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APPLICATION OF GIS FOR TRAFFIC CONGESTION EVALUATION STUDIES

Article · May 2017

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND INNOVATIVE ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY

Application of GIS for Traffic Congestion


Evaluation Studies
M. Sureshkumar, S. Supraja and R. Bhavani Sowmya

Department of Civil & Structural Engineering, SCSVMV University, Enathur, Tamil Nadu, India.
{sureshgis@kanchiuniv.ac.in}

Abstract—Traffic congestion is one of the day to day activity in all developing cities. Due to traffic
congestion lot of problems occurs, such as an increase in travelling time, decrease in speed, air pollution,
etc., This study involves identifying the traffic volume in important junctions and analyzing the causes of
traffic volume with the support of Geographic information system (GIS). All important features are
digitized in the study area. The prepared GIS thematic maps show the present traffic volume causes in the
study area.

Key words: Traffic Congestion, GIS Application, GPS, Traffic data analysis

I. INTRODUCTION
A proper transportation system is essential for urban development. Growth of the city depends upon
a lot of parameters in that transportation is a key element. All the activities in the city is ultimately
depends on the proper transportation network. Severe traffic congestion occurs in cities due to the rapid
increase in the volume of vehicles in the past few decades. Traffic congestion occurs when the transit
network fails to fulfil the traffic volume. Apart from the transit network capacity few parameters may
also lead to traffic congestion, such as improper parking, slow speed and mixed vehicle traffic.
Geographic information system (GIS) can be effectively used for traffic planning and management.
GIS can be effectively used for transporting data integration [1]. Spatial data such as location of traffic
congestion, transit infrastructure and other relevant theme can be incorporated in a GIS platform for
spatial analysis. Non spatial data like traffic volume with different classes of vehicle at a specified time
also incorporated in a GIS platform for taking proper decision. It is possible to take proper decision
with GIS modelling [2]. The traffic volume study is essential in the area where traffic congestion is
severe. Based on the result of the traffic volume study it is possible to identify the proper solution for
traffic congestion. Shortest route identification is possible by using network analysis tools in GIS [3].
Global positioning system (GPS) is used to capture the spatial location of traffic volume study location
and other important locations. The prepared thematic maps will be useful for decision making purpose
for proper transit management.

II. MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY

A. Study Area
Kanchipuram is famously called as the city of thousand temples in South India. The city base map is
shown in Fig.1, it covers an area of 36.14 sq.km with a population of 2.32 lakhs (Census2011).

Fig. 1 Study area location map in Kanchipuram municipality

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Kanchipuram is also famous for silk sarees and it is the headquarters of Kanchipuram district. Apart
from the city population lot of tourists, business people and other surrounding people visit the city daily.
Nearby to the city the development of many special economic zones and educational institutions may
also increase the vehicle numbers in Kanchipuram streets and roads. Kanchipuram city consists of 707
streets and 51wards in its municipal boundary.
B. Traffic Volume Analysis
Traffic volume in Kanchipuram city increases in many folds during the past few decades due to rapid
urbanization. The growth rate of vehicles cause severe traffic congestion in the city. Due to the traffic
congestion the travelling time, even very short distances within the city becomes more time taken. The
traffic volume study was conducted in the month of January 2017 in two locations where more traffic
congestion occurs. Integration of mobile phones with GIS information is also possible to understand
the traffic information [4]. The traffic volume study was made with the help of CCTV footage fixed in
the junctions. During traffic volume study vehicles are classified as two wheelers, three wheelers, light
motor vehicles (LMV) and heavy motor vehicles (HMV). Path optimization for specific activity can be
achieved by using GIS analysis [5]. The result of the traffic volume study shows the two wheelers in the
study area is a dominant factor in volume wise. The traffic volume study was conducted on bus stand
junction and Chennai road junctions. The traffic volume data of bus stand junction are shown in Table
1. Network analysis results help to identify the optimum route in the transit network [6].

Table 1: TRAFFIC VOLUME DATA IN BUS STAND JUNCTION DURING 18.1.2017

BUS Latitude Longitude


LOCATION STAND 12°50’13”N 79°42’14”E
Two Three
18/1/17 wheeler Wheeler LMV HMV
5.19-7.47AM 17939 684 573 267
7.47-9.06AM 48658 1743 1527 297
9.06-10.02AM 51337 2415 1124 102
3.40-4.40PM 55908 1240 780 140
4.40-5.40PM 55144 1416 1018 110
5.40-6.40PM 56181 1492 998 134
6.40-8.20PM 85277 3674 1521 263

The traffic volume of two wheeler is comparatively high in all the data collection period. Traffic
volume data were collected in seven different time intervals when the maximum peak hour in expected
in the city. Based on the present traffic intensity new transportation planning is possible [7]. The
graphical representation of two wheeler volume versus time of data collection is shown in the Fig.2
Implementation of new plans, rules and regulation in transportation involves many policy and practical
difficulties [8].

Fig. 2 Two wheeler traffic volume graphical representation at bus stand junction

It has been identified during evening 6.40 to 8.20 pm two wheeler volume is higher compared with
other data collection period. GPS data can be used to identify the location where the traffic problem
happening [9]. Traffic volume of three wheeler is shown in Fig.3 for the data collection period.

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Fig. 3 Three wheeler traffic volume graphical representation at bus stand junction

From the three wheeler data study it has been identified during 9.06 to 10.02 am and 6.40 to 8.20 pm,
the three wheeler volume is heavy. The GIS based traffic information system is successfully adopted in
many metropolitan cities in India [10]. LMV volume is shown in Fig.4 during the traffic volume
collection period. From the traffic volume data it has been observed during 7.47 to 9.06 am and 6.40 to
8.20 pm LMV volume is high.

