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METHODS OF HISTOLOGICAL, CYTOLOGYCAL AND EMBRYOLOGICAL

INVESTIGATION

Checking your primary level of the knowledge:


1. What is the paraffin technique?
2. What stages does paraffin technique involve?
3. Fixation peculiarities.
4. Dehydration and clearing peculiarities.
5. Embedding peculiarities.
6. Sectioning peculiarities.
7. Staining and mounting peculiarities.
8. Rules of studying and sketching of the histological slide:
9. Basophilic and acidophilic staining
10. H&E (Hematoxylin and Eosin) staining
11. Histological stain other than H&E.
12. The light microscope structure.
13. Magnification and resolution definitions.

PRACTICAL QUESTIONS
Identify the parts of the microscope in this picture.
1. ___________________________________
2. ___________________________________
3. ___________________________________
4. ___________________________________
5. ___________________________________
6. ___________________________________
7. ___________________________________
8. ___________________________________
9. ___________________________________
10. ___________________________________
11. ___________________________________
12. ___________________________________
13. ___________________________________
14. ____________________________________
_________________________________________
__
Answer yes or no to the following questions:

15. Tissues are normally stained before being fixed.


_____________________________________________

16. Fixatives kill and preserve the cells in tissues.


_____________________________________________
17. Hematoxylin stains nuclei blue
_______________________________________________________________________________________

18. Eosin stains cytoplasm green.


_______________________________________________________________________________________
19. Tissue sections are hydrated before being mounted.
______________________________________________________________________________________
20. Histological specimens are normally embedded in paraffin wax before being sectioned for light
microscopy.
_______________________________________________________________________________________

1
CYTOLOGY. GENERAL ORGANIZATION OF THE CELL SHAPE AND FUNCTION OF THE
CELLS. NON CELLULAR FORMS OF THE ORGANIZATION OF THE LIVING MATTER.
PLASMA MEMBRANE

Checking your primary level of the knowledge:


1. Main statements of the cell theory.
2. Cell definition.
3. Cytosol structure.
4. Describe occluding junctions.
5. Describe anchoring junctions.
6. Describe communicating junctions.
7. Definitions of endocytosis and exocytosis.
8. Three mechanisms (ways) of endocytosis.
9. Two mechanisms (ways) of exocytosis.
10. Structure of the plasma membrane.
11. Functional significance of integral proteins.
12. Functional significance of peripheral proteins.
13. Structure and functions of glycocalyx.
14. Cell cortex structure and functions.

PRACTICAL QUESTIONS

Identify the types of intercellular junctions shown in the pictures above (under
a number1-5) and give short description for each of them.
1. ________________________________________________________
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2. _____________________________________________________________
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3. _____________________________________________________________________________________
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4. ____________________________________________________________________________________
5. ____________________________________________________________________________________
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6. What is main difference between type of junction under number 4 and 5?
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7. Identify the type of junction in the picture below?


_______________________________________________________________________________________

8. Identify the type of junction in the picture below.


_________________________________________________________________________
9. Identify the structure labeled 1 in this picture
_________________________________________________________________________

SLIDE 1
Cells of the polyhedral shape (liver).
Stained with H&E.

SLIDE’S DESIGNATIONS
1. Cell membrane
2. Cytoplasm
3. Nucleus

SLIDE 2
Columnar and cuboidal
shaped cells (kidney tubules).
Stained with H&E.

SLIDE’S DESIGANTIONS
3
1. Cell membrane
2. Nucleus
3. Cytoplasm
4. Cuboidal shape cell
5. Columnar shape cell

SLIDE 3
Star cell (spinal cord)
Stained impregnation of silver

SLIDE’S DESIGANTIONS
1. Cell membrane
2. Nucleus
3. Cytoplasm
4. Processes
a. axon
b. dendrites

TESTS OF THE “KROK-1” DATABASE. CYTOLOGY. CELL


MEMABRANE.
In histological preparation of nervous tissue you Support of life at any level is related to the
can see, that neurons unite are connected together phenomenon of reproduction. In what level of
by means of contacts that are specialized for the organization is reproduction done on the basis of
one-sided transmission of nervous impulse. matrix synthesis?
Specify, what type of intercellular connection is A * Molecular
educed on preparation? B Subcellular
A *Synapse. C Cellular
B Desmosome D Tissue
C Simple E Levels of organism
D Tight junctions
E Gap junction A chemical factor had an effect on the cell
membrane. As a result a cell has changed its
Harmful ecological factors resulted in the sharp shape. What layer of cell membrane was
falling of endocytosis and exocytosis in the cells participated in it?
of liver and blood. What layer of cytolemma was A * Cortical
suffered first of all? B Glycocalyx
A *Cortical C Two lipids layer
B Lipoprotein D Hydrophilic
C Supra membrane E Hydrophobic
D Integral
E Glycocalyx On preparation appears a histological structure
that is limited by the membrane which has a
Existence of life at all his levels is determined by volume cytoplasm and plenty of nucleuses. What
the structure of lower level. What level of name this structure has?
organization is preceded and provided the A *Symplast
existence of life at cellular level: B Syncytium
A *Molecular C Ground substance
B Tissue D Cell
C Organism E Vacuoles
D Population
E Biocoenosis

4
MEMBRANOUS AND NON-MEMBRANOUS ORGANELLES. INCLUSIONS.

Checking your primary level of the knowledge:


1. General characteristic and classification of the organelles
2. Structure and functions of rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER)
3. Structure and functions of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER)
4. Structure and functions of Golgi apparatus
5. Structure, types and functions of lysosomes
6. Structure and functions of peroxisomes
7. Structure and functions of the mitochondria.
8. Structure and functions of the proteasomes.
9. Structure, types and functions of endosomes.
10. Ribosomes: types, structure and functions.
11. Centrioles: functions, structure.
12. Microtubule: ultrastructure and functions.
13. Cilia and flagella: structure and functions.
14. Microfilaments: types, structure and functions.
15. Intermediate filaments: types, structure and functions.
16. Classification of the inclusions.

