes twin­
kled gaily and his fleshy, red face bore an expression of perfect
good-hum our. The clothes he wore, terribly shabby they were, had
b een m ade obviously by a Spanish tailor and his hat was the wide-
brim m ed som brero of the Spaniard. He looked to me as t h o u g h ^ , ^
he knew a good bottle of wine w hen he saw it. He had a dissipated,
th o u g h entirely sym pathetic, appearance. You m ight have h esitat­
ed to let him rem ove your appendix, but you could not have im ag­
ined a m ore delightful creature to drink a glass of wine with.
"Surely you w ere m arried?" I asked.
"Yes. M y wife d id n 't like Spain, she w ent back to Camberwell,
she was m ore a t hom e there."
"Oh, I'm sorry for that."
His black eyes flashed a bacchanalian smile. He really had
som ew hat the look of a young S ile n u s.5
“Life is full of com pensations," he m urm ured.
The w ords w ere hardly out of his m outh w hen a Spanish woman,
no longer in her first youth, b ut still boldly and voluptuously b e a u ­
tiful, ap p eared at the door. She spoke to him in Spanish, and
I could not fail to perceive that she was the m istress of the house.
As he stood at the door to let m e out he said to me:
"You told m e w hen last I saw you th a t if I cam e here I should
earn ju st eno u g h m oney to keep body and soul together, but that
I should lead a w onderful life. W ell, I w ant to tell you that you w ere
right. Poor I have b een and poor I shall always be, but by heaven
I've enjoyed myself. I w ou ld n 't exchange the life I've had w ith that
of any king in the world."

EXPLANATORY NOTES

1. V ictoria Station: a railway terminus in the southern part of London.


2. Infirmary: a hospital; sick quarters at school.
3. S ev ille f'sevil]: a town in the province of Andalusia [,a;ndo'lu:zj3] in
the south of Spain.
218
4. p atio ['раеПзи]: an open courtyard within the walls of a Spanish
house.
5. S ilen u s [sai'liinss]: a Greek mythological character, the tutor and
companion of Dionysus [.daia'naisss], the God of wine.

ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY

V o c a b u la r y N o te s

1. con fid e vi/t 1) to feel trust in smb., e. д. I can confide in him. 2) to


tell secrets to, e. g. He confided his troubles (secret, plans, fears) to me.
co n fid en ce n 1) strong trust, e. д. I have no confidence in such people
(in his ability, in his opinion). He enjoys everybody's confidence. What
she says does not inspire confidence. I shan't betray your confidence. She
took me into her confidence. 2) assurance, belief that one is right or that
one will succeed, e. g. He has too much confidence in himself (self-
confidence). His lack of confidence is most annoying. His comforting
words gave me confidence. 3) secret which is confided to smb. (often
in pi.), e. д. I listened to the girl's confidences with a mixed feeling of pity
and disapproval.
con fident adj 1) sure, e. g. We were not confident of success.
2) showing confidence, as a confident manner, smile, voice, tone.
co n fid en tial adj private or secret, as confidential information, matter,
correspondence, voice, etc.
2. start vi/t 1) to begin to move; to set out; to begin a journey, as to
start early (late, at 6 p. m., etc.); to start on a trip (a journey, an excursion)
for the mountains; 2) to begin to do smth., as to start work (business,
conversation); to start working, running, crying; 3) to cause, to enable, to
begin, e. g. How did the war (the fire, the quarrel) start? 4) to set going, as
to start a car (a motor, a newspaper); 5) to make a sudden movement (from
pain, shock, etc.), e. g. He started at the noise.
startin g-p oin t n a place at which a start is made, e. g. The incident
turned out to be a starting-point that set everything afloat.
start n 1) the act of starting, as the start of a race; at the journey's start,
e. g. That gave her a start in life, from th e start from the very beginning,
e. g. Everything went wrong from the start, from start to finish., e. g. This
is the whole story from start to finish. 2) a sudden movement caused by
pain (shock, etc.), e. g. He sprang up (awoke) with a start. You gave me
a s^rt, I must say. b y fits and starts irregularly, e. g. Research work
cannot be done by fits and starts.
3. con fu se vt 1) to mistake one thing or person for another; to mix up,
as to confuse names (words or persons); to confuse facts (dates),
e. g. They look so much alike that I always confuse them. Old people
often confuse dates and figures. 2) to make a person feel uncomfortable,
219
е. д. Everybody's attention confused her and she was at a loss for words.
syn. embarrass; to be (feel, seem, get) confused (embarrassed), e. g. He
seemed a trifle confused (embarrassed).
confusion n 1) the state of being confused; disorder, as to lie (be, be
thrown about) in confusion, e. g. His things lay in confusion on the sofa.
His thoughts were in confusion. He remained calm in the confusion of
battle, syn. mess; 2) shame, embarrassment, e. g. His confusion was
obvious. 3) mistaking one thing for another, as the confusion of sounds,
letters.
confusing adj embarrassing, e. g. An examiner must not ask confusing
questions (not to put the student out). Don't ask embarrassing questions
(not to make one uncomfortable).
confused adj 1) embarrased, e. g. The girl looked confused.
2) inconsistent or muddled, e. g. His tale (answer) was confused. He was
unable to put his confused ideas into shape.
4. drop vt/i 1) to allow to fall, as to drop a glass (a handkerchief, etc.);
to drop bombs; to drop a letter in a pillar-box (a coin in a slot); 2) to give
up, to stop doing smth., as to drop one's work (studies, a habit); to drop
smoking, e. g. Let's drop the argument (the subject). 3) (used with many
different meanings) as to drop a subject; to drop a person at some place;
to drop a line; to drop (smb.) a hint (on smth.); to drop one's voice (eyes);
to drop one's friends; to drop anchor; 4) to fall to the ground, to the floor,
into smth., as to drop with fatique; to drop into a chair; to drop on (to)
one's knees; to drop dead; leaves (apples, blossoms) drop, e. g. It was so
quiet, you might have heard a pin drop. 5) to become less or smaller or
weaker, as the temperature, the wind, one’s voice, prices may drop; to
drop in to see smb. at some place, e. g. Several friends dropped in to tea.
to drop off 1) to go away, become fewer, as one's friends (customers, the
doctor's practice) may drop off; 2) to fall asleep, e. g. He dropped off
during the performance, to drop behind to fall behind, e. g. The two girls
dropped behind the rest of the party.
drop л 1) a small round portion of liquid, a small quantity of liquid, as
drops of water (perspiration, rain, etc.); to drink smth. to the last drop,
take ten drops a day; 2) sudden fall, as a sudden (unexpected, sharp,
slight) drop in prices (temperature, etc.).
5. mind vt 1) to attend to or take care of, e. g. Mind your own business.
Please, mind the baby (the fire). 2) to obey, e. g. The child won't mind his
granny. 3) to be careful of, e. g. Mind the step (the dog). Mind! There is
a bus coming. Mind the traffic rules. 4) to object to, be afraid of, e. g. Do
you mind my smoking (if I smoke)? — I don't mind it a bit. (Yes, I mind
it very much.) Would you mind closing the window? — Never mind
(an answer to an apology).
mind n 1) intellectual faculties, as the great minds of the world; to be
in one's right mind, e. g. Lomonosov was one of the greatest minds of the
world of his time. Are you in your right mind to say such things?
2) memory or remembrance, as to come to one's mind; to bear in mind,
220
е. д. The incident gradually came to my mind. Bear in mind that you are
to be here at six sharp. 3) one’s thoughts, opinions, wishes, as to make up
one's mind to come to a decision, e. g. I’ve made up my mind and I’ll stick
to my decision, to change one's mind., e. д. I won't change my mind
whatever is said, to be in two minds to hesitate, e. g. I'm in two minds and
can't give you a definite answer now. to speak one's mind to say what one
thinks, e. g. Don't beat about the bush, speak your mind, to give a person
a piece of one's mind to tell him frankly what one thinks of him,
e. g. I shall give you a piece of my mind, unpleasant as that may be.
to have a (no) mind to to be disposed to, e. g. She had no mind to answer
such questions, to have smth. on one's mind to be anxious about smth.,
e. g. She seemed to have something on her mind and could not
concentrate.
-minded adj in compounds having the kind of mind indicated, as
absent-minded, fair-minded, broad-minded, narrow-minded, e. g. She is
very absent-minded and always leaves her things behind.
6. practise vt 1) to do regularly, as practise early rising, a method of
work; to practise what one preaches, e. g. If only he’d practised what he'd
preached! 2) to pursue the profession (of a lawyer or a doctor), as to
practise law, medicine, e. g. It has been long since I practised medicine.
3) to do again and again, as to practise tennis, the piano, e. g. She
practises the piano for an hour every day.
practice n 1) action as opposed to theory, e. g. The method is rather
simple in practice, and very effective, to put into practice to carry out, as
to put into practice a theory, a plan, an idea, a suggestion, e. g. The theory
seems right, but we must think of how to put it into practice.
2) systematically repeated action, as much, regular, constant, sufficient
practice, e. g. What you need is more practice. Look how precise the
movements of the worker are, practice shows, to be in (out of) practice to
be able (unable) to do smth. well, e. g. I used to be a good chessplayer, but
I'm out of practice now. 3) habit or custom, e. g. It was then the practice
(or a common practice). After supper Dad went for a walk as was his usual
practice. 4) the work of a doctor or a lawer, e. g. Doctor N. has retired from
practice. Manson had a large practice. He was a young lawyer with no
practice at all.
practitioner n practising doctor or lawyer, e. g. Andrew Manson
worked as a general practitioner.
practical adj useful, as practical advice, results, benefit, help, matters,
use, application, considerations, difficulties (difficulties in putting smth.
into practice), e. g. It's of no practical use. There were practical
difficulties. They used to play practical jokes on each other and neither
ever got offended.
practically adv virtually, e. g. Practically everyone was willing to help.
7. odd adj 1) (of numbers) not even, e. д. 1, 3, 5 are odd numbers.
2) used of one of a pair when the other is missing, as an odd shoe or glove;
3) used of one or more members of a set when separated from the rest, as
221
two odd volumes of an encyclopaedia; 4) extra, over, as thirty odd years,
fifty and some odd miles; 5) occasional, not regular, as odd jobs;
6) strange, not ordinary, surprising, as an odd person (way, manner; look,
appearance, behaviour), e. g. How odd!
N o t e : strange, odd and queer are synonyms; strange means out of the natu­
ral order of things; odd refers to what one does not ordinarily see and is surprised
at; queer implies some doubt as whether all is well, e. g. a queer feeling, a queer
affair,

oddly adv in an odd manner; oddly enough strange to say, e. g. Oddly


enough, she did not turn up at the party.
odds n pi. the chances in favour, e. g. The odds are against us. odds
and ends remnants, e. g. W hat's to be done with all these odds and ends
of the paper?
8. concern n 1) that in which one is interested, e. g. It's no concern
of mine. It's my own concern. What concern is it of yours? 2) anxiety,
worry, as the teacher's concern over the pupil's progress.
concern vt 1) to have to do with, e. g. That doesn't concern you at all.
As far as I'm concerned ... . He is said to be concerned in this affair. (He is
said to be mixed up in this affair.) 2) to be busy with, interest oneself in,
e. g. Don't concern yourself with other people's affairs. I'm not concerned
about details. 3) to take trouble about, e. g. Lord Illingworth had never
been concerned about his son.
concerned adj anxious, e. g. He has a very concerned look. ant. un­
concerned.
concerning prep about, regarding, e. g. Montmorency manifested
great curiosity concerning the kettle.
9. sympathy n a fellow-feeling, a feeling of pity, as to arouse (show,
express) sympathy, e. g. You have my sympathies. I have no sympathy
with (for) idle people. I feel some sympathy for her, she is unhappy.
sympathize vt to be interested in and approve of, e. д. I sympathize
with you (your ambition to be a writer).
sympathetic adj 1) quick to understand and share other people's
feelings, e. g. A good doctor is always sympathetic, ant. unsympathetic;
2) having or showing kind feeling towards others, e. д. I felt grateful to her
for her sympathetic words.
sympathetically adv kindly, e. g. She smiled sympathetically.
10. fail vi/t 1) not to succeed, e. g. My attempt has failed. I tried to
convince him, but failed. The maize failed that year. 2) not to pass, as
to fail in mathematics, in an exam; 3) to break down, to die away, to let
down, e. g. His courage failed him. His heart failed him. His sight (health)
was beginning to fail him. I'll never fail you. Words failed me. 4) to
neglect, omit, e. g. He never fails to write to his mother. Don't fail to let
me know. I fail to see your meaning. I could not fail to perceive who she
was.
222
failure л 1) lack of success, e. g. Success came after many failures. His
efforts ended in failure. 2) a person who fails, e. g. She was a complete
failure as an actress.

Word Combinations and Phrases

to alter manners (habits, points of to be littered with books


view, plans, one's way of living, (papers, lumber, etc.)
a dress) to have not the least notion (of
a ring at the bell (a knock at the smth.)
door) to remind smb. of smth.
to reach out (up, down) for smth. a dim recollection
to have a fancy for smth. shabby clothes (house, man,
to keep body and soul together street)
to drive up to a house (come up to be (feel, make oneself) at
to the door) home somewhere
to exchange smth. (for smth.)

READING COMPREHENSION EXERCISES

1. a) Listen to the recording of Text Seven and mark the stresses and tunes,
b) Repeat the text in the intervals after the model.

2. Put fifteen questions to the text.

3. Pick out from Text Seven the sentences containing the word combinations
and phrases given on p. 223 and translate them into Russian in writing.

4. Com plete the following sentences using the word combinations and
phrases (p. 223):

1. W hen one is no longer young, it is not an easy th ing ... o ne's


habits. 2. The coat is a size too large for you, you m ust ... . 3. I'm
tired o f ... m y plans every tim e you change your m ind. 4. She had
scarcely finished speaking before there was a ... an d a knock.
5. W ithout a word she ... pen and paper. 6. Lora ... th e letter, b u t the
m an was quick enough to catch hold of it. 7. She d a re n 't even ... the
switch lest the m ovem ent should w ake him. 8. C lare is easily car­
ried away; w hen she ... she cannot think of anything else. 9. Some
m ore cake? — T hank you, I have quite ... chocolate cake. 10. Dave
had to do all kinds of odd jobs that cam e his w ay to ... .11. T he m o­
m ent David saw the car ... the house, he rushed out to m eet his
223
friends. 12. I found m yself in a room ... books, papers and all kind
of lum ber. 13. I'm at m y wits' end. I have n o t ... of w here to look for
him. 14. I have ... w hat h e 's hinting at. Do his w ords m ake sense to
you? 15. I wish you ... , it ju st slipped my m ind. 16. The m om ent he
m entioned the incident, a ... cam e back to me. 17. The clothes the
m an w ore w ere terribly ... , but th at evidently did not bother him.
18. Ed had som e difficulty in finding the place, a ... building in
an evil-sm elling slum. 19. Let's ... for you to have a better view of
th e stage. 20. The three friends ... a glance. They w ere unanim ous
in their disapproval. 21. T hey ... ideas before reaching a decision.
22. If you d o n 't ... m e of it, I'll forget. 23. H er friendly sym pathetic
sm ile m ade m e ....

5. Paraphrase the following sentences using the word combinations and


phrases (p. 223):

1. A n um ber of things hap p en ed to m e and caused a change


in the course of m y life. 2. English spelling is appalling, but in time
it will be partially changed. 3. H e heard the bell ring and w ent to
o p en the door. 4. She held out her hand to take the letter. 5. Dobbin
stretch ed out his hand and caught the vase before it fell to the
floor. 6. J a n e 's salary was hardly sufficient to m ake both ends m eet.
7. I saw a cab approach and stop at the door of m y house. 8. There
w ere test-tubes and phials scattered about on the table. 9. H e was
left alone in the un k em p t study w ith books, papers and w hat not
throw n about. 10. I h av en 't the faintest idea of w hat yo u 're talking
about. 11. I have only a vague idea of the street I used to live in.
12. It was a poor, ill-furnished small bedroom . 13. The m an was
w earing a m uch w orn grey suit. 14. The boy did not feel at ease
in such a splendid house.