Fig. 4 LMV traffic volume graphical representation at bus stand junction

The graphical representation of HMV is shown in Fig.5, HMV count within the city is less
comparing with other type of vehicles. Proper transportation planning is essential for urban growth
[11]. During the data collection period HMV volume is severe in 7.47 am to 9.06 am in the fore noon
and evening time 6.40 pm to 8.20 pm.

Fig. 5 HMV traffic volume graphical representation at bus stand junction

The traffic volume in Chennai road junction is also studied and showed in Table. 2. Chennai road
junction is one of the important locations in Kanchipuram city where more traffic congestion occurs.

Table 2: TRAFFIC VOLUME DATA IN CHENNAI ROAD JUNCTION DURING 18.1.2017


CHENNAI Latitude Longitude
ROAD
LOCATION JUNCTION 12°50’32”N 79°42’10”E
Two Three
18/1/17 wheeler Wheeler LMV HMV
6.40-7.54AM 1080 84 255 163
7.54-9.08AM 1470 240 428 360
9.08-10.20AM 1484 273 441 378
4.50-5.27PM 1473 469 603 399
5.27-6.04PM 1486 510 624 471
6.04-6.40PM 1218 259 312 235

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6.40-7.14PM 1265 274 309 241


7.14-7.50PM 1274 287 324 269
7.50-8.25PM 1271 284 379 284

The two wheeler traffic volume is in an average distribution during the data collection period. The
graphical representation of a two wheeler volume is shown in Fig.6 for the Chennai road junction.

Fig. 6 Two wheeler traffic volume graphical representation at Chennai road junction

The three wheeler volume is high during 4.50 to 6.04 pm when comparing with other timings. The
graphical representation of a three wheeler volume is shown in Fig. 7. Three wheelers, in particular,
share autos count is more when comparing with other three wheelers during the specified time.

Fig. 7 Three wheeler traffic volume graphical representation at Chennai road junction

The graphical representation of LMV is shown in Fig. 8, during 4.50 to 6.04 pm LMV volume is high.
It has been understandable due to the approach of public towards higher density location leads to
increase in LMV during that specified time.

Fig. 8 LMV traffic volume graphical representation at Chennai road junction

The HMV volume is shown in Fig. 9, it indicates during 5.27 to 6.04 pm the HMV volume is
comparatively high. The traffic volume data are useful to identify the present traffic volume strategy in
the study area. This information is vital for proper traffic management in Kanchipuram city.

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Fig. 9 HMV traffic volume graphical representation at Chennai road junction

III. GIS ANALYSIS


GIS was used to prepare the spatial database and transit analysis for the study area. Base map was
prepared by using high resolution satellite image (Quickbird). Not only for transportation planning,
GIS can also be used for traffic management [12]. The Kanchipuram municipality, town map was used
to delineate the ward boundary in the study area. Initially transit route network was prepared in the
study area to understand the available transit network for traffic flow. The prepared transit route
network is shown in Fig.10 which is located in the North-East part in Kanchipuram municipality.

Fig. 10 Transit network in the study area.


Field study has been conducted to identify the high density of vehicles approaching in the study
area. As a result high density locations are identified and thematic map has been prepared. Traveller
information is essential for proper traffic management [13]. The high density locations are shown in
Fig. 11 in the study area.

Fig. 11 High density locations in the study area


The study area covers important temples in the city, due to that huge number of pilgrims and
public approach to the temple is day to day activity. One of the important reasons for the traffic volume
is increasing in the study area due to the presence of major famous temples. The locations of the
important temples are shown in Fig. 12. Multi scale and multi model GIS model was prepared for the
transportation data [14].

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Fig. 12 Temple locations in the study area


Improper parking is happening due to the above mentioned reasons like high density, temples and
inadequate transit network. The location of improper parking zones is identified and shown in Fig. 13
to resolve the parking problems. In Sweden off-road analysis was made to understand the traffic
strategy [15]. Improper parking of vehicles leads to occupy the road width, this may lead to decrease
the traffic volume and speed of the vehicles. Many physical features are essential to consider for proper
transit analysis [16].

Fig. 13 Improper parking zones in the study area

IV. CONCLUSION
The study results present traffic volume scenario in important junctions in Kanchipuram. The
prepared thematic maps show the causes of traffic congestion in the study area. Providing proper
parking locations, alternating the routes and avoiding the establishment of new commercial zones in the
study area may minimize the traffic congestion and also support the proper urban growth.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors wish their sincere thanks to SCSVMV University, Enathur, Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu, India, for
valuable support. The authors also wish to record a deep sense of gratitude to Mr.N.Seshadri Sekhar , HOD,
Department of Civil & Structural Engineering, SCSVMV University for constant support to complete the project.

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(All authors should include biographies with photo at the end of regular papers.)

Mr.M.Sureshkumar B.E, M.Tech (Ph.D), working as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Civil
& Structural Engineeringatn SCSVMV University. Published many research articles related to the
application of GIS in urban and environmental analysis. Presented and participated in many National and
International seminars related to GIS applications.
.

Ms. S. Supraja is pursuing final year in the Department of Civil & Structural Engineering in SCSVMV
University. Working with many minor projects related to urban traffic analysis.

Ms. R. Bhavani Sowmya is pursuing final year in the Department of Civil & Structural Engineering in
SCSVMV University. Working with many minor projects related to GIS analysis.

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