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КАФЕДРА ТЕОРИИ И ПРАКТИКИ ПЕРЕВОДА

И ОБЩЕГО ЯЗЫКОЗНАНИЯ

ЛИНГВОСТРАНОВЕДЕНИЕ СТРАНЫ ПЕРВОГО ИНОСТРАННОГО


ЯЗЫКА (АНЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК)
Учебное пособие
(для студентов направления подготовки 45.03.02 «Лингвистика»
1-го курса очной/заочной формы обучения)

Рекомендовано
на заседании кафедры ТППОЯ
Протокол № 12 от 30.05.18

Утверждено
на заседании методсовета ДонГТУ
протокол № от

Алчевск
ДонГТУ
2018
УДК Ш 143.21

Учебное пособие по дисциплине «Лингвострановедение страны


первого иностранного языка» (для студ. напр. подготовки 45.03.02
«Лингвистика" 1-го курса очной/заочной формы обучения) / Сост. Е.А.
Калиновская. – Алчевск: ДонГТУ, 2018 – 119 c.

Составитель: Е. А. Калиновская, ст. преп.


кафедры ТППОЯ

Рецензенты :

к.ф.н., доцент, зав. кафедры


ТППОЯ ДонГТУ
Сулейманова Н.В.

к.п.н., доц.. преподаватель


Лугансгого национального
университета им. Т.Г. Шевченко
Грицькова Н.В.
Содержание
Вступление…………………………………………………………… 3
1. Unit 1 The history of the English language………………………..5
2. Unit 2 The geographical position and climate of the UK…………20
3. Unit 3 Main events in the history of Britain………………………27
4. Unit 4 British state system ………………………………………..40
5. Unit 5 British system of education…………………………………55
6. Unit 6 Art, museums and galleries……………………………….. 65
7. Unit 7 Cultural life, traditions and holidays……………………….80
8. Unit 8 The media……………………………………………………90
9. Приложение ………………………………………………………..104
Вступление
Курс лингвострановедения входит в перечень базовых дисциплин,
изучаемых студентами 1 курса. Его цель - познакомить студентов с
культурой страны изучаемого языка во всем ее богатстве, историей,
географией, государственным устройством, современной экономикой и
политикой.
Данное учебное пособие включает в себя тексты на английском и
русском языках, а также англо-русский терминологический словарь. Тексты
адаптированы в целях профессионально ориентированного преподавания
английского языка на младших курсах и снабжены языковыми и речевыми
упражнениями.
Пособие структурировано применительно к условиям
университетского семестра (16 — 18 недель) и рассчитано на 32 часа
аудиторных занятий. Оно состоит из 8 тематических разделов.
Все разделы построены по единой схеме. Каждый раздел начинается с
лекционного материала, затем следует его обсуждение и выполнение
разнообразных упражнений, направленных на развитие навыков
монологического и диалогического высказывания студентов по заданной
теме. Студентам предлагаются тематические тексты на английском языке для
самостоятельного перевода. Так же большое внимание уделяется развитию
навыков перевода, как с английского языка на русский, так и наоборот.
UNIT 1
THE HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.
1. Modern Germanic Languages.
2. The Earliest Period of Germanic History. Proto-Germanic.
3. East Germanic.
4. North Germanic.
5. West Germanic.
6. Chronological Divisions in the History of English. Short Survey of Periods.
Languages can be classified according to different principles. The historical
or genealogical classification, groups оf languages in accordance with their origin
from a common linguistic ancestor. Genetically, English belongs to the Germanic
or Teutonic group of languages, which is one of the Indo-European (IE) linguistic
families. Most of the area of Europe and large parts of other continents are
occupied today by the IE languages, Germanic being one of their major groups.
The total number of people speaking Germanic languages approaches 400 million
plus a number of bilingual people in the countries where English is used as an
official language (50 countries). The Germanic languages in the modern world are
as follows: English - in Great Britain, Ireland, the USA, Canada, Australia, New
Zealand, the South African Republic and many other former British colonies and
dominions (доминионы); German - in the Federal Republic of Germany, Austria,
Luxemburg, Liechtenstein, part of Switzerland; Netherlandish - in the Netherlands
and Flanders (Belgium), (known also as Dutch and Flemish respectively);
Afrikaans - in the South African Republic; Danish - in Denmark; Swedish - in
Sweden and Finland; Norwegian - in Norway; Icelandic - in Iceland; Frisian - in
some regions of the Netherlands and the Federal Republic of Germany; Faroese -
in the Faroe Islands; Yiddish - in different countries. All the Germanic languages
are related through their common origin and joint development at the early stages
of history. The survey of their external history will show where and when the
Germanic languages arose and acquired their common features and also how they
have developed into modern independent tongues.
The Earliest Period of Germanic History. Proto-Germanic. The history of
the Germanic group begins with the appearance of what is known as the Proto-
Germanic (PG) language (also termed Common or Primitive Germanic, Primitive
Teutonic and simply Germanic). PG is the linguistic ancestor or the parent
language of the Germanic group. It is supposed to have split from related IE
tongues sometime between the 15th and 10th centuries B.C. As the Indo-
Europeans extended over a larger territory the ancient Germans or Teutons moved
further north than other tribes and settled on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea in
the region of the Elbe. This place is regarded as the most probable original home of
the Teutons. It is here that they developed their first specifically Germanic
linguistic features which made them a separate group in the IE family. It is
believed that at the earliest stages of history PG was fundamentally one language,
though dialectally colored. In its later stages dialectal differences grew, so that
toward the beginning of our era Germanic appears divided into dialectal groups
and tribal dialects. Dialectal differentiation increased with the migrations and
geographical expansion of the Teutons caused by overpopulation, poor agricultural
technique and scanty natural resources in the areas of their original settlement.
Towards the beginning of our era the common period of Germanic history came to
an end. The Teutons had extended over a large territory and the PG language broke
into parts. The tri-partite division of the Germanic languages proposed by 19th
century philologists corresponds, with a few adjustments, to Pliny's grouping of the
Old Teutonic tribes. According to this division PG split into three branches: East
Germanic, North Germanic and West Germanic. In due course three branches split
into separate Germanic languages.
East Germanic. The East Germanic subgroup was formed by the tribes who
returned from Scandinavia at the beginning of our era. The most numerous and
powerful of them were the Goths. They were among the first Teutons to leave the
coast of the Baltic Sea and start on their migrations to the territory of Roman
Empire and Northern Italy. The Gothic Language, now dead, has been preserved in
written records of 4th-6th centuries. The Goths were the first of the Teutons to
become Christian. In the 4th century Ulfilas, a West Gothic bishop, made a
translation of the Gospels from Greek into Gothic using a modified form of the
Greek alphabet. It is one of the earliest texts in the languages of the Germanic
group; it represents a form of language very close to PG and therefore throws light
on the prе-written stages of history of all the languages of the Germanic group.
North Germanic. Thе Teutons who stayed in Scandinavia after departure of
the Goths gave rise to the North Germanic subgroup of languages. The North
Germanic tribes lived on the southern coast of the Scandinavian Peninsula and in
Northern Denmark. The speech of the North Germanic tribes showed little
dialectal variation until the 9th сentury and is regarded as a sort of common North
Germanic parent language called Old Norse or Old Scandinavian. It has come
down to us in runic inscriptions dated from the 3d to the 9th centuries. The
disintegration of Old Norse into separate dialects and languages began after the 9th
century, when the Scandinavians started out on their sea voyages. The principal
linguistic differentiation in Scandinavia corresponded to the political division into
Sweden, Denmark and Norway. The three kingdoms constantly fought for
dominance and the relative position of the three languages altered, as one or
another of the powers prevailed over its neighbors. For several hundred years
Denmark was the most powerful of the Scandinavian kingdoms. By the 14th
century Norway fell under Danish rule too. Sweden regained its independence in
the 16th century, while Norway remained a backward Danish colony up tо the
early 19th century. Consequently, both Swedish and Norwegian were influenced
by Danish. The earliest written records in Old Danish, Old Norwegian and Old
Swedish date from the 13th century. In the later Middle Ages, with the growth of
capitalists relations and the unification of the countries, Danish, Swedish and the
Norwegian developed into national literary languages. In addition to the 3
languages on the mainland the North Germanic subgroup includes two more
languages: Icelandic and Faroese whose origin goes back to the Viking Age.
Beginning with the 8th century the Scandinavian sea-rovers and merchants
undertook distant sea voyages and set up their colonies in many territories.
Linguistically, in most areas of their expansion, the Scandinavian settlers were
assimilated by the native population. In the Faroe Islands the West Norwegian
dialects brought by the Scandinavians developed into a separate language called
Faroese. Iceland was practically uninhabited at the time of the first Scandinavian
settlements. Their Western Scandinavian dialects eventually grew into an
independent language, Icelandic. Old Icelandic written records date from the 12th
and 13th centuries. Modern Icelandic is very much like Old Icelandic and Old
Norse, for it has not participated in the linguistic changes which took place in the
other Scandinavian languages, probably because of its geographical isolation.
West Germanic. Around the beginning of our era the West Germanic tribes
dwelt in the lowlands between the Oder and the Elbe. The dialectal differentiation
of West Germanic was probably quite distinct. On the eve of their "great
migrations" of the 4th and 5th centuries the West Germans included several tribes.
The Franconians (or Franks) occupied he lower basin of the Rhine; from there they
spread up the Rhine and are accordingly subdivided into Low, Middle and High
Franconians. The Angles and the Frisians, the Jutes and the Saxons inhabited the
coastal area of the modern Netherlands, the Federal Republic of Germany and the
southern part of Denmark. A group of tribes known as High Germans lived in the
mountainous southern regions of the Federal Republic of Germany. In the early
Middle Ages the Franks consolidated into a powerful tribal alliance, towards the
8th century their kingdom grew into one of the largest states in Western Europe.
The Holly Roman Empire of the Franks embraced France and half of Italy and
stretched northwards up to the North and Baltic Sea. The empire lacked ethnic and
economic unity and in the 9th century broke up into parts. Its western part
eventually became the basis of France, the population of which spoke a local
variety of Latin, which developed into French. The modern language of the
Netherlands, formerly called Dutch, and its variant in Belgium, known as the
Flemish dialect, are now treated as a single language, Netherlandish. About 300
years ago the Dutch language was brought to South Africa by colonists from
Southern Holland. Their dialects in Africa eventually grew into a separate West
Germanic language, Africaans. Africaans has incorporated elements from the
speech of English and German colonists in Africa and from the tongues of the
native. Writing in Africaans began at the end of the 19th century. The High
German group of tribes didn't go far in their migrations. The Alemanians,
Bavarians and Thuringians expanded east, driving the Slavonic tribes frоm places
of their early settlement. The High German dialects consolidated into a common
language known as Old High German. The first written records in it date from the
8 and 9 centuries. Towards the 12th century High German (known as Middle High
German) had intermixed with neighboring tongues and eventually developed into
the literary German language, the Written Standard of New High German was
established after the Reformation (16th century) though no Spoken Standard
existed until the 19th century as Germany remained politically divided into a
number of kingdoms and dukedoms. Another offshoot (ветвь) of High German is
Yiddish. It grew from the High German dialects which were adopted by numerous
Jewish communities scattered over Germany in the 11th, 12th centuries. These
dialects blended with elements of Hebrew and Slavonic and developed into a
separate West Germanic language with a spoken and literary form. Yiddish was
exported from Germany to many other countries. At the later stage of the great
migration period (the 5th century) a group of West Germanic tribes started out on
their invasion of the British Isles. The dialects of the Angles, Saxons and Jutes in
the British Isles develop into the English language; the first English written records
have come down from the 7th century, which is the earliest date in the history of
writing in the West Germanic subgroup.
Chronological Divisions in the History of English.
Short Survey of Periods. The historical development of a language is a continuous
uninterrupted process without sudden breaks or rapid transformations. Therefore
any periodisation imposed on language history by linguists with precise date might
appear artificial. Yet in all language histories division into periods is used for
teaching and research purposes. The commonly accepted, traditional periodisation
divides English history into 3 periods: Old English (OE), Middle English (ME) and
New English (NE). OE begins with the Germanic settlement of Britain (5th
century) or with the beginning of writing (7th century) and ends with the Norman
conquest(1066); ME begins with the Norman Conquest and ends on the
introduction of printing (1475), which is the start of the Modern or New English
period (Mod E or NE); the New period lasts to the present day. Division into
chronological periods should take into account both aspects: external and internal
(extra- and intralinguistic). The following periodisation of English history is partly
based on the conventional three periods; it subdivides the history of the English
language into 7 periods differing in linguistic situation and the nature of linguistic
changes. The lst - pre-written or pre-historical period, which may be termed Early
English, lasts from the West Germanic invasion of Britain till the beginning of
writing that is from the 5th to the close of the 7th centuries. It is the stage of tribal
dialects of the West Germanic invaders (Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians),
which were gradually losing contacts with the related continental tongues. The
tribal dialects were used for oral communication; there was no written form of
English. It was the period from PG to written OE. Early OE linguistic changes,
particularly numerous sound changes, marked OE off from PG and from other OG
languages. The second historical period extends from the 8th century till the end of
the 11th century. The English language of that time is referred to as Old English or
Anglo-Saxon. The tribal dialects gradually changed into local or regional dialects.
Towards the end of the period the differences between the dialects grew and their
relative position altered. They were probably equal as a medium of oral
communication, while in the sphere of writing one of the dialects, West Saxon, had
gain supremacy over the other dialects because of the rise of the kingdom of
Wessex at the time. The language of this historical period is treated as a more or
less stable system. Careful examination of OE texts has revealed the increasing in
the 10th and 11th centuries, which testifies to growing divergence instability of the
language. The 3d period, known as Early Middle English, starts after 1066, the
year of the Norman Conquest, and covers the 12th, 13th and half of the 14th
centuries. It was the stage of the Great dialectal divergence caused by the feudal
system and foreign influences - Scandinavian and French. The dialectal division of
present-day English owes its origin to this period of history. Under Norman rule
the official language in England was French, or rather its variety called Anglo-
French or Anglo-Norman; it was also the dominant language in literature. The
local dialects were 15 mainly used for oral communication and were but little
employed in writing. Toward the end of the period their literary prestige grew, as
English began to displace French in the sphere of writing as well as in other ones.
Dialectal divergence and lack of official English made a favorable environment for
intensive linguistic change. Early ME was a time of great changes at all the levels
of the language, especially in lexis and grammar. Grammatical alterations were so
drastic (сильные) that by the end of the period they had transformed English from
a high inflected language into a mainly analytical one; the role of the syntactical
connection grew. The fourth period - from the later 14th century till the end of the
15th century. We may call it Late or Classical Middle English. It was the time of
the restoration of English to the position of the state and literary language and the
time of literary flourishing. The main dialect used in writing and literature was the
mixed dialect of London. In periods of literary efflorescence (период
процветания) like the age of Chaucer, the pattern set by great authors becomes a
more or less fixed from of language. Chaucer's language was a recognized literary
form, imitated throughout the 15th century. Literary flourishing had a stabilizing
effect on language, so that the rate of linguistic changes was slowed down. At the
same time the written forms of the language developed and improved. The 5 period
-- Early New English -- lasted from the introduction of printing to the age of
Shakespeare that is from 1475 to 1660. The first printed book in English was
published by William Saxton in 1475. This period is a sort of transition between
two outstanding epochs of literary efflorescence the age of Chaucer and the age of
Shakespeare (also known as the Literary Renaissance). Saxton’s English of the
printed books was a sort of bridge between the London literary English of the ME
period and the language of the Literary Renaissance. The London dialect had risen
to prominence as a compromise between the various types of speech prevailing in
the country and formed the basis of the growing national literary language. The
early NE period was a time of sweeping changes at all levels, in the first place
lexical and phonetic. The growth of the vocabulary was a national reflection of the
progress of culture in the new, bourgeois society, and of the wider horizons of
man's activity. New words from internal and external sources enriched the
vocabulary. Extensive phonetic changes were transforming the vowel system,
which resulted, among other things, in the growing gap between the written and
the spoken forms of the word (that is, between pronunciation and spelling). The
loss of most inflectional endings in the 15th century justifies the definition "period
of lost endings" given by H. Sweet to the NE period. The sixth period extends from
the mid 17th century to the close of the 18th century. In the history of the language
it is often called "the age of normalization and correctness", in the history of
literature -- the "neo-classical" age. This age witnessed the establishment of
"norms", which can be defined as received standards recognized as correct at the
given period. The norms were fixed as rules and prescriptions of correct usage in
the numerous dictionaries and grammar books published at the time and were
spread through education and writing. It is essential that during the 18th century
literary English differentiated into distinct styles, which is a property of a mature
literary language. It is also important to note that during this period the English
language extended its area far beyond the borders of the British Isles, first of all to
North America. The English language of the 19th and 20th centuries represents the
seventh period in the history of English - Late New English or Modern English. By
the 19th century English had achieved the relative stability typical of an age of
literary florescence and had acquired all the properties of a national language, with
its functional stratification and recognized standards though, like any living
language, English continued to grow and change. The classical language of
literature was strictly distinguished from the local dialects and the dialects of lower
social ranks. The dialects were used in oral communication and, as a rule, had no
literary tradition; dialect writing was limited to conversations interpolated in books
composed of Standard English or to recording folklore. The 20th century witnessed
considerable intermixture of dialects. The local dialects are now retreating, being
displaced by Standard English The "best" form of English, the Received Standard,
and also the regional modified standards are being spread through new channels:
the press, radio, cinema and television.