PRACTICAL QUESTIONS
1. Identify the structure labeled 1 in this
picture.

_______________________________________
2. Identify the structure labeled 2.
_______________________________________
3. Identify the structure labeled 3.
_______________________________________
4. Identify the structure labeled 4.
_____________________________________
5. Identify the organelle shown in the microphotograph below.
_______________________________________
6. Identify the structure labeled 1 in the picture below.
_______________________________________
7. Identify the structure labeled 2 in the picture below.

5
_______________________________________________________________________________________
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8. Identify the structure labeled 3 in this picture.


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9. Identify the structure labeled 4 in this picture.
_______________________________________________________________________________________

10.Identify the organelle shown by arrow in the microphotograph below.


______________________________________________________________________________________
11. Identify the structure labeled 1.
____________________________________________________________
12. Identify the structure labeled 2.
____________________________________________________________
13. What functions does this organelle perform?

_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
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SLIDE 1
Cilia of epithelial cells.
Stained with iron hematoxylin.

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SLIDE 3
Lipid inclusions in the liver cells
Stained with osmic acid

SLIDE’S DESIGNATIONS
1. Plasma membrane
2. Nucleus SLIDE’S DESIGNATIONS
3. Cytoplasm 1. Plasma membrane
4. Cilia 2. Nucleus
3. Cytoplasm
SLIDE 2 4. Lipid drop
Glycogen inclusion in the liver cell.
Stained with carmin.

SLIDE’S DESIGNATIONS
1. Plasma membrane
2. Nucleus
3. Cytoplasm
4. Glycogen inclusion

7
TESTS OF THE “KROK-1” DATABASE
CYTOLOGY. CYTOPLASM. ORGANELLS. INCLUSIONS.
Electron microscopic study of a cell revealed During the cytochemical research a light content
roundish bubbles confined by a membrane and of hydrolytic enzymes was found in the cytoplasm
containing a lot of various hydrolytic enzymes. It of cell. What activity of organelles indicates this
is known that these organelles provide fact?
intracellular digestion and protective functions. A *Lysosomes
These elements are: B Endoplasmic reticulum
A *Lysosomes C Mitochondrion
B Centrosomes D Polysome
C Endoplasmic reticulum E Centosome
D Ribosomes
E Mitochondria During the electronic microscopy in the cytoplasm
of cell, near the cell nucleus, was found a
Nucleoli of nuclei have been damaged due tj membranous organelle that consists of 5-10 flat
tissue culture nuclear irradiation. Regeneration of cisterns, with the extended peripheral areas from
the following organelles becomes hampered in which little blisters – (lysosomes) are
cytoplasm: disconnected. Name this organelle:
A. *Ribosomes A * Golgi apparatus
B. Lysosomes B Ribosome
C. Endoplasmic reticulum C Mitochondrion
D. Microtubules D Cytoskeleton
E. Golgi apparatus E Centrosome

A 36-year-old woman had her tooth extracted. On the electronic photo organelle is presented
The tissue regenerated. Which of the following which is a large polyproteasome complex that
organelle are the most active during tissue consists of tube like and two regulator parts, was
regeneration? located on both ends of organelle. The last
A *Ribosomes performs the function of proteolysis. Name this
B Centrioles organelle.
C Polysomes A *Proteasome
D Smooth endoplasmic reticulum B Centriole
E Lysosomes C of Inclusions
D Ribosome
During the histological research was found a great E Golgi apparatus
number of granules of glycogen in the cells of
liver according to the excessive feeding of Formation of ribosome subunits in a cell was
animals by carbohydrates. What activity of these disturbed in course of an experiment (by means of
organelles indicates this fact? activated mutagenic factors). This will have an
A *Trophic inclusion effect on the following metabolic process:
B Secretory inclusion A *Protein biosynthesis
C Excretory inclusion B Carbohydrate biosynthesis
D Pigment inclusion C ATP synthesis
E Non membrane organelles D Photosynthesis
E Biological oxidation
Two different organelles that destroy the proteins
are visible on the electronic photomicrograph of An animal had been intensively fed with
the cell? What kind of organelles are they? carbohydrates. Histologic examination of its liver
A *Lysosome and proteasome revealed a significant number of glycogen
B Endoplasmic reticulum and microfilaments granules. Glycogen relates to the following group
C Peroxisome and ribosome of cell structures:
D Ribosome A *Trophic granules
E Golgi apparatus and microtubules B Secretory granules
C Excretory granules
D Pigment granules
E Special organelles