6. Translate the following sentences into English using the word combina­
tions and phrases (p. 223):

1. Вы совсем не щадите себя. Вы заболеете, если не измените свой


образ жизни. 2. Я уже готова к отъезду, осталось только переделать
одно платье. 3. Они только уселись за стол, как раздался еще более
громкий стук в дверь. 4. Эд протянул руку за письмом, но Клэр все
еще колебалась и не решалась отдать ему его. 5. Зачем вы купили эту
картину? — Она просто понравилась мне. А чем она плоха? 6. К дому
подъехала машина скорой помощи, и врач поспешил наверх. 7. Я дос­
таточно хорошо вас знаю; ясно, что вы не откажетесь от своего пла­
на. Но почему не прислушаться к мнению других людей: может быть,
224
все же стоит его немного изменить? 8. «Может быть, это и не самая
лучшая работа, — сказала Элла с горечью, — но по крайней мере она
дает мне возможность сводить концы с концами». 9. Его письменный
стол всегда завален книгами и бумагами. Не представляю, как он
умудряется находить то, что ему нужно. 10. Представления не имею,
как пользоваться этим прибором, давайте прочтем инструкцию.
11. Я постараюсь завтра выяснить этот вопрос, только, пожалуйста,
напомните мне об этом. 12. Мы, должно быть, сбились с дороги.
Я представления не имею, куда девалась станция, мы давно уже дол­
жны были бы быть там. 13. Я смутно помню, как я болела корью и
старшая сестра ухаживала за мной. 14. В своем поношенном костю­
ме Мартин чувствовал себя неловко в их доме. Лучше бы уж он не
приходил. 15. Мне бы хотелось обменять эту книгу на другую, если
можно. 16. Я почти не встречался с ним, и только однажды мы обме­
нялись несколькими словами.

7. Make up and practise a short situation using the word combinations and
phrases (p. 223).

8. Make up and act out a dialogue using the word combinations and phrases
(p. 223):

1. An acquaintance of yours is asking you for a piece of advice,


w hich you hesitate to give, (to have som e difficulty in sm th., to h e s­
itate, unless, to have not the least notion, to decide for oneself)
2. You are late for a house-w arm ing party. A pologize to the
hostess, (early enough, I had hardly ... w hen, to reach (out) for,
to have som e difficulty in smth., to open the door to smb., Jo com e
up to, a dim recollection, to alter o n e's habits)
3. Your plans for a trip to the South are ruined. Y ou're com plain­
ing about that to a friend of yours, (to alter plans, to feel at hom e,
it is precisely what, none the w orse for, not to know a b e tte r
place to ...)

9. Find in Text Seven equivalents for the following:

to tell people how to live; of the sam e kind; to th ru st sm th.


on smb.; to exchange news and ideas by speech or writing; som e­
times; to release o n e ’s hold of; a totally unknow n person; hanging
loosely; to swell out; to be ready; to slip o n e ’s m em ory; a slight
illness, fastidious

10. Find in Text Seven English equivalents for the following:

плохо знать самого себя; одинокая башня; дать хороший совет;


скромная квартира; бросить беглый взгляд; коренастый полный
225
мужчина; коротко подстриженные волосы; средство существования;
отказаться от надежной работы ради неизвестности; решать самому;
медицинские приборы; весело поблескивать; располагающая к себе
внешность; уже не первой молодости

11. Explain what is meant by the following phrases:

1. to com m unicate by conventional signs; 2. an irreparable m is­


take; 3. a total stranger; 4. w ithout letting go off his hat; 5. to be
in the m edical; 6. to stick smth.; 7. to give som ebody a cursory
glance; 8. a m eans of livelihood; 9. to give up a good safe job for
an uncertainty; 10. to k eep body and soul together; 11. to have
a trifling indisposition; 12. a squeam ish patient

12. Answer the following questions and do the given tasks:

1. W hat do you know of Som erset M augham ? 2. W hat do you


th in k of his stories and novels? 3. W ho is the narrator of the story
«The H appy M an»? 4. W hat can you say about the structure of the
story? 5. W h at conclusions as to Som erset M augham 's attitude to ­
w ards life and relations betw een people can you draw from the first
passage? Do you share his views? 6. T ranslate the following sen ­
tences from the first passage into Russian, paying attention to the
m etaphors: a) "Each of us is a prisoner in a solitary tower." b) "But
th ere are m en who flounder at the jou rn ey 's start." с) "I have been
forced to point the finger of fate." d) "I have seen m yself for a m o­
m ent w rapped in the d ark cloak of Destiny." Explain how the m et­
aphors contribute to the vividness of narration. 7. Point out three
m etaphors an d three ep ithets used by the author to characterize
Stephens and com m ent on them . 8. Give synonym s of colloquial
style to th e following literary words: 'to flounder', 'hazardous',
'co n ten t', 'a trifling indisposition', 'errand', 'to perceive'. 9. W hat
w ords and phrases are used to describe Stephens at the beginning
an d at the end of the story? How can the reader gather that
Stephens was h ap p y in Spain? W hat was it th at attracted him
to Spain? 10. How does the author draw the m ain character: by d e ­
scribing him or by show ing him through his actions and conversa­
tion? 11. Find evidence in the story that the author sym pathized
w ith Stephens. W h at traits of character did the doctor possess that
ap p ealed to the author? 12. How w ould you explain the title of the
story? 13. W h at is the m essage of the story and by w hat devices did
the au th o r achieve the effect?
226
13. Retell Text Seven close to the text.

14. Give a summary of Text Seven.

15. Discuss Stephens's idea of happiness.

16. Make up and act out a dialogue between two friends discussing what
happiness is.

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

1. Study the Vocabulary Notes and translate the illustrative examples into
Russian.

2. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the words
and word combinations in bold type:

A- 1. Confide in me, and all will be well. 2. H e had to m ake sure


that she w ould not be likely to confide the w hole story to Gervase,
which she m ight do. 3. K ayerts was m oved alm ost to tears by W al­
lace's kindness. He would, he said, by doing his best, try to justify
his confidence. 4. D oubtless he realized that som ething was in
the wind, b u t Г did not think it necessary to take him fully into my
confidence. 5. He inspired universal confidence and had an iron
nerve. 6. Turning tow ards her he saw a glim m er of u n d erstan d in g
com e into her eyes, and he quickly sm iled to give her confidence.
7. It had becom e his second natu re to listen to confidences and not
to offer them . 8. Mr. Pyne, w hat I am about to tell you is in the
strictest confidence! You do und erstan d that, d o n 't you? 9. D uring
the war Bret was sure she had never w orried about him, she was
perfectly confident of his com ing b ack unhurt. H er confident le t­
ters had m ade him lonely. 10. He hurried up the basem ent stair and
out of the house, and started running along the street. 11. He
started the m otor and the boat sw ung aw ay from the dock. 12. Eve­
ryone assum ed from the start, ju st as I did myself, th at G ilbey was
a writer. 13. I told him the w hole story from start to finish. 14. Fi­
nally, with a start, he aroused him self from his reverie. 15. The lux­
ury of the house embarrassed Dolly and m ade her feel badly
dressed, out of place and timid. 16. M iss Brown p o u red o ut h er sto ­
ry, going back to points she had forgotten, gettin g confused and
repeating herself. 17. The accident threw the traffic into confusion.
227
18. There was ju st awkw ard embarrassment in not know ing how to
react to such a curious outbreak. 19. I noticed h e 'd dropped his
Yorkshire accent. 20. H e had developed the habit of dropping in
on her som etim es during the w eek to discuss the latest news.
21. "You can drop me at D arlinghurt if you d o n 't m ind." M agda
pulled the car abruptly. 22. C onstance bit back her desire to tell
M iss C h etond to mind h er own business. 23. I've never been the
nervy type who m inds the d ark or being alone in an em pty house.
24. She had a passion for cars — in fact, she said, she had always
b een m echanically-m inded and used to drive a sports car. 25. At
the back o f his mind there lurked an uneasy sense of danger.
26. H e had gone through these m ovem ents in his mind so often
th at he now acted p u rely autom atically. 27. M iller was not a very
good driver really. H e w ent in fits and starts as if he could not
make up his mind w here he was going. 28. He had half a mind
to w alk o ut of th e hotel, leaving everything behind.
В. 1. H e qualified as a doctor, though he never practised.
2. Dad always practised w hat he preached; and we respected him
greatly. 3. "At any rate their efforts to teach us handicrafts were
n ot a success," said Jim . "As usual the theory was right, b u t the
practice w ent w rong." 4. H e's never b e e n up against any of the
first-rate players and it w ould be w onderful practice for him.
5. H e took an a n g ry look at Mr. C rabben, b u t it was im possible to
su sp ect th a t young m an of a practical joke. 6. M arjorie and Dor­
o thy shared a natural intim acy, being closer to g eth er in age, so
Phyllis was the odd one. 7. She had b een feeling the w eight of her
eighty-odd years m oving slower, talking less. 8. She had apolo­
gized for having to give up the odd jobs she had done for them.
9. I did not listen to them attentively, I only heard som e odds and
ends. 10. "D eath is n o thing to be afraid of," he said, "I think about
it every day of m y life." "You're very odd," she said, "I try never
to th in k about it at all." 11. I had th at queer feeling th at one som e­
tim es has w hen sitting in an em pty room th at one is not by o n e­
self. 12. W hat concern is it of yours?— This is the least of my
concerns. I ju st w anted to help. 13. Philip looked at the kid with
som e concern. WHhat sort of m an was he going to be, he w on­
dered. 14. But I recom m end you not to repay his hospitality by
tak in g his w ife's side against him in a m atter that doesn't concern
you. 15. Ju st why, I w anted to th ink about it, to concern m yself
with it in any way, I w asn't clear about. 16. She was tortured by an
irresistible and ill-bred curiosity concerning the identity of the
228
visitor. 17. He w alked past them with as unconcerned an air as he
could assum e. 18. H er holiday had done her good, b u t she w as
concerned about him, his lack of ap p etite a n d hag g ard look.
19. She looked round nervously, b u t everybody w as too con­
cerned with his or her own reaction to the news to observe the
reactions of anybody else. 20. T hey g ot small th anks for their
sympathy. 21. I understood for the first tim e how F ather felt
about his garden. I w ondered how often and how obviously I'd
shown m y lack of sym pathy at his enthusiasm ab o u t it. 22. C am ­
pion felt th at it was im possible not to sym pathize with her, even
if her point of view was not alto g eth er his own. 23. T he reporters
looked back, the coroner ordered silence, the shocked public
made sym pathetic murmurs. 24. His reputation had b een built on
the fact that he often succeeded w here other doctors had failed.
25. H e had never know n fear and could not recall a tim e w hen
his nerves had failed him. 26. H e held out his hand, and for
a m om ent speech failed him. Then he rose to th e occasion.
"Pleased to m eet you," said Mr. Burt. 27. H e tried jokes, b u t Jo h n
failed to m anage even a routine smile. 28. Do you think I'm a
failure as a writer? — Failure's a thing you m easure at th e en d of
a life. You haven't failed yet — not till you give w riting up or die.

3.Paraphrase the following sentences using your active vocabulary:

A. 1. The words w ere hardly out of h er m outh w hen she w ished


she had not told Ann her secret. 2. It is equally w rong to tru st all
and none. 3. His assurance of success was infectious. 4. You seem
to be very sure of his ability. 5. Now she seem ed to linger at table,
evidently inclined to have a heart-to-heart talk. 6 . 1 w onder if there
is anything th at can m ake him a bit less sure of himself. 7. You are
m aking a m istake: yo u 're taking m e for som ebody else. 8. Every­
body was m ade uncom fortable by the tu rn of the talk. 9. H er things
are always throw n about in a mess. 10. She p u t the coin in the slot
and took up the receiver. 11. Since I have tak e n the case up, I m ean
to give up everything in order to see it through. 12. For the tim e b e­
ing let's stop the argum ent. 13. "After a certain age," said au n t
Ann, "one gets a liking for falling asleep at im proper m om ents."
14. The boy ju st w o n 't obey his m other. 15. W ho will look after the
children w hen y ou're away? 16. And again she was unable to tell
w hether he w ould have objected or not. 17. D on't forget th at you
m ust be back before twelve. 18. He seem ed about to den y every­
229
thing b u t th o u g h t b e tte r of it. 19. But here was a m an w ho sincerely
did not care w hat people tho u g h t of him.
В. 1. How long has he b een w orking as a lawyer? 2. The plan
seem s good to me, let's think how best to carry it out. 3. It was
a habit w ith F ather to have the m agazines bound as volumes.
4. Strange to say it was Jo h n n y who settled everything. 5. You do
say ridiculous things som etim es. 6. There are som e m ighty suspi­
cious things going on here. 7. She said she had nothing to do with
it. 8. The m o th er's w orry over her d a u g h te r's poor health kept her
aw ake all night. 9. "The m atter affects the interest of a friend for
w hom I'm acting," said the lawyer. 10. W hy do you interest your­
self in other p eo p le's affairs? 11. N othing was said about the m at­
ter. 12. H e has a very w orried look today. 13. The boy seem ed to be
m ore in terested in food than in the conversation. 14. H er heart
w ent out to him in understanding. 1 5 .1 sm iled at her to show my af­
fectionate understanding. 16. H e had kindly understanding eyes
and the m anner of one who had done a little suffering of his own
accord. 17. He was sure th at he w ould be successful this time.
18. Robert felt th at the guilt was partly his own, that he had let
him dow n as a hum an being. 19. I cannot see the hum our in it.
20. I d o n 't believe you know w hat lack of success is.

4. Explain or comment on the following sentences:

A- 1. H e had a suspicion th at Stella did not take her father into


her confidence. 2. You could not have im agined a m ore trustw or­
thy person, he enjoyed everyone's confidence. 3 . 1 hesitated before
m aking the decision: the offer did not inspire confidence. 4. It
m ight give him confidence in him self to let him try. 5. She could al­
ways draw confindences from a heart of stone. 6. Did he know
eno u g h of real life to speak with confidence on anything? 7. I'm
a lawyer. A client's com m unications are confidential. 8. She rose
and silently started for the exit door. 9. W hen he returned to Lon­
don,-he started a little restaurant in Soho. 10. The untidy room of
the first-floor in Baker Street had b een the starting-point
of m any rem arkable adventures. 11. You m ust have confused
m e w ith som eone else. 12. H e was never em barrassed, always
read y w ith som e glib explanation. 13. He was left in a state
of confusion and despair. 14. Some Englishm en drop their h's.
15. H e was not a m an who let a thing drop w hen he had set his
m ind on it. 16. O nce m ore he seem ed to drop a curtain betw een
230
him self and the others in the room. 17. He seem s to have dropped
m ost of his friends. 18. Drop me a line w hen you are away. 19. The
last thing I heard as I was dropping off to sleep was Mr. Lendow 's
voice saying good-night to Carol. 20. W ill you m ind m y luggage
while I go and find out? 21. So I decided to m ind m y own business
and to say nothing about w hat I had seen. 22. The children m ind
her like trained seals. 23. "M ind how you go or y ou'll kn o ck your
head," Lucas w arned him. 24. They did not seem to m ind each o th ­
er's presence in the least. 25. And then, being a fair-m inded man,
he looked at the other side of the question. 26. I tried to c o n c en ­
trate, b u t my m ind w ouldn't w ork properly. 27. "I have a logical
m ind," she returned, "which you have not and never will." 28. His
eyes, w hen they looked at you directly, gave you the feeling that
they w ere seeing right through your m ind. 29. His nam e had c o n ­
veyed nothing to me; perhaps it was k e p t in m ind only by jo u rn a l­
ists. 30. Keep in m ind the purpose of your speech and speak to the
point. 31.1 tried to get m y m ind on m y draw ing, and did a few lines;
b u t it was no use. 32. It ju st d id n 't com e to m y m ind. 33. If M elody
could not m ake up her own m ind — well, it m ust be m ade up for
her. 3 4 .1 w asn't in two m inds and acted quickly. 35. I've got a good
m ind to quit.
В. 1. The new doctor had only a small practice. 2. It is the p rac ­
tice of this surgeon to give local anaesthetics w henever possible.
3. The odds are against this football team . 4. But oddly enough,
though so m uch alike, they detest each other. 5. T here w eje several
things about it all that struck m e as queer. 6. Everybody was filled
w ith concern w hen news cam e th at Father was seriously ill.
7. Laura and Linda exchanged concerned glances. 8. I knew those
concerned and was eager to learn the w hole story. 9. I know him
well enough to be sure that he is not concerned in the affair. 10. As
practising physicians w e're naturally concerned w ith the profes­
sional standards you m aintain here. 11. A ndrew dropped his eyes,
sympathizing, yet hardly know ing w hat to say. 12. D ottie rem ained
silent, m erely w atching him sym pathetically. 13. A ngela was o p ­
pressed by a sense of injustice, b u t her m other w as unsym pathetic.
14. His m ission was ending and he felt th at he had failed. 15. M y
eyesight has been failing m e for som e tim e. 16. D uring the a n e c ­
dotes he never failed to laugh at exactly the right point. 17. T he pi­
lot could not fail to see us there on the open beach. 18. I'll expect
to see you both. W ithout fail. 19. H e was a failure in w hatever
he did. 20. How do you explain his failure to come?
231
5. C hoose th e rig h t w ord:

confuse — embarrass (or their derivatives)

1. K eep still for a m inute, yo u 're only ... me. Let m e think.
2. I was asham ed; I was h ot w ith ... . 3. She w atched Roy so closely
th a t he felt ... . 4. "I d o n 't like solicitors. They ... me," said Elsie.
5. M y eyes, resting on him curiously, caused him no ... . 6. M ost
p eo p le who stu tter are very ... about it. 7. I had b e tte r explain. I
can u n d erstan d how ... you are. 8. H er eyes reflected the ... of her
m ind.

odd — queer

1. It was certainly an ... pair and everyone stared at them.


2. T here was som ething ... about the way his tem perature ran b e ­
low norm al. 3. Som ething w oke m e up. Some sound. There are so
m any ... noises in London. 4. It's ... w anting to eat an ice in this
w eather. 5. H e m ust have done it. He has b een acting ... lately.
6. H e has an ... w ay of w alking w ith his feet turned in slightly.
7. The front-door bell resounded ... in the em pty rooms. 8. He
noticed that C rale was looking very ... , b u t he did not yet know
how seriously ill he was.

to be concerned in — to be concerned with —


to be concerned about

1. T here w ere rum ours th at N ed had once been ... som ething
crooked. 2. I felt p retty sure th at she was genuinely ... m y health.
3. I am not ... the details. 4. Your vocation is quite a different one,
doctor. You are ... people. 5. I am really ... you. 6. The neighbours
did not su sp ect th at the nice-looking young m an was ... the crime.