Vocabulary notes
Faroe Islands – Фарерские острова
Elbe River Эльба, Лаба (река в Чехии и Германии; впадает в Северное море)
Scanty -скудный
tri-partite – трехстороннее
Gospel – Евангелие
sea-rovers - морские пираты

Reading

Roman influence on English language


Languages acquire new words in many different ways. They are able to
borrow from other languages, create new words through affixation, create new
words through compounding, shorten old words, and complete other processes to
create new words. The English language has borrowed many different words from
other languages to create new words. Latin, Greek, Old Norse, French, and many
other languages have all been borrowed from to create new English words.
Throughout the years English has been a constant borrower from other
languages, but Latin stands out as having made the biggest impact on the English
lexicon. The English language has borrowed numerous words from Latin, and it is
difficult to read any type of English text that doesn't contain at least a few words
derived from Latin. Latin has also affected English grammar, but it has played a
bigger role in the expansion of the English lexicon. Latin began its influence on the
English language long before English was an established language, and it
continues its influence even today. The role that Latin has played in the creation of
new English vocabulary during the Old, Middle, and Early Modern periods of
English is especially intriguing.
The earliest influence of Latin on the English language would have to be the
influence that the Romans had on early Germanic tribes while they were still
located on mainland Europe. Before the Germanic tribes invaded Britain, they had
contact with Romans due to trade and war. The Germanic tribes were bordered by
the Roman Empire and were heavily influenced by their presence. From this
period, Old English receives the following words from Latin: ceap 'bargain', mynet
'coin', win 'wine', must 'new wine', cytel 'kettle', and sigel 'necklace'. All of these
words were borrowed from Roman traders or from Germanic merchants and are
based on the Latin versions of the word. Thus, when the Germanic invaders
invaded Britain, they had already been influenced by the Romans and had already
begun to use certain Latin words in their language. Also, Roman soldiers were not
only from Rome, and we can surmise that Roman armies would have been
composed of Germanic peoples. These Germanic soldiers were immersed into
Roman culture; therefore, they were adopting Latin words into their own language.
Latin was introduced to the Celts with Caesar's invasion of Celtic Britain in
55 B.C. During the almost 350 years of Roman control of Britain, there were
numerous people who spoke Latin, but there were not enough speakers to cause
Latin to survive in Britain once the Romans returned to Rome. It should also be
noted that although we consider the Roman invaders to be fluent Latin speakers,
that may not have been the case for every soldier. Roman soldiers were from all
parts of the Roman Empire, and they spoke a variety of different languages. It
would be logical to think that when the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes arrived in 449
that they would borrow thousands of words from the Celts and that some of these
borrowed words would have to be Latin, but this is not the case. Even though the
Romans ruled Celitic Britain for many years and lent many Latin words to the
Celts, the Germanic invaders of Britain would hardly borrow any Latin from the
conquered Celts. There were some borrowings though. One of the words that was
probably picked up from Latin was castra 'camp' .
When St. Augustine landed in 597, he brought not only Christianity, but he
also reintroduced Latin to Britain. Naturally, as England became a Christian
country, Latin would begin to have an even stronger influence on Old English
vocabulary. This introduction to Christianity created modern English such words
as: abbot, alms, altar, hymn, litany, priest, psalm, and tunic from Latin. It is easy to
see that most of these words are of a churchly origin, but the Anglo-Saxons also
borrowed words for household items, clothing, and educational terms. Latin would
have even a greater effect as the Anglo-Saxons began to discontinue the use of
runes and start to use the Latin alphabet. This would seem to allow for an even
greater number of Latin words to be borrowed by the English language. Originally,
Latin would have only been transmitted verbally, but now that the Latin alphabet
was being used to write, the Anglo-Saxons could borrow both from written and
spoken word. Although religious words were continually borrowed during the
Benedictine Reform, general everyday use words are missing. Latin influenced the
early, middle, and late periods of Old English, and it continued this influence into
the period of Middle English.
Although this period of Middle English begins with the Norman Conquest
and is most notable for its French influence, Latin words were still being
borrowed. It should also be noted that many of the borrowed French words were
originally derived from Latin words. During this period there were some direct
borrowings from Latin, but these were not as popular as the words borrowed from
French. During the Middle English period, Latin gave English such words as:
client, conviction, discuss, essence, folio, imaginary, instant, library, medicine, and
quadrant . Clearly, there would be numerous borrowings of religious words due to
the continued use of Latin by the Catholic Church. Latin was also known as the
language of intellectuals and was still being taught in schools, albeit through
French. As can be seen from the list above, the Latin borrowings were not
restricted to only religious words. Students, who spoke English at home, were
studying Latin via French, and their Latin pronunciations and spellings were
probably French. Even if a word was borrowed directly from Latin, it would be
difficult to clearly say that it is a direct borrowing because it may be pronounced in
a French manner.
Latin continues its influence on English vocabulary through the period of
early Modern English. The sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries
account for most of the Latin words that are still used today. The English
Renaissance, starting at around 1500, began a period of intense borrowing of
words from other languages. Latin was still the strongest lender of new words.
Although English was known as the language of popular literature, it should be
remembered that Latin was the language of scholars and still used by scholars all
over Europe. Because English was not looked at as a scholarly language, many
words were borrowed from Latin and French at this time; for example, abdomen,
area, compensate, data, decorum, imitate, series, sinecure, ultimate, and vindicate
were all borrowed during the early Modern English period. It is almost impossible
to determine the exact number of Latin words that were beginning to appear in
English during the early Modern era, but David Crystal surmises that 75% of all
words borrowed during this period come from Latin . The first few centuries of the
Modern English period were provided with countless new words due to the
borrowing of Latin.
Latin has had an enormous influence on English vocabulary, and this
influence can be historically and linguistically traced from before the Germanic
invaders arrived in what would later be known as England. Even if it is difficult to
determine if some words were borrowed directly from Latin, we know that Latin
borrowings have played an enormous role in the creation of Modern English. This
influence continued thorough all periods of English and even continues today. The
English language would be unrecognizable if we were to not use words of Latin
origin. Although English is clearly a Germanic language and doesn't belong in the
Romance family, it will be forever bound to Latin.
EXERCISES
1. Find in the text the following concepts, check your ability to explain them in
English, and add them to your working vocabulary.
to borrow, enormous influence, invaders, unrecognizable, scholars, Renaissance,
intellectuals, direct borrowings, a Christian country.
2. Write out from the text the sentences or their parts, which contain the words and
phrases given below and translate them into Russian:
a scholarly language, a churchly origin, fluent Latin speakers, Germanic
merchants, Caesar's invasion, countless new words.
3. Explain in English what is meant by:
shorten old words, create new words through compounding, were bordered by,
have only been transmitted verbally, for household items.
4. Answer the following questions:
1. How do the languages acquire new words?
2. From what language has the English language borrowed the words?
3. What language has the biggest impact on English?
4. What English words from the Old English can you name?
5. What did St. Augustine bring to England?
6. Were the Latin borrowings restricted to only religious words?
7. Have Latin borrowings played an enormous role in the creation of Modern
English.?
5. Translate the text from Russian into English:
Английский язык принадлежит к германской группе языков и является
родственным таким языкам, как шведский, датский и немецкий.
Историю АЯ принято делить на три периода:
1) англо-саксонский, или староанглийский (Old English) – до 1150 г.;
2) среднеанглийский (Middle English) – от 1150 до 1500 г.;
3) современный английский (Modern English) – язык последних 500 лет.
Староанглийский язык являлся германским диалектом и своей сложной
системой грамматических форм напоминал современный немецкий или
русский язык (так называемые синтетические языки).
Староанглийский язык имел 3 рода имен существительных – мужской,
женский и средний, мало связанных со значением слова. Так,
существительное hand – рука – было женского рода, foоt – нога – мужского
рода, wifе– женщина – среднего рода. Имена существительные имели 4
падежа. Прилагательные согласовались с существительными в роде, числе и
падеже, а глагол изменялся по числам и по лицам.
Глагольные времена и другие формы образовывались главным образом
путем изменения самого глагола, как в русском языке, а не при помощи вспо-
могательных глаголов, как в современном АЯ. Все времена группы
Progressive начали образовываться в среднеанглийский период (т.е. с 1150 до
1500 г.) и укрепились в языке только к XVII столетию, а некоторые формы,
как, например, Present Progressive Passive  – еще позднее.
Вспомогательный глагол do употреблялся сначала лишь как основной
глагол (делать), с XVI столетия использовался как усилитель значения
основного глагола (I do know this man – Я действительно знаю этого
человека) и не служил для образования вопросительной и отрицательной
форм глагола в Present и Past Simple, как сейчас. Эта функция закрепилась за
ним только с XVII столетия.
С течением времени под влиянием ряда языков, проникавших в
Англию вместе с завоевателями римлянами, датчанами и особенно нормано-
французами, структура АЯ сильно изменилась. Исчезло склонение
существительных по падежам и родам, прилагательное стало неизменяемой
частью речи. Всё изменение глагола свелось к четырем формам: to go
– (1), went – (2), gone – (3),going – (4). Вместе с тем система глагольных
времен усложнилась и развилась. Благодаря широкому использованию
вспомогательных глаголов стало возможным выражать тонкие оттенки
отношений ко времени, степени и характеру совершения действия
(Progressive и Perfect Tenses).
В результате этих трансформаций современный АЯ превратился в
язык, напоминающий скорее китайский (где оттенки значений передаются
отдельными словами-кирпичиками) с очень малым количеством изменений
самого слова. Те отношения между словами, которые в других языках,
например, в русском или немецком, выражаются формами отдельных слов
(падеж, форма лица, форма рода и т. д.), в современном АЯ выражаются
или порядком слов в предложении или служебными словами (предлогами,
вспомогательными глаголами, артиклями и т.д.); так, большинство
временных форм глагола, форм залога и наклонения образуются при помощи
вспомогательных глаголов (be, have, shall/will,); предлоги часто передают
падежные отношения.
UNIT 2
THE GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION AND CLIMATE OF THE UK.
1. The geographical situation of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
2. Seas, oceans, rivers and lakes.
3. Mountains.
4. Climate.
5. Population.
The British Isles lie off the north-west coast of Europe. Their total area is
about 244,100 square km. The two largest islands are Great Britain and Ireland.
Great Britain, which forms the greater part of the British Isles, comprises England,
Wales and Scotland. Ireland comprises Northern Ireland and the Irish Republic.
The Isle of Wight is off the southern coast of England. The Isles of Scilly are off
the south-west coast of England and Anglesey is off North Wales, The Orkneys
and Shetlands are to the far north of Scotland. The Isle of Man is in the Irish Sea
and the Channel Islands are between Great Britain and France. The Isle of Man and