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In process of the secretory cycle secretion Submicroscopic not membranous organelles of
granules come and go in the apical part of general-purpose – microtubules are built from the
cytoplasm of pancreas cells. These granules relate following protein like:
to the following structure elements: A *Tubulin
A*Inclusions B Desmine
B Microfilaments C Keratin
C Lysosomes D Vimentine
D Exocytic vacuoles E Actinin
E Granular endoplasmic reticulum
Centrioles in their basis contained microtubules
Microscopic analysis of human heart cells which are oriented parallel and have such a
revealed some oval oganellas, their tunic being formula as:
formed by two membranes: the external one is A * (9 х 3) + 0
smooth, and the internal one forms crista. B (9 х 2) + 2
Biochemical analysis determined the presence of C (9 х 3) + 2
ATP-synthetase enzyme. What organellas were D (9 х 2) + 0
analysed? E (9 х 3) + 3
A *Mitochondrions
B Lysosomes On an electronic photomicrograph is visible the
C Ribosomes fibroblast that products the components of
D Endoplasmic reticulum intercellular substance. Define organelles that take
E Centrosomes part in this process?
A * Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum and Golgi
Examination of a patient with hepatolenticular complex
degeneration revealed that synthesis of B Smooth endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi
ceruloplasmin protein has a defect. What complex
organelles is this defect connected with? C Golgi complex and mitochondrion
A *Granular endoplasmic reticulum D Golgi complex and lysosomes
B Agranular endoplasmic reticulum E the Granular and smooth endoplasmic
C Mitochondrions reticulum
D Golgi complex
E Lysosomes Ultramicroscopic examination of “dark”
hepatocytes population in the cell cytoplasm
A patient was prescribed a drug with apparent detected a developed granular endoplasmic
lipophilic properties. What is the main mechanism reticulum. What function has this organelle in
of its absorption? these cells?
A *Passive diffusion A *Synthesis of protein of blood plasma
B Filtration B Synthesis of carbohydrates
C Active transport C Detoxification
D Pinocytosis D Products of bile
E Binding with transport proteins E Depositing ions of calcium

In a muscular tissue there is an intensive aerobic From the cell was excluded Golgi complex by
process of accumulation of energy as macro means of micromanipulator. How it will affect in
energetic connections ATP. This process takes later existence of cell?
place due to the participation of such organelles A *Will be broken formation of lysosomes,
as: maturation of secretory products of cell
A *Mitochondrion B Will be broken by the process of mitosis
B Smooth endoplasmic reticulum C Will be broken by the formation of ribosomes
C Lysosomes and synthesis of proteins
D Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum D Will develop autolysis, can lead cell to death
E Centrosome E Will be broken by processes of power
exchange

9
CELL NUCLEUS. CELL CYCLE.

Checking your primary level of the knowledge:


1. General properties of the nucleus
2. Functions of the cell nucleus
3. General properties and components of the chromatin
4. Difference between heterochromatin and euchromatin.
5. Nucleosome structure.
6. Chromosomes peculiarities.
7. Karyotype definition.
8. Barr body features.
9. Nucleolus structure
10. Nucleolus functions.
11. Nuclear envelope general structure
12. Structure and functions of the nuclear envelope membranes:
13. Nuclear pore structure
14. Nucleoplasm structure
15. Definition and goal of cell cycle
16. Phases of the cell cycle
17. Description of interphase G1 (gap1) phase
18. Description of the S (synthesis) phase
19. Description of the G2 (gap2) phase
20. Mitosis definition.
21. Mitosis general characteristics
22. Prophase of mitosis description.
23. Metaphase of mitosis description.
24. Anaphase of mitosis description
25. Telophase of mitosis description
26. Necrosis definition and peculiarities
27. Apoptosis definition and peculiarities

PRACTICAL QUESTIONS

1. Identify the structure labeled 1 in the picture above.


________________________________________________________________________________
2. Identify the structure labeled 2
________________________________________________________________________________
3. Identify the structure labeled 3
________________________________________________________________________________
4. Identify the structure indicated by the arrows
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5. Identify the stages of cell cycle in the figure below. Give short description to each stage.

a. __________________________________________________________________________
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b. __________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
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c. __________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
d. _________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
e. _________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
f. _________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
g. _________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
h. _________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________

6. Identify the process in this picture.


_____________________________________
7. Identify the structure labeled 1.
_____________________________________
8. Identify the structure labeled 2.
_____________________________________
9. Describe changes which take place
during this process.

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SLIDE 1 SLIDE 2
Nucleus of the ovum. Cell division. Mitosis.
Stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Stained with iron hematoxylin.

SLIDE’S DESIGNATIONS SLIDE’S DESIGNATIONS


1. Ovolemma 1. Nucleus during interphase
2. Nucleus 2. Prophase
a) Nuclear envelope a) Centrioles
b) Chromatin b) Chromosomes
c) Nucleoplasm 3. Metaphase
c) Equatorial plate
d) Mitotic spindle
4. Anaphase
d) Separating chromosomes
5. Telophase
6. Daughter cells
TESTS OF THE “KROK-1” DATABASE
CYTOLOGY. NUCLEUS. CELL CICLE.

An electronic microphotography represents a cell


without nucleoli and nuclear membrane.
Chromosomes are loosely scattered, centrioles
migrate to the poles. What phase of cell cycle is During the forensic research of blood sample in
it& neutrophils on the surface of one of segments of
A. *Prophase cell’s nucleus the chromatin appears as a
B. Anaphase drumstick. How is such structural formation
C. Metaphase called?
D. Telophase A *Barr corpuscles
E. Interphase B Layon corpuscles
C Chromatin
During the studies of epithelial cells of oral cavity D Euchromatin
on the surface of cell’s nucleus appear the E Pacinian corpuscles
rounded little bodies that indicated that cells are
taken from the oral cavity of woman. How is such In the certain cells of adults during their lifelong
a formation of chromatin called? there is no mitosis and quantitative content of
A *Barr corpuscles DNA remains constant. These cells are:
B Herring corpuscles A * Neurons
C Chromatin B Endothelia cells
D Euchromatin C Muscle (smooth)
D Pacinian corpuscles D Epidermis