6. Give English equivalents for the following words and phrases:

доверять (верить) кому-л.; доверить (рассказать) что-л. кому-л.;


пользоваться доверием; внушать доверие; быть уверенным в успехе;
отправляться на экскурсию в горы; пуститься бежать; затеять ссору;
с начала до конца; с самого начала; чувствовать смущение; сбивчи­
вый ответ; валиться с ног от усталости; зайти к кому-л. домой; резкое
понижение температуры; быть в нерешительности; претворять
в жизнь; нечетное число; 20 с лишним лет; иметь озабоченный вид;
вызывать сочувствие; чувствовать расположение к кому-л.; сочув­
ственная улыбка; окончиться неудачей.
232
7. T ran slate th e follow ing se n te n c e s in to E nglish:

A. 1. Она никому не доверяла своих планов. Это был вопрос, кото­


рый она должна была решить сама. 2. Если бы вы полностью довери­
лись мне, может быть, и можно было бы избежать этой неприятнос­
ти. 3. С самого начала Великой Отечественной войны, даже в самые
тяжелые дни, люди твердо верили в победу. 4. Я полностью согласна
с вами, что он внушает доверие, но не в этом дело; дело в том, что
я просто недостаточно хорошо его знаю, чтобы просить о помощи.
5. При малейшем шуме Кейт вздрагивала и смотрела на часы, но вре­
мя, казалось, остановилось. 6. Это очень милые люди. Я с самого на­
чала чувствовала себя у них как дома. 7. В дверь постучали. Майкл
вздрогнул и проснулся. 8. Все посмотрели на него с любопытством,
но это нисколько не смутило его. 9. Я не запомню эту дату, если не за­
пишу ее. Я всегда путаю даты и цифры. 10. Фашисты сбрасывали
бомбы на города и села, не щадя мирное население. 11. Ваш приятель
придет сегодня? — Может быть, он зайдет попозже. 12. Накапайте
десять капель этого лекарства в стакан теплой воды и прополощите
горло. Это вам поможет. 13. Черкните мне пару строк, как приедете.
14. Вы не присмотрите за ребенком, пока я накрою на стол? 15. Иди­
те осторожно, дорога здесь очень грязная. 16. Вы не поменяетесь со
мной местами? — Пожалуйста. 17. Как вам нравится это внезапное
похолодание? — Я не боюсь холода, лишь бы не было дождя. 18. «Я
ему все выскажу откровенно, как только он появится. Он уже не пер­
вый раз заставляет нас ждать», — сказал Билл, теряя терпение.
B. 1. Я уже давно не практикую и вряд ли смогу помочь вам, но
здесь неподалеку живет врач, обратитесь лучше к нему. 2. Мы навер­
няка столкнемся с трудностями при осуществлении этоГо плана.
3. Когда наконец был напечатан сборник его рассказов и распродан
за один день, Джон, не колеблясь, бросил медицинскую практику
и занялся литературной работой. 4. Не надо меня уговаривать. Я пре­
красно знаю, что я не в форме. Я давно не упражнялся и не могу выс­
тупать в концерте. 5. Инженер работал над прибором пять с лишним
лет, прежде чем прибор был применен на практике. 6. Не знаю, по­
нравится ли он вам: он очень эксцентричный человек. 7. Вы можете
сказать, что это не мое дело, но право же вам надо бросить курить,
вы так кашляете. 8. Имейте в виду, что это решение касается всех
нас. 9. Гертруда была твердо уверена, что ее муж не способен ни на
какие махинации, и никак не могла поверить, что он замешан в этом
деле. 10. Я очень беспокоюсь о здоровье Елены. К сожалению, я ни­
чего не могу с ней поделать: она не желает идти к врачу. 11. В данный
момент меня не интересуют подробности, мы займемся этим делом
позднее. 12. Родители не разделяют ее мечты стать актрисой. 13. Мы
очень сочувствовали ей и старались сделать все возможное, чтобы
облегчить ей жизнь. 14. Он был благодарен ей за ее сочувственные
слова и искреннее желание помочь. 15. Чем бы он ни был занят,
233
он умудряется видеть все, что происходит вокруг. 16. Я буду вас
ждать, не подведите меня. 17. Пока я не могу сказать вам ничего оп­
ределенного. Я наводил справки, но потерпел неудачу. 18. Провал эк­
сперимента не обескуражил его, он был уверен, что рано или поздно
добьется успеха. 19. Когда мы соберемся? — Давайте в понедельник
в шесть. Приходите обязательно. Будем ждать.

8. Respond to the following statements and questions using the Essential


Vocabulary:

1. W hy did you tell A nn about it? C a n 't you k eep your m outh
shut? 2. I w onder if I should be telling you all this. 3. I'll m ake
a m ess of the job, I'm afraid. 4. W h a t's so funny about the story?
5. H ow did you m anage to read all these books in two m onths?
6. W hatever did you go to the cinem a for if you w ere really so
pressed for tim e? 7. W hy are you going to bed so early? 8. W hat's
th e m atter? Did I scare you? 9. But surely you ought to rem em ber
h er nam e. 10. W hy d id n 't she answ er the question I w onder?
11. W h en are we to e x p ect you? 12. Tom orrow I'm going to Spain,
for a m onth. 13. W hy w ere you cross w ith the boy? 14. Excuse me
for both erin g you. 15. You will stick to your decision, w o n 't you?
16. C a n 't you give m e a definite answ er now? 17. I'm sorry, but
I really cannot concentrate. 18. Do sing for us, will you? 19. I hear
Fred has q u itted his work. W h a t's he doing? 20. W hy did you not
interfere? You m ight have prevented the quarrel. 21. W hat m ade
J o h n drop his studies? 22. You o u g h t not to reproach her, she's u p ­
set as it is. 23. Did you m anage to persuade him to change his
m ind?

9. Make up and practise a short situation using the Essential Vocabulary:

to start on a trip; a ring at the bell; to drop in; to rem ind smb. of
smth.; to have som e difficulty in doing smth.; to hesitate to do
smth.; to sym pathize with; to fail smb.; to m ake up o n e's m ind

10. Make up and act out conversations using the Essential Vocabulary:

1. to be concerned about; to have not the least notion; by fits


and starts; to m ind o n e's business; from the start; to resist the
tem ptation; to drop the subject; th a t's precisely w h a t ...
2. to have a fancy for; to have a m ind to; to m ind smth.; I c an 't
im agine a w orse place to ... ; to be in two m inds; to change one's
mind; to p u t into practice
234
11. Find in Text Seven and copy out phrases in which the prepositions (or ad­
verbs) 'at', 'for\ 'by' are used. Translate the phrases into Russian.

12. Fill in prepositions or adverbs:

1. The country was ... peace then; now it is ... war. 2. He is always
... his w orst w hen fighting against difficulties. 3. ... first sight
I thought you w ere his brother. 4. You w o n 't g et anyw here by
shouting ... him. 5. You can quit your work ... a fo rtn ig h t's notice.
6. The boy is very good ... football. 7. This was sold ... 4d a pound,
b u t that was really ... a loss n o t ... a profit. 8. ... recreation th ere was
boating and swimming. 9. C a n 't say I care ... th at kind ... art myself,
b u t th ere's no accounting ... tastes. 10. D on't ju d g e a m an ... his
clothes. 11. W hat do you m ean ... taking m y bag? — I'm sorry, I
took it ... m istake. 12. These apples are sold ... w eight. 13. H e is
paid ... the hour. 1 4 .1 know him ... sight, b u t n ot to sp eak to. 15. He
is ... far the best teacher I have ever had. 16. It w a s n 't ... us to ju d g e
him hard. 17. N ed took a cold show er and felt th e b e tte r ... it.
18. He rep eated the conversation he had heard w ord ... word.
19. W ill you please change the book ... an o th er one? 20. D on't ask
m e ... advice. You m ust decide ... yourself.

13. Translate the following sentences into English. Pay attention to the prep­
ositions:

1. Мальчики бросали снежки в своего товарища. 2. Нужно посту­


чать в дверь, прежде чем входить в комнату. 3. В тот вечер Джордж
был в ударе и смешил нас всех своими шутками. 4. Во всяком случае
мы знаем, что сейчас он в безопасности. 5. Старик был возмущен не­
справедливым обвинением. 6. В первом предложении вверху 31-й
страницы есть опечатка, исправьте ее. 7. На таком расстоянии я ни­
чего не могу разглядеть. 8. Я, пожалуй, не поеду этим поездом. Он от­
ходит в полночь, это очень неудобно. 9. Ренни твердо решил, что, ког­
да вся семья соберется за обедом, он скажет им о своем намерении.
10. При первом же звуке будильника он вскочил и начал одеваться.
11. Это была старая машина, и мы ехали со скоростью 40 миль в час.
12. Охотник прицелился в ястреба и выстрелил. 13. Вряд ли можно
считать ее взрослой: ей не больше 16 лет. 14. У меня сейчас нет вре­
мени, но я постараюсь выяснить этот вопрос не позднее пятницы.
15. Сперва эта книга показалась мне не очень интересной, но потом
она так захватила меня, что я не могла оторваться от нее. 16. Вот таб­
летки от кашля. Не забывайте принимать их. 17. Я не чувствую
к нему никакого уважения. 18. Мери не к кому было обратиться за
235
советом. 19. Если бы не вы, мы бы пришли вовремя. 20. Люди, кото­
рые отдают жизнь за родину, навсегда остаются в сердцах своих со­
отечественников.

14. a) Give Russian equivalents for the following English proverbs and say­
ings (or translate them into Russian), b) Make up and act out dialogues to illus­
trate the meaning of the proverbs:

1. A n open door m ay tem pt a saint. 2. The last drop m akes the


cup ru n over. 3. Practise w hat you preach. 4. H e who w ould catch
fish m ust not m ind gettin g wet. 5. The face is the index of the mind.

15. Write an essay on one of the following topics:

1. A m an who was happy.


2. How a piece of advice ch anged m y life.

CONVERSATION AND DISCUSSION

TALKING ABOUT PEOPLE

Topical Vocabulary

1. Virtuous (good) characteristics: affable, amiable, good-na­


tured, good-hum oured, kind, kind-hearted, com m unicative, socia­
ble, friendly, m odest, discreet, generous, considerate, attentive,
thoughtful, earnest, sincere, enthusiastic, calm, quiet, com posed,
self-possessed, honest, merciful, impartial, just, patient, forebear­
ing, sym pathetic, respectable, cordial, broad-m inded, witty, intelli­
gent, dignified, capable, benevolent, philanthropic, scrupulous,
consistent, easy-going, affectionate, devoted, loyal, courageous,
persevering, industrious, hard-w orking, sweet, gentle, proud.
2. Evil (bad) characteristics: ill-natured, unkind, hard-hearted,
reserved, uncom m unicative, unsociable, hostile, haughty, arro­
gant, dashing, showy, indiscreet, unscrupulous, greedy, inconsis­
tent, tactless, insincere, hypocritical, false, vulgar, double-faced,
indifferent, dispassionate, fussy, unrestrained, dishonest, cruel,
partial, intolerant, conceited, self-willed, wilful, capricious, p er­
verse, insensible, inconsiderate, servile, presum ptuous, deceitful,
harsh, sulky, sullen, obstinate, coarse, rude, vain, im pertinent, im ­
pu dent, revengeful.
236
1. R ead th e te x t for o b ta in in g its in fo rm atio n .

Girlhood of Anna Brangwen


Anna Brangwen is one of the protagonists of the novel which tells a life story
of the Brangwens, the farm-people. The men spent their lives in hard toil, the
women dreamt about "the supreme life" for their children. And it was not money,
it was education and experience.
In the given below extract Anna's school-years are described. The writer
presents a true picture of the problems that a young girl faces in life.

A nna becam e a tall, awkward girl ... She was sent to a y o u n g la­
dies school in N ottingham .
And at this period she was absorbed in becom ing a young lady.
She was intelligent enough, b u t not interested in learning. At first,
she thought all the girls at school w ere ladylike an d w onderful, and
she w anted to be like them . She cam e to a sp eed y disillusion: th ey
failed and m addened her, they w ere p e tty and m ean. A fter the -
loose, generous atm osphere of her hom e, w here little things did
not count, she was always uneasy in the world, th at w ould snap and
bite at every trifle.
A quick change cam e over her. She m istrusted herself, she m is­
trusted the o uter world. She did not w ant to go on, she did not w ant
to go out into it, she w anted to go no further.
“W hat do I care about th at lot of girls?” she w ould say to h er fa­
ther, contem ptuously, “they are nobody."
The trouble was that the girls w ould not accep t A nha at her
m easure. They w ould have her according to them selves or not
at all.
So A nna was only easy a t hom e, w here th e com m on sense and
the suprem e relation betw een her parents p ro d u ced a freer sta n ­
dard of being than she could find outside.
At school, or in the world, she was usually a t fault, she felt u su ­
ally that she ought to be slinking in disgrace. She never felt quite
sure, in herself, w hether she w ere w rong or w h ether th e others
were wrong. She had not do n e her lessons: well, she did not see
any reason w hy she should do her lessons, if she did not w ant to.
W as there som e occult reason why she should? W ere these people,
schoolm istresses, representatives of som e m ystic Right, som e
H igher Good? T hey seem ed to think so them selves. But she could
not for h er life see w hy a w om an should bully and insult her b e ­
cause she did not know thirty lines of "As You Like It". A fter all,
23?
I
what did it m atter if she knew them or not. N othing could p er­
suade her th at it was of the slightest im portance. Because she d e ­
spised inw ardly the coarsely w orking nature of the mistress. T here­
fore she was always at outs w ith authority. From constant telling,
she cam e alm ost to believe in her own badness, her own intrinsic
inferiority. She felt th at she ought always to be in a state of slinking
disgrace, if she fulfilled w hat was expected of her. But she rebelled.
She never really believed in her own badness. At the bottom of her
heart she despised the o ther people, who carped and w ere loud
over trifles. She despised them , and w anted revenge on them . She
h ated them w hilst th ey had pow er over her.
Still she k e p t an ideal: a free, proud lady absolved from the
p e tty ties, existing beyond p e tty considerations. She w ould see
such ladies in pictures: A lexandra, Princess of W ales, was one of
her m odels. This lady was proud and royal, and stepped indiffer­
en tly over small, m ean desires: so tho u g h t Anna, in her heart. And
the girl did up her hair high u n d e r a little slanting hat, her skirts
w ere fashionably b u n ch ed up, she w ore an elegant, skin-fitting
coat.
She was seventeen, touchy, full of spirits, and very moody:
q uick to flush, and always uneasy, uncertain. For som e reason
or other, she tu rn e d to her father, she felt alm ost flashes of hatred
for h er m other. H er m o th er's dark m uzzle and curiously insidious
ways, h er m o th er's u tte r surety and confidence, her strange satis­
faction, even trium ph, her m other's way of laughing at things and
h er m o th er's silent overriding of vexatious propositions, m ost of all
h er m o th er's trium phant pow er m addened the girl.
She becam e su d d en and incalculable ... the w hole house contin­
u ed to be disturbed. She had a pathetic, baffled appeal. She was
hostile to h er parents, even whilst she lived entirely w ith them,
w ithin their spell.
(From "The Rainbow" by D. H. Lawrence)

2. Answer the following questions:

1. W h at do we learn about A nna's relationship to the girls


at school in N ottingham ? 2. In w hat kind of environm ent did the
girl grow up? How did it contribute to her personal developm ent?
3. W as A nna a disciplined and hard-w orking pupil at school? How
can you account for her lack of interest in learning? 4. W hat do
238
you think is an essential conflict in the girl's character? W hat
m ade her m istrust the outside world? 5. W as the girl entirely or
partially right w hen despising her schoolm istresses, "who carped
and w ere loud over trifles"? 6. W hy did she turn to a royal ideal
to satisfy her ego? 7. How did A nna's attitu d e to h er parents
change at the age of seventeen? W hat do you think are the reasons
for it? 8. W hat were the m ost rem arkable traits of A nna's character
that m ade her unlike the girls of her age? 9 How can you apply the
inform ation you obtained from the story to the problem s w hich you
are facing or will have to face as a future paren t (a teacher) ?

