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COURSE OVERVIEW

Course Code GEHISTO


Readings in the Philippine
Course Title
History
Credit Units 3

Lecture Hours 1.5hrs per session

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GRADE COMPONENTS 100%
Quizzes & Assignments 20%
MAINTAIN IT
HOW?
Performance Evaluation 20%
(Individual Class Standing, Recitation, Attendance, etc.)
Group Activities 30%
(Group Work / Group Performance)
Research Paper / Periodical Exam 30%
TOTAL 100%
PASSING GRADE: 75% | BASE 0
HISTORY AND SOURCES
• LESSON 1
WHAT DO YOU THINK OF HISTORY?
History
[excerpts from Understanding History: A Primer of Historical Method by Louis Gottschalk)

“The English word history is derived from


the Greek noun ἱστορία [historia], meaning
learning. As used by the Greek philosopher
Aristotle, history meant a systematic
account of a set of natural phenomena,
whether or not chronological factoring was a
factor in the account…”
History
[excerpts from Understanding History: A Primer of Historical Method by Louis Gottschalk)

“In the course of time, however, the equivalent


Latin word scientia came to be used more
regularly to designate non-chronological
systematic accounts of natural phenomena; and
the word history was reserved usually for
accounts of phenomena (especially in human
affairs) in chronological order.”
History
[excerpts from Understanding History: A Primer of Historical Method by Louis Gottschalk)

By its most common definition, the word history


now means, “the past of mankind”

The reconstruction of the total past of


mankind, although it is the goal of historians, thus
becomes a goal they know full well is
unattainable.
History
[excerpts from Understanding History: A Primer of Historical Method by Louis Gottschalk)

 Only a small part of what happened in the past was ever observed.
 Only a part of what was observed in the past was remembered by
those who observed it;
 Only a part of what was remembered was recorded;
 Only a part of what was recorded has survived;
 Only a part of what has survived has come to the historians’ attention;
 Only a part of what is credible has been grasped; and
 Only a part of what has been grasped can be expounded or narrated
by the historian.
History

 “the study of the beliefs and desires, practices, and


institutions of human beings”
 “also includes a look into the development of the
Philippine culture through time especially with the
influences of the colonial period that would eventually
shape the present Philippine identity”
WHY STUDY history?

 An examination of the past can tell us a great deal


about how we came to be who we are.
 Looking at the past teaches us to see the world
through different eyes – appreciating diversity of
human perceptions, beliefs, and cultures.
HISTORICAL METHOD AND HISTORIOGRAPHY
 Historical Method
 process of critically examining and analyzing the
records and survivals of the past
Historiography (writing of history)
 imaginative reconstruction of the past from the
data derived by historical method
SOURCES
 It is from historical sources that our history is
studied and written, but in analyzing them several
methodologies and theories were used by historians
to properly study history and glean from the sources
what is, for them, a proper way of writing history to
enhance and disseminate national identity.
SOURCES
[excerpts from Understanding History: A Primer of Historical Method by Louis Gottschalk)

“The historian, however, has to use many materials that are not in
books. Where these are archeological, epigraphical, or
numismatical materials, he has to depend largely on museums.
Where there are official records, he may have to search them in
archives, courthouses, government libraries, etc. Where there are
no private papers not available in official collections, he may have
to hunt among the papers of business houses, the muniment
rooms of ancient castles, the prized possessions of autograph
collectors, the records of parish churches, etc.”
SOURCES
 Primary sources
 Secondary sources
Primary SOURCES
 Materials produced by people or groups
directly involved in the event or topic being
studied. These people are either participants or
eyewitnesses to the event. These sources range
from sources range from eyewitness accounts,
diaries, letters, legal documents, official
documents (government or private), and even
photographs.
Primary SOURCES

 must thus have been produced by a


contemporary of the events it narrates; does
not however, need to be original in the legal
sense of original (that is the very document)
Primary SOURCES
Formally there are 8 examples of these primary sources:
1. photographs that may reflect social conditions of
historical realities and everyday life
2. old sketches and drawings that may indicate the
conditions of life of societies in the past
3. old maps that may reveal how space and geography
were used to emphasize trade routes, structural
buildup, etc.
4. cartoons for political expression or propaganda
Primary SOURCES

5. material evidence of the prehistoric past like cave


drawings, old syllabaries, and ancient writings
6. statistical tables, graphs, and charts
7. oral history or recordings by electronic means of
accounts of eyewitnesses or participants; the
recordings are then transcribed and used for research
8. published and unpublished primary documents,
eyewitness accounts, and other written sources
Secondary SOURCES

 The testimony of anyone who is not an


eyewitness – that is one who was not present
at the event which he tells
 These are books, articles, and scholarly
journals that had interpreted primary sources
or had used them to discuss certain subjects of
history
EXTERNAL CRITICISM

 Problem of authenticity/ genuineness


 The historian checks the validity and
originality of the evidence used for the
reconstruction of a historical event or figure
INTERNAL CRITICISM
 Problem of credibility
 The historian checks the validity of the
content of a historical document or artifact by
comparing it with existing historical evidence
related to the same event or figure
 The character of the sources, the knowledge of
the author, and the influences prevalent at the time
of writing must be carefully
EXTERNAL CRITICISM INTERNAL CRITICISM
• Testing the Genuineness of • Determining the value
the Source of the Source
• Localizing it (time, place, • Interpretation of the
author)
source
• Analyzing it (Recension and
Restoration of Text) • Establishment of the
facts
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
(on Fox and SCOTT)

1. Which is the primary source and the secondary source


between the two readings? Explain
2. Do a credibility analysis of the sources. Who between the
two authors is more credible to talk about the topic?

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