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E Blood forming D Rough endoplasmic reticulum
E Centrosome

Submicroscopic non membranous organelles of


During embryogenesis the epithelial band also general purpose-microtubules are built from
known as vestibular plate gives rise to which of the following proteins?
development of vestibule of mouth. What A*Tubulin
biological mechanism of the programmed death of B Desmin
cells provides growth of buccolabial sulcus from C Keratin
epithelial plate? D Vimetin
A *Apoptosis E Actinin
B Necrosis
C Meiosis Centroiles consist of microtubules which have a
D Paranecrosis parallel orientation and have which of the
E Amitosis following formulas?
A*(9 x 3) + 0
Sometimes it is necessary to do research of B (9 x 2) + 2
somatic cells for determination of sex of human. C (9 x 3) + 2
What their structures can provide the information D (9 x 2) + 0
about sex of human? E (9 x 3) + 3
A *Peripheral chromatin
B Euchromatin Fibroblasts that produce the components of
C Decondensation chromatin intercellular substance are visible in an electronic
D Barr corpuscles microphotograph. Which organ take part in this
E Optional chromatin process?
A*Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum and Golgi
It is known that information about sequence of complex
amino acids in a protein molecule is encoded as a B Smooth Endolasmic Reticulum and Golgi
sequence of four types of nucleotides in a DNA complex
molecule, and different amino acids are encoded C Golgi process and mitochondrion
by different number of triplets - from one to six. D Golgi process and lysosomes
Such peculiarity of the genetic code is called: E The Granular and mooth Endoplasmic
A *Degeneracy Reticulum
B Universality
C Nonoverlapping A developed granular endoplasmic reticulum was
D Triplety detected in an ultramicroscopic examination of the
E Specificity "dark" hepatocytes population. What is the
function of these organelle in these cells?
Analysis of an electron diffraction pattern of a cell A*Synthesis of protein of blood plasma
revealed mitochondrion destruction. This might B Synthesis of Cabohydrate
result in abnormal course of the following cell C Detoxification
process: D Products of bile
A *Oxidation of organic substances E Depositing ions of Calcium
B Nuclear division
C Crossingover By means of micromanipulator the Golgi complex
D Cleavage was removed. How will this affect the later
E- existence of the cell?
A*Will be broken formation of lysosomes,
An extensive process of accumulation of energy maturation of secretory products of cell
as macroenergic compounds (ATP) is produced in B Will be broken by the process of mitosis
muscular tissue. This process takes place due to C Will be broken by the formation of ribosomes
the participation of the following organelles: and synthesis of proteins
A*Mitochondria D Will develop autolysis, can lead to cell death
B Smooth endoplasmic reticulum E Will be broken by process of power exchange.
C Lysosomes
13
In the post synthetic period of mitosis the cycle of
protein synthesis was damaged -the tubulins take
part in formation of spindle fibers of division.
This can result in the violation of:
A *Of divergence of chromosomes
B Of duration of mitosis
C Of spiralization of chromosomes
D Of cytokinesis
E Of antispiralization of chromosomes

A *dumbell shaped cell stained with Ferrous


Hematoxylin dye is presented on a histological
preparation, spiralization of chromosomes is
visible in the poles. Which phase of the cellular
cycle is the cell in?
A *In telophase
B In anaphase
C In metaphase
D In prophase
E In interphase

The mucous membrane of the cheeks is scraped


by means of a spatula and a smear is made and
stained with methylene blue. Semispherical lumps
of heterochromatin are visible in the nucleus of
epithelial cells near the internal membrane. What
is this structure?
A *Barr body
B Fordyce spots
C Buccal fat pad
D Y-chromosome
E Ribosome

14
Crossword: The Cell 4. Process of getting substance into cell.
5. Temporary component of a cell.
The clues 8. Cytoplasmic ground substance.
Across 9. Sorts and packages products for export; _____
1. Powerhouse of the cell. apparatus.
3. Hollow cylinders composed of tubulins. 11. Cell division for gametes.
6. The region of a cell where the genetic material 12. All of the material that comprises a cell; the
is housed. nucleus and the cytoplasm.
7. Process of cell division for somatic cells. 13. Spherical body in the nucleus.
10. Folds on the inner membrane of mitochondria. 15. Organelle which contains hydrolytic enzymes;
14. Process of getting particulate matter into a "suicide sacs".
cell. 16. Endoplasmic reticulum that does not have
17. All of the parts of a cell except the nucleus. ribosomes.
18. Contains catalase; degrades hydrogen 19. Endoplasmic reticulum studded with
peroxide. ribosomes.
20. Structure surrounding the cell; plasma ____.

Down
2. Structure in the nucleus containing genetic
material.

15
GENERAL AND COMPARATIVE EMBRYOLOGY
HUMAN EMBRYOLOGY I

Checking your primary level of the knowledge:


1. Embryology definition
2. Ontogenesis definition and stages
3. Prenatal period stages.
4. Sperm cell types.
5. Sperm cell structure of the head and neck
6. Sperm cell tail structure
7. Ovum structure
8. Structure of the zona pellucida of an ovum.
9. Fertilization definition and phases
10. The first phase of fertilization peculiarities
11. The second phase of fertilization peculiarities
12. The third phase of fertilization peculiarities
13. Cleavage definition
14. What are blastomeres?
15. What is compaction
16. Describe a morula
17. What happened during blastocyst formation?
18. Give three characteristics of human cleavage.
19. Implantation definition
20. Periods of implantation
21. What is implantation window?