3. Find in the text the arguments to illustrate the following:

A nna Brangwen was not w hat we call a "problem " child, b ut


a child who was ju st having problem s like m ost young people
of her age. Try and preserve the w ording of the original. A dd your
argum ents as well.

4. Summarize the text in four paragraphs specifying the role of the family
background and school experience in the moulding of a person's character.

5. Use the Topical Vocabulary in answering the following questions:

1. W hat kind of person will never arrest an y o n e's attention?


(take a risk, spend m ore than he can afford, take anything to heart,
lose his tem per, do a silly thing, disobey instructions, w ^ver in the
face of danger, fail his friend)
2. W hat kind of people are often lonely? (are usually su rro u n d ­
ed by friends, are easily forgotten, are quick to see the point, think
only of them selves, feel uneasy in com pany, k e e p their tho u g h ts
to them selves, easily lose their patience, enjoy other p e o p le 's c o n ­
fidence)
3. W hat kind of people are called good mixers, poor m ixers, co­
lourful, discreet, just, business-like, level-headed, sym pathetic, re ­
vengeful, squeam ish, persistent, haughty, hum ble, placid, b ro a d ­
m inded, vulgar, vain, am bitious?
4. W hat do you call a person who c a n 't keep a secret? (can a p ­
preciate a piece of art, feels deeply, pokes his nose into o th er p e o ­
p le's affairs, intrudes his views on others, is always sure of himself,
is m ostly in high spirits, gets annoyed easily, keeps on forgetting
things, is unlike others, says w hat he thinks, has no m oral princi­
ples)
239
5. W h at traits of character w ould you appreciate in a wife
(a husband), a m other (a father), a son (a daughter), a bosom
friend? W h at traits w ould you detest most?
6. W h at traits of character are required to m ake a good teacher,
a good doctor, a good lawyer, a good journalist? W hat traits m ight
prevent one from becom ing a good specialist in those fields?

6. Give a character sketch of a person you know and like (dislike). Use the
Topical Vocabulary. Remember: The sketch should be informative and convinc­
ing enough. A mere outward description of a person is not a character sketch.
You should present a sort of critical analysis and pass your own well-grounded
judgement of a personality.

O utline for a C haracter Sketch


(Personal Identification)

1. A ppearance: age, height, weight, build of figure, face, hair,


eyes, com plexion, clothes.
2. B ackground: family, education, profession or occupation.
3. Likes and dislikes: w ith regard to people, tastes, hobbies and
interests.
4. C haracter, tem peram ent, disposition.
5. Conclusion.

7. You are asked to tell a group of students about your favourite fictitious
(literary, film) character. Describe the character in about fifty words. Use the
Topical Vocabulary and the Outline for a Character Sketch of Ex. 6.

8. Work in pairs. Discuss real people or fictitious characters you find inter­
esting. Bring out clearly their most prominent individual traits. One of the stu­
dents is supposed to describe a person h e/sh e likes, the other a person h e/sh e
dislikes. Try and interrupt each other with questions to get sufficient informa­
tion about the characters you speak about. Use the Topical Vocabulary and the
Outline for a Character Sketch of Ex. 6.

M o d e l:
A: I w ant to tell you about P eter who is by far the m ost affable
m an from all I know. I can speak about him unreservedly. He is
h onest and generous, he is a m an of high morals. M oreover, he is
e veryone's favourite ....
В: I am not as enthusiastic about people as you are. I do not take
peo p le for w hat th ey look and sound. I try to size them up accord­
ing to their deeds. T hat's w hy I pass my ju d g em en t only on second
thought. V ery often som e little things m ake us change our opinion
of a person for the w orse ....
240
9. Speak about the most striking traits of people's characters. Consider the
following:

1. Your favourite traits of character in a person.


2. The traits of character you detest.
3. Your own chief characteristics.

10. Read the following interview. The expressions in bold type show the way
English people describe themselves and other matters. Note them down. Be
ready to act out the interview in class.

TV interviewer: In this w eek 's edition of "Up w ith People"


we w ent into the streets and asked a num ber of people a question
they just d id n 't expect. W e asked them to be self-critical ... to ask
them selves exactly w hat they tho u g h t they lacked or — the other
side of the coin — w hat virtues they had. H ere is w hat we heard.
Jane Smith: W ell ... I ... I d o n 't know really ... it's not th e sort of
question you ask yourself directly. I know I'm good at m y job ... at
least my boss calls m e hard-w orking, conscientious, efficient. I am
a secretary by the way. As for w hen I look at m yself in a m irror as
it w ere ... you know ... you som etim es do in the privacy of y our own
bedroom ... or at your reflection in the ... in th e shop w indow as you
w alk up the s tr e e t... W e ll... th en I see som eone a bit different. Yes
... I'm different in my private life. A nd th a t's probably, m y m ain
fault I should say ...I'm not exactly — Oh, how shall I say? — I su p ­
pose I'm not coherent in m y behaviour ... M y office is always in or­
der ... but m y flat! W e ll... y o u 'd have to see it to believe it.
Charles Dimmock: W ell ... I'm retired, you know. U sed to be
a secondary school teacher. A nd ... I think I've k e p t m y s e lf... yes,
I've k ep t m yself respectable — th at's the w ord I'd use — resp e c t­
able and dignified the w hole of m y life. I've tried to help those w ho
dep en d ed on me. Perhaps you m ight consider m e a bit of a fanatic
about organization and discipline — self-discipline com es first —
and all that sort of thing. But basically I'm a good chap ... not two
polem ic ... fond of m y wife and fam ily ... T h at's me.
Arthur Fuller: W e ll... w hen I was young I was very shy. At tim es
I ... I was very u n h appy ... especially w hen I was sent to boarding-
school at seven. I d id n 't m ake close friends till ... till quite late
in life ... till I was a b o u t... w h a t... fifteen. T hen I becam e quite good
at being myself. I had no one to rely on ... and no one to ask for a d ­
vice. That m ade m e in d ep en d en t ... and I've always solved
m y problem s m y se lf...
241
11. Answer the following questions:

1. Does th e self-criticism of each of the participants of the inter­


view reveal anything about personality and attitudes? 2. W ould
these people be different w hen described by their relations
or friends? 3. W hat differences do you notice betw een the people
answ ering th e questions of the interviewer?

12. When you describe people you either criticize or praise them. When you
criticize you normally try to find faults rather than positive traits of character
but it certainly does not exclude the expression of praise. Here are some com­
ments that people make when they are invited to analyse and judge:

I think I'd m uch prefer to ... ; nothing like as good (bad) as ... ;
th a t's w hat I th o u g h t... ; and th at's an o th er thing; th ere's m uch va­
riety in ... ; to be sim ilar in ... ; th ere 's a trem endous num ber of dif­
ferences in ... : to have little (much) in comm on.
Use the cliches in the conversations of your own when you are welcome with
your criticism of people.

13. Work in pairs. Read the extracts and expand on the idea that: "Every man
is a bundle of possibilities." You are to sum up the characters described. You
may be of a similar or a different opinion of the human types presented below.
Consider the strong and the weak traits of characters. Your judgement should be
followed by some appropriate comment:

1. W h ere she found the time, and still m anaged to "practically


run th at big house" and be the president of her class ... , a skilled
rider, an excellent m usician (piano, clarinet), an annual w inner
a t the country fair (pastry, preserves, needlew ork, flower arrange­
m ent) — how a girl n o t yet seventeen could have such a w agon­
load, and do so w ithout "brag", with, rather, m erely a radiant ja u n ­
tiness, was an enigm a the com m unity pondered, and solved
by saying, "She's got character. G ets it from her old m an." C ertain­
ly her strongest trait, the talen t that gave support to all the others,
w as derived from her father: a fine-boned sense of organization.
Each m om ent was assigned; she knew precisely at any hour, w hat
she w ould be doing, how long it w ould require.
2. You are a m an of extrem e passion, a h ungry m an not quite
sure w here his ap p etite lies, a deeply frustrated m an striving
to project his individuality against a backdrop of rigid conformity.
You exist in a half-world su spended betw een two superstructures,
one self-expression and the other self-destruction. You are strong,
b u t th ere is a flaw in your strength, and unless you learn to control
242
it the flaw will prove stronger than your stren g th and defeat you.
The flaw? Explosive em otional reaction out of all proportion to the
occasion. W hy? W hy this unreasonable an g er at the sight of others
who are happy or content, this grow ing contem pt for peo p le and
the desire to hurt them ? All right, you think th ey 're fools, you d e ­
spise them because their morals, their happiness is the source
of your frustration and resentm ent. But these are dreadful enem ies
you carry w ithin yourself — in tim e destructive as bullets. M erci­
fully, a bullet kills its victim. This other bacteria, perm itted to age,
does not kill a m an b u t leaves in its w ake the hulk of a creatu re torn
and twisted; there is still fire w ithin his being b u t it is k e p t alive
by casting upon it faggots of scorn and hate. He m ay successfully
accum ulate, but he does not accum ulate success, for he is his own
enem y and is k ep t from truly enjoying his achievem ents.
3. W hat w asn't too appealing was the idea of using fam ily as
a crutch, and right at the outset. H e c o u ld n 't bear the th o u g h t
of hearing for the rest of his life, "Of course, if was Ju lian gave him
his state ..." But of m ore significance was the dam age th at a c c e p t­
ing som ething like this could do to his individuality. N ot only
w ould he never respect him self if he ju st step p ed into a job and
rose solely on the basis of personal privilege, b u t how w ould he
ever realize his own potential if he was going to be treated like one
of those rich kids w ho w ere ju st coddled up the ladder
of success their whole life long?
4. It was our friend's eye th at chiefly told his story,«an eye
in which innocence and experience w ere singularly blended. It was
full of contradictory suggestions; and th o u g h it was by no m eans
the glowing orb of a hero of rom ance, you could find in it alm ost
anything you looked for. Frigid and yet friendly, positive y et sc ep ­
tical, confident yet shy, extrem ely intelligent and extrem ely good-
hum oured, there was som ething vaguely defiant in its concessions,
and som ething profoundly reassuring in its reserve ... Decision, sa­
lubrity, jocosity, prosperity seem to hover w ithin his call: he is evi­
dently a practical m an ....

14. Read the following text. Find in it arguments "for" and "against" the
problem under discussion. Copy them out into two columns.

H appiness Is This Shape ...

There is a large num ber of intriguing conclusions contained


in the study of h a p p in e s s — w hat causes it and w hat d o e sn 't —
243
which has ju st b een concluded by two psychologists. They have
analysed the replies of as m any as 52,000 people.
The p eo p le who replied to their questionnaire w ere younger,
b e tte r e d u c ate d and m ore affluent than average, so their replies
m ay not be absolutely typical to everyone. They varied in age from
15 to 95 and their answ ers w ere so diverse th at the two interviewers
believe th at th ey have eno u g h m aterial to see w hat is related
to happiness, and w hat isn't.
The general level of happiness of people proved the thorniest
problem to assess. Some of the people answ ered that they had been
h ap p y once. At the sam e tim e m any w ere constantly thinking
about happiness, w eekly or daily. Can anyone really be happy
w hen th ey are thinking ab o u t it so often?
The scientists w ere in terested in 16 aspects of peo p le's lives and
how im portant each was in contributing to general happiness. For
single people being hap p y d ep en d s on having congenial friends,
a satisfying w ork and love life and also som e sort of recognition
b y others for w hat th ey are doing. For m arried couples the im por­
tan t things seem to be som ew hat different.
T he wife g ets her happiness chiefly from her family life.
The h usband is m ore concerned with personal grow th and devel­
opm ent.
The psychologists also asked a num ber of questions about p eo ­
p le's childhoods to see if there was anything in that which was
associated with being happy.
The m ajor surprise was th at few childhood experiences pred ict­
ed w ith a n y certain ty w hether som eone w ould be hap p y as
an adult. A nd m any people who cam e through bad early and tee n ­
age years are perfectly happy as adults.
H appiness, conclude th e psychologists, is m ore a m atter of
how you regard your circum stances than of what the circum ­
stances are.

15. Discuss the text in pairs. One of the pair insists that happiness is more an
attitude to life than the state of things, the other defends the opposite viewpoint.
Be sure to provide sound arguments for whatever you say. Consider the follow­
ing aspects in relation to your idea of happiness:

friends a n d social life; job or prim ary activity; being in love; rec­
ognition, success, personal growth; financial situation; house
or apartm ent; attractiveness; health, physical condition; city you
live in; recreation; being a parent; m arriage; p artn er's happiness.
244
16. The extracts given below present rather complicated subjects. Team up
with another student, work out arguments "for’' and “against" and discuss the
extracts in pairs. Use conversational formulas of Ex. 12.

A. Does every life have its critical m om ents a n d situations th at


determ ine the entire future of a person or the future of m any
others?
Som e m en and w om en risk com fort an d security, an d even their
lives, to venture into the unknow n or to follow an unconventional
course of conduct. They m ay do so for any one of a num ber of rea ­
sons. They m ay desire to benefit m ankind, to gain know ledge,
to increase understanding, to gain w ealth or pow er for them selves
or their country, or to prove to them selves th at th ey can do w hat
seem s impossible.
B. How does reading contribute to our u n d erstan d in g and
ju dgem ent of people?
Reading often increases our u n d erstan d in g of p eo p le because
the individuals we m eet in novels resem ble so closely, or differ so
m uch, from persons with whom we are acq u ain ted in real life. The
conduct of a fictitious character, like th at of real people, results
from such em otions as greed, am bition, fear, love, self-sacrifice,
jealousy, hatred, revenge, patriotism , civic pride an d th e desire
to reform the society.
C. Do people today m easure up in courage and end u ran ce
to the people of earlier generations?
Few great people have had to contend w ith as m any obstacles
to success in life as C hristopher Colum bus. H e had a lively curiosi­
ty about the heavens and the earth, he read w idely about astro n o ­
m y and navigation. He n eed ed indom itable will and courage to
fight for his ideas against ignorance and prejudices of his tim e. He
convinced the Spanish rulers th at an expedition to find a new w est­
w ard com m ercial route to India w ould bring Spain unlim ited pow ­
er and wealth. The task of carrying o ut such an expedition called
for trem endous determ ination, courage, and resourcefulness. O nly
these qualities enabled C olum bus to overcom e the d angers and
hardships of the voyage into the unknow n. C olum bus was in es­
sence, a great man, w hose broad vision, faith in his ideas, and ex ­
traordinary abilities led to o u tstanding achievem ents in spite of
very adverse circum stances.
D. Should people fight adverse circum stances an d obstacles
or should th ey surrender to them ?
245
H ellen K eller was able to lead an active useful life in spite of
being blind and deaf from early childhood. Such a trium ph over
adversity calls for alm ost superhum an perseverance, courage, re­
sourcefulness. W ith the help of her devoted teacher Ann Sullivan
М асу, the girl was able to overcom e her crushing handicaps and
m ake herself a figure of international renown. O ther persons,
struck such a cruel blow by fate, m ight have chosen to w ithdraw
from life. N ot so the dauntless Helen! She travelled abroad, she
cham pioned social and econom ic rights for women; she w orked
for w orld peace; she aided m ovem ents to help the unfortunate
a n d underprivileged. A nd m ore than anything else, by the m ere
exam ple of w hat she was able to achieve, she gave hope and cour­
age to u ntold thousands who m ight otherw ise have given up to
despair.

17. Role-Playing.

The People W e Choose

S i t u a t i o n : It's an em ergency sitting of the Editorial Board


of the "Teachers" N ew spaper". T here is a vacancy to be filled. The
new spaper needs a new correspondent to report for the paper
in th e "Fam ily and School" feature. You are m em bers of the Edito­
rial Board w ith conclusions to m ake about som e particular appli­
cants. The list of applicants has b een rather long. After
a h eated discussion only two apparently eligible people rem ain on
it: a professional journalist w ho has w orked for about 20 years for
a ch ild ren 's m agazine and a form er teacher of literature who has
m ade up her m ind to change occupation after having w orked at
a secondary school for about 15 years. Both the applicants are m a­
ture people and know their trades. In the course of discussion
opinions differ: two m em bers of the staff are for the journalist, two
others are for the teacher.
Characters:
S tu d en t A: Editor-in-Chief, presides at the sitting, a talented
journalist, has spent his w hole life in the paper, knows a good thing
w hen he sees it, d o e sn 't show his attitu d e to the applicants during
the discussion. In the long run he has to bring forth his decision b e­
cause the opinions differ m uch. His opinion turns out to be reason­
able, convincing and fair.
246
S tu den ts В, С, D, Е: m em bers of the Editorial Board, ex p eri­
enced journalists, enthusiasts of their paper, devoted to the p rob­
lem s of upbringing and schooling, have w orked to g eth er for a long
period of time.

