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02/07/2019

Curso “Integración de
generación eólica en la red y
tecnología HVDC”

Julio 2019, UniAndes, Bogotá (Colombia)


Oriol Gomis-Bellmunt, CITCEA-UPC
Mario Alberto Rios Mesias, Uni Andes

Día 1. Introducción + generación eólica 4 h - prácticas 4 h modelado


aerogenerador (2h estático - 2h dinámico)

Día 2. Funcionamiento de un convertidor conectado a la red (principios de


funcionamiento, lazos de control, sincronización) teoría 4 h - prácticas 4 h

Día 3. Integración de eólica a la red 4h (centrales eólicas, soporte a red) -


prácticas (soporte frecuencia y tensión de un aerogenerador) 4 h

Día 4. Tecnología HVDC (Teoría 4 h - prácticas 4 h) práctica simulación


enlace punto a punto HVDC

Día 5. Redes HVDC (Teoría 4 h - prácticas 4 h) práctica simulación sistema


multiterminal HVDC

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Wind power plant controllers


Solar PV power plant controllers

General requirements and definitions


Reactive power
Active power
Frequency support
Fault ride-through
Grid codes

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General Requirements
• Active Power Management
• Reactive power and Voltage Support
• Frequency Support
• Fault-Ride Through
• Short Circuit Current contribution
• Power Oscillation Damping
• Power quality (harmonics, flicker)
• Protection

Definitions
• Grid code requirements are defined at different points in onshore and
offshore WPPs
Onshore WPP

Grid Connection Point*:


Connection between WPP and main
grid

Offshore WPP

Grid Connection Point*: Connection


between WPP and offshore ac grid
Grid Coupling Point*: Connection
between offshore and onshore ac grid

*definitions from TenneT

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General requirements and definitions


Reactive power
Active power
Frequency support
Fault ride-through
Grid codes

Reactive Power & Voltage


• Reactive power is provided by,
• Wind Turbine converters.
• Other devices: capacitors, synchronous condensers, FACTS or
transformer regulation.
• Possible control modes:
• Reactive power control
• AC voltage control
• Power factor control

• Voltage control defined with a V-Q droop characteristic


V: voltage variation from
nominal value
Q: additional reactive power
demand requested to WPP

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Reactive Power & Voltage


• Grid codes define
• Voltage operating range
• PQ curves: reactive power limits depending on active power
generation

TenneT, grid connection point of


National Grid offshore grid
• Voltage-power factor curves: voltage limits depending on
power factor (or similar, such as Q/Pmax)

General requirements and definitions


Reactive power
Active power
Frequency support
Fault ride-through
Grid codes

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Active Power Management


• At renewable Plant level:
Normal operation Maximum power extraction
Balance control Limit to a constant value of active power
Delta control Reduction of (constant amount) of generation
Power ramp rate control Limitation of increase or decrease of active
power

Balance control Delta control Ramp rate control

M. Tsili and S. Papathanassiou, “A review of grid code technical requirements for wind farms, ” IET
Renewable Power Generation, 2009

Active Power Management


• Example: Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm

J. R. Kristoffersen, “The Horns Rev Wind Farm and the Operational Experience with the Wind
Farm Main Controller”, Copenhagen Offshore Wind 2005 12

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General requirements and definitions


Reactive power
Active power
Frequency support
Fault ride-through
Grid codes

Frequency control

 Mantain equilibrium generation-demand


 Mantain the frequency of the system constant
 Accomplish the energy exchange agreements with
neighboring areas
 Keep enough energy reserve

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Frequency response
Frequency evolution after power imbalance (loss of generation/load connection)

50 or 60 Hz
Standard limit

Steady State
limit

Instantaneous
limit

Inertia Reserve Frequency Frequency Replacement


or Fast Frequency Containment Restoration Reserve
Reserve Reserve Reserve

- Names and characteristics of frequency support services are defined by each


Transmission System Operator

Frequency response
Actuation
time
Inertia Reserve
Frequency Frequency Replacement
or Fast
Containment Restoration Reserve
Frequency
Reserve Reserve
Reserve

Activation
time
General characteristics of frequency support services (in Europe)
Service Activation Activation Actuation Provision from
Time Time Synchronous Generation
Inertia Reserve Automatic < 1-2 s ~ seconds Kinetic energy from rotation
(New service for non- mass
Synchronous Generation)
Frequency Containment Automatic < 30 s ~ minutes Governor (power-frequency
Reserve droop control)
Frequency Restoration Manual/ ~ minutes As long as Manual power dispatch/
Reserve Automatic required PI compensator

Replacement Reserve Manual ~ minutes As long as Manual power dispatch


required
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Frequency response
• Over-frequency event. The WTs reduce power:
• Pitch control (all WTs)
• Rotor speed control - power is reduced operating out of optimal power
extraction (only variable-speed WTs)
• Increasing temporarily rotor speed and store kinetic energy in rotating mass

• Under-frequency event. The WTs increase power:


• Deloading operation - WTs operate below the maximum possible power to
ensure a power reserve. Two methods:
• Pitch control (all WTs)
• Rotor speed control – power is increased going back to optimal power
extraction (only variable-speed WTs)
• Decreasing temporarily rotor speed and extract kinetic energy from rotating
mass
• Use energy storage systems.