Practical questions
1. Identify the structure labeled 1 in this picture.

________________________________________________
2. Identify the structure labeled 2.
________________________________________________
3. Identify the structure labeled 3.
________________________________________________
4. Identify the structure labeled 4.
_____________________________________________
5. Identify the structure labeled 5.
________________________________________________
6. Identify the structure labeled 6.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________
7. Identify the structure labeled 7.
________________________________________________________________________________
16
8. Identify the structure labeled 8.
________________________________________________________________________________

9. Identify the structure labeled 9 in the diagram above.


________________________________________________________________________________

10. Identify the structure labeled 1 in the diagram above.


____________________________________________________________________________
11. Identify the structure labeled 2.
____________________________________________________________________________
12. Identify the structure labeled 3.
_________________________________________________________________________
13. Identify the structure labeled 4.
_________________________________________________________________________
14. Identify the structure labeled 5.
_________________________________________________________________________
15. Identify the structure labeled 6.
_________________________________________________________________________
16. Identify the structure labeled 7.
_________________________________________________________________________
17. Identify the structure labeled 8.
_________________________________________________________________________
18. Identify the structure labeled 9.
_________________________________________________________________________
19. Identify the structure labeled 10.
_________________________________________________________________________

1. Head
SLIDE 1 a. Acrosome
Sperm cell b. Nucleus
Stained with iron hematoxylin 2. Neck
3. Tail

SLIDE 2
Ovum
Stained with hematoxylin and eosin

SLIDE’S DESIGNATIONS

17
SLIDE’S DESIGNATIONS
1. Oolemma
2. Perivitelline space
3. First reduction body
4. Second reduction body
5. Zygote
a. Cytoplasm
b. Pronucleus
c. Nucleolus
d. Chromosomes

SLIDE 4
Complete unequal cleavage of zygote
SLIDE’S DESIGNATIONS Stained: without staining
1. Ooplasm with yolk inclusion
2. Nucleus with nucleolus
3. Zona pellucida
4. Corona radiata

SLIDE 3
Synkaryon
Stained with iron hematoxylin

SLIDE’S DESIGNATIONS
1. Blastomeres
a. nucleus
b. yolk inclusions
2. Animal pole
3. Vegetative pole
4. Blastocoel
5. Pigment granules

TESTS OF THE “KROK-1” DATABASE


EMBRYOLOGY. COMPARATIVE EMBRYOLOGY OF BIRDS AND MAMMALS

The myotome was destroyed in the rabbit embryo


during the experiment. Disorder of what structure
can be caused by this manipulation?
A *Skeletal muscle
B Axial skeleton
C Skin connective tissue
D Smooth muscle
E Serous membrane

18
HUMAN EMBRYOLOGY II

Checking your primary level of the knowledge:


1. Gastrulation definition.
2. Description of the lacunar phase
3. Formation of the primitive streak of the embryonic disc:
4. Development of endoderm, mesoderm & ectoderm
5. What is prechordal plate?
6. What is cloacal membrane?
7. Description of the notochord.
8. What is neurulation?
9. What derivatives of ectoderm do you know?
10. What derivatives of mesoderm do you know?
11. What derivatives of endoderm do you know?
12. What fetal membranes do you know?
13. Yolk sac structure
14. Yolk sac functions
15. Amnion structure
16. Amnion functions
17. Amniotic fluid description
18. Amniotic fluid functions
19. Allantois structure
20. Allantois functions
21. Umbilical cord structure
22. Umbilical cord functions
23. Chorion frondosum and decidua basalis features
24. Placenta – three main characteristics
25. Placenta structure
26. Placental barrier structure
27. Placental barrier functions
28. Placenta functions

PRACTICAL QUESTIONS

1. Identify the structure labeled 1 in this picture.

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2. Identify the structure labeled 2.
_______________________________________________
3. Identify the structure labeled 3.
_______________________________________________
19
4. Identify the structure labeled 4.
_______________________________________________
5. Identify the structure labeled 5.
________________________________________________________________________________
______________
6. Identify the structure labeled 6.
________________________________________________________________________________
______________
7. Identify the structure labeled 7.
________________________________________________________________________________

8. Identify the structure labeled 1 in the diagram above.


___________________________________________________________________________________
9. Identify the structure labeled 2.
___________________________________________________________________________________
10. Identify the structure labeled 3.
________________________________________________________________________________
11. Identify the structure labeled 4.
________________________________________________________________________________
12. Identify the structure labeled 5.
________________________________________________________________________________
13. Identify the structure labeled 6.
________________________________________________________________________________
14. Identify the structure labeled 7.
________________________________________________________________________________
15. Identify the structure labeled 8.
________________________________________________________________________________
_

16. Identify the structure labeled 1 in this


diagram.
__________________________________________
17. Identify the structure labeled 2.
__________________________________________
18. Identify the structure labeled 3.
__________________________________________
19. Identify the structure labeled 4.