the Channel Islands are not part of England, Wales, Scotland or Northern Ireland.
They have a certain administrative autonomy. England has a total area of 50,333
square miles (130,362 sq. km). It is divided into counties, of which there are 39
geographical ones and 46 administrative ones. Wales has a total area of 8,017
square miles (20,764 sq. km) and is divided into 13 counties. Scotland together
with its 186 inhabited islands has a total area of 30,414 square miles (78,772 sq.
km). It has 33 counties. Northern Ireland consists of 6 counties and has a total area
of 5,462 square miles (14,121 sq. km). The total land area of the United Kingdom
is 93,027 square miles (240,940 sq. km). Great Britain is bordered by the Atlantic
Ocean on the north-west, north and south-west. It is separated from Europe by the
North Sea, the Straits of Dover or Pas de Calais, and the English Channel or La
Manche, a French name which means "a sleeve". The North Sea and the English
Channel are often called the "Narrow Seas". They are not deep but frequently are
rough and difficult to navigate during storms, which makes crossing from England
to France sometimes far from pleasant. On the west Great Britain is separated from
Ireland by the Irish Sea and the North Channel. The seas around Britain are
shallow and provide exceptionally good fishing grounds. The British Isles appear
to stand on a raised part of the sea bed, usually called the continental shelf, which
thousands of years ago used to be dry land and which constituted part of mainland
Europe. This shelf forms the sea floor around Britain and that is why the seas
surrounding the British Isles are shallow (about 300 ft or 90 m). The chief rivers of
Great Britain are: the Severn, the Thames, the Trent, the Aire, the Great Ouse, the
Wye, the Tay, the Clyde, the Spey, the Tweed, the Tyne. The rivers of Britain are
of no great value as water-ways and few of them are navigable. The longest river is
the Thames (200 miles). There are many beautiful lakes in the country. The most
important ports are: London, Liverpool, Southampton, Belfast, Glasgow and
Cardiff. Southampton is Britain's largest port for ocean going liners. Portsmouth is
a naval port with some shipbuilding. Milford Haven (in Wales) is one of British
major oil ports. In Scotland there are three distinct regions: the Highlands, the
central plain or Lowlands and the southern uplands ("the Scott country") with their
gently rounded hills. In England and Wales all the high land is in the west and
north-west. The south-eastern plain reaches the west coast only at one or two
places — at the Bristol Channel and by the mouths of the rivers Dee and Mersey.
In the north you find the Cheviots separating England from Scotland, the Pennines
going down England and the Cumbrian mountains of the Lake District. In the west
are the Cambrian mountains which occupy the greater part of Walles. The highest
pick of the country is Ben Nevis (1343 m) in Scotland. Lying in middle latitudes
Britain has a mild and temperate climate. In the classification of climates Britain
falls generally into the cool, temperate, humid type. The prevalent westerly winds
blowing into Britain from the Atlantic are rough and carry the warmth and
moisture of lower latitudes into Britain. As the weather changes with the wind, and
Britain is visited by winds from different parts of the world ranging from polar to
tropical regions it is but natural that the most characteristic feature of Britain's
weather is its variability. Although the weather is as changeable as it could be in
such a relatively small region, the extremes are hardly ever severe. The 18
temperature rarely exceeds 32 °C or falls below zero. Still the wind may bring
winter cold in spring or summer days in October. Britain's rainfall depends to a
great extent on topography and exposure to the Atlantic. In the mountainous areas
there is more rain than in the plains of the south and east. The heavy rain that falls
in the mountains runs off quickly down steeply graded valleys where it can be
stored in reservoirs which provide water for the lowland towns and cities. Droughts
occur but rarely and crops are never a complete loss. The occasional little
whirlwind (a twister) can uproof houses, heavy snowfalls can immobilize traffic
locally, the rare glazed frost and the much commoner icy roads can cause great
inconvenience, but fog is the worst weather hazard, causing collisions and death on
roads and railways. The driest period is from March to June and the wettest months
are from October to January.
The total population of the UK is over 59 million (59554000) people. The
UK is inhabited by the English — 49856 million, who constitute about 83 % of the
total population, the Scots — 5057 million (8,5 %), the Welsh - 2938 million
(about 5 %), the Irish — 1703 million, constituting 2,9 % of the total population.
Among other nationalities inhabiting the UK there are Gaels, Jews, Poles,
Germans, Frenchmen, Italians as well as migrants from India, Pakistan and African
countries. English is the official language of the country. Besides standard literary
English there are many regional and social dialects. The vocabulary of the dialects
died out, but the accents and few bits of distinctive grammar remain. And it is the
accent which gives visitors with knowledge of the English language problems and
even a shock. Some accents are so strong that they present problems for the
British, too. English is the language predominantly spoken in all the four parts of
the UK. Wales, however, is bilingual as a result of the long struggle of the Welsh
to preserve their language. Welsh is the first language of the majority of the
population in most of western counties. The Celtic language still exists as Gaelic in
Scotland and Ireland. In Scotland some 100000 people, mainly in the Highlands
and western coastal regions and in the Hebrides, are able to speak the Scottish form
of Gaelic. A few families in Northern Ireland speak the Irish form of Gaelic.
French is still the official language of Jersey (the Channel Isles) and on the Isle of
Man. It is used for ceremonial and official procedure. Both French and English are
used in courts. Britain has always been a densely populated country. According to
the latest full census taken in 2003 the population density in Britain is 246 per sq.
km. Britain is the third in Europe (after Netherlands) — 383 and Belgium — 325).
The world's extremes are: Hong Kong — 5436 people per sq. km and Botswana —
2 per sq. km. Though density in Britain is very high, the country is populated very
unevenly. England is the most thickly peopled part, its density is 361. The second
is Wales — 142 per sq. km, then Northern Ireland — 125. Scotland is one of the
most sparsely populated areas in Europe. There one can motor for hours without
seeing another person. The density per sq. km in Scotland is 65 people. Densities
of more than 500 people are found in the main industrial areas (such as the
Midlands and south-east England), the density of Greater London being 4238
people per sq. km.
Britain is a highly urbanized country, 90 % of its population live in cities
and towns, and only 10 % are rural inhabitants. There are 8 major metropolitan
areas known as conurbations which accomodate a third of Great Britain's people
while comprising less than 3 % of the total land area. They are: Greater London,
Central Clydeside, Greater Manchester, Merseyside, South Yorkshire, Tyne and
Wear, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire. Most of the mountainous part,
including much of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland and the central Pennines,
are very sparsely populated. As in many other developed countries the recent trend
shows a movement of people away from the main conurbations (particularly their
centres) to the surrounding suburbs.
Vocabulary notes
conurbations – конурбация, большой город с пригородом
the Pennines – горы Пеннины
The Isles of Scilly – остров Силли
exposure - подвергание внешнему воздействию
whirlwind – вихрь, смерч, ураган
hazard – риск опасность
sparsely – редко , малонаселенный
Reading
"We Do Not Have Any Climate. We Just Have the Weather"
The British climate is often unjustly criticized. In fact, it is very good — no
extremes of heat or cold, enough rainfall distributed throughout the year, no
typhoons or hurricanes that may destroy the crops. The rains are brought on to the
British Isles by the winds that blow off the warm current called Gulf Stream, which
flows from the coasts of America across the Atlantic Ocean to bring warm weather
to Britain. These winds keep Britain warm in winter and cool in summer. On a
typical January day the temperature remains above freezing point, with a little
change between day and night. A day in January may be as warm as a day in July,
and a day in July may be as cold as a day in January. The Gulf Stream is the main
source of the mildness of the British climate, which affects everyday life in many
ways. Men ride to work on bicycles all the year round. Roses in the gardens are
often in bloom until Christmas. In some places even palm trees can grow. Very
seldom a hard winter may keep snow on the ground for some weeks. But then a
thaw comes and the snow begins to melt away.
So the English climate is good but you cannot say the same about the
English weather. (You can often hear Englishmen saying, "We do not have any
climate. We just have the weather.") The worst thing about the English weather is
it's being so changeable. A fine morning may turn into a nasty afternoon. The clear
sky may get overcast with clouds within minutes. Sunshine very rarely lasts long
enough to enjoy it. Chilly drizzle may settle any moment. Some people say that
uncertainty about the weather is responsible for famous conservatism, which the
English developed in themselves by carrying an umbrella with them, whenever
they go.
In the minds of foreigners, the English weather is also associated with fogs
and mists. They do happen in England, but not oftener than in other maritime
countries. The bad reputation of London fogs was not a result of their frequency
but of their being mixed with smoke. The English word smog (smoke + fog) was
borrowed by many languages. But the worst to be said about London fog belongs
to the period before1956. That year the law was passed by Parliament prohibiting
to burn coal in chimneys in big towns during the winter. Since then the peasoupers
described in the novels by Dickens and Galsworthy have become history.
The third unpleasant feature of the English weather is frequent rains. They
are really frequent but not abundant. English rain is often hardly more than a
floating mist in which one can walk for hours without getting really wet. Nobody
can really like such weather, and it is the drizzles that the people remember while
speaking about English rain. Pouring rains, which are called showers, is a typical
feature of April in England. For Englishmen, they are even pleasant. Being abroad,
the English poet Robert Browning nostalgically wrote, "Oh, to be in England when
April is there..."However, the English climate is not the same throughout the
British Isles. In the southeastern parts the weather is not so wet as in the west, the
sunny days are more frequent. The winters are somewhat cooler there, the
summers are warmer. These differences are connected with the peculiarities of the
relief: the Atlantic winds cannot affect the south and the east so much because of
the mountains in the north and the west.
EXERCISES
1. Find in the text the following concepts, check your ability to explain them in
English, and add them to your working vocabulary.
the Gulf Stream, the mild climate, a maritime country, the peasoupers, English
rains and showers, relief of the country.
2. Write out from the text the sentences or their parts, which contain the words and
phrases given below and translate them into Russian:
to destroy the crops, a floating mist, to affect.
3. Explain in English what is meant by:
a thaw, to get overcast with clouds, a drizzle may settle, the law was passed,
nostalgically.
4. Answer the following questions:
1. What is good about the British climate? What is the chief source of these good
features? How does it affect everyday life in Britain?
2. What do the English people mean saying that instead of climate they have the
weather?
3. What is the difference between the climate and the weather?
4. What is the worst aspect of the English weather? How does this feature
influence the people who live there?
5. How did it happen that England became associated in the minds of foreigners
with fogs and mists? Is this reputation justified? What made English fogs so
unpleasant in the past?
What did the government do to get rid of the peasoupers?
6. Is it true that it is always raining in England? What is the most peculiar feature
of English rains? What is the difference between rains and showers? What do the
English people think about showers?
7. Why is England divided into two climatic zones: the southeast and the
northwest? What differences in climate can be observed there and why?