They study the personal sheets and records of th e applicants,


m ake suggestions and try to form ulate valid reasons w hy th e jo u r­
n a list/th e teacher should be em ployed by the paper. Such im por­
tant item s as professional experience, age, interests and traits of
character are tak en into account. As a result of the discussion, th ey
produce various judgem ents m ainly connected w ith th e personal
qualities of the applicants. Thus two m em bers are in favour of the
journalist, two others are in favour of the teacher. T hey point out
advantages and disadvantages of either em ploym ent, giving w arn­
ings based on personal experience w here possible.
N o te : The group of students is divided into two teams. Each team performs
the same role play. While discussing the virtues and imperfections of prospective
reporters they show a different outlook in regard to their jobs and problems they
face in life. At the end of the sitting the better applicant is chosen.

18. Group Discussion.


Give your views on the problems listed below and speak in rebuttal of your
opponent.

Topic 1. W hat are the essen tia l factors


that h elp to m ould a person's character?

T a lk in g points:
1. Background and environm ent: with regard to family, friends
and acquaintances.
2. Educational possibilities: with regard to schooling, further
education of any type, interest in learning.
3. C ultural standards: with regard to literary, m usical, artistic
tastes, abilities and am bitions.
4. C ircum stances: adverse and favourable.

Topic 2. W hat are the w ays and m eans


b y which a person's character
is revealed and estim ated?

T a lk in g points:
1. A ppearance.
2. Speech characterization.
247
3. M anners and attitudes.
4. Likes a n d dislikes: w ith regard to people and things.

Topic 3. W hat is the role played


b y personal traits o f character
in choosing a profession?

T alking points:
1. Psychological types suitable for w ork in different trades.
2. Psychological tests a n d professional (vocational) guidance.
3. Success or failure caused by personal traits in a chosen
profession.

U nit Eight

SPEECH PATTERNS

1. Frank A shurst and his friend Robert G arton were


on a tramp.

T hey w ere on a hike.


W e shall go on an excursion tomorrow.
I shall start on a tour n ex t Sunday.
H e will set o ut on a trip early in the m orning.

2. A ccording to their m ap they had still som e seven


m iles to go.

W e have two hours to while away.


T hey still have a lot to do.
Ja n e still has two exam s to take.
H e has letters to mail.

Both were (as) thin as rails.

The boy is really as obstinate as a mule.


She was as good as her word.
248
Y ou're as sulky as a bear, w hat's the m atter?
And let m e tell you he is as cross as two sticks.

-------------------------------------------- Q S у "
4 . G arton w as like some prim eval beast.
She looked like a wild flower.

He looked like a huge bear.


The cloth looks like silk.

5. G arton's hair w as a kind of d ark unfathom ed mop.


Passing through a sort of porch...

It was a sort of box.


It was a kind of game.
W e spent the night in a sort of hut.

6. Perhaps he struck her as strange.

The w hole affair strikes m e as queer.


The suggestion struck him as tem pting.
That I found nobody at hom e struck m e as odd.
H er question struck m e as naive.

EXERCISES

1. Complete the following sentences using Speech Patterns 1, 2, 3, 4:

1. W e saw lots of interesting things w hen we w ere .... 2. It's too


late to start ... . 3. W ill you go w ith them ... ? 4. I am bu sy now,
I have ... . 5. It was grow ing dark and they still had ... . 6. I sh a n 't
be free till Ju ly 1, I have ... . 7. Both brothers are tall and as ... .
8. In the father's presence the boys are as .... 9. The twins are as
... . 10. W ith her close-cropped hair she ... . 11. She is u n d e r 20,
but she ... . 12. The w ater in the lake was so warm th at it was ... .
13. She was a small, p retty w om an w ith a com plexion th at was ... .
249
14. The cloud was now spreading across the sky, it was ... .
15. I had a good look at the picture yesterday and I think it is ... .
16. I d o n 't know the rules, b u t I th ink it's ... . 17. This is the house
w here the w riter lived, now it is ... . 18. I'm n ot sure of the
m eaning of the term , perhaps it's ... .

2. Paraphrase the following sentences using Speech Patterns 5, 6:

1. I had a vague suspicion that he was cheating. 2. The vines


form ed a poor (inadequate) roof. 3. I d id n 't know the gam e they
w ere playing. 4. It was a deserted h u t that could give them some
shelter. 5. She had som ething resem bling a hat on her head. 6. The
w hole affair seem s to m e a bit queer. 7. That I found nobody at
hom e seem ed to m e odd. 8. The excuse he gave seem ed to me ri­
diculous. 9. H e seem s to m e a person w ell-read in literature. 10. He
tu rn ed the car tow ards a large house that seem ed to be typically
Swiss.

3. Make up two sentences of your own on each pattern.

4. Translate the following sentences into English using the Speech Patterns:

1. Это произошло, когда мы путешествовали по Кавказу. 2. Как


только мы приехали в Лондон, мы отправились на экскурсию. После
свадьбы Майкл и Флер поехали в свадебное путешествие. 4. Ремонт
на даче почти кончен, осталось только покрасить пол. 5. Мне остава­
лось прочесть еще около десяти страниц, когда погас свет. 6. Геоло­
гам оставалось пробыть в лагере еще три дня, когда внезапно разра­
зилась буря. 7. После болезни Джон стал худым как щепка, а
говорит, что уже хорошо себя чувствует. 8. Интересно, почему это
дети на людях как шелковые, а дома делают, что хотят? 9. Близнецы
были похожи как две капли воды, и никто кроме матери не мог их
различить. 10. Он очень образованный человек. Разговаривать с
ним — все равно, что читать энциклопедию. 11. Девочка рано оста­
лась без матери, и ее старшая сестра была ей как мать. 12. Этот ме­
сяц в горах был похож на чудесный сон. 13. У них на даче есть нечто
вроде террасы, но она еще не достроена. 14. Не имею представле­
ния, что это за блюдо. Может быть, это нечто вроде рагу? 15. Это та­
кой цветок, который можно найти только высоко в горах. 16. Когда
мы подошли к дому, нам показалось странным, что окна не освеще­
ны. 17. Он показался мне очень осторожным и нерешительным че­
ловеком. 18. Мне кажется, он настоящий знаток, живописи.

5. Make up and act out in front of the class suitable dialogues using the
Speech Patterns.

250
TEXT EIGHT

THE APPLE-TREE

By John Galsworthy

(Extract)
John Galsworthy (1867— 1933), a prominent English novelist, playwright
and short-story writer, came from an upper middle-class family. He was edu­
cated at Harrow and Oxford and was called to the Bar. His first novel (From the
Four W in d s ) was published in 1897, but it was The M an o f P roperty that won
him fame. Among his numerous novels The Forsyte Saga and A M odern
C om edy are the most prominent. They give a truthful picture of English
bourgeois society at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centu­
ries. The A pple-T ree (1917) is one of the most popular long short stories written
by John Galsworthy.

O n the first of May, after their last year to g eth er at.college, Frank
A shurst and his friend Robert G arton w ere on a tram p. T hey had
w alked that day from Brent, intending to m ake C hagford 1 but
A shurst's football k n e e 2 had given out, and according to their m ap
they had still som e seven m iles to go. They w ere sitting on a bank
beside the road, w here a track crossed alongside a wood, resting the
knee and talking of the universe, as young m en will. Both w ere over
six feet, and thin as ra ils ,3 A shurst pale, idealistic, full of absence;
G arton queer, ro u n d -th e -c o m e r,4 knotted, curly, like som e prim e­
val beast. Both had a literary bent; n eith er w ore a hat. A shurst's hair
was smooth, pale, wavy; and had a w ay of rising on either side of his
brow, as if always being flung back; G arton's was a kind of d ark u n ­
fathom ed mop. They had not m et a soul for miles.
"My dear fellow," G arton was saying, "pity's only an effect
of self-consciousness; it's a disease of the last five th ousand years.
The w orld was happier w ithout."
A shurst did not answer; he had plucked a blue floweret, and w as
tw iddling it against the sky. A cuckoo began calling from a thorn
tree. The sky, the flowers, the songs of birds! R obert was talking
through his h a t .5 And he said:
"Well, let's go on, and find som e farm w here we can p u t up."
In u ttering those words he was conscious of a girl com ing dow n
from the com m on ju st above them . She was outlined against the
sky, carrying a basket, and you could see that sky th rough the
crook of her arm. And Ashurst, who saw b eau ty w ithout w ondering
how it could advantage him, thought: "How pretty!" The wind,
blowing her dark frieze skirt against her legs, lifted her b attered
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p eaco ck tam -o'-shanter; her greyish blouse was worn and old, her
shoes w ere split, her little hands rough and red, her neck browned.
H er dark hair w aved u n tidy across her broad forehead, her face
was short, h er u p p e r lip short, show ing a glint of teeth, her brows
w ere straight and dark, h er lashes long and dark, her nose straight;
b u t her grey eyes w ere th e w onder — dew y as if opened for the first
tim e th at day. She looked at A shurst — perhaps he struck her as
strange, lim ping along w ithout a hat, w ith his large eyes on her,
and his hair flung back. H e could not take off w hat was not on his
head, b u t p u t up his han d in a salute, and said:
"C an you tell us if th e re 's a farm near here w here we could stay
th e night? I've gone lame."
"T here's only one farm near, sir." She spoke w ithout shyness,
in a pretty, soft, crisp voice.
"And w here is that?"
"Down here, sir."
"W ould you p u t us up?"
"Oh! I th in k we would."
"Will you show us the w ay ?"
"Yes, sir."
H e lim ped on, silent, and G arton took up the c a te c h ism .6
"Are you a D evonshire girl?"
"No, sir."
"W hat then?"
"From W ales."
"Ah. I thought you w ere a Celt, so it's not your farm ?"
"M y aunt's, sir."
"And your u ncle's?"
"H e is dead."
"W ho farm s it, then?"
"M y aunt, an d m y three cousins."
"But your uncle was a Devonshire m an?"
"Yes, sir."
"Have you lived here long?"
"Seven years."
"And how d 'y o u like it after W ales?"
"I d o n 't know, sir."
"I suppose you d o n 't rem em ber?"
"Oh, yes! But it is different."
"I believe you!"
A shurst broke in suddenly:
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"How old are you?"
"Seventeen, sir."
"And w hat's your nam e?"
"M egan David."
"This is Robert Garton, and I am F rank A shurst. W e w anted
to get on to Chagford."
"It is a pity your leg is hurting you."
A shurst smiled, and w hen he sm iled his face was rath er b e a u ti­
ful.
D escending past the narrow wood, th ey cam e on th e farm su d ­
denly — a long, low stone-built dw elling w ith casem ent windows,
in a farm yard w here pigs and fowls and an old m are w ere straying.
A short steep-up grass hill behind was crow ned w ith a few Scotch
firs, 7 and in front, an old orchard of apple trees, ju st break in g into
flower, stretched down to a stream and a long wild m eadow . A little
boy w ith oblique dark eyes was shepherding a pig, an d b y the
house door stood a wom an, who cam e tow ards them . The girl said:
"It is Mrs. N arracom be, my aunt."
"Mrs. Narracom be, m y aunt" had a quick, d ark eye, like
a m other w ild-duck's, and som ething of the sam e snaky turn about
her neck.
"W e m et your niece on the road," said Ashurst, "she th o u g h t
you m ight perhaps p u t us up for the night."
Mrs. N arracom be, taking them in from head to heel, answ ered:
"Well, I can, if you d o n 't m ind one room. M egan, g et the spare
room ready, and a bowl of cream . You'll be w anting tea, I su p ­
pose."
Passing through a sort of porch m ade by two yew trees and
som e flow ering-currant bushes, the girl d isappeared into the
house, her peacock tam -o'-shanter bright athw art th a t rosy-pink
and the dark green of the yews.
"Will you com e into the parlour and rest y our leg? You'll be
from college, perhaps?"
"W e were, b ut w e've gone d o w n 8 now."
The parlour, brick-floored, w ith bare table and shiny chairs and
sofa stuffed w ith horsehair, seem ed never to have b een used, it was
so terribly clean. A shurst sat dow n at once on the sofa, holding his
lam e knee betw een his hands, and Mrs. N arracom be gazed
at him...
"Is there a stream w here we could bathe?"
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"T here's the stram e 9 a t the bottom of the orchard, but sittin'
dow n y ou'll n o t be covered!"
"How deep?"
"Well, it is about a foot and a half m aybe."
"Oh! T hat'll do fine. W hich way?"
"Down the lane, th rough the second gate, on the right, an' the
pool's by the big apple tree th at stands by itself. T here's trout
there, if you can tickle them !"
"T hey're m ore likely to tickle us!"
Mrs. N arracom be smiled. "There'll be the tea ready w hen you
com e back."
The pool form ed by the dam m ing of a rock, had a sandy bottom ;
and the big apple tree, lowest in the orchard, grew so close that its
boughs alm ost overhung the water; it was in leaf and all but
in flo w er— its crim son buds ju st bursting. There was no room for
m ore than one at a tim e in th at narrow bath, and A shurst w aited his
turn, rubbing his knee and gazing at the wild m eadow, all rocks
and tho rn trees and field flowers, with a grove of beeches beyond,
raised up on a flat m ound. Every bough was sw inging in the wind,
every spring bird calling, and a slanting sunlight dappled the
grass. H e th o u g h t of T heocritus,10 and the river C herw ell,11 of the
m oon, and the m aiden 12 w ith dewy eyes,13 of so m any things that
he seem ed to th in k of nothing; and he felt absurdly happy.

EXPLANATORY NOTES

1. to make Chagford: to reach Chagford — a town in Devonshire.


2. Ashurst's football knee: the knee that Ashurst hurt in playing
football.
3. thin as rails: It is a stable set-expression, somewhat hackneyed and
trite. The list of such similes in English is fairly long. They do not create
fresh and vivid images, but are frequently used by the writers as they are
easily understood and grasped by the reader.
4. round-the-corner: absent-minded.
5. was talking through his hat: was talking nonsense.
6. took up the catechism: continued questioning smb. closely.
7. Scotch fir: common North European pine.
8. we've gone down (at Oxford and Cambridge): we've left the
University.
9. strame, sittin’, an’: dialectical forms in Devonshire and Wales.
10. Theocritus [0 i:'D k n t9 s ]: 270 В. C. Greek p a s t o r a l p o e t .
11. the river Cherwell ['tjkwal]: a river in Oxfordshire.
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12. m aiden (chiefly liter.): a girl, a young unmarried woman.
13. H e th o u g h t of T heocritus, an d th e river C herw ell, o f th e m oon,
and th e m aiden w ith d ew y eyes: This is an enumeration, the members
of which belong to different spheres. This stylistic device is used by the
writer to reveal the character's feelings and meditations.

ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY

V o c a b u la r y N o te s

1. track л 1) a mark left by someone or smth. that has passed, as the


tracks of an animal (a car); to leave tracks, to follow the tracks of; tracks
in the snow (in the sand); to be on th e track o f sm b. to be in pursuit of
smb., e. g. The police were on the track of the thief, to cover up on e's
tracks to conceal one's movements, e. g. The man was sure he had
covered up his tracks. 2) a path, a narrow rough road, as a track through
a forest (a field); a narrow, hardly visible track; th e b ea ten track the usual
way of doing things, e. g. Andrew was not a person to follow the beaten
track, to k eep (lose) track o f to keep in (lose) touch with, e. g. You should
keep track of current events. 3) a set of rails on which trains or trams run,
as a single (double) track.
2. o u tlin e n 1) lines showing shapes or boundary, as an outline map (of
Africa, Europe, etc.); the outline (outlines) of a building (trees,
mountains), e. g. Lanny could hardly make out the outlines of the big
house in the dark. 2) a general statement of the chief points of smth., as an
outline of a composition (a lecture, a book); in o u tlin e done roughly, told
briefly, e. g. Bosinney showed Soames the design of the house in outline.
I can tell you the article in outline.
o u tlin e vt to give the main points of, as to outline a certain historical
period (events, etc.); to b e ou tlin ed a g a in st sm th. to stand out against
smth., e. g. She was outlined against the sky.
3. rough adj 1) (of surfaces) uneven, irregular, coarse, as rough
paper, a rough road, rough hair; 2) moving or acting violently, not calm,
mild, or gentle, as a rough sea, a rough crossing, a rough day, a rough
child, rough luck; 3) unskilled; incomplete, not perfect, as a rough
sketch, a rough translation; a rou gh d iam on d an uncut diamond; fig. a
good-hearted but uncultured fellow; 4) (of conduct or speech) rude;
uncivil, as rough reply, rough words; a rough to n g u e rude angry speech;
5) (of sounds) harsh, discordant, as a rough voice; syn. coarse, rude,
harsh.
4. e y e л 1) the part of the body with which we see, e. g. We see with
our eyes. It was so interesting that I couldn't take (keep) my eyes off it.
to k eep an e y e on to watch carefully, e. g. Cook asked me to keep an
eye on the meat while she was away, to op en a person's e y e s to sm th. to
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bring it to his notice, e. g. His words opened my eyes to their relations,
to make eyes at (a person) to look lovingly at; to see eye to eye with a
person to see smth. in the same way, agree entirely with, e. д. I regret I
don't see eye to eye with you on that subject, the apple of one's eye
thing or person dearly loved, e. g. His daughter is the apple of his eye.
with an eye to with a view to, hoping for, e. д. I didn't come here for
pleasure but with an eye to business, to close one's eyes to to refuse to
see, e. g. You should close your eyes to her misbehaviour, to run one's
eyes over (through) to glance at, examine quickly, e. g. He quickly ran
his eyes over the page, to have an eye for to be able to see well or
quickly, as to have an eye for beauty; 2) a thing like an eye, as the hole
in the end of a needle, an electronic eye.
eye vt to watch carefully, as to eye a person with suspicion.
5. wonder v t/i 1) to be anxious to know, e. д. I wonder who he is (what
he wants, why he is late, whether he'll come, if it is correct, how you can
be so tactless as to say that...). Who is he I wonder? What does he want
I wonder? 2) to be surprised, e. д. I wonder at your saying that.
wonder л cause of surprise; a remarkable thing, e. g. Manned flights to
space are the wonder of modern science. Her eyes are the wonder.
A wonder lasts but nine days. (proverb) She had worked unsparingly
at this task. It is no wonder that she overstrained herself. He refuses
to help, and no wonder.
6. limp vi to walk lamely as when one leg or foot is stiff, injured, as
to limp on one's right (left) foot, e. g. Ashurst was limping along. The man
limped on. The wounded soldier limped off the battle-field.
limp n (usu. sing, with ind. art.) a lame walk, as to walk with a limp;
to have a bad limp.
lame adj 1) not able to walk properly, as a lame man (child, horse);
to be lame in the right (left) foot; to go lame; a lame duck a disabled
person (a failure); 2) unconvincing; unsatisfactory, as a lame excuse
(argument, story, explanation), e. g. His explanation sounded lame.
7. put v t/i 1) to place, e. g. Put more sugar in your tea. Put the book
in its right place, the flowers into water, a mark against his name. George
put an advertisement in a newspaper. 2) to cause to be in a certain
position or state, e. g. Jim was put to prison. Put yourself in my place. Put
it out of your mind. Let's put the documents in order. The new manager
put an end to the slack discipline. She knew how to put him at his ease.
3) to express in words, e. д. I don't know how to put it. I wouldn't put it
that way. I've put it badly. To put in black and white. I'd like to put
a question to you. 4) to subject, as to put smb. to expense, inconvenience,
test.

With postlogu.es
put aside to save, to move smth. away, e. g. Put aside the book.
The man put aside some money for a rainy day.
256
put away to set aside, as to put away one's things, books, a letter,
put back to replace, to move backwards, e. g. The clock was 5 minutes
fast and he put back the hands. Put the dictionary back on the shelf,
please.
put down to write down, e. g. Put down my address,
put down to to explain the cause, e. g. The flu was put down to damp
weather.
put in to speak in favour, as to put in a word for a friend,
put off to postpone, e. g. Never put off till tomorrow what you can do
today. The meeting was put off till Monday (for two days), put off
to escape doing doing smth. by making excuses, e. g. She tried to put
me off with a jest (promises, excuses).
put on to assume or to pretend to have; to increase, e. g. His modesty
is all put on. She went on a diet, not to put on weight. We must put on the
pace, otherwise we'll be late.
put out to cause to stop burning; to confuse or annoy, e. g. Put out the
candle (the fire, the lamp, the gas). He was very much put out by the
unexpected delay.
put through to put in communication with smb. by telephone, e. g. Put
me through to the manager, please.
put up to raise or to provide food and lodging or to lodge, e. g. The boy
put up his hand eager to answer the teacher's question. We shall put up at
an inn for the night. The landlady agreed to put us up if we did not mind
to share one room.
put up with to bear, e. д. I can't and won't put up with all this noise.
8. shy adj uncomfortable in the presence of others, as a shy person
(boy, girl); a shy smile, e. g. Amelia wasn't shy of showing George her
affection.
shyness л, e. g. She spoke without shyness,
shyly adv, e. g. She dropped her eyes shyly.
9. stretch vt/i 1) to extend or draw; to strain to the utmost, e. g. Silk
socks stretch, woollen ones shrink. They stretched a wire across the road.
He rose, stretched himself and made for the bathroom,. He stretched out
his hand with the letter, to stretch one's legs to exercise one's legs after
a long period of sitting. Let's go for a stroll to stretch our legs. 2)to lie
at full length, e. g. He stretched himself out on the lawn.
stretch n an unbroken period of time; at a stretch without stopping,
e. g. He drove the car five hours at a stretch.
outstretched adj stretched or spread out, e. g. His outstretched hand
remained in the air.
10. hold (held, held) v t/i 1) to have and keep fast in or with the
hands, e. g. He was holding a book in his hands, to hold on (to smth.) to
keep one's grasp, e. g. Robinson was holding on to a branch. 2) to keep
or support oneself in a certain attitude, e. g. Hold your arms out. Hold
your head up. to hold out one's hand to stretch out, e. g. Annie held out
257
her hand with a little package in it. to hold smth. back (from) to keep
secret, e. g. You should hold back this news from them for a while.
3) to contain or be able to contain, e. g. A paper bag will hold sand, but it
won't hold water. Sea water holds many salts in solution. 4) to restrain,
e. д. I held my breath and listened, to hold off to keep at a distance,
e. g. Hold your dog off. 5) to bring about; to conduct; to take part in, as
to hold a meeting (examination, lecture, trial, etc.), e. g. The meeting
will be held on Monday. They are going to hold a trial there. 6) to
remain the same; to last; to continue, e. g. How long will the weather
hold? to hold together to remain united, e. g. Hold together and you
won't be defeated.
hold n the act, manner or power of holding, as to catch (get, take,
have, keep, lose) hold of a thing or a person, e. g. He caught hold of the
rope and climbed on board.

Word Combinations and Phrases

after their last (first, second) year with one's eyes on smb. or smth.
together at college (the (with one's hair flung back)
university, etc.) to show smb. the way
according to smth. (their map, my to break in (into a conversation)
watch, their orders or to hurt or pain smb. (My leg is
instructions, her words, etc.) hurting me, hurts.)
smooth hair (forehead, surface, to take smb. in from head to heel
board, paper, skin, road, sea) to get smth. ready
to break into flower there's no room for
to be in leaf (in flower) one at a time

READING COMPREHENSION EXERCISES

1. a) Listen to the recording of Text Eight and mark the stresses and tunes,
b) Repeat the text in the intervals after the model.

2. Put twenty questions to the text.

3. Pick out from Text Eight the sentences containing the word combinations
and phrases given on p. 258 and translate them into Russian.

4. Paraphrase the following sentences using the word combinations and


phrases (p. 258):

1. A fter th ey both grad u ated from the university they m ade up


their m inds to go to w ork in the N orth. 2. To ju d g e from his words
258,
he is not to blam e. 3. The pebbles on the beach w ere polished and
shiny. 4. The calm sea looked em pty and hostile. 5. W e drove
down the even gravel drive and out of th e w hite gates. 6. The
w om an stood leaning against the wall staring a t him. 7. H e stood
stock-still unable to take his eyes off the painting. 8. T hank you
for pointing out the way to us. 9. I w ish you w o u ld n 't in te rru p t us.
10. Sorry for interrupting. 11. The back h u rt m e so I c o u ld n 't
sleep. 12. She w alked on w ithout com plaining th o u g h h er foot
hurt her terribly. 13. She exam ined him from the top of his tidy
hair to the points of his polished shoes. 14. It will take m e half
an hour to prepare everything. 15. Have a rest w hile I m ake the
spare room ready. 16. The trees will soon be w ith th e leaves out.
17. W hat can be m ore delightful to the eye th an a cherry tree
w ith its buds ready to open. 18. I did not go w ith them as all
space in the car was occupied.

5. Translate the following sentences into English using the word combina­
tions and phrases (p. 258):

1. После того как они вместе окончили первый курс университе­


та, они стали большими друзьями. 2. Согласно инструкциям мы дол­
жны подготовить лагерь к приезду туристов к первому июня. 3. Судя
по моим часам, давно пора укладывать детей спать. 4. Наша поездка
прошла очень гладко. 5. Дорога была ровная, и мы быстро добрались
до станции. 6. Мальчик стоял, не сводя глаз с машины. Если бы толь­
ко его взяли покататься на ней! 7. Ее волосы были небрежно отбро­
шены назад, и это очень шло ей. 8. Боюсь, что мы идем не в ту сторо­
ну, давайте попросим кого-нибудь показать нам дорогу к магазину.
9. Извините, что я вмешиваюсь в разговор, но мне очень нужно пого­
ворить с вами именно сейчас. 10. Вчера вечером у меня так болел зуб,
что я не могла заснуть. 11. «Где вам больно?»— спросил доктор.
12. Хозяйка оглядела их с головы до ног и только после этого пригла­
сила в дом. 13. Я все приготовлю за пять минут. 14. На живой изгоро­
ди распускались цветы, наполняя воздух сладковатым запахом.
15. Стройные осинки стоят в цвету. Они цветут до появления листь­
ев. 16. В комнате нет места еще для одного кресла. Тут и так все зас­
тавлено. 17. Учительница попросила ребят не говорить всем вместе,
так как трудно было понять, что они хотят.

6. Make up and practise a short situation using the word combinations and
phrases (p. 258).

7. Make up and act out dialogues using the word combinations and phrases
(p. 258).

259
8. Find in Text Eight the English equivalents for the following words and
phrases and use them in sentences of your own:

добраться до ... ; питать склонность к ... ; сорвать цветок; говорить


ерунду; на фоне неба; башмаки потрескались; с откинутыми назад
волосами; поднять руку в знак приветствия; остановиться на ночь;
без смущения; продолжать расспросы; старый яблоневый сад; ком­
ната для гостей; стоять отдельно; песчаное дно; свисать над водой;
глаза, сверкающие как роса.

9. Explain what is meant by the following:

1. F rank A shurst and his friend Robert G arton w ere on a tram p.


2. resting th e k n e e and talking of the universe. 3. like some prim e­
val beast. 4. a kind of dark unfathom ed m op. 5. Robert was talking
th ro u g h his hat. 6. And Ashurst, who saw b eau ty w ithout w onder­
ing how it could advantage him ... 7. He could not take off w hat
w as n ot on his head. 8. G arton took up the catechism . 9. som e­
thing of the sam e snaky tu rn about her neck. 10. H e felt absurdly
happy.

10. Answer the following questions and do the given tasks:

1. In w hat k ey is the extract written: is it m atter-of-fact, dram at­


ic, lyrical, pathetic? 2. W hat kind of text is it? Is it a narration,
a character-draw ing or a dialogue? 3. W hat is the a u th o r's m ethod
in portraying personages? 4. W hat are the predom inant figures
of sp eech in depicting nature? 5. W hat helps to create a vivid pic­
tu re of spring? 6. W h at role does the w ord "m aiden" play
in conveying A shurst's state of bliss? 7. A ccount for different ways
of expressing com parisons in th e text. Analyse their structure and
stylistic function. 8. Find som e exam ples of epithets in the text.
Discuss their stylistic value. 9. Point out the features of colloguial
sp eech in the dialogue betw een the young m en and M egan.
10. Point o ut instances of non-standard speech. Give the correct
forms. 11. Point out the adjectives in the text, classifying them ac­
cording to sense into literal and figurative. 12. Define the stem
from w hich the adjective "curly" is derived. Pick out from Text
Eight the adjectives form ed in the sim ilar way.

11. Retell Text Eight: a) close to the text; b) as if you were Ashurst.

12. Give a summary of Text Eight.

260
13. M ake up d ialo g u es betw een:

1. A shurst and G arton about their first im pressions of the farm


and its inhabitants.
2. Mrs. N arracom be and M egan about pu ttin g up the young
m en for the night.

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

1. Study the Vocabulary Notes and translate the illustrative examples into
Russian.

2. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the words
and word combinations in bold type:

A. 1. The path turned to a rocky track which b rought them out


on the m ain road. 2. How m uch do you know of your friend
Pyle? — N ot very m uch. Our tracks cross, th a t's all. 3. To say that
he had hidden his tracks w ould be untrue. H e had m ade no tracks
to hide. 4. W e saw the outlines of the tow er in th e distance. 5. The
old oak-tree was beautifully outlined against the blue sky. 6. And
in a few sim ple words h e outlined A nn's appeal to him. 7. T he soles
of his feet were rough and callous from walking. 8. Losing two sons
in the w ar was rough on her. 9. How well can this tru ck tak e rough
ground? 10. The table is m ade of rough planks. 11. H ere'§ a rough
draft of m y speech. 12. It's the one point on w hich H arry and I do
not see eye to eye. 13. H e caught m y eye and hurried into ex p lan a­
tions. 14. I can assure you th a t I never set eyes upon him. 15. He
m oved a little farther along the road measuring the w all with his
eye. 16. Y ou'd better stay here and keep an eye on him. I'll ring up
the police. 17. W e had coffee. — N o wonder yo u 're wakeful.
18. Wonders are many, and nothing is m ore wonderful th an m an.
19. H e knew th at Robert had not sent for him to talk ab o u t the
weather, and wondered w hen he was com ing to th e point.
B. 1. You'll easily recognize him; he w alks w ith a slight limp.
2. I think he was bom lame. 3. Ju n e always fussed over h er lame
ducks. 4. I pulled m yself together, m ade som e lame explanations
and we w ent dow nstairs together. 5. You m ust have heard of Limp­
ing Lucy — a lame girl with a crutch. 6. Put a mark against the
names of the absent pupils. 7. You c a n 't have done such a dreadful
thing as to put off going there for our sake. 8. The new s put an end
261
to our hopes. 9. C an you put up some extra guests for the night?
10. H e was evidently unused to the society of w riters and we all
tried in vain to put him at his ease. 11. I telephoned m y friends
putting off the small party I had arranged for the evening.
12. "I h a v e n 't th o u g h t about it lately," he w anted to add, "not since
I m et you," b u t an odd shyness held him back. 13. She is very shy
b y nature. 14. H e is shy of show ing his em otions. 15. Now I have
lost m y tim idity a n d shyness w ith strangers. 16. He is tall and spare
and holds him self well. 17. Ju st for the m om ent there was a terrible
tem ptation to hold his tongue as his visit to them was not known
by anyone. 18. She w ent on speaking desperately seeking to hold
his arrested attention. 19. H er youth being over, w hat did the fu­
ture hold for her? 20. It was com paratively cool, and I was glad to
stretch my legs after the long voyage. 21. H e got up, stretched
himself, and lean t over the w indow sill. 22. H e stretched out his
long thin hands to th e blaze, aware of relief from tension. 23. The
girl stretched h er n eck and p eep ed over the edge of the fence.

3. Paraphrase the following sentences using your Essential Vocabulary:

A. 1. I'm afraid I've com pletely lost touch w ith him. 2. She stum ­
b led along th e steep path th at led up the hill. 3. The m an was sure
he h ad well co ncealed his m ovem ent. 4. The m ystery bored him
and he could not follow the plot. 5. The hounds w ere in pursuit of
the fox. 6. I know I've done wrong. 7. The quaint ancient castle
stood o ut against the d ark sky. 8. The stu d en t was asked to give the
m ain points of the historical event. 9. She had told m e in her letters
the m ain facts of her life. 10. The sea is n o t calm today. 11. His rude
m anner frightened the children. 12. Should the w eather be w indy
do not th in k of riding. 13. W hat he told m e m ade the true state
of affairs know n to me. 14. I hope we see the m atter in the same
way. 15. I never saw her before. 16. She gave me a loving look.
17. His w ords m ade m e un d erstan d their plans. 18. You should look
after the children w hen th ey are playing. 19. H e was quick to see
a p retty girl. 20. A half-indignant m utter arose about him, but he
refused to see or listen to it.
B. 1. Television is one of the rem arkable things. 2. It's not sur­
prising th at your w ords sent her tem per up. 3. I'm surprised at her
saying that. 4. I'm anxious to know w hat she told you. 5. M elody
do u b ted if she w ould ever find the courage to dare to confide in
Sarah. 6. This is an unconvincing argum ent, it does not prove any­
262
thing. 7. How w ould you express this in French? 8. The outbreak
of dysentery was attributed to bad drinking-w ater. 9. I'll sp eak on
your behalf, I prom ise. 10. His m odesty is not genuine. 11. H e was
very m uch worried by the loss of the docum ent. 12. Let's p o st­
pone our hiking tour until the w eather is better. 13. D o n 't hesitate
to ring m e up any time. I'll be in the w hole day. 14. She held out
her fragile hand to her cousin and to u ch ed his wife softly w ith the
other. 15. He lay full length on the settee and w atched th e canary
hop about in its cage. 16. H urst parish extends over m iles of sandy
lowland and sandstone hill. 17. The m eeting took place in the
hospital dining-room . 18. H e had been careful to be silent on the
subject. 19. She did not know w hether or not to stretch o ut her
hand.