20
__________________________________________
20. Identify the structure labeled 5.
________________________________________________________________________________
____
21. Identify the structure labeled 6.
________________________________________________________________________________
____
22. Identify the structure labeled 7.
________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________
23. Identify the structure labeled 8.
________________________________________________________________________________
24. Identify the structure labeled 9.
________________________________________________________________________________
25. Identify the structure labeled 10.
________________________________________________________________________________

26. Identify the structure labeled 1 in the diagram above.


___________________________________________________________________________________
27. Identify the structure labeled 2.
___________________________________________________________________________________
28. Identify the structure labeled 3.
________________________________________________________________________________
29. Identify the structure labeled 4.
________________________________________________________________________________
30. Identify the structure labeled 5.
________________________________________________________________________________
31. Identify the structure labeled 6.
________________________________________________________________________________
32. Identify the structure labeled 7.
________________________________________________________________________________
33. Identify the structure labeled 8.
________________________________________________________________________________
34. Identify the structure labeled 9.
________________________________________________________________________________
35. Identify the structure labeled 10.
________________________________________________________________________________
20. Identify the structure labeled 11 in the diagram above.
___________________________________________________________________________________
21. Identify the structure labeled 12.
21
___________________________________________________________________________________
22. Identify the structure labeled 13.
________________________________________________________________________________
23. Identify the structure labeled 14.
________________________________________________________________________________
24. Identify the structure labeled 15.
________________________________________________________________________________

22
SLIDE 1
Gastrulation –delamination SLIDE 2
Stained with hematoxylin Formation axial organs
Stained with hematoxylin

1. Ectoderm 1. Ectoderm
2. Endoderm 2. Neural tube
3. Mesoderm 3. Chord
4. Yolk layers 4. Somites
5. Nephrotome
6. Parietal mesoderm layer
7. Visceral mesoderm layer
8. Coelomic endoderm
9. Intestinal endoderm
TESTS OF THE “KROK-1” DATABASE
EMBRYOLOGY. EMBRYOLOGY OF HUMAN 2

During embryogenesis trophoblast develops into Microscopic examination of oval shaped cell, with
an organ rudiment that has endocrine function. the size of 150 mkm, reveals cytoplasm with yolk,
What rudiment is it? but doesn’t reveal centrioles. What kind of cell is
A. *Villous chorion it?
B. Amnion A *Oocyte
C. Yolk sac B Leucocyte
D. Allantois C Myocyte
E. Umbilical cord D Fibroblast
E Macrophage
A newborn boy has been diagnosed with
hydrocephalus. Doctor consider it to be In the process of embryonic ectoderm
teratogenic factors. What germ layers are affected differentiation a neural tubule, nervous combs,
by teratogens? neurogenic placodes, skin ectoderm and lamina
A. *Ectoderm prechordalis are developed. How is the process of
B. All embryo germ layers forming a neural tubule defined?
C. Endoderm and mesoderm A *Neurulation
D. Endoderm B Gastrulation
E. Mesoderm C Somytogenesis
D Histogenesis
In the cavity of uterus there was revealed the E Organogenesis
embryo which isn’t attached to endometrium.
What stage of development is it? In preparation is visible an oocyte in the moment
A *Blastocysts of impregnation it by spermatozoid. What is the
B Zygote main result of impregnation?
C Morula A *Formation zygote
D Neurula B Determination sex of child
E Gastrula C Completion of meiosis an oocyte
D Penetration by spermatozoon an ovolema
E Cortical reaction