5. Translate the text from Russian into English:


Климат и характер
«Веселая зеленая Англия» — так часто называют свою родину
английские поэты. Необычайно нежную зелень английского пейзажа обычно
объясняют влажным морским климатом страны. Ветры, дующие с
Атлантики, приносят на Британские острова частые дожди, благодаря
которым английские газоны, иногда называемые восьмым чудом света,
зелены круглый год. Белую зиму с коттеджами под снегом англичане чаще
видят на рождественских открытках, чем в натуре. Типичная английская
зима — это туманы и изморось, приносимые западными ветрами...
Впрочем, непредсказуемая английская погода преподносит сюрпризы:
порой в ноябре, когда ждешь слякоти и плотного желтоватого тумана,
именуемого «гороховым супом», выдадутся золотые, по-летнему теплые
деньки. В газетах писали, что в 1963 году люди купались на острове Уайт, в
Ла-Манше, под Новый год, 31 декабря. Дожди определили не только
внешний облик Британских островов, но и некоторые черты характера их
обитателей. Поскольку им постоянно приходится преодолевать нежелание
покидать домашний уют и идти под дождь, англичане выработали в себе эту
знаменитую английскую пунктуальность. Даже сильнейший дождь не может
заставить англичанина изменить планы — будь то дружеская встреча в
пивной или многодневный поход за ядерное разоружение. Или возьмем такие
традиционно английские качества, как осторожность и экономность. Многие
считают, что и они тоже развились под влиянием дождливого климата:
англичане вечно озабочены тем, чтобы отложить кое-что ≪на дождливый
денек≫ ,не забыть захватить зонтик, выходя из дома, и т.д. Правда, теперь
зонтики чаще заменяются плащами, тем не менее в Главную контору
лондонского городского транспорта по-прежнему ежегодно приносят около
70 тысяч зонтиков, забытых в автобусах и метро...
UNIT 3
MAIN EVENTS IN THE HISTORY OF BRITAIN.
1. The first settlers on the British Isles.
2. The Roman invasion.
3. The first king of England.
4. The conversion of the Anglo-Saxons to Christianity.
5. The Norman conquest.
6. The English Bourgeois Revolution.
7. The Industrial Revolution. Chartism.
8. Victorian Britain.
The people who now live in Britain are descended from various peoples who
inhabited the British Isles many centuries ago. From the earliest times known a
long succession of invaders and colonisers moved to the British Isles as they lay
within the easy reach of the continent. The first settlers on the British Isles were
Iberians who came from the Iberian peninsular (the area of Spain and Portugal)
between 3000 BC and 2000 BC. The Iberians stayed comparatively long before
they were attacked, slain or driven westwards by the numerous Celtic tribes (Picts,
Scots and Britons), which came from central Europe and the Rhine valley in the
period between the 6th and 3d centuries BC. They were pagan, with priests known
as Druids. In the middle of the 1st century AD Britain was successfully invaded by
the Romans who stayed on the island for four centuries, living in military camps,
building towns, roads, walls and bridges, so that to defend their gains (seized
territories) from other invaders. The Romans left behind them in the language of
Britain many words denoting the names of things such as street, port, wall. After
the Roman legions left Britain at the beginning of the 5th century to defend their
own Empire from the barbarians, the British Isles were almost immediately
attacked by numerous invaders from all sides. Germanic tribes — the Jutes, the
Saxon and the Angles attacked Britain from the south and east, Danes and
Norsemen from Scandinavia in the north-east. Again the native population was
driven to the west (Wales) and north (Scotland). These tribes gave the name to the
country, and their language formed the basis of the old English language. In the 9th
century the greatest kingdoms Northumbria, Mercia and Wessex struggled for
predominance. In 829 Egbert, King of Wessex, was acknowledged by Kent,
Northumbria and Mercia and Egbert became the first king of England. Under his
rule all the small Anglo-Saxon kingdoms were united to form one kingdom which
was called England from that time on. The conversion of the Anglo-Saxons to
Christianity began at the end of the 6th century (597) and was completed, in the
main, in the second half of the 7th century. In 597 the Roman Pope sent about forty
monks to Britain to convert the Anglo-Saxons. The first church was built in the
town of Canterbury, the capital of Kent, that is why the Archbishop of Canterbury
is now Head of the Church of England. The last in the long successions of invaders
on the British Isles were the Normans, the Norsemen who had assimilated in
France. In 1066, led by Duke of Normandy (who went into history as William the
Conqueror), they crossed the Channel and conquered England, subduing the
Anglo-Saxons. For almost two centuries there were two languages, two nations
and two cultures in the country. Norman-French was the language of the ruling
class, the official language of the country, while Anglo-Saxon (old English) was
spoken by the majority of the oppressed native population. The victorious
Normans gradually broke their ties with France and by the 13th century had
mingled in blood and language with Anglo-Saxons and united into one nation,
speaking one language, born as a result of the marriage of the two nations and the
two languages. The new English (Middle English) greatly enriched and changed
under the influence of Norman-French, had become the language of educated
classes and the official language of the state by the end of the 13th century. Such
words as baron, serve, court, battle, victory appeared in the English language. The
basis of feudal society was the holding of land, and its main purpose was
economic. The central idea was that all land was owned by the king but it was held
by others, called "vassals", in return for services and goods. The king gave large
estates to his main nobles in return for a promise to serve him in war for up to forty
days. The nobles also had to give him part of the produce of the land. The greater
nobles gave part of their lands to lesser nobles, knights, and other "freemen". Some
freemen paid for the land by doing military service, while others paid rent. The
noble kept "serfs" to work on his own land. These were not free to leave the estate,
and were often little better than slaves. There were two basic principles to
feudalism: every man had a lord, and every lord had land. The king was connected
through this "chain" of people to the lowest man in the country. At each level a
man had to promise loyalty and service to his lord. 21 One of the most important
events in the British history was the English Bourgeois Revolution (1642—1648)
which marked the beginning of capitalism in the country. The bourgeoisie and the
gentry led the peasants and the townsmen against the absolute monarchy. The
struggle between Charles I and Parliament finished with the victory of the second.
Oliver Cromwell was the leader in the English Revolution. He created an army of a
New Model — of educated people, with able leaders, iron discipline and regular
pay. He consolidated his position by subjugating Ireland and Scotland and uniting
them with England. The fact that popular masses took the side of Parliament
(Roundheads, as they cut their hair short) against the Royalists (or Cavaliers)
decided the results of the Civil War: The monarchy was overthrown, Charles I was
beheaded, the House of Lords was abolished as "useless and dangerous", the
Commonwealth (or Free State, or Republic) was proclaimed. Cromwell, now titled
the Protector, enforced justice and order at home and made England stronger and
more respected abroad. The following democratic ideas initiated by the Levellers
were proclaimed: all men should have equal opportunities and should make or mar
their fortunes by their own efforts, not by accident of their birth and the class to
which their parents belonged; all the citizens of the state should have a voice in
making of its laws; no attempt should be made to interfere with sincere and honest
views of any man about religion, if they did not tend to popery. After the death of
Cromwell the monarchy was restored. Well before the end of the eighteenth
century Britain was as powerful as France. This resulted from the growth of its
industries and from the wealth of its large new trading empire, part of which had
been captured from the French. Britain now had the strongest navy in the world;
the navy controlled Britain's own trade routes and endangered those of its enemies.
It was the deliberate policy of the government to create this trading empire, and to
protect it with a strong navy. This was made possible by the way in which
government had developed during the eighteenth century. For the first time, it was
the king's ministers who were the real policy and decision-makers. Power now
belonged to the groups from which the ministers came, and their supporters in
Parliament. These ministers ruled over a country which had become wealthy
through trade. This wealth, or "capital", made possible both an agricultural and an
industrial revolution which made Britain the most advanced economy in the world.
However, there was an enormous price to pay, because while a few people became
richer, many others lost their land, their homes and their way of life. Families were
driven off the land in another period of enclosures. They became the working
"proletariat" of the cities that made Britain's trade and industrial empire of the
nineteenth century possible. The invention of machinery destroyed the old "cottage
industries" and created factories. The development of industry led to the sudden
growth of cities like Birmingham, Glasgow, Manchester and Liverpool and other
centers in the north Midlands. Several influences came together at the same time to
revolutionize Britain's industry: money, labor, a greater demand for goods, new
power, and better transport. By the end of the eighteenth century, some families
had made huge private fortunes. Growing merchant hanks helped put this money to
use. By the early eighteenth century simple machines had already been invented
for basic jobs. They could make large quantities of simple goods quickly and
cheaply so that "mass production" became possible for the first time. Each machine
carried out one simple process, which introduced the idea of "division of labor"
among workers. This was to become an important part of the industrial revolution.
By the 1740s the main problem holding back industrial growth was fuel. There was
less wood, and in any case wood could not produce the heat necessary to make iron
and steel either in large quantities or of high quality. But at this time the use of coal
for changing iron ore into good quality iron or steel was perfected, and this made
Britain the leading iron producer in Europe. This happened only just in time for the
many wars in which Britain was to fight, mainly against France, for the rest of the
century. The demand for coal grew very quickly. In 1800 Britain was producing
four times as much coal as it had done in 1700, and eight times as much iron.
Increased iron production made it possible to manufacture new machinery for other
industries. No one saw this more clearly than John Wilkinson, a man with a total
belief in iron. He built the largest ironworks in the country. When James Watt
made a greatly improved steam engine in 1769, Wilkinson improved it further by
making parts of the engine more accurately with his special skills in ironworking.
In this way the skills of one craft helped the skills of another. Until then steam
engines had only been used for pumping, usually in coal mines. But in 1781 Watt
produced an engine with a turning motion, made of iron and steel. It was a vital
development because people were now no longer dependent on natural power. 22
One invention led to another, and increased production in one area led to increased
production in others. Other basic materials of the industrial revolution were cotton
and woollen cloth, which were popular abroad. In the middle of the century other
countries were buying British uniforms, equipment and weapons for their armies.
To meet this increased demand, better methods of production had to be found, and
new machinery was invented which replaced handwork. The production of cotton
goods had been limited by the spinning process, which could not provide enough
cotton thread for the weavers. In 1764 a spinning machine was invented which
could do the work of several hand spinners, and other improved machines were
made shortly after. With the far greater production of cotton thread, the slowest
part of the cotton cloth making industry became weaving. In 1785 a power
machine for weaving revolutionized cloth making. It allowed Britain to make cloth
more cheaply than elsewhere, and Lancashire cotton cloths were sold in every
continent. But this machinery put many people out of work. It also changed what
had been a "cottage industry" done at home into a factory industry, where workers
had to keep work hours and rules set down by factory owners. In the Midlands,
factories using locally found clay began to develop very quickly, and produced fine
quality plates, cups and other china goods. These soon replaced the old metal
plates and drinking cups that had been used. Soon large quantities of china were
being exported. The most famous factory was one started by Josiah Wedgwood.
His high quality bone china became very popular, as it still is. The social effects of
the industrial revolution were enormous. Workers tried to join together to protect
themselves against powerful employers. They wanted fair wages and reasonable
conditions in which to work. But the government quickly banned these
"combinations", as the workers' societies were known. Riots occurred, led by the
unemployed who had been replaced in factories by machines. In 1799 some of
these rioters, known as Luddites, started to break up the machinery which had put
them out of work. The government supported the factory owners, and made the
breaking of machinery punishable by death. The government was afraid of a
revolution like the one in France. The stronghold of Chartism, as of Trade
Unionism, lay in the industrial North, but its origin was among the Radical artisans
of London. The London Working-Men's Association was formed in June 1836 as a
political and educational body intended to attract the "intelligent and influential
portion of the working class". In February 1837 the Association drew up a petition
to Parliament in which were embodied the six demands that afterwards became
known as the People's Charter. They were: equal electoral districts; abolition of the
property qualifications for MPs; universal manhood suffrage; annual Parliaments;
vote by ballot; the payment of MPs. These demands were accepted with
enthusiasm by hundreds of thousands of industrial workers who saw in them the
means to remove their intolerable economic grievances. In the spring of 1838 the
Six Points were drafted into the form of a Parliamentary Bill, and it was this draft
Bill which became the actual Charter of history. It was endorsed at gigantic
meetings all over the country. At all these meetings the Charter received emphatic
approval and the tactics by which it was proposed to secure its acceptance soon
took shape. These were a campaign of great demonstrations, a mass petition to
Parliament and, if the petition were rejected, a political general strike. A Reform
Bill was rejected by Parliament and a number of demonstrations swept the country.
Parliament had to use troops. The failure of Chartism was partly a result of the
weaknesses of its leadership and tactics. But they were only a reflection of the
newness and immaturity of the working class. Politically, the twenty years after
1848 afford a striking contrast to the Chartist decade. The attempt to create a great,
independent party of the working class was not repeated: political activity became
more localized, or was confined to some immediate practical issue, but it never
ceased to exist. Its strength was that while in Europe the working classes were still
dragging at the tail of the industrial bourgeoisie, in England the workers were able
by 1838 to appear as an independent force and were already realizing that the
industrial bourgeoisie were their principal enemy. Queen Victoria (1819—1901)
came to the throne in 1837. Because of the growth of parliamentary government
she was less powerful than previous sovereigns. However, she ruled over more
lands and peoples than any previous sovereigns and enjoyed the respect and
affection of her British subjects. Her reign is called “the golden age” in the history
of Britain. No other nation could produce as much at that time. By 1850 Britain
was producing more iron than the rest of the world together. Britain had become
powerful because it had enough coal, iron and steel for its own enormous industry,
and could even export them in large quantities to Europe. With these materials it
could produce new heavy industrial goods like iron ships and steam engines. It
could also make machinery which 23 produced traditional goods like woolen and
cotton cloth in the factories of Lancashire. Britain's cloth was cheap and was
exported to India, to other colonies and throughout the Middle East, where it
quickly destroyed the local cloth industry, causing great misery. Britain made and
owned more than half the world's total shipping. This great industrial empire was
supported by a strong banking system developed during the eighteenth century. By
the end of the nineteenth century Britain controlled the oceans and much of the
land areas of the world. Most British strongly believed in their right to an empire,
and were willing to defend it against the least threat. But even at this moment of
greatest power, Britain had begun to spend more on its empire than it took from it.
The empire had started to be a heavy load. It would become impossibly heavy in
the twentieth century, when the colonies finally began to demand their freedom.
Vocabulary notes
slain – убиты
withdrawn – изгнаны
subduing – подчиненный
mingled – смешанный
serf – крепостной
gentry – среднее дворянство
subjugating – подчинение
riot – волнения
artisan – ремесленник
suffrage – избирательное право
ballot – избирательная урна
Reading
Early England
The monarchical history of England begins with the Anglo-Saxons, the
invaders from the Continent who began to raid the towns and villages of the Celtic
inhabitants of the British Isles in the 5th century AD, after the departure of the
Romans. The invaders drove the Celts, who lived on the island, to Wales and
Cornwall — the mountainous districts in the West — and to the northern part of
the island, where Scotland is situated now. During the next hundred years, the
leaders of the Saxon tribes were becoming hereditary rulers — the kings. As a
result many Saxon kingdoms were formed in the central and southern parts of the
island. These kingdoms were always fighting against one another. The strongest of
them were Northumbria, Mercia and Wessex. In 828 Egbert, King of Wessex, was
acknowledged as the overlord by Mercia and Northumbria. This was really the
beginning of the united kingdom of England. It was in their common interests
because new invaders began to threaten them — the Danes, also called Vikings.
Hisson Aethelwulf had four children. After his death, each of them had an
opportunity to rule the country, fighting all the time against the Danish invaders.
The name of the youngest son was Alfred, who later became known as Alfred the
Great. Alfred was the only English king who deserved the title "Great", although he
was the ruler of England when it was just a small kingdom. The little we know of
him is mixed with legends, like one about "burnt cakes". The legend says that once
he was defeated in a battle against the Danes and had to hide in a little hut of a
shepherd, whose wife asked him to look after the cakes, which she was baking.
Being preoccupied with his own thoughts, Alfred did not see how the cakes were
burnt. When the woman returned, she got angry and, knowing nothing about his
being king, she scolded him well. There are few things we know about Alfred for
sure. We know that he was twenty-two, when he came to the throne. Like his
brothers, he was a great warrior, but he was also a man of learning. He fought
when he had to fight, but never a day longer than it was necessary. And he turned
immediately to restore his kingdom, to organize its administration. He ordered that
the old customs and laws followed by the Anglo-Saxons should be collected in the
first Code of English Law. Above all, he tried to preserve and develop culture. He
himself, in his middle age, began to study Latin in order to translate books "which
are most needful for my men to know". When Alfred the Great died in 899, his son
Edward the Elder started to expand his territories. He conquered East Anglia, and
gained control over much of Wales. His son Athelstan was even more ambitious.
He wanted to unite the entire island. Many British rulers envied him, and a strong
alliance was formed against him, but he defeated them and had a quiet reign until
his death in 939. His half-brother Edmund I, who was only eighteen years old,
succeeded him. His troubled reign was short and ended in a tragedy. During a feast
held in honour of St. Augustine he saw among the guests a certain outlaw, and, in
his attempt to seize him, was stabbed with a dagger and died. His younger brother
Edred began to rule, but being weak and sickly in body, he soon died and was
succeeded by his nephew Edwy, a fifteen-year-old boy who died four years after
he had become king. His reign made no mark upon the history of England and is
mostly remembered for his beauty and quarrels with Dunstan, Archbishop of
Canterbury, whom he drove out of England. After Edwy's death his younger
brother Edgar became king. His contemporaries called him the Edgar the Peaceful.
unlike his brother he did much for the prosperity of his land, and was called "the
true heir of Alfred the Great". He was succeeded by his son by his first marriage
Edward who, after his death, was called Edward the Martyr, because his brief
reign ended very soon in a tragedy. The boy-king was murdered by the order of his
stepmother Elfrida who wanted the throne for her son Aethelred. The people called
him Aethelred the Unready, which means "ill-advised" — first by his mother, then
by other advisers with whose help he ruled the country so badly that the Danes
conquered most of its territory and from 1016till 1042 England was ruled by the
Danish kings. In 1042 the Saxon royal line was restored on the English throne by
Edward the Confessor, the son of King Aethelred the Unready, largely due to the
support of Godwin, Earl of Wessex, with whom he later quarreled and fought for a
long war. The war ended with King Edward's promise that, after his death,
Godwin's son Harold would rule England. And so it happened, though only for a
short time. King Harold II ruled the country for ten months only and was killed on
October14, 1066, at the Battle of Hastings, which begins the Norman Conquest of
England.
EXERCISES
1. Find in the text the following concepts, check your ability to explain them in
English, and add them to your working vocabulary:
the Union Jack, a unitary state, a limited monarchy, the Royal Standard, the
Sovereign (monarch), the Anglo-Saxons, the Celts, the Romans, the Danes, an
overlord, the Code of English Law.
2. Write out from the text the sentences or their parts, which contain the words and
phrases given below and translate them into Russian:
to raid, mountainous, to threaten, a hut of a shepherd, to scold well, to stab with a
dagger.
3. Explain in English what is meant by:
the patron saint; legislative, executive and judicial branches of Government; the
invaders from the Continent; a hereditary ruler; a warrior; ambitious; to reign; an
alliance; to succeed; an outlaw; a contemporary; a heir; ill-advised.
4. Answer the following questions:
1. Who were the Anglo-Saxons and when did they appear on the British Isles?
2. Who were the Celts and what happened with them after the Anglo-Saxons had
come?
3. Do you know what the Romans were doing in Britain?
4. Who was Egbert and why is his name remembered in Great Britain?
5. Why was it so necessary for the Saxon kingdoms to be united?
6. In what century did Alfred the Great live?
7. What is the point of the legend of the "burnt cakes"? Why is it remembered?
What features does it reveal in the great king?
8. What do we know about King Alfred for sure?
9. What was happening in England during the reign of King Athelstan?
10. Name three English kings whose reigns were especially brief.
11. What nickname was King Aethelred given? Did he deserve it?
12. Who restored the Saxon royal line on the English throne and when did it come
to an end?
5. Write your summary of the text emphasizing in it (a) its subject matter, (b) the
events discussed, (c) the author's point of view on these events.