4. Explain or comment on the following sentences:

A. 1. I lost all track of time. This was w onderful. 2. H e had cov­


ered his tracks to the last inch. 3. Y ou're on the w rong track. 4. It
was that that p ut our friend on the track of w hat had happened.
5. I hope you d o n 't expect me to k eep track of all th e details?
6. The dim w hite outline of her sum m er dress was all th at I could
see. 7. I begin to see — not w hat you w ould like m e to see — the
outlines of a face and form — but the outlines of a m ind. 8. He was
prepared to take the rough w ith the sm ooth. 9. Mrs. S teptoe b e ­
lieves in treating poor relations rough. 10. H ance was an^old m an
with a rough tongue and com passionate eyes. 11. She shook hands
very firmly, looking m e straight in the eyes. 12. Do you m ind ru n ­
ning your eye over these accounts? 13. W ell, I d o n 't suppose
th ere's hope of opening your eyes to the realities of life. 14. The im ­
age of the girl rose before his eyes. 15. She sees everything through
her m other's eyes. 16. She told m e the article in outline, b u t I read
it myself. 17. He outlined the events of those stirring days. 1 8 .1 can
never get over the w onders of m odern science. 19. The C hristm as
tree, of w hat they had never seen the likes, filled them w ith adm ir­
ing wonder. 20. Finch w ondered if he should em brace th e boy —
give him a hug and a kiss. 21. It's a w onder you got here at all.
22. The X-ray treatm ent has w orked w onders w ith him.
B. 1. A lean old gentlem an rose from his chair a n d lim ped for­
ward to m eet him. 2. He tried to p u t m e off w ith prom ises. 3. This
will put m e to considerable expense. 4. I c a n 't p u t up w ith this
noise any longer. 5. D on't p u t on that air of injured dignity. 6. H e
263
tried to p u t th e incident out of his m ind. 7. I think in those days
w e w ere a little shy of our em otions. 8. I th o u g h t if we had spent
one evening alone to g eth er perhaps he w ouldn't be too shy to ask
m e of his own accord another tim e. 9. H e is capable of speaking
24 hours at a stretch. 10. W et railway tracks stretched into the
desolate distance. 11. The future stretched in front of us, u n ­
known, unseen. 12. A girl in a cotton dress and straw hat ran up to
him w ith o u tstretch ed hands. 13. You have the air of one who
holds all the cards. 14. She can hold her own with anyone and she
never stands a n y nonsense. 15. C an I suggest an alternative solu­
tion that will hold w ater? 16. I'd like to be able to hold up my
h ead in this town.

5. Choose the right word:

s h y — timid

1. A bold m an by nature, he was as ... as a boy in the presence of


wom en. 2. “T he soup is beastly!" old O sborne roared, in answ er to
a ... look of inquiry from his daughter.

s h y — self-conscious

1. She was obviously w earing her best clothes and had


th e ... w ooden sm ile on her face. 2. The girl looked at the m an with
a ... smile.

rude — rough

1. T hough ... in m anner and speech the old soldier was at heart
kind a n d considerate. 2. Squire W estern was ... to the servants and
the w om en of his household.

rough — coarse

1. The surface of the stone is ... . It needs polishing. 2. The fire


gleam ed on the ... w hite tablecloth.

6. Translate the following sentences into English:

A 1. Наш поезд на пятом пути, пошли скорее. 2. Проваливаясь


в глубокий снег, гончая шла по следу зайца. 3. Он не такой человек,
который пойдет по проторенному пути. 4. Я потеряла нить его рас-
суждений и не могла понять, о чем он говорит. 5. За железнодорож­
264
ными путями было поле, которое простиралось до самого горизонта.
6. Вот краткий план моего доклада. Может быть, вы просмотрите
его? 7. К сожалению, у меня нет этой статьи с собою, но, если хотите,
я могу рассказать вам вкратце ее содержание. 8. Дорога была неров­
ной от следов бесчисленных колес. 9. Мужчина был в коротком паль­
то из грубой ткани и без шляпы. 10. Руки женщины огрубели от стир­
ки и мытья посуды. 11. Я не советую вам писать работу на черновике,
у вас не хватит времени переписать ее. 12. Боюсь, что отец и я по-
разному смотрим на этот вопрос. 13. С ней что-то случилось, понаб­
людай за ней. 14. Он пробежал глазами список и увидел свое имя.
15. Он умный художник и хорошо видит цвет. 16. Кукла была так хо­
роша, что девочка смотрела на нее во все глаза. 17. Я приехал сюда
с намерением разобраться в этом деле. 18. Она не могла вдеть нитку
в иголку, так как ушко было очень маленьким. 19. Мальчик поймал
взгляд учителя и перестал разговаривать. 20. Не удивительно, что хо­
лодно, ведь открыто окно. 21. Интересно, почему врач отказался от
медицинской практики? 22. Не понимаю, как можно быть такой бес­
тактной?
В. 1. Что это вы хромаете на правую ногу? — Я поскользнулась
и подвернула ногу. 2. Тим заметил, что девушка шла, слегка прихра­
мывая. 3. Она придумала какую-то неудачную историю, чтобы оп­
равдать свое опоздание. 4. Старик поправил (shifted) жесткую, наби­
тую соломой подушку и натянул одеяло. 5. У вас есть ручка? Я
боюсь, что забуду ваш адрес, если не запишу его. 6. У меня все гото­
во. Отложи работу и давай ужинать. 7. Пора убирать зимние вещи, а
то их попортит моль. 8. Я объясняю все его неудачи недостатком
уверенности в себе. 9. Я достаточно хорошо его знаю и уверен, что
он справится с этой работой. Надо замолвить за него словечко, а то
работу могут поручить кому-нибудь другому, а она его очень инте­
ресует. 10. Мы не можем принять это предложение, не обдумав все
как следует. Давайте отложим решение до завтра. 11. То, что замет­
ку поместили на первой странице, говорит о важности этого собы­
тия. 12. Почему вы хотите остановиться в гостинице? Оставайтесь у
нас и живите сколько хотите, у нас много места. 13. «Я не желаю
мириться с твоей ленью, — сказал отец, — ты должен сделать эту
работу сегодня». 14. Она мне показалась умной девочкой, но очень
застенчивой. 15. «Вот ваша комната. Если вам что-нибудь понадо­
бится, не стесняйтесь, позовите меня», — сказала хозяйка. 16. Де­
вочка совсем смутилась, когда я обратилась к ней. 17. Эти шерстя­
ные носки очень сели, нельзя ли их как-нибудь растянуть? 18. Анна
протянула веревку между двумя деревьями и стала вешать на нее
белье. 19. Финли постелил плащ на мокрую траву и улегся на нем.
20. «Я не знаю, почему им надо проводить судебное разбирательство
здесь, у меня», — сказал мистер Уайт. 21. Ты думаешь, что этот па­
кет выдержит, если положить туда яблоки? 22. Он задержал дыха­
265
ние и прислушался. 23. Это временное потепление. Такая погода
долго не продержится. 24. В этот момент мальчик выпустил веревку
и шлепнулся на землю.

7. Give English equivalents for the following phrases:

оставлять следы; замести следы; избитый путь; вырисовываться


на фоне; растрепанные волосы; черновик; присматривать за ... ; от­
крыть кому-л. глаза на ... ; строить глазки; смотреть сквозь пальцы на
что-л.; знать в чем-л. толк; с намерением; хромать на правую (левую)
ногу; неудачная отговорка; выбросить из головы; ввести в расходы;
примириться; застенчивая улыбка; размять ноги; без перерыва; про­
тянуть руку; скрыть что-л.; схватить за

8. Give situations in which you would say the following:

1 .1 have still a lot to do. 2. M y head is as heavy as lead. 3. D on't


you k e e p track of current events? 4. And how did you get hold of
th e chance? 5. It's right in so far as I'll continue to hold my tongue.
6 . W hat a lam e kind of explanation! 7. She is the apple of m y m oth­
e r's eye. 8 . You and m e do not see eye to eye on this point. 9. W hy
do you never p u t things in their right places? 10. Put yourself in my
place. 11. I d o n 't know how to p u t it. 12. Put in a word for me.
13. I th ink a lot of th at is p u t on. 14. W ill she ever come, I wonder!
15. W onders will never cease! 16. It's doing w onders for me!

9. Make up and act out dialogues on the suggested topics using the given
words and word combinations:

1. A young couple discussing w hether th ey could afford buying


a car. (to p u t aside (money), to go on a trip, to be like nothing else
on earth, to have a good rest, to p u t smth. out of o n e's mind, a rest­
ful life, to p u t smb. to expenses, to put off)
2. Two friends have lost their w ay in the forest, (to follow a track
th ro u g h the forest, according to, to strike smb. as, to look like, the
outline(s) of, to w onder, to h u rt smb., to go lame, to show smb. the
way, to stretch oneself)
3. Two tenth-form pupils are discussing w hat institute to enter,
(a b en t for, to be aw are of, to w onder at, to p u t smth. out of one's
m ind)
4. Two friends on a tram p discussing the landscape, (to be con­
scious of, a rough day, to have an eye for, to w onder at, to break
into flower)
266
10. Make up and practise short situations using the following words and
word combinations:

1 . rough sea; to p ut out; to catch hold of smth.; to lim p


2 . to keep an eye on; lam e excuse; to p u t on; to hold sm th. back
3. to cover up o ne's tracks; with an eye to; to w onder at; to run
on e's eyes over
4. rough day; to follow the tracks of; at a stretch; to be outlined
against

11. Find in Text Eight and write out phrases in which the prepositions or ad­
verbs 'up', 'down' are used. Translate the phrases into Russian.

12. Fill in prepositions or adverbs:

1. M y sister was very ill and I had to sit ... all n ig h t w ith her.
2. This little stream never dries ... . 3. You have w orked very well so
far; keep i t ... . 4. You have got the story all m ixed ... . 5. The house
was burnt ... before the fire-brigade cam e. 6 . The sleeves of m y
dress are too short. I m ust ask the tailor to let them ... an inch.
7. W e c a n 't buy that car ju st yet, b u t we are saving ... . 8 . ... d inner
I'll w ash ... . 9. Sit ... , there is p len ty ... room ... everyone. 10. Your
coat collar is ... the back, shall I turn i t ... ? 11. D on't stand ... a high
tree during a thunderstorm . 12. I c a n 't use m y office now it is
... repair. 13. I did this ... orders. 14. ... the circum stances I will not
give you any extra work. 15. H e is ... age and cannot be allow ed to
be independent.

13. Translate the following sentences into English. Pay attention to the prep­
ositions:

1. В пять утра я была уже на ногах и, не теряя времени, принялась


за работу. 2. Повесьте ваше пальто здесь, я покажу вам, как пройти
в его комнату. 3. Я подняла носовой платок. Это не ваш? 4. Ее родите­
ли умерли, когда она была еще маленькой, и ее воспитала тетя. Она
ей как мать теперь. 5. Мальчик перевернул ящик вверх дном, и иг­
рушки рассыпались по всему полу. 6 . Я не ложилась всю ночь и сей­
час с ног валюсь от усталости. 7. Давайте поднимемся на этот холм,
оттуда очень красивый вид на реку. 8 . Вчера мама упала с лестницы
и повредила ногу. Я очень беспокоюсь о ней. 9. Я неважно себя чув­
ствую, пожалуй, я пойду прилягу. 10. Я не люблю смотреть вниз
с большой высоты, у меня кружится голова. 11. Лучше запишите мой
адрес в записную книжку, вы можете потерять этот листок бумаги.
12. Большая часть города оказалась под водой. 13. Мальчик лет пяти
267
сидел за партой один. 14. Многие писатели публикуют свои произве­
дения под вымышленными именами. 15. Студенты проводили экспе­
римент под руководством профессора.

CONVERSATION AND DISCUSSION

MAN AND NATURE

Topical Vocabulary

1. Natural resources and attractions: m inerals, (fresh) water-


supplies (reservoirs), floods, rainfalls, vegetation, greenery, wood-
land(s), forestry, wildlife, anim al kingdom s (population), flora and
fauna, arable land (soil), cultivated land, open land, "green" belts,
recreation areas, coastal areas, country (national) parks, clear
landscapes, public open spaces.
2. Environment and man: to link m an to nature, to ad ap t to en ­
vironm ent, to be preoccupied w ith econom ic growth, unrestricted
industrialization, the sprawl of large-built areas, industrial zoning,
to u p set the biological balance, to abuse nature, to disfigure (litter)
the landscape, ecology, ecosystem , to be environm ent-conscious,
to be environm ent-educated.
3. Environmental destruction and pollution: land pollution,
derelict land, industrial wastes, the by-products of m assive indus­
trialization, to dum p w aste m aterials on land, extensive use
of agrochem icals, th e d en udation of soil, the toxic fall-outs of m a­
terials, w ater pollution, a dropping w ater level, to face the fresh­
w ater supply problem , depletion of w ater resources, the disrup­
tion of w ater cycle, m arine pollution, oil spillage, air
(atm ospheric) pollution, the air pollution index, to pro d u ce foul
air, to exhaust toxic gases (fuel), com bustion of fuel, concentra­
tions of sm oke in th e air, dust co n ten t in the air, radiation, high
(low) radioactivity, to store (disperse) radioactive wastes, noise of­
fenders (pollutants), m erciless killing of animals, destruction (if
anim al habitats.
4. Nature conservation and environment protection: a global
im perative for environm ent, global environm ental security, to p re­
serve ecosystem s, to create disaster-prevention program m es,
to harm onize industry and com m unity, plants and people, conser­
vation m ovem ent, to preserve woodlands, to protect and rep ro ­
268
duce anim al (fish, bird) reserves, to fight pollution, to install a n ti­
pollution equipm ent, to m inimize noise disturbance, to red u ce p ol­
lution, to dispose garbage (litter, wastes) in d esig n ated areas.

1. Read the following text for obtaining its information.

Environmental Protection — N ationw ide Concern

As a highly industrialized state Britain cannot ignore th e p ro b ­


lem of environm ental protection. The practical results of th e state
policy in environm ental protection include the developm ent
of technology to control atm ospheric (air) and w ater pollution, a g ­
ricultural pollution control, the stu d y of m an 's influence on the cli­
mate, the forecasting of earthquakes and tsunam is, the biological
and genetic consequences of pollution, protection of rare a n d v an ­
ishing plants and anim als as well as a w hole lot m ore.
The C ontrol of Pollution Act 1974, which applies to England,
Scotland and W ales, sets out a w ide range of pow ers and d u ties for
local and w ater authorities, including control over w astes, air and
w ater pollution and noise, and contains im portant provisions
on the release of inform ation to the public on environm ental condi­
tions.
The m ain risks of land pollution lie in the indiscrim inate d u m p ­
ing of m aterials on land, careless disposal of pesticides and chem i­
cals, fall-out of m aterials from the atm osphere and the deposition
of m aterials from flood-water. The use of sew age sludge on farms,
too, involves risks as well as benefits to the land.
The G overnm ent encourages the reclam ation and recycling of
w aste m aterials w herever this is practicable and econom ic in order
to reduce im ports an d to help to conserve natural resources. Indus­
try already m akes considerable use of reclaim ed w aste m aterials
such as m etals, paper and textiles. In an increasing num ber of a r­
eas there are "bottlebanks" w here the public can deposit used
glass containers.
T here has been a steady and significant im provem ent in w ater
quality: the level of pollution in the tidal Tham es has b e e n red u ced
to a quarter of the 1950s level and 100 different kinds of fish have
b een identified there. D ischarges of polluting m atter into rivers,
lakes, estuaries and som e coastal w aters are already controlled by
law.
C ontrol of m arine pollution from ships is based largely on in te r­
national conventions draw n up u n d er the auspices of the Interna­
269
tional M aritim e O rganization, a U nited N ations ag ency with h e a d ­
q uarters in London. In dealing with spillages of oil or chem icals at
sea the m ain treatm en t m ethod is to spray dispersant from aircraft
or surface vessels, an d em ergency cargo transfer equipm ent is
available to rem ove oil from a dam aged tanker.
C onsiderable progress has b een m ade tow ards the achievem ent
of cleaner air and a b e tte r environm ent, especially in the last 20
years or so. Total em issions and average concentration of sm oke in
the air have fallen by 80 per cent. London no longer has the dense
sm oke-laden "sm ogs" of the 1950s and in central London w inter
sunshine has b een increasing since the 1940s w hen average hours
a day w ere ab o u t 40 per cent less than at Kew in outer London; the
levels are now virtually th e same.
Transport is one of the m ain offenders in noise pollution, and
control m easures are aim ed at reducing noise at source, through
requirem ents lim iting the noise that aircraft and m otor vehicles
m ay m ake, and by p rotecting people from its effects.
In Britain radiation resulting from industrial and other process­
es rep resen ts only a sm all fraction of th at to w hich the population
is exposed from the natural environm ent. N evertheless, that frac­
tion is subject to stringent control because of possible effects on
health or longer-term genetic effects.
V arious m ethods are used to store radioactive wastes, d e p e n d ­
ing prim arily upon their physical form and radioactivity. W astes of
sufficiently low radioactivity are dispersed safely direct to the envi­
ronm ent. For those of h igher radioactivity a com prehensive, inter­
national research program m e is being carried out with governm ent
assistance an d w ith the participation of the nuclear industry into
m ethods of treatm ent, storage, transport and disposal.