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fertilization membrane. What complication of
Implantation of embryo into the mucous pregnancy is possible in this case?
membrane of uterus consists of two phases - A *Implantation of embryo in the wall of the
adhesion and invasion. First phase accompanied uterus tube
by: B Death of embryo
A * Attaching blastocyst to the surface of C Invagination wall of blastocyst
endometrium D Return blastocyst back into the ampulla parts
B Destruction of connecting tissue of of uterus tube
endometrium E Formation of two blastocysts
C Destruction of epitheliocytus of endometrium
of uterus One of critical periods of embryogenesis of
D Activation of secretion of uterus glands human is implantation of embryo into wall of
E Oppression of secretion of uterus glands uterus during 7th days. What process of
gastrulation take place in the embryoplast in this
In a blastocyst which is, covered by tunicate period?
impregnation, genetically inhibited the synthesis A *Delamination
of lytic hormones in the cells of the trophoblast. B Migration
What process of embryogenesis can be done or C Epibolation
can be delayed? D Invagination
A * Implantation E Neurulation
B Delamination
C Immigration At microscopic research of internal genital woman
D Gastrulation organs that were remote during operation was
E Epibolation found embryo built from two blastomeres. Name
the place of it localization on condition of normal
In preparation of main end of embryo, with the development.
length of 6 mm, on the front surface of neck are A * Fallopian tube (uterus tube) close to ampulla
visible piatenlike increases that appeared due to parts
proliferation of mesenchyme. How these B Fallopian tube, close to uterus part
formations of branchial apparatus are defined? C Cavity of uterus
A *Branchial arches D Abdominal region
B Branchial fissures E Ovary
C Branchial pockets
D Branchial membranes During the gastrulation embryo goes through the
E Pharyngeal pockets hystotroph to the haematotroph methods of
feeding. What pharmacist organ does provide it
On the certain stage of ontogenesis of human is first?
established during the certain stage of human A *Chorion
ontogenesis. This function is performed by the B Trophoblast
provisionally organ: C Yolk sack
A *Placenta D Amnion
B Yolk sac E Allantois
C Amnion
D Umbilical cord The antigen of tissue compatibility of child
E Allantois inherits from a father and mother. It is known that
expression of paternal antigens in embryogenesis
In preparation of main end of embryo of 5-th begins before time. But the immune system of
week formation are developments of branchial mother doesn't tear away an embryo. What organ
arcs. What form of first pair of these formations? first of all is prevent rejection an embryo of
A *Mandibularies and Maxillaries mother organism?
B Mandibularies processus A *Chorion
C Maxillaries processus B Amnion
D External acoustic duct C Allantois
E Thyroid cartilage D Yolk sack
E Umbilical Cord
In the first critical period in the fallopian tube On the micro preparation of human embryo, taken
without reason in an embryo was dissolution of from involuntary abortion, is educed an
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embryonic corymb, in what recognized two layers
of the cell: ento- and ectoblast. In what stage of It is known that some microorganisms that cause
embryonic development was an embryo? infectious diseases can pass through a placenta
A *Gastrulation barrier. What structures are included in its
B Progenesis composition?
C Neurulation A *All structural components of third villi
D Histogenesis B Chorion and amnion
E Organogenesis C All structural components of secondary villi
D Allantois, yolk sack
During forensic examination of woman, which E Basal lamina of endometrium with decidual
perished in an accident, an embryo was found on cells
the stage of early gastrula. Name the place of it
localization on condition of it normal During histological preparation is determined a
development. great number of mucous connective tissue
A *Wall of uterus (Wharton's jelly), vessel, and also bits and pieces
B Ampulla part of tubes uterus of vitelline stem, and allantois. What is the organ?
C Fallopian part of tubes uterus A *Umbilical cord
D Ovary B Esophagus
E Abdominal region C Ureter
D Urinary canal
. Ecto- and entoderm are formed in the period of E Vermicular appendix
early gastrulation. In what mechanism these
sheets appeared? Microscopic research of embryonic material in
A *Delamination preparation is determined a yolk sack. What is the
B Invagination function of this organ for human?
C Epibolation A *Hematopoesis
D Immigration B Trophic
E Invagination, Epibolation C Products of amniotic fluid.
D Excretory
Spermatozoids move on woman genital tracts to E Protective
side of ovule against liquid (distant stage of
impregnation). What name has this directed During formation of human embryo it is possible
movement? to see in his composition a cavity, light shallow
A *Rheotaxis blastomeres on periphery and dark large
B Thermotaxis blastomeres on one of poles. How is an embryo
C Chemotaxis defined on this stage of development?
D Capacitaion A *Blastocysts
E Acrosome reaction B Morula
C Zygote
In embryogenesis of human in a 20-th day there is D Gastrula
dissociating of embryo's body from pharmacist E Embryo of disk
organs. In what way this process is provided?
A *Truncal fold Microscopic research of embryo membranes is
B Amnion fold determined a chorion. What basic function is
C Celom provided by this organ?
D Yolk sack A *Metabolism between the organism of mother
E Somits and fetus
B Hematopoesis
In preparation of 10-daily embryo of human 2 C Products of amniotic fluid
bladders can be seen, that contact together D Formation of primary gametes
(amniotic and vitelline). What is the structure that E Formation of lymphocytes
lies in the place of their contact?
A *Embryonic corymb
B Bottom of amnion
C Roof of yolk sack In an embryo wasn’t formed primary Hensen’s
D Amniotic leg node during gastrulation. The development of
E Fetal of mesoderm what axial organ will be inhibiting?
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A *Chorda For an unknown reason the fertilization membrane
B Neural crest of an embryo dissolved in the fallopian tube in the
C Neural groove first critical period. What complication of
D Neural tube pregnancy is possible in this case?
E Mantle layer of the neural tube A *Embryo implantation into the Fallopian tube
B Embryonic death
During gastrulation the Hensen's node remained C Invagination of the blastocyst wall
underdeveloped in the embryo. Which axial organ D Return of blastocyst back to the ampullary
will slow down its development? portion of the tube
A *Chord E Formation of two blastocysts
B Neural crests
C Neural groove By producing a number of hormones placenta
D Neural tube plays a part of temporary endocrine gland. What
E Mantle layer of the neural tube hormone may be detected in woman's blood on
the third or the forth day after begin of
Microspecimen analysis of child's finger skin implantation, that is used in medicine for early
revealed that epidermis has signs of inadequate pregnancy detection?
development. What embryonal leaf was damaged A *Chorionic gonadotropin
in the process of development? B Somatostatin
A *Ectoderm C Progesterone
B Mesoderm D Vasopressin
C Endoderm E Oxytocin
D Mesenchyme
E Ectomezenchyme Implantation process has two stages: adhesion and