Поле битвы при Гастингсе


14 октября 1066 года судьба Англии была решена. В этот роковой день
войска герцога Вильгельма Норманнского высадились на берег Англии. Там
их уже дожидалась армия саксов под предводительством короля Гарольда.
Долгое время было неясно, кто победит, и победа склонилась в пользу
Вильгельма только вследствие целого ряда искусных маневров. Он приказал
солдатам сделать вид, что они отступают, а когда торжествующие саксы
бросились в погоню, остановил свое войско и приказал стрелять в воздух, так
что стрелы, падая на землю, убили многих.
Одной из них был убит и сам король Гарольд: стрела попала ему
прямо в глаз. Впоследствии Вильгельм приказал построить на поле битвы
аббатство св. Мартина Турского, получившее в народе название аббатство
Битвы. Его развалины и поныне господствуют над долиной, где когда-то
готовились к битве солдаты Завоевателя. Вдали, между холмами, покрытыми
тогда деревьями густого леса, виднеется море, по которому прибыл
норманнский флот. Груда камней указывает место, где пал Гарольд,
последний саксонский король, занимавший трон Англии. Это уединенный
уголок: большие деревья скрывают от остального мира театр разыгравшейся
тут трагедии. Вокруг царит безмолвие, и только сквозь ветки деревьев видна
церковь Битвы, и лишь звон ее колокола нарушает иногда безмолвную
тишину. Вереск покрывает камни, которые были свидетелям одного из
величайших событий в истории человечества.
Человек практический и с железной волей, Вильгельм отличался теми
качествами, которыми менее всего были одарены его новые подданные. Ему
были неведомы сомнения и колебания, это был оптимист до мозга костей. За
свою в общем недолгую жизнь он настолько изменил судьбу новой родины,
что на этот остров, столь привычный к вторжениям иноземцев, с тех пор ни
разу не ступала нога завоевателя.
UNIT 4

BRITISH STATE SYSTEM.


1. The monarchy.
2. The government.
3. Parliament.
4. Political parties.
The monarchy is the most ancient secular institution in the United Kingdom,
going back at least to the 9th century. The Queen can trace her descent from the
Saxon King Egbert, who united all England under his sovereignty in 829. The
continuity of the monarchy has been broken only once by a republic that lasted
only 11 years (1649—1660). Monarchy is founded on the hereditary principle and
it has never been abandoned. The succession passed automatically to the oldest
male child or, in the absence of males, to the oldest female offspring of the
monarch. Quite recently the rules of descent have been changed. Now the
succession passes to the oldest child irrespective of its sex. The coronation of the
sovereign consists of recognition and acceptance of the new monarch by the
people; the taking by the monarch of an oath of royal duties; the anointing and
crowning (after communion); and the rendering of homage by the Lords Spiritual
and Temporal. The coronation service, conducted by the Archbishop of
Canterbury, is held at Westminster Abbey in the presence of representatives of the
Lords, the Commons and all the great public interests in the United Kingdom, the
Prime Minister and leading members of the Commonwealth countries,
representatives of foreign states. By the Act of Parliament, the monarch must be a
Protestant. The Queen's title in the United Kingdom is "Elizabeth the Second, by
the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland,
and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth,
Defender of the Faith". For several centuries the monarch personally exercised
supreme executive, legislative and judicial powers but with the growth of
Parliament and the courts the direct exercise of these functions progressively
decreased. The 17th-century struggle between the Crown and Parliament led to the
establishment of a constitutional monarchy. The monarch in law is the head of the
executive, an integral part of the legislature, the head of the judiciary, the
commander-in-chief of all the armed forces of the Crown and the temporal
governor of the established Church of England. But the Crown is only sovereign
by the will of Parliament, and the Queen acts on the advice of her ministers which
she cannot constitutionally ignore. And in most matters of state the refusal of the
Queen to exercise her power according to the direction of her Prime Minister
would risk a serious constitutional crisis. That's why it is often said that the
monarch reigns but does not rule. Nevertheless, the functions of the monarch are
politically important. The powers of the monarch are to summon, prorogue
(suspend until the next session) and dissolve Parliament; to give royal assent to
legislation passed by Parliament. The Queen is the "fountain of justice" and as
such can, on the advice of the Home Secretary, pardon or show mercy to convicted
criminals. As the Commander-in-Chief of the armed services (the Royal Navy, the
Army and the Royal Air Force) she appoints officers, and as temporal head of the
established Church of England she makes appointments to the leading positions in
the Church. In international affairs as Head of the State the Queen has the power to
conclude treaties, to declare war and to make peace, to recognize foreign states and
governments, and to annex and cede territories. An important function of the
Sovereign is the appointment of a prime minister. Normally the appointment is
automatic since it is a convention of the constitution that the sovereign must invite
the leader of the party which won a majority in the House of Commons to form a
government. If no party has a majority or if the party having a majority has no
recognized leader, the Queen's duty is to select a prime minister consulting anyone
she wishes. Like the Monarchy, Parliament in Britain is an ancient institution
dating from the beginning of the 13th century, though officially it was established
in 1265 by Simon de Montfort. It is the third oldest parliament in the world in
action (it was preceded by Althing of Iceland and the Parliament of the Isle of
Man). Parliament is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom. The
overriding function of Parliament is legislating bills, making bills lawful. But
Parliament is not only lawmaking body, it is also a law enforcing body, i. e. it has
judicial functions. Other functions of Parliament are to raise money through
taxation so as to enable the government to function, to question and examine
government policy and administration, particularly its financial programme, and to
debate or discuss important political issues. 36 Every parliament is limited to a 5-
year term of work. The work of Parliament is divided into sessions. Every session
starts at the end of October or the beginning of November and lasts 36 weeks up to
late August. British Parliament is composed of two houses — the House of Lords
and the House of Commons. The House of Lords appeared first as King's council
of the nobility. The House of Commons originated later, in the second half of the
14th century. The Houses work in different places, in the opposite parts of
Westminster palace, but their debating Chambers are shaped in the same way
which is vitally important. The arrangement of seats in both is of great
significance, reflects and maintains the two-party system of Britain. Both the
Houses are rectangular (not semicircular as most European Chambers) in shape
with rows of benches on either side and a raised platform for the throne in the
House of Lords, which is a joint present of Australia and Canada, and the Speaker's
Chair in the House of Commons. To the right of the Speaker are the seats for the
Government and its supporters, to his left — for the Opposition. So the debates are
face to face debates, not figuratively. Facing the Speaker there are cross benches
for Independent members, for those who do not belong to either of the two leading
political parties. There are 5 rows of benches in the House of Commons (4 — in
Lords') on both of its sides. Front benches on either side are the seats of the
Government (Cabinet members) and the Opposition (Shadow Cabinet members).
Hence the division of MPs into front-benchers and back-benchers. The proceedings
in both the Houses are public and visitors are admitted into the Strangers' Gallery.
The House of Commons today is elected with a nation-wide representation. Of its
659 members 529 represent constituencies in England, 40 — in Wales, 72 — in
Scotland and 18 — in Northern Ireland (119 MPs are women). When speaking
about British Parliament the House of Commons is usually meant. "MP" is
addressed only to the members of the House of Commons. This House is the centre
of real political power and activity, most of its members being professional
politicians, lawyers, economists, etc. The party that has won the General Election
makes up the majority in the House of Commons and forms the Government. The
party with the next largest number of members in the House (or sometimes a
combination of other parties) forms the official Opposition, and the Leader of the
Opposition is a recognized post in the House of Commons. There are seats for only
437 MPs. One of the most important members in the House of Commons is the
Speaker who despite his name is the one who actually never speaks. The Speaker
is the Chairman, or presiding MP of the House of Commons. He is elected by a
vote of the House at the beginning of each new Parliament to preside over the
House and enforce the rules of order. He cannot debate or vote. He votes only in
case of a tie, i. e. when voting is equal and, in this case he votes with the
Government. The main job of the Speaker is to maintain strict control over
debates, to keep fair play between the parties, the Government and opposition,
between back-benchers and front-benchers. The House of Lords is a non-elected,
hereditary upper chamber. It comprises 26 Lords Spiritual (2 of which are
archbishops of Canterbury and York, the rest — senior bishops of the Church of
England), 91 hereditary peers, 568 life peers and peeresses created under the Life
Peerages Act of 1958, rewarded for specially good service. The title is not
inherited by their children. 1/4 of life peers are women. The total number of
persons thus qualified to sit in the House of Lords is in excess of 703 including the
judges of the Supreme Court of Judicature (the Court of Appeal and the High
Court of Justice). The Queen belongs to the House of Lords so there is a throne in
the Lords' Chamber from where she makes her State Opening Speech. There is also
a woolsack — the seat of the Lord Chancellor who presides in the House of Lords.
Unlike the Speaker in the House of Commons the Lord Chancellor is not impartial,
as he is a government officer, responsible for the administration of justice, and an
automatic member of the Cabinet. Although he presides over the House he is not
concerned with order. Any peer has the power to rise in his place and move thus
demonstrating his disapproval to a fellow peer having the floor. No one calls to
order. The House of Lords is of Tory majority composed largely of company
directors, landlords, bankers, steel and oil magnates, newspaper proprietors and so
on. Its main function is to defend the interests of the propertied people, to criticize
the Labour Government, to delay, amend or bury altogether the bills which went
contrary to their interests. For its utterly conservative character it is often called
"the House of obstruction" or "a hangover from a past age". The power of delaying
a bill for a year is still a great privilege of the Lords. During a year the political
situation may change in favour of the Conservatives, the propaganda work may
divert the attention from the uneasy bill, it may be forgotten or amended
unrecognizably leaving nothing of its essence. 37 Of all the parliaments in the
world, the lowest quorum needed to adopt a decision is the British House of Lords.
Three Lords present will make a quorum and will be capable to take any decision.
Lords are far freer to vote according to their own convictions rather than party
policy than are Members of the Commons. Average daily attendance is only about
300 and most of these are life peers. Parliament is not only a law-making body, it
is also a law-enforcing body, that is it has judicial functions. The main judicial
work of Parliament today is that carried out daily by the House of Lords. This
House serves as the final Court of Appeal for Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
Appeals may be heard either in the Chamber of the House or in the Appellate
Committee. Judgment is always given in the House itself — normally at a morning
sitting specially held for this purpose. Only peers who hold or have held high
judicial office sit to hear appeals, and they are sometimes presided over by the
Lord Chancellor, who is the head of the English judicial system. Her Majesty's
government governs in the name of the Queen and is responsible for the
administration of national affairs. All ministers are appointed by the Queen on the
recommendation of the Prime Minister. The number of ministers in the
Government may vary from 80 to 100, all the ministers are members of either of
the two Houses, but the majority of them are members of the House of Commons.
Naturally, the Prime Minister cannot belong to the House of Lords. Functionally
ministers may be classified as: 1) departmental ministers — who are in charge of
government departments (they are also known as Secretaries of State); 2) non-
departmental ministers, or ministers "without portfolio". They include the holders
of traditional offices: the Lord Privy Seal, the Lord President of the Council, the
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster; 3) ministers of State — usually appointed as
subordinate to government departments where the work is particularly heavy or
complex and where it involves frequent travelling abroad; 4) junior ministers, or
Parliamentary Under-secretaries — assistants of Secretaries of State. The central
institution, the core of the British Government is the Cabinet. The Cabinet is
composed of about 20 ministers personally selected by the Prime Minister, who is
the directing head and force of the Cabinet as well as of the whole government.
Cabinet-making is a very important part of a Prime Minister's job and a Cabinet
remains very much the expression of Prime Minister's personality. He not only
appoints ministers but can require their resignation. He can replace a minister or
break up the entire Cabinet. He controls the agenda of business to be dealt with at
Cabinet meetings. He can dissolve the House of Commons and thus bring about a
General Election at any time. The Cabinet is the most powerful and strongly rooted
organ of government in Britain. The powers of the Cabinet are immensely large in
every sphere of government. The Cabinet of Ministers introduce legislation,
control finance, arrange the time-table of the House of Parliament, conduct foreign
affairs, control the colonies, exercise supervision over every department of
administration. Though Britain is a multiparty democracy its political scene is
dominated by a two-party system: one party in power, the other in opposition. Now
they are the Conservative and the Labour Parties. The two-party system has
evolved since the18th century when the conflicting groups within Parliament
formed opposing parties known as Tories and Whigs. The Conservative party
emerged to defend the interests of big, reactionary landowners, of the cavaliers
who supported the King (Charles I) in, his struggle with Parliament, of the
conservative gentry and the clergy of the Church of England. They were called
Tories — an insult with a touch of racial prejudice, as the name meant "Irish thief".
Today the Conservative Party is the party of the Right, identified with the idea of
economic freedom and mainly with the idea of resistance to change. The aims of
the Party are: to uphold religion, to maintain defense forces adequate for the
preservation of freedom and prevention of war, to provide freedom and
opportunity by supporting free enterprise and initiative against socialist system of
state-trading arid nationalization, to encourage wider spread of ownership of
property, to improve standards of life, to promote better health, to give greater
educational opportunities. The Conservative party has successfully portrayed itself
as the party of patriotism. As it appeals to a "property-owning democracy" it is
supported by wealthier classes, receiving much money from major business and
financial institutions. It gives emphasis to the importance of law and order, and it is
highly disciplined, tending no dissent from the leadership publicly. The Labour
Party is less disciplined but more democratic, with more open disagreements
between the leadership and other party members. Labour is the party of social
justice, though its emphasis is less on equality than on the achievement of
wellbeing and opportunity for all members of society. It tends to put the collective
wellbeing of society above individual freedom, in the economic sphere at any rate.
Traditionally it has been committed to public ownership of major industries
(nationalization) and to economic planning. By 1990 and later its politics had 38
moved towards the centre so that in many aspects they were hardly different from
those of the Liberal Democrats. It has now accepted more use of market forces and
less central control, it encourages diversity, individual enterprise, decentralized
economic organization. And contrary to its earlier policies now it fully supports
Britain's membership in the European Community as essential to the country's
political and economic future. By its officially stated ideas and purposes the party
has claimed to be progressive. Its central ideal has been the brotherhood of men. It
has rejected discrimination on grounds of race or colour, it has defended the right
of all peoples to freedom, independence and self-government, it has supported the
work for world disarmament, it has affirmed the duty of richer nations to assist
poorer ones, it stood for social justice and the creation of the socialist community
with a classless society and with planned economy. It claims to obtain and hold
power only through free democratic institutions, by reforms. The beginning of the
Liberal Party goes back to the end of the 17th century as it descended from Whigs,
an opposition to the Tory Party in Parliament. Officially it was formed in 1877.
During the second half of the 19th century many working people looked to the
Liberal Party to provide a policy different from that of the Tory Party and their
supporters. So in the middle of the 19th century the Liberals represented the
trading and manufacturing classes, supported by popular elements, who pressed for
social reforms and extension of the franchise". "Civil and Religious Liberty" was
taken as the Party's slogan. For long periods up to 1914 the Liberals had a
parliamentary majority. While in power they introduced a number of reforms and
innovations including free elementary education. After World War I the Liberal
Party was growing weaker, many representatives of the working class and
bourgeoisie were leaving the liberals. Having suffered several defeats at the
elections the party could never overcome the blow. It declined rapidly as a
parliamentary force, its place being taken by the Labour Party which has become
an opposition and alternative government to the Conservatives. In 1988 the Liberal
Party merged with the new Social Democratic Party forming the Liberal
Democrats. In 1981 a new party was formed to try to break the dominance of the
Conservative and Labour. Some Conservatives and extreme right wing of Labours
left their own parties to join the new Social Democrats. The new party agreed to
fight elections in alliance with the small but long-established Liberals, forming the
Alliance. After unsuccessful results of the 1987 Election the Liberal Party merged
with the Social Democratic Party (1988) to become the Liberal Democrats. Its aim
is to attract the votes of the middle ground between Labour and the Conservatives
and opponents of both parties, of those who are disillusioned with their policies.
But there parliamentary representation is almost insignificant so far (26 % of vote
but 8 % of MPs in 2001 General Elections). That is why it campaigns for a system
of proportional representation in Parliament. But the Party plays a certain role with
the possibility of tipping the scales between the two largest parties. The Liberal
Democratic Party aims to build a liberal democratic society in which every citizen
shall possess liberty, property and security and none shall be enslaved by poverty,
ignorance or conformity.
Vocabulary notes
secular – светский
anointing –помазание
communion – причастие
homage – принесение присяги
realm – королевство
temporal governor – светский правитель
summon – созывать
prorogue – отложить сессию парламента не распуская его
suspend – приостанавливать
assent – королевская санкция, превращающая билль в акт парламента
preside - председательствовать
enforce – принуждать
franchise – право голоса
merge with - объединяться