2. Answer the following questions:

1. W hat are the m ajor environm ental problem s confronting Brit­


ain today? 2. W h at pow ers and duties for control authorities are set
out by the C ontrol of Pollution Act 1974? 3. W hat m easures are
tak e n to fight land pollution? 4. W hat are the m ain treatm ent
m ethods applied to red u ce w ater pollution? 5. W hat facts prove
th a t a certain progress has b een m ade tow ards cleaner air? 6 . W hat
operational m easures have b een introduced to reduce noise distur­
bance? 7. W h at operational m easures have been introduced to
store radioactive w astes? 8 . W hat do you think are the responsibili­
270
ties of nature conservation authorities and voluntary organizations
in Britain? 9. W hy do you think people should be concerned about
protecting environm ent from pollution and from d estruction of
natural resources?

3. Summarize the text in three paragraphs specifying the necessity of fight­


ing environmental pollution on a wide scale.

4. Use the Topical Vocabulary in answering the following questions:

1 . W hat are the m ajor environm ental issues confronting h u m an ­


ity today? 2. W hat is the global im perative for environm ent as you
see it? 3. W hy are m any people concerned about ecology today?
W hy do we say th at every m an should be environm ent-conscious
and environm ent-educated? 4. O n w hat basis should the "m an-na-
ture" relationship function? 5. W hat are the steps u n d e rta k en by
the governm ents (authorities) of m any countries to pro tect envi­
ronm ent? 6 . W hat do you know about the practical results of the
international cooperation in environm ental protection? 7. How
does the state control nature conservation and environm ental pro ­
tection in our country? 8 . W hat role should m ass m edia play in e n ­
vironm ental protection?

5. Give a short newspaper review on one of the major issues of environmental


protection. Refer to the Topical Vocabulary. Remember that your review should
appeal to the interests and attitudes of the intended reader. It can be neutral, de­
scriptive, emotional. Choose the facts to prove your viewpoint. Repibduce your
story in class.

Model:
W ild Flowers and the Law

All the protection th at th e law can effectively give to our wild


flowers is likely to be provided by the W ild Plants Protection Bill,
w hich is due for its second reading in the Lords shortly. If th e Bill
reaches the Statute Book, as is probable, it will becom e an offence
to sell, offer or expose for sale any wild plant th a t has b een picked
or uprooted, and for anyone other than an authorized person wil­
fully to uproot any wild plant. Picking of wild flowers will not be
prohibited unless th ey are sold, or are included in th e Bill's sch ed ­
ule of rare species. The Bill has rightly b e e n w idely w elcom ed b e ­
cause so m any of Britain' wild plants are already in d an g er of dis­
appearing, and it is high tim e that the law recognized th e n eed for
271
their conservation. It would, however, be self-deception to suppose
th at th e Bill by itself can provide the protection that is needed.
M easures of this kind, w hich are concerned with the actions of in­
dividuals, eith er g reed y or ignorant, in rem ote and lonely places,
are extrem ely difficult to enforce. If our rare plants are to be saved,
only th e greatest vigilance, in and outside the nature reserves, will
save them .

6. You are asked to tell a group of foreign students (schoolchildren) about


the nature conservation and environment protection in your country. You
should cover the subject in about fifty words. Use the Topical Vocabulary.

7. Work in pairs. Discuss any of the environmental problems of today. You


may speak about nature conservation in regard to nature destruction, environ­
mental protection in regard to pollution. One of the students is supposed to in­
troduce a subject of mutual interest, the other student disagrees with his part­
ner's viewpoint on the subject under discussion. Use the Topical Vocabulary.

M o d e l :

A: I m ust adm it I'm m ostly interested in the nature-m an rela­


tionship. I th in k it is the core item of the environm ental protection
policy. W e should be environm ent-conscious to foresee the ill-ef-
fects of un restricted industrialization and urbanization. I see these
problem s as a global im perative for environm ental protection to­
day. I am all for fighting pollution and against destruction of n a ­
tu re by m an ...
В: I d o n 't share your fears. You paint the situation black. I can
hardly see an y unfavourable connection betw een urbanization, on
the one hand, and pollution, on the other. C ould you possibly ex­
plain w hat you m ean by "the nature-m an" relationship?

8. Speak about the after-effects of environmental pollution and nature de­


struction. Consider the following:

1. D estruction of wildlife. 2. Land pollution. 3. W ater pollution.


4. Air pollution. 5. N oise disturbance. 6 . Radioactivity. 7. U nre­
stricted industrialization.

9. During the last 20 years environmental protection has become a vital ne­
cessity for people. What do you think has stimulated man's interest in the prob­
lems of environment? Consider the following and expand on the points which
you think especially significant:

1. T he problem s of environm ent include a wide range of b u rn ­


ing issues: natu re destruction and pollution, exterm ination of w ild­
272
life on global scale, endangering hum an health w ith industrial
wastes, etc.
2. There are the by-products of m assive industrialization con­
fronting all great industrial countries w ith the m ost serious p rob­
lem of environm ent m ankind ever faced, th at of pollution.
3. The "green belts" not only provide restful relaxation, th ey are
regarded as im portant allies in the battle against air pollution.
4. Am ong the sim ple b u t far disappearing blessings is the smell
of clean fresh air and the good taste of pure water.
5. How the problem of pollution has b een and is being tackled
has a great deal to do with politics and social initiative.
6 . O ne of the great problem s grappled w ith in the plans for eco ­
nom ic and social developm ent is how to harm onize ind u stry and
com m unity, plants and people.
7. Pollution has to do w ith the giant enterprises w hich advance
industries and abuse natural resources.

10. Read the following dialogue. The expressions in bold type show the
WAYS OF CHECKING UNDERSTANDING. Note them down. Be ready to act out
the dialogue in class:

— W hat I can't make out is w hy y o u 're so ... so k een on our g o ­


ing to the country. W hy on earth should w e choose to live out in a
village ... even if it is a popular village?
— Isn't that clear? After all these years in London I w ould have
preferred the smell of clean fresh air and the good taste of p u re w a­
ter ... and greenery ... and ... .
— Stop talking through your hat. You've never b e e n a lover of
fresh air. You said it choked you. W hy is t h a t ... th at now you insist
that your love of nature is boundless, you adore the countryside ...
when in fact ... . You know th at I'd m uch prefer to be in th e town
and ... .
— But I do like the country ... or to be m ore exact I'd like to
move to the country ... if only ....
— If only what? You sound as if you've made it a point to tease
me!
— If only ... w e ll... if only we lived som ew here th at w ould m ake
it all possible and worthwhile. N ever m ind. A ny place o u t of town
is good enough, I suppose. T here'll be fields and trees and w hatnot
nearby.
— You are so carried away w ith the idea. W ell, your personal
likes and dislikes are m aking you anything b u t practical.
273
— All right, all right. I'd m uch prefer to travel back and forth to
London every day than be ... How does it go? ... "C abin'd, cribb'd,
confin'd" ...
— T h at's all v ery well to take that rom antic attitude. You know
... you think you can g et out of everything ... W riggle out of any ar­
gu m en t ... by q uoting Shakespeare. W hat about my preferences?
You are being selfish, you know.
— Selfish? Do you really mean it? I adm it I'd like to be sort of
free to do as I like. I've w anted to go to the village ever since I m ar­
ried you. But you've always preferred to live in London and be
boxed in by a thousand other houses, surrounded by a thousand
faceless neighbours. No ... let's go for the village.

11. Discussing things often involves giving instructions to people. If you


give instructions to someone you will probably need to check as you go along
that your listener understands, like this:

A lright so far? Are you w ith m e? Is th at clear? Do you see w hat I


m ean? T h at's right. Now ... Got that? Good! Now ... Fine! Now ...
Sorry, b u t I d o n 't quite see why you have to ... Sorry, can you say
th a t again, please? Sorry, but I'm not quite clear on ...
Use cliches of checking understanding in making conversations of your own.

12. Work in pairs. Read the statements and expand on them. You may be of
the similar or different opinion on the subject. Your comment should be followed
by some appropriate speculation on the suggested point:

1. Everybody's talking about pollution. Pollution is w hat h ap ­


pens w hen things we eat, the place we live in and the air around us
are m ade dirty and un h ealth y by m achines and factories.
2. M en do not realize th at a forest is m ore than a collection of
trees. It is a com plex com m unity of plant and anim al life. In a living
forest two opposing forces are constantly at work: grow th and d e ­
cay. The grow th of new trees balances destruction by insects, plant
diseases, an d occasional storm s. But m an's unrestricted cutting of
tim ber disturbs this natural balance.
3. N ational forests and national grasslands are m anaged for
m any uses, including recreation and the continuing yield of such
resources as wood, water, wildlife, honey, nuts and Christm as
trees.
4. Factories pay for the w ater they rise, but in our hom es we only
pay to have w ater. After th at we can use as m uch as we want. A p­
274
parently we lose every day enough w ater for the w hole town. Final­
ly w hat we have left in our rivers we m ake so dirty th at we c a n 't
use it.
5. Some scientists believe that, if airlines operate a large num ber
of supersonic airplanes, their engines m ay inject so m uch w ater va­
pour into the u p p er atm osphere th at there will be m any m ore
clouds, m ore of the su n 's heat will be prevented from reaching the
earth, and the earth 's tem perature will d r o p — this m ight change
the clim ate of the w hole world, w ith very serious results.
6 . Europe is such an industrialized area that it sends ab o u t 20
million tonnes of sulphur into the air every year. T here is an old
saying in English: "W hat goes up, m ust com e down." This 20 m il­
lion tonnes is picked up by the wind. M ost of it is carried som e dis­
tance, often to another country. Each nation in E urope produces
hundreds of thousands of tonnes of poison each year, and then
sends it abroad.

13. Read the following text. Find in it arguments for protecting natural re­
sources of your country. Think of the arguments that can be put forward in
favour of the opposite viewpoint than that reflected in the text. Copy the argu­
ments out into two columns (I — “for", II — "against"):

The True Story of Lake Baikal

It should be pointed out that the outcry about the th reat of pol­
lution faced by Baikal cam e from every section of society^ How to
protect Baikal was the subject for w idespread debate. T here was
some difference of opinion betw een those who one-sidedly em p h a­
sized industrial production and those who insisted th at the basic
balanced approach had to be ad h ered to.
Baikal first faced such problem s alm ost 200 years ago w hen its
shores w ere settled and crop farm ing and cattle breed in g devel­
oped, and tim ber was felled. The floating of loose tim ber, p a rticu ­
larly, polluted its waters. The pollution problem grew, especially
after the w ar because of the accelerated developm ent of industry
and the rise of cities in Siberia.
Did the answ er be in shutting dow n all existing enterprises and
all production in Baikal's vicinity? W as it necessary th at Baikal's
vast treasures of forest, its pow er resources, m ineral deposits and
fertile soil lie u n tap p ed to pro tect its purity? Scientists reject the
approach of the conservationist purists w ho co n ten d th at only by
leaving nature untouched can environm ent be p ro tected and pol­
275
lution controlled. After considerable scientific study and debate
th e conclusion was Baikal's b eau ty and purity could be m aintained
at the sam e tim e th at its rich resources w ere tapped. Baikal can
provide both m aterial w ealth and beauty to the country.
T he answ er lies in the rational use of Baikal resources, in guar­
a n teein g its p rotection from pollution and despoliation.

14. Answer the following questions:

1. W h y do you think the subject of Lake Baikal was very m uch


in the news? 2. W hat posed a d an g er to the lake and its riches?
3. Do you agree with the conservationist purists that nature should
b e left u n to u ch ed "in its virgin loveliness"? 4. W hat is m eant by
the rational use of natural resources in general and in reference to
Lake Baikal in particular?

15. Discuss the text and the problem under study in pairs. One of the stu­
dents takes a basically balanced viewpoint that Lake Baikal should be used ra­
tionally for industrial and recreational needs, the other student defends a pur­
ists' idea that to preserve natural wealth we should leave it untapped. Be sure to
provide sound arguments for whatever you say. Work out arguments “for” and
"against".

16. Role-Playing.

W hat M ust W e Care About to Prevent Disaster?

S i t u a t i o n : A group of tourists is on a river voyage down the


Volga. T hey enjoy excursions to num erous natural attractions and
places of interest. N ow they are on their way to a new autom obile
p lan t th at com prises the m anufacture of com m ercial vehicles, and
parts and com ponents. O nce a beautiful countryside, now it's a d e ­
veloped industrial area. The conversation centres around the fu­
ture of th e district. T hen it takes a m ore general turn. The subject
u n d e r discussion is environm ental protection. There is som e differ­
ence of opinion betw een those w ho one-sidedly em phasize indus­
trial production and those who insist th at a rational balanced a p ­
proach should be a d h ered to.
Characters:
1. Professor Pyotr Pavlov, aged 53, a specialist on afforestation,
believes that by A.D. 2000 we will have destroyed natural environ­
m ent b ecau se of th e sprawl of large cities, reduction of open spac­
es, exterm ination of wildlife. Thinks th at unrestricted urbaniza­
276
tion will let the m an dow n posing a d an g er to his health, choking
him w ith pollutants. The very existence of hum an race as a bio­
logical species is threatened. U rgent steps should be taken by
m ankind to rescue the Earth and its inhabitants from a foresee­
able disaster.
2. Doctor Oleg Firsov, aged 44, a professional naturalist a n d a
science-fiction writer. Tries to w arn people against th e th re a t p re ­
sented to natural environm ent by the by-products of industrial d e ­
velopm ent. Says th at science and technology progress has reached
such a level of developm ent that it en d an g ers all living m atter:
plants, animals, people. A com prehensive survival program m e
should be w orked out by specialists en g ag ed in various spheres of
science and economy.
3. Helen Strogova, aged 32, a science-popular films producer.
Likes animals, keeps pets at hom e. She blam es people for ruining
anim al habitats, inflicting pain and suffering on anim als in scientif­
ic and m edical experim ents. In her TV series on anim al life raises
the problem s confronting anim als resulting from the natu re d e ­
struction. Rem inds people that lots of species are know n to us only
by h ear-say, others are gradually vanishing. Believes th at by the
application of a rational conservation program m e m any problem s
can be solved.
4. A nton Kravtsov, aged 45, a leading specialist in th e field of
aircraft engineering industry, thinks th a t people benefit from the
advanced technology: new m aterials have been invented, new in­
dustrial technologies have b een introduced, and these are helping
to im prove our daily lives. Seldom goes to the co u n try for a breath
of fresh air, d o e sn 't see b eau ty in a landscape. Believes th at the
21st century belongs to absolute reason. People should tak e all the
ill-effects of industrialization for granted.
5. Olga Smirnova, aged 28, a postgraduate, a devoted stu d e n t of
m edicine. Though a lover of natu re d o e sn 't see any harm in m edi­
cal experim ents in w hich th e re 's a g reat am ount of anim al lives
waste. She is convinced th at anim al experim ents serve a direct sci­
entific purpose and are justified in term s of the gain to hum an life.
She says that people cam paigning against vivisection do not seem
to realize th at the good state of health and freedom of disease is
largely d u e to anim al experim ents.
6 . Igor Timoshin, ag ed 37, a prom ising specialist in the field of
oil refinery processes, an enthusiastic director of a giant industrial
enterprise. Believes th at oil exploration should be e n co u rag ed with
277
the objective of m axim izing econom ic production for the future.
Says th at though the natural m ineral resources are not likely to en ­
large a m an should do his b est to take the lion's share of w hat the
land possesses. His prim ary goal is