Frequency response
Deloading operation of WTs:
• It ensures power reserve for underfrequency events.
• Advantages:
• It can be used to provide any frequency support service.
• Disadvantages:
• Wind generation has to be permanently curtailed, which reduces the
income from power generation.
• Implementation:
• Droop control based on frequency deviation
• Manual active power dispatch

Frequency-power droop control with


frequency dead-band

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Frequency response
WT control structure with pitch and rotor speed control

Pitch Control
Rotor speed control

F. Díaz-González et al, Participation of wind power plants in system frequency control: Review of grid code requirements
and control methods, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 19

Frequency response
• Grid codes define
• Frequency operating range
• Frequency-power droop characteristic:

EirGrid TenneT
- Deadband between B-C - Only overfrequency events
- Over and underfrequency
events

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Inertia emulation
Inertia emulation or “synthetic inertia”. Inertial response can be
achieved proposing additional control schemes that affect the generated
active power in the presence of frequency deviations, in order to allow
them to behave similar to synchronized generating units in these
situations.
Inertia Emulation:
• Extraction of kinetic energy from WT rotational mass.
• Only variable-speed WTs using additional converter controls
• It can be used to provide Inertia response.
• It can be implemented with or without curtailment.
• Without curtailment -> Recovery period needed

1
∆E
2
: WT inertia constant

General requirements and definitions


Reactive power
Active power
Frequency support
Fault ride-through
Grid codes

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Fault-Ride Through
• Capability to remain connected to the main grid during temporarily
faults Typical FRT FRT profile in different
profile countries

• The voltage must stay


above the FRT profile
during faults
• Only variable-speed WTs
can provide FRT

M. Tsili and S. Papathanassiou, “A review of grid code technical


requirements for wind farms, ” IET Renewable Power Generation,

http://www.nationalgrid.com/NR/rdonlyres/FA318C28-0CB2-4AA6-B7FE-
F29AFA3FBBBC/56382/2FaultRideThroughBackground100912.pdf

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Fault-Ride Through
• Examples
Type 3 WT (with DFIG) Type 4 WT (with PMSG)

Fault-Ride Through
• Consequences of FRT for the WTs if wind power cannot be
transferred:
• Only fixed-speed and DFIG-based WTs: wind power is stored in
the rotating mass, i.e. the rotor speed increases.
• Only variable-speed WTs: wind power is stored in the dc link of
the back-to-back VSC, i.e. dc voltage increases.
ωr increases

Vac
decreases

Vdc increases
• Solutions
• Reduce wind power generation quickly
• Dissipate power in resistor (crowbar or dc chopper)

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Fault-Ride Through
• Example: Activation of crowbar and dc chopper in DFIG-based WT
FRT without DC chopper and crowbar FRT with DC chopper and crowbar

General requirements and definitions


Reactive power
Active power
Frequency support
Fault ride-through
Grid codes

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Grid code requirements


 Grid codes are the requirements imposed by the
Transmission System Operators (TSOs) that a power plant
must accomplish to be connected (and to sell energy) to the
grid.
 These requirements are detailed in a document (Grid code)
that details which is the behavior of the power plant both in
steady state conditions and during transient operation.
 For instance, in Spain the connection of wind power is defined
in the Operational Procedure (PO) documents PO 12.2 y el
PO 12.3.

Grid code requirements

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Typical requirements
 Voltage and frequency operational ranges
• Frequency support
• Voltage support
 Active power control
 Reactive power control
 Low and High Voltage Ride Through

Additional requirements:
 Oscillation damping. Inclusion of a Power System
Stabiliser PSS in the voltage control system of the wind
power plant (in agreement with the network operator)

General control structure


• TSO requests to the WPP :
• Ancillary services for the
main ac grid.
• Power reductions for
congestion management.
• WPP control:
• Measures powers (P,Q), ac
voltage and frequency at
the point of connection
(POC).
• Dispatches power
references to the WTs.
• WT control:
• Measures powers at WT
connection.
• Receives power references
from WPP control.

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WPP control structure


Active Power Control
• Power curtailment
• Ramp rates
• Frequency response
(frequency droop function)

Reactive Power Control

• Maintain voltage a the point of connection:


• Normal operation (droop characteristic, voltage-power factor limits)
• Fault operation (WTs contribute to faults)
33

Additional control functions


WPP control with additional control functions

A. D. Hansen, M. Altin and N. A. Cutululis, “Modelling of Wind Power Plant Controller, Wind
Speed Time Series , Aggregation and Sample Results,” DTU Wind Energy, 2015.

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Wind power plant controllers


Solar PV power plant controllers

PV Power plant control


 Active power control

• Power curtailment and frequency droop are applied together


• Ramp rate limitation only applied to the curtailment contribution
• A PI controller computes the total power that PV inverters must generate

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 Active power control – real example 10 MW PV power plant.


Power curtailment + ramp rate.

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 Active power control – simulation example 2 MW PV power plant

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 Reactive power control

• Similar method than active power control


• Considering capacitor banks and FACTS devices a priority criteria is established
• If the plant is equipped with capacitor banks a filter is required before performing
the voltage droop control

 Reactive power control – real example 10 MW PV power


plant. Reactive power setpoint + ramp rate.

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 Reactive power control – real example 10 MW PV power


plant. Power factor setpoint

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