Reading
The House of Lords
The parliaments began as meetings between kings and noblemen. That is
why the House of Lords may be called the oldest part of British Parliament. It is
also, by tradition, the meeting place of members of Parliament with the Sovereign
on the "big days", such as the first session after the recess. On this day the monarch
usually reads "the throne speech". The members of the House of Commons are
also invited to listen to it. They stand crowding at the Bar — the grating that
separates the Houses.
The gilded royal throne stands opposite the chair of the presiding officer of
the chamber — Lord Chancellor. This chair is known as the Woolsack because it is
stuffed with wool. This tradition of stuffing the chair of Lord Chancellor with wool
dates back to the days of King Edward III (14th century), when wool was the main
article of English export. The House is full only on the "big days". Normally not
many members attend the sittings. By tradition, five members are enough for
opening a sitting. Many members appear there very rarely. In the House they are
called backwoodsmen. If there is no quorum for important voting, they are brought
to the House in a special car and delivered back home after the voting.
Traditionally, the members of the House of Lords had not been receiving salaries
for their parliamentary work. Not long ago, special money compensation was
allotted to them, to get them interested in attending the sessions. They are paid up
to 14 pounds for each sitting they attend. There are about 1,200 members in the
House of Lords. The youngest оf them, irrespective of his age, is usually referred
to as "the Baby of the House". The members are usually divided into two groups
Lords Spiritual (the Archbishops of Canterbury and York, the Bishops of London,
Durham, Winchester and twenty-one other bishops of the Church of England) and
Lords Temporal (hereditary peers of England and Scotland — dukes, marquises,
earls and barons — who got their right to sit in the House from their ancestors, life
peers and life peeress, have no right to pass it to their children, and 9 "law lords"
— members of the High Court of Justice. By custom, the Royal Dukes (members
of the Royal Family) do not attend the sittings of the House.
From time to time a discussion is renewed in Britain on whether or not it is
advisable to have such a definitely "undemocratic" institution as the House of
Lords. But each time this discussion leads to nowhere, because this institution has
more supporters than critics. The supporters of British system of government say
that the House of Lords, being an "undemocratic" institution is more or less free
from some shortcomings of democracy. The Lords do not depend of elections and
can avoid "political football" typical for the House of Commons. The Lords are
often looked upon as the positive conservative force that helps Britain to avoid
radical changes in politics. The House of Lords is a part of legislative branch of
Government and, in principle, the Lords have a right of legislative initiative, i.e.
they have a right to suggest a bill. But, by tradition, the Lords never use this right,
limiting their legislative activities by discussions and approvals of the bills
prepared and passed by the House of Commons. Fifty years ago the Lords had a
right of veto; they could prevent a bill from becoming a law. Now they have no
right to veto a bill but can 'delay its becoming a law for a period of one year. There
is one exception here — the Lords cannot hold up any "Money Bill", i.e. the bill
dealing with taxation. So the Lords do not make laws: they can only approve the
laws made by the Commons. But in the matter of observation over the laws
'fulfillment the Lords have more power than the Commons, because the High
Court of Justice is a part of this chamber. The head of this important body is the
presiding officer of the House — Lord Chancellor himself.
The House of Commons
The House of Commons occupies the northern part of the Westminster
Palace. There are some hundreds of rooms there, among them the library,
restaurants, committee rooms and a few small rooms in which the members can
read, write letters and so on. The debating chamber is only one of many rooms of
the palace, but is usually called "the House". The members of the House of
Commons (the MPs) hold their seats during the period between the General
Elections, which are held every five years. The total membership is 650, but the
House is too small to contain seats for them all: only 370 people can sit on the
benches. Normally it does not create a problem because usually not more than one
third of these 370 seats are occupied during the sittings. But on "big days" the
chamber is overcrowded. Many members have to stand in the aisles and by the
walls. During World War II Westminster Palace was damaged by bombing. There
appeared a chance to built bigger chambers, so that to accommodate all the
Members. But the House was rebuilt in the same size and shape, only with addition
of some modern conveniences, such as air-conditioning, better lighting and
microphones. The House meets five times a week at 2.30 PM. They have a peculiar
tradition to begin a day's work. At 2.30 PM the voice of a Parliamentary Clerk is
heard: "Hats off, strangers," and a small group of Parliamentary officials is seen
making their way into the chamber, headed by the Speaker — the presiding officer
of the House. He is elected immediately after the House is formed. Before that he
may have been a member of any political party. But on his election he suspends his
party membership: his function is to provide neutral policy in the House and to
stand above party interests. They have a peculiar tradition to elect the Speaker.
After his election, the new Speaker is dragged to the Speaker's chair by two MPs.
On the way they kick and push him. The tradition goes back to the days of the
English Revolution, when the Speaker's position was one of the most dangerous in
the state: he had to speak to the King on behalf of Parliament (hence his title), and
he often risked his head while doing it. That is why the people accepted this post
unwillingly and often were forced to take it.
Nowadays the main function of the Speaker is not to speak but to give the
members the opportunity to do it. When a Member of Parliament has something to
say, he must first ≪catch the Speaker's eye≫, and it is up to the Speaker whether
to allow him to speak or not. The members speak from their seats, facing the
Speaker. According to the traditions of parliamentary speaking, they may mention
their colleagues only in the3rd person, and they must not use ≪non-parliamentary
expressions≫ while doing it. In this case the Speaker gives them the
Admonition(warning).