invasion. Morphological manifestation of
During the experimental analysis of blastocyte adhesion is:
chondrohistogenesis a sclerotome was damaged. A *Attachment of blastocyte to the endometrium
What cells will it make impossible to B Destruction of endometrium epithelium
differentiate? C Destruction of connective tissue of
A *Chondroblasts endometrium
B Smooth myocytes D Destruction of endometrium vessels
C Myoblasts E Formation of lacunes
D Fibroblasts
E Epidermocytes A newborn child has microcephalia. Doctors
consider that this is the result of mother's taking
Microspecimen of a child's finger skin reveals actinomycin D during the pregnancy. What
subnormal development of epidermis. What embryonal leaf was influenced by this teratogen?
embryonic leaf was damaged in course of A *Ectoderma
development? B All leaves
A *Ectoderm C Entoderma
B Mesoderm D Mesoderma
C Endoderm E Entoderma and mesoderma
D Mesenchyme
E Ectomesenchyma Examination of uterine cavity revealed an
embryonated ovum that wasn't attached to the
At a certain stage of development of a human endometrium. The embryo is in the following
embryo one can observe formation of a cavity in stage of development:
its structure, small light blastomeres on the A *Blastocyst
periphery and large dark blastomeres at one of the B Zygote
poles. The embryo at this stage of development is C Morula
called: D Gastrula
A *Blastocyst E Neurula
B Morula
C Zygote
D Gastrula Examination of a pregnant woman who has been
E Blastodisk taking alcohol revealed diturbed anlage of
ectoderma during the fetal life. What derivatives
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of this leaf have defects?
A *Neural tube Due to research of women genital organs, that
B Kidneys were removed during surgery, an embryo that
C Bowels epithelium consists of 16 blastomeres covered by a specific
D Liver membrane was found. What is the name of this
E Sexual glands membrane?
A *Membrane of fertilization
The process of splitting of the zygote ends with B Corona radiata
the blastula formation. What type of blastula is C Corona pollucida
typical for a human? D the Cellular membrane
A *Blastocysts E Oolemma
B Coeloblastula
C Discoblastula The 25-years-old woman visited a gynecologist
D Amphiblastula about an abortion on the 24th week of pregnancy.
E Morula During a detailed examination the doctor
introduced a pathology into the development of
The gametes precursors (gonoblasts) were the chorion (child part of the placenta). What
revealed in the embryo at 2nd-3rd weeks of rudiment will undergone changes?
embryogenesis. Where are these cells A *Trophoblast
differentiated? B Endoderm
A *In the yolk sac C Ectoblast
B In the mesenchyme D Epiblast
C In the embryonic ectoderm E Mesenchyme
D In dermatomes
E In the embryonic endoderm An embryo umbilical cord has compressed, but
the circulation of blood between the embryo and
Bulges covered by a thin layer of epidermis, basis the mother wasn't disturbed. The presence of what
of which formed a mesenchyme, are found in the structure contributed to this in the first place?
early stages of development (4-10 weeks) in the A *Mucous connective tissue
main section of a himan embryo. What formation B Remain of allantois
is this? C Layer of arteries
A The branchial arches D Layer of vein
B The branchial fissures E Remain of vitelline stem
C The branchial pockets
D The pallatin processus
E The frontal processus A woman had infected by the flu during the 7-14
days of pregnancy. What consequences may
As a result of expression of individual appear?
components of the genome, cells of an embryo A *Detection of formation of ecto- and endoderm
acquire morphological characteristics, B Detection of formation of mesoderm
biochemical and functional features. What is the C Detection of formation of mesenchyme
name of this process? D Detection of process of Epibolation
A *Differentiation E Detection of process of invagination
B Capacitation
C Reception A bounded vesicle with intestinal tube, which is
D Determination one of main organs, is visible on a micro section
E Induction of a human embryo. Primary gametes and primary
red corpuscles (megaloblasts) are located in it's
A human embryo was found in endoscopic walls. What is this organ?
research of a cavity of the uterus, which was A. *Yolk sack
attached not fastened to the endometrium. What B. Allantois
stage of embryogenesis is this? C. Placenta
A *"Free" blastocyst D. Umbilical cord
B Zygote E. Amnion
C Morula
D Gastrula The cut of organ is presented on a histological
E Neurula preparation. It is basically formed by a mucous
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membrane connective tissue, two arteries and a A *Haemochorion barrier
vein. Which organ is this? B Connective tissue partitions
A. *Umbilical cord C Fibrinoid of Langance
B. Allantois D the Amorphous fibrinoid of Рора
C. Yolk sack E the Locking plate of basic meatus of uterus
D. Amnion
E. Placenta An oocyte at the moment of being fertilized by a
spermatozoid is visible on a slide. Where does
The outgrowth of a primary bowl's ventral wall, this process occur on normal conditions?
which is growing in the amniotic leg, has A *In ampulla part of fallopian tube
developed in the early stages of development of B In an abdominal cavity
human embryo development. What is the name of C On the surface of ovary
this organ? D In the uterus
A. *Allantois E In the isthmus of fallopian tube
B. Yolk sack
C. Amnion A fetal membranous organ is in the early stages of
D. Placenta embryogenesis has a simple squamous epithelium,
E. Umbilical cord which in the 3rd month acquires a prismatic cube
form, and participates in the production of
In a conventional experiment the development of amniotic fluid. Name this organ:
mesenchymal cells was inhibited. The disturbance A. *Amnion
of what muscular tissue development will be B. Yolk sack
observed? C. Allantois
A *Of the smooth muscular tissue of visceral D. Umbilical cord
type E. Placenta
B Of the muscular tissue of neural type
C Of the muscular tissue of epidermal type Embryos in their 2-8 days of development are
D Of the cardiac muscular tissue prepared for diagnostic purposes. By what sign is
E Of the skeletal muscular tissue it possible to recognize the beginning (early
stages) of embryo development on a micro slide?
Gastrulation is a period of embryogenesis, where A. *Formation of primary stripe
embryonic sheets are formed, as a result of which B. Cleavage
an embryo acquires the three-stratified structure. C. Gastrulation
What mechanism of gastrulation is characteristic D. Placentation
for the human embryo? E. Neurulation
A *Delamination and immigration
B Invagination For diagnostics purposes a few micro slides are
C Epibolation prepared representing the primary development
D Immigration and invagination period of a human embryo that lasts the first 7
E Delamination and Epibolation days to embryogenesis. What sign makes it
possible to recognize this beginning period of
In normal conditions the circulation of the embryo development on a micro slide?
mothers blood has no direct connections to fetal A. *Fertilization
circulation. Blood of the fetus flows in the vessels B. Cleavage
of chorion villi, and the mothers-circulates in C. Gastrulation
between villi space of the uterus endometrium. D. Placentation
What separates the mother's blood from the fetus E. Neurulation
blood?

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