EXERCISES
1. Find in the text the following concepts, check your ability to explainthem in
English, and add them to your working vocabulary:
the throne speech, the Bar, the Woolsack, backwoodsmen, the Baby of the House,
Lords Spiritual, Lords Temporal, life peers, law lords.
2. Write out from the text the sentences or their parts, which contain the
words and phrases given below and translate them into Russian:
the presiding officer, to be allotted, to attend the sittings, to lead nowhere, to hold
up.
3. Explain in English what is meant by:
a recess, a session, a quorum, hereditary peers, the Royal Dukes, political football,
legislative initiative, the right of veto.
4. Answer the following questions:
1. Why is the House of Lords called the oldest part of British Parliament?
2. From what place do the members of the House of Commons listen to the throne
speech of the Queen?
3. Why is the chair of Lord Chancellor called the "Woolsack"?
4. Do the Lords receive salary for their parliamentary work?
5. What is the difference between Spiritual and Temporal Lords, and between life
peers and hereditary peers?
6. Holders of what titles are included in the notion "hereditary peers"? What is the
difference between them?
7. In what sense is the House of Lords an undemocratic institution?
8. Can you explain why the House of Lords has more advocates than critics, in
spite of being "undemocratic"?
9. Can you mention one or two shortcomings of democracy?
10. Do you understand the meaning of the expression "political football"? What is
it?
11. Do the Lords ever use their right of legislative initiative? Why not?
12. How can the Lords influence the political and economic situation in the
country?
13. In what field have the Lords more power than the Commons
5. Translate the text into English:
Палату лордов неспроста называют лучшим из клубов королевства. Где
еще можно побывать в столь изысканной компании? Причем если в клубах
взимают членские взносы, то пэру, наоборот, выплачивают тринадцать с
половиной фунтов за каждую явку в палату — даже если просто зайдет на
полчаса в бар. Среди потомков славных в прошлом английских родов,
увековеченных в бронзе и мраморе, в последнее время в палате лордов
заседает все больше и больше все еще узнаваемых лиц политиков,
отошедших от активной политической жизни. Очевидно, палата обретает
новую функцию: быть чем-то вроде чердака, куда можно складывать
расшатавшуюся мебель, которую неудобно использовать, но жаль
выбрасывать. Эта тенденция стала еще более очевидной после 1958 года,
когда, опасаясь требований полностью упразднить палату, консервативное
правительство Макмиллана пошло на то, чтобы частично пожертвовать
наследственным принципом ее формирования. С тех пор королева начала
возводить в пэры пожизненно, то есть без права наследования титула.
Впрочем, и прежде существовали в палате места, которые было нельзя
передавать потомкам. Но это были места, занимаемые, так сказать, по
должности: представители англиканской церкви(архиепископы и епископы)
и лорды Верховного суда. Теперь к ним прибавилось еще 300 пожизненных
пэров, половину из которых составляют бывшие члены палаты общин, а
остальные — выдающиеся писатели, ученые, профсоюзные деятели,
дипломаты и промышленники, банкиры. Два столетия назад палата состояла
только из одних землевладельцев, обычно король давал пэрство вместе с
поместьями. Лорду Каррингтону как-то напомнили, что, когда его предок
был возведен в пэры Георгом III, лорды возмущенно покинули зал заседаний,
ибо новичок был банкиром. Так что, в сущности, нынешняя политика есть
нечто иное, как продолжение давней традиции Британского правящего
класса со времен промышленной революции старается быть «аристократией
с открытой дверью», вбирая в себя не только видных представителей
буржуазии, но и всех, кто в глазах общественности олицетворял успех на
каком-либо поприще. Теперь в «аристократы» принимают даже известных в
прошлом убежденных противников аристократии. Наглядный пример —
бывшие профсоюзные деятели, некогда боровшиеся против почестей и
привилегий, ныне сами получившие алые мантии парламентских пэров. А
ведь только сто лет назад на заседании палаты можно было услышать о
профсоюзах такие слова: «Политическое объединение представителей
низших классов, созданное в их собственных интересах, является худшим из
зол: постоянный характер такого объединения может в будущем обеспечить
низшим классам преобладающую роль в стране, что означало бы власть
невежества над просвещением...». Почтенные, все еще узнаваемые лица.
Смотришь на них и порой испытываешь ощущение, будто листаешь газетный
фотоархив.
UNIT 5
BRITISH SYSTEM OF EDUCATION.
1. Pre-school education.
2. Secondary education.
3. Higher education.
4. Further education.
Pre-school education. Compulsory education in Britain begins at the age of 5
but in some areas there are Nursery Schools for children under 5 years of age.
Some children between 2—5 receive education in nursery classes or in infant
classes in Primary Schools. Many children attend informal pre-school play-
grounds organized by parents in private homes. Nursery schools are staffed with
teachers and students in training. There are all kinds of toys to keep the children
busy from 9 o'clock in the morning till 4 o'clock in the afternoon — while their
parents are at work. Here the babies play, lunch and sleep. They can run about and
play in safety with someone keeping an eye on them. For day nurseries, which
remain open all the year round, the parents pay according to their income. The
local education authority's nurseries are free. But only about 3 children in 100 can
go to them: there aren't enough places, and the waiting lists are rather long.
Primary (elementary) education. Most children start school at the age of 5 in a
primary school. A Primary School is divided into Infant and Junior ones. At Infant
Schools reading, writing and arithmetic (three "Rs") are taught for about 20
minutes a day during the first year, gradually increasing to about two hours in their
last year. There is usually no written timetable. Much time is spent in modelling
from clay or drawing, reading or singing. By the time children are ready for the
Junior School they will be able to read and write, do simple addition and
subtraction of numbers. At the age of 7 children go on from the Infants School to
the Junior School. This marks the transition from play to "real work". The children
have set periods of arithmetic, reading and composition which are all "Eleven
Plus" subjects. History, Geography, Nature Study, Art and Music, Physical
Education, Swimming are also on the timetable. Core subjects are English, Maths,
Science. Exams in them are taken at the age of 7 and 11. Pupils are streamed,
according to their ability to learn, into A-, B-, C- and D-stream. The least gifted are
in the D-stream. Formerly towards the end of their fourth year the pupils wrote
their "Eleven Plus" Examination. The hated examination was a selective procedure
on which not only the pupils' future schooling but their future careers depended.
The abolition of selection at "Eleven Plus" Examination brought to life
Comprehensive Schools where pupils of all abilities can get secondary education.
Secondary education. Comprehensive Schools dominate among all types of
schools in secondary education: 90 % of all state-financed Secondary Schools are
of this type. Most other children receive secondary education in Grammar,
Secondary Modern and very few Secondary Technical Schools. Those who can
pay go to Public Schools. Comprehensive Schools. Comprehensive Schools were
introduced in 1965. The idea of comprehensive education, supported by the Labour
Party, was to give all children of whatever background the same opportunity in
education. So Comprehensive Schools are non-selective ("all-in") schools, which
provide a wide range of secondary education for all the children of a district. They
are the most important type of school because they are attended by 88 % of all
Secondary School pupils. All Scottish state pupils also attend nonselective schools.
There are various ways in which a Comprehensive School can be organized. It can
by "streaming" within the school try to keep children of approximately similar
ability in one group or class; or it can leave the children to choose between large
numbers of courses; or it can combine the two methods. Pupils may leave the
school at the age of 16 or 18. Comprehensive Schools are often very large with up
to 2000 pupils. Grammar Schools. A Grammar School mainly provides an exam-
centred academic course from 11 to 18. It is the main route to the universities and
the professions. A large proportion of university students is recruited from
Grammar Schools, though they make 3 % of all schools. Most Grammar School
pupils remain at school until 18 or 19 years old, especially if they want to go on to
a university. Some degree of specialisation, especially as between arts and science
subjects, is usual in the upper forms. The top form is always called the "sixth
form". Pupils may remain in this form for 2—3 years, until they leave school.
Selection of Primary School children for Grammar Schools is usually based on
school record cards, teachers' reports, tests and consultation with parents. After the
Reform Act of 1988 many Grammar Schools were turned into Comprehensives
and the change was in many cases very painful. 27 Secondary Modern Schools
give a general education with a practical bias. It is common for more time to be
given to handicrafts, domestic sciences and other practical activities than in
Grammar Schools. Foreign languages are not thought there. "Streaming" is
practised in secondary modern schools. The children in each group are usually
placed in three, streams — A, B and C; C-stream is for children of the least
academic type, concentrating mainly on practical work. Secondary Technical
Schools, a smaller group (less than 2 %), offer a general education largely related
to industry commerce and agriculture. These schools are not very popular and few
places have them. They provide teaching up to the age of 18. Independent schools
are private schools charging tuition fees and that is why they are independent of
public funds, independent of the state educational system, but they are open to
government control and inspection. The Department for Education has the power
to require them to remedy any objectionable features in their premises,
accommodation or instruction (teaching) and to exclude any person regarded as
unsuitable to teach or to be proprietor of a school. There is a wide range of
independent schools covering every age group and grade of education. They
include Nursery Schools and Kindergartens (taking children of Nursery and Infant
School ages), Primary and Secondary Schools of both day and boarding types. The
most important and expensive of the independent schools are known as Public
Schools, which are private Secondary Schools taking boys from age of 13 to 18
years, and Preparatory Schools (colloquially called "Prep" Schools), which are
private Primary Schools preparing pupils for Public Schools. Preparatory Schools
are usually small (for 50—100 children). They prepare the pupils for the Common
Entrance Examination, set by independent Secondary Schools. "Prep" Schools are
situated chiefly in the country or at the seaside resorts. They are much later
development than the Public Schools. Few of them date back further than 1870.
Preparatory Schools admit pupils aged 8 and teach them up to 13—14. Each pupil
is given personal attention. Public Schools form the backbone of the independent
sector. With a few exceptions all Public Schools are single-sex boarding schools,
providing residential accommodation for their pupils, though many of them take
some day pupils too. A typical Public School has about 500 boys but a few have
more (e. g. Eton has more than 1100 boys). Some of the Public Schools date from
the 16th century or earlier and they form the pinnacle of fee-paying education (in
the 1990s the boarding Public School-fees were between 5000 and 15000 pounds
annually). Of the several hundred Public Schools the most famous are the
Clarendon Nine. Their status lies in an attractive combination of social superiority
and antiquity. These are the oldest and most privileged Public Schools: Winchester
(1382), Eton (1440), St. Paul's (1509), Shrewsbury (1552), Westminster (1560),
The Merchant Taylor's (1561), Rugby (1567), Harrow (1571) and Charterhouse
(1611). When choosing a school some parents consider the availability of an "Old
School Tie" network, which may help their child to get a job and to develop
socially useful lifelong friendships, cooperative and self-help lines known as "jobs
for the boys". The most famous of such networks may be the grouping of old
Etonians, Harrorians and others known as the Establishment. Girls' schools
offering access to this network would be Roedean, Benenden or Cheltenham
Ladies College. (The cost of education in these privileged schools is 15000 pounds
per year.) There are about 35000 Secondary Schools in Britain, only 2300 are
independent, of which 427 are Public Schools. Demand for Public school
education is now so great that many schools register babies' names at birth. Eton
maintains two lists: one for the children of "old boys", those who studied there, and
the other for outsiders. Usually there are 3 applicants for every vacancy. For
example, in 1988 there were 203 names down for only 120 places at Radley
School in the year 2000. And it is not surprising that Public Schools cream off
many of the ablest teachers from the state sector, and teaching standards are very
high and much better than in any other Secondary Schools. Public Schools admit
pupils from private Preparatory Schools ("Preps") which prepare children for the
Common Entrance Examination. Public Schools offer entrance scholarships (from
6 to 10 annually). But the fees remain heavy even for scholarship winners. The
competition for those scholarships is very severe, and the syllabuses of the
scholarship examinations with their high standard in Latin and other subjects are
quite out of keeping with the Primary School curriculum. Independent fee-paying
schools were exempted' from teaching according to the National Curriculum.
Higher education. The system of higher education in Britain includes universities,
colleges of higher education and advanced courses in the further education. The
British educational system on the 28 higher level is still more selective and class-
divided than secondary education, particularly so far as the oldest universities are
concerned. Most big towns in Britain have both a university and a college of
higher education. There are 91 universities and 47 colleges of higher education
today. Universities offer 3- and 4-year degree courses, though a number of subjects
take longer, including medicine, architecture and foreign languages (where courses
include a year abroad). Colleges of higher education offer both two-year HND
(Higher National Diploma) courses, as well as degree courses. Undergraduate
courses normally take 3 years of full-time study and lead in most cases to a
Bachelor degree in Arts, Science or Education (BA, BSc, BEd). Undergraduates,
students who study for degrees, go to large formal lectures, but most of the work
takes place in tutorials: lessons in groups of 10 or more when the students discuss
their work with the lecturer. There are various postgraduate one- or two-year
research courses leading to degree of Master of Philosophy (PhM); Doctor of
Philosophy (PhD) is awarded for some original research in Arts or Sciences on
completion of a 3-year period of work. Students of law, architecture and some
other professions can take qualifications awarded by their own professional bodies
instead of degrees. Uniformity of standards between universities is promoted by
the practice of employing outside examiners for all examinations. The general
pattern of teaching is similar throughout Britain — a combination of lectures,
small group seminars or tutorials with practical classes where necessary. Only 25
% of the student population go on to higher education. Competition to get into one
of Britain's universities is fierce and not everyone who gets A-levels is admitted.
Students usually need three A-levels with high grades to go to university. Grades at
A-level go from A to E. One university may require higher A-level grades than
another. Most universities require two Bs and one C (BBC) grades. Students apply
to universities months before they take their A-levels. They are given a personal
interview and then the universities decide which applicants they want, offer them a
place which depends on A-level results. The more popular the university, the
higher the grades it will ask for. Over 90 % of full-time students receive grants to
assist with their tuition, cost of living, books, transport and socializing. But parents
with higher incomes are expected to make a contribution. Until 1990 the grants did
not have to be paid back, but now a system of loans has been introduced. Some
students borrow money from the bank, which must be paid back after they leave
the university and start working. In fact, the grant is not a lot of money. That's why
students work during the holidays to earn more money. As it is difficult to find
such jobs more and more students are dropping out, failing to finish their courses.
So the system of grants and scholarships is unable to solve the financial problems
of education which block educational opportunities for many people. About 15 %
of British students leave universities without obtaining a degree. British
universities are popular among foreign students. In spite of the high fees a large
number (over 70000) foreign students are getting high education there. Although
universities accept students mainly on the basis of their A-level results, there is an
exception. The Open University, which was started in 1971, caters for adults who
did not have these formal qualifications and who regret missed opportunities
earlier. It conducts learning through correspondence, radio and television, also
through local study centers. Further Education is a broad term to cover education
beyond the secondary stage. It includes vocational education, non-vocational
education, recreational evening classes and adult education. Further education
colleges have strong ties with commerce and industry. So the further education
delivers a broad range of learning, including: ♦ academic and vocational learning
for 16 to 19-year-old; ♦ vocational education and training for adults seeking
employment; ♦ workforce development for employers; ♦ second chance general
education for adults; ♦ learning for leisure and personal development. Not all
students study full-time at a university or college. Many people combine their
studies with work. Some companies release their staff for training one or two days
a week or for two months a year. Large companies often have their own in-house
training schemes. The British government is very enthusiastic about different
training schemes working in the system of further education because so few people
can get education at the universities. The most further education establishments
are either maintained or aided from public funds, so the tuition fees are moderate.
Some students are paid different awards and scholarships to help them to cover
tuition fees. The courses in further education are different: full-time, sandwich (6
months of full time study in a technical college and 6 months of supervised
experience in industry), block release (on similar principles, but with shorter
periods in college), day release (one day of attendance at a technical college a
week during working hours). Evening classes. There are also many business
courses such as tourism, manufacturing, art and design and secretarial courses such
as shorthand, typing, book-keeping and so on. For the unemployed there are two
forms of training schemes: employment training for people who have been out of
work for a long time and Youth Training schemes for school-leavers who cannot
find a job. Adult education includes courses of non-vocational education for people
over 18. Many of the courses are practical, but there are widespread opportunities
for academic study for those who left school at 16 and went straight into job, but
later on realized that they need higher qualifications. Quite a lot of people in their
mid-20s or older come back into education at the Further Education college and
take a one year Access course. This gets them into university, where they are often
more successful than younger students because they are more serious and focused.
It was in 1873 when Extension courses were first provided by Cambridge
University. Now all the universities have Extramural Departments with its director
and staff.
Vocabulary notes
pinnacle – вершина
cream off – отбирать лучших
syllabus – программа , расписание
sandwich system – многослойная система
block release – освобождение от работы для повышения классификации
access course – подготовительные курсы
extension courses – курсы повышения классификации
extramural department – вечерний факультет
Reading
English Universities
All English universities except Oxford and Cambridge are fairly new.
London University is the biggest of the modern universities and has many colleges
and schools. Oxford has 32 colleges. A large college has about 5000 students,
about a hundred students study at a small college. The college is an educational
institution giving special instruction in certain subjects. There are many types of
colleges in England. There are colleges within universities. There are also technical
colleges of various types, colleges of arts and commerce. Medical colleges are
among them. The college may be independent in its own affairs but is a part of the
university in some matters. The university gives the highest type of education. It
comprises a number of colleges and provides programmes for study and research
beyond the college level. The university is an administrative center which arranges
lectures for all the students of the colleges, holds examinations and gives degrees.
University teaching combines lectures, practical classes and small group
teaching in either seminars or tutorials, the last being a traditional feature of the
universities of Oxford and Cambridge. A university usually has both faculties and
departments. The faculties are arts, law, medicine, science. The departments
include engineering, economics, commerce, agriculture, music and technology. At
the head of each faculty there is a professor. A staff of teachers called lecturers
helps him. Professors and lecturers deliver lectures to large numbers of students or
study with small groups. All universities admit men and women, but within some
universities there are colleges specially for one sex. Most of the universities
provide hostels for their students.
All the universities and colleges are independent, self-governing institutions,
although they receive substantial aid from the state through the University Grants
Committee. The local education authorities have no responsibility for universities.
English universities greatly differ from each other. They differ in date of
foundation, history, traditions, general organization, internal government, methods
of teaching, ways of student life, size etc. On the whole, British universities are
comparatively small. The approximate number is 7000-8000 students, most
universities having under 3000, some even less than 1500 students.
The most ancient English universities are: Cambridge and Oxford. They are
dating back to the 12-13th centuries and have always been universities for
gentlemen. Other universities are called modern or provincial. They are located in
large centers of industry. There are no tutorial systems there. These universities
rely on lectures. All universities charge fees which are rather high.
EXERCISES
1. Give Russian equivalents to the following word combinations.
Fairly new, science faculty, at the head of, a staff of teachers, to admit men and
women, within some universities, to provide hostels, an independent college, self-
governing institution, substantial aid, the local education authorities, internal
government, tutorial system, to charge fees.
2. Answer the questions to the text.
1. Are all English universities new?
2. What is London University composed of?
3. Does university have faculties or departments?
4. What are faculties in English universities?
5. What do the departments include?
6. Who is at the head of the University?
7. Who helps professors?
8. To whom do professors and lecturers deliver lectures?
9. What do most universities provide for their students?
10.Are there many types of colleges in England?
11.What kinds of colleges are there in England?
12.Do British Universities differ?
13.What is the number of students at British Universities?
14.How are other universities called?
15.What does university teaching combine?
16.Who has responsibility for universities in Great Britain?
3. Translate into English.
1. Все английские университеты, за исключением Оксфордского и
Кембриджского, - новые университеты. 2. Лондонский университет состоит
из ряда колледжей и других учебных учреждений. 3. Университет обычно
имеет факультеты и отделения. 4. В английских университетах имеются
гуманитарные и естественные факультеты. 5. Факультеты возглавляются
профессорами. 6. Профессора и преподаватели читают лекции студентам. 7.
Университеты предоставляют студентам общежития. 8. В Англии много
различных колледжей. 9. Колледжи есть внутри университетов. 10. Имеются
также технические и медицинские колледжи. 11. В Оксфордском
университете 32 колледжа. 12. В большом колледже обучается 5000
студентов, в маленьком – 100. 13. Английские университеты – относительно
небольшие, но очень отличаются друг от друга своими традициями,
организацией, методами преподавания и т.д. 14. Современные английские
университеты расположены в промышленных центрах Англии и
преподавание в них ведется на основе лекций.
UNIT 6
Art. Museums and galleries.
1. Painting in England.
2. William Hogarth.
3. Joshua Reynolds
. 4. Thomas Gainsborough.
5. Joseph Turner.
6. Museums and galleries.
Painting in England in the period of the 15-17th centuries was represented
mostly by foreign artists. In the 16th century Hans Holbein the Younger, a well-
known painter, was invited to London by King Henry VIII. Though he did not
create any painting school in England he nevertheless played an important part in
the development of English portrait art. Later Charles I made the Flemish painter
Van Dyck (a pupil of Rubens ) his court painter. Van Dyck founded a school of
aristocratic portrait painting. Another painter Peter Lely came from Holland in
1641. He became celebrated for his portraits of the idle and frivolous higher
classes. The 18th century was the century during which a truly national painting
school was created in England. Portrait art at that time was the main kind of
painting. It depended upon the conditions under which the English painting school
developed. The first man to raise British pictorial art to a level of importance was
William Hogarth. The Industrial Revolution in England greatly influenced art as a
whole, and painting in particular. Such trends in painting as the genre school,
realistic landscape and portraiture schools expressed the social contradictions of
English life. The new trends may be traced in the works of Wilkie, Lawrence and
Constable. Sir David Wilkie (1785—1841), the leader of the genre school,
preferred pictures from which a moral concerning the simple virtues could be
drawn. One of his well-known pictures is "Village Politicians". With this trend not
only portraits of common people but their life and labour were introduced in art.
David Wilkie dedicated himself to portraying the joys and sorrows of the "little
man" — the Scottish farmers, shopkeepers, retired soldiers, etc. His picture "Old
Woman with a Dog" is characteristic of the artist's ability to tell a story, be it even
in a portrait. In portraiture Sir Thomas Lawrence (1769—1830) continuing the
manner of the 18th century introduced more realism. Thomas Lawrence, the last of
the painters to begin his career in the Reynolds tradition, was a favourite of the
English nobility. His magnificent paintings were glorified portraits of statesmen,
military leaders, and diplomats — always handsome, self-possessed and imperious,
a romantic pathos ennobling them more. "Lady Raglan" is one of Lawrence's
earlier works, done when he was still greatly influenced by Reynolds, but its easy
manner and masterly brushwork are really wonderful. Sometimes Lawrence
sacrificed realism to create a mild, idealized portrait. The artist is at his best as a
society portraitist in his "Portrait of Count M. S. Vorontsov", a participant in the
war of 1812. Lawrence's work was true to the traditions of the final period of a
school of portrait painting. The tradition of realistic landscape was represented by
John Constable. In the second part of the nineteenth century England entered upon
important stages of her artistic development. Some known painters — Dante
Gabriel Rossetti and others formed themselves into a "brotherhood" with the title
of Pre-Raphaelites that expressed their deep admiration for the masters who
preceded Raphael. This school had a great influence on the development of English
pictorial art. A quick survey of English painting about 1880 would reveal a
remarkably wide range of subject matter: the landscapes in photographic detail for
tired urban eyes; the parade portraits and the costume pieces like real charades in
paint; the anecdote of contemporary life, widening now to include documents more
deeply socially-minded; flower pictures, horse-pictures — an art of material
prosperity. Portrait art always occupied an important part in English painting and
nowadays there are prominent portraitists who continue the traditions of the
famous English masters. These traditions are apparent in the portraits by Graham
Sutherland. Sutherland is well-known for his drawings of the destruction caused by
the German fascists during World War II. Realistic traditions found their
expression in the works of Ruskin Spear who painted common people, their
troubles and joys. Paul Hogarth is known for his drawings of scenes of life in
Spain, Greece, China, etc. and greatly respected for the peaceloving motives in his
art.
With the twentieth century impressionism, cubism, abstractionism entered
English painting and certainly influenced it, though many gifted artists have found
and are following their own realistic path in art. Most of the famous British
painting collections may be seen in museums and art galleries of London: the Tate
Gallery, the National Gallery and others.
WILLIAM HOGARTH (1697—1764) William Hogarth was born in
London. His father was a schoolmaster. His early taste for drawing was remarkable
and after schooling which was normal for his day he was apprenticed to a
silverplate engraver. He attributed his success to hard labour. "I know of no such
thing as genius," he wrote, "genius is nothing but labour and diligence." Hogarth
became quite successful as a portrait painter, being particularly clever at painting
children and families. In 1724 he produced his first set of engravings entitled "The
Talk of the Town", a series which satirized both the society and the current
tendency of fashionable London to appreciate and invite only foreign singers.
Hogarth represented British life and people. His masterpiece on the life-size scale
—"the portrait that I painted with most pleasure," as Hogarth said — was that of
Captain Coram (1740). The sitter, a former captain, was a key figure in that moral
socially philanthropic movement with which Hogarth felt such sympathy. (In 1738
Coram founded the Foundling Hospital, with which Hogarth was associated.) Real
success came to him when he turned to subjects that common people could
appreciate and understand. There was "The Rake's Progress", for instance. These
series of pictures were highly praised by Henry Fielding, the novelist, for their
humour and moral force. Narrative pictures were nothing new, but Hogarth was the
first artist to invent a story and illustrate it. "The Marriage Contract" is the first of
the series of his pictures forming the famous "Marriage a la Mode". The subject of
the picture is a protest against marriage for money and vanity. Although his
narrative pictures were comic and full of satire his portraiture was honest and
original. One of his earlier portraits is "The Shrimp Girl", which has vivid
characterization and extraordinary vivacity. Hogarth was the first great English
artist. He used to be called "the Father of English Painting". He died at his house in
London on October 26th, 1764.
JOSHUA REYNOLDS (1723—1792). Sir Joshua Reynolds, the first
President of the Royal Academy of Arts, was not only a painter but the founder of
the academic principles of a "British school". Reynolds was the most outstanding
portraitist of the 18th century. He created a whole gallery of portraits of the most
famous of his contemporaries — statesmen, scholars, writers and actors, depicting
them in heroic style, showing them in all their glory as the best people of the
nation. His deep psychological approach made his art far advanced for its time, yet
his paintings are not free of a certain idealization. He was influenced by the
Venetians — Titian and Veronese. Before Reynolds portraiture art was based on
the formula: the sitter was posed centrally; with the background (curtain, chair,
landscape) disposed behind; normally the head was done by the master; the body
by the pupil. The portraits told little about their subjects. It was Reynolds who
insisted in his practice that a portrait could and should be a full complex work of
art. His people are no longer static, but caught between one movement and the
next. He did not only paint portraits but produced characters. The contradictory
features of Reynolds' art are most evident in his historical and mythological
paintings. His picture "The Infant Hercules Strangling the Serpents" was
commissioned by Catherine II of Russia. In it Reynolds wished to portray in
allegorical form the might of young Russia defeating its enemies as successfully as
the infant Hercules, son of Seus and Alcmene, battled the giant snakes planted into
his cradle by the jealous Hera, wife of Seus. Reynolds devoted himself entirely to
portraiture. He was one of the founders of the English school of portrait-painting at
the time of the industrial revolution. Quite often he included real personages in his
mythological works. For example the prophet in the picture "The Infant Hercules
Strangling the Serpents" is actually Samuel Johnson, lexicographer, a close friend
of Reynolds. The woman's head above is undoubtedly Sarah Siddons, the famous
tragic actress.
THOMAS GAINSBOROUGH (1727—1788). Thomas Gainsborough was
born in the small market town of Sudbury in Suffolk. He was the youngest of the
nine children in the family. When a boy he was very good at drawing, and
according to a story about him, he made such a good portrait from memory of a
thief whom he had seen robbing a garden that the thief was caught. It was his early
efforts at landscape painting that were the reason for his father allowing him to go
to London to study. Gainsborough was good-humoured and witty. His portraits of
children have infinite charm. He had a great feeling and sympathy for them. The
delightful portraits of his two little daughters have given pleasure for over 200
years and still do. His portraits are painted in clear tones. His colour is always
tender and soft. Light tone scheme and use of light blues and yellows belong
essentially to his earlier period. Perhaps the best known today of all
Gainsborough's portraits is the famous "The Blue Boy". But curiously enough it
was little known in Gainsborough's days and there is no definite information about
the date of the painting. There is an opinion that Gainsborough painted "The Blue
Boy" in order to establish the point which he had made in a dispute with Reynolds
and other painters, when he maintained that the predominant colour in a picture
should be blue. Thomas Gainsborough was Reynolds's rival and almost exact
contemporary. He was also his most exact opposite. He brought an innate genius
for drawing, delight in colour and movement. He is the purest lyricist among the
painters. "The Portrait of Lady Howe" (1765) is one of his masterpieces. It is a
portrait in a Van Dyck habit. Behind the Lady you can see the English landscape
which was so dear to Gainsborough's heart. Even in the portrait painting he is an
out-of-door painter. If you think of his finest portraits you will immediately
remember that the backgrounds are well-observed country scenes. The famous
"The Blue Boy" is placed against an open sky and a background of brown and
green landscape. In Mrs. Sheridan's portrait the background is the wide sky and
broad view into the valley. He loved the country-side of his childhood and often
said that the Suffolk country-side had made him a painter. One of the most famous
of his late landscapes is "The Market Cart" painted two years before he died. He
lived in that period when landscape painting was not in fashion. Rich people did
not spend money on landscapes. So, it's really remarkable that there were more
than 40 unsold landscapes in his studio at the time of his death.
JOHN CONSTABLE (1776—1837). John Constable was born in the village
of East Bergholt, Suffolk in 1776. His father was a man of some property—he had
water mills and windmills, and John after leaving grammar school helped his
father. From his boyhood Constable was devoted to painting and his father allowed
him to visit London and to consult the landscape-painter J. Farington, but only in
1799 he could adopt the profession of painting and became a student at the Royal
Academy. For Constable nature was the "source from which all originality must
spring". In fact, Constable was better appreciated in France than in England, and
was regarded there as the father of the French school of landscape. He interested
himself in the study of colour, its theory and chemistry and became almost a
professional meteorologist. He wrote: "Painting is a science, and should be pursued
as an inquiry into the laws of nature." His sketch of "Brighton Beach, with
Colliers" is typical of his method. John Constable painted many well-known
works, such as "Flatford Mill", "The Cottage in the Cornfield", "The Hay Wain",
"The Lock", "Salisbury Cathedral from the Meadows" and others. Constable was
winning recognition in England for a long time. However, his fresh and charming
landscapes were an immediate success when exhibited in the Paris salon of 1824,
influencing a great number of progressive young French painters. The realism of
Constable in English art had no further followers towards the end of the 19th
century, when academic trends grew stronger, idealism developed, and later turned
to formalism.
JOSEPH MALLORD WILLIAM TURNER (1775-1851). The paintings of
Joseph Mallord William Turner are among the outstanding art achievements of the
nineteenth century. Turner's earliest works were watercolours. His first oils are
sombre in colour but already reveal his preoccupation with contrasted effects of
light and atmospheric effects such as storms and rainbows. The painting of light
was his business. For Turner light was the main principle of the world, his theme
was to show that light dissolved all matter into its own qualities, the colours of the
prism. Light is triumphant in his pictures. The dream-like landscapes, often of
Venice, represented one side of Turner's late style. The other was the more and
more direct expression of the destructiveness of nature, apparent particularly in
some of his sea-pieces. The force of wind and water was conveyed by his open,
vigorous brushwork. His pictures "The Shipwreck", "Burning of the Houses of
Parliament", "Snow Storm" and others are original and brilliant in their mastery.
Of his life we know practically nothing. He lived only in and for his art. Son of a
London barber, he started drawing and painting as a small boy, selling his
drawings to the customers in his father's shop. When Turner was thirteen, he chose
an artistic career. His oil paintings were exhibited in the Royal Academy in 1793
and in 1802 Turner was elected Academician of the Royal Academy. He lived till
he was seventy-six, painting with something like frenzy till the end. When his
work came to be listed the records showed 200 important oil paintings, 300 water-
colours, and no less than 33 20,000 sketches and drawings! An enormous number
of his great canvases were his own, and the lonely old man, dying, bequeathed
them to the nation.
The British have always been known as great art collectors. During the
colonial times the aristocracy and rich merchants filled their houses and castles
with valuable paintings, furniture and ornaments which they brought back from
their travels abroad. So their collections can be seen today in palaces and castles,
country houses and, of course, in museums and various picture galleries. In 1753
by an Act of Parliament the British Museum was founded, and the state itself
became a big collector. London is the world's leading centre of museums and
galleries, holding the richest variety of works of arts. There are about 2,000
museums and galleries in Britain which include the chief national collections, and
a great variety of independently or privately owned institutions. But some of the
most comprehensive collections of objects of artistic, archaeological, scientific,
historical and general interest are contained in the national museums and galleries
in London. Among them are the British Museum, the Victoria and Albert Museum,
the Science Museum, the National Gallery, the Tate Gallery, the National Portrait
Gallery, the Geological Museum, the Natural History Museum, Madame
Tussaud's, the Tower of London and many other treasure institutions. There are
national museums and art galleries in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. In
Edinburgh — the National Museum of Antiquities of Scotland, the Royal Scottish
Museum; in Cardiff — the National Museum of Wales; in Belfast — the Ulster
Museum.
Situated in Bloomsbury, THE BRITISH MUSEUM is the world's largest
museum. It was built between 1823 and 1852. Most famous exhibits include the
Rosetta Stone in the Southern Egyptian Gallery, and in the manuscript room, the
Magna Charta, Nelson's log-book, and Scott's last diary. The British Museum
includes also the British Library, which is the national library of the United
Kingdom and ranks among the greatest libraries in the world, such as the National
Library of Congress in Washington or the National Library in Paris. The Library
has the world-famous collections of about 12 million items of monographs,
manuscripts, maps, stamps, newspapers and sound records. Publishers are obliged,
by law, to supply the Library with a copy of each new book, pamphlet or
newspaper published in Britain.
THE VICTORIA AND ALBERT MUSEUM is a national collection of fine
and applied arts of all countries and periods. Of great interest are the costumes
displays, the rooms of different historical periods, the jewellery and porcelain, the
celebrated Raphael cartoons belonging to the Crown and the best collection of
English miniatures to be found in the country. The Museum has about seven miles
of galleries with various exhibits, including ethnic arts and crafts.
THE NATIONAL GALLERY exhibits all schools of European painting
from the 13th century and includes works by Van Dyck, Rubens, Vermeer,
Holbein, El Greco, Goya, Velasquez, Gainsborough and Leonardo da Vinci. It also
includes the largest collection of Rembrandts outside Holland. There are over
thirty rooms in the Gallery and lectures are given regularly by experts.
THE TATE GALLERY is really three galleries: a national gallery of British
art, a gallery of modern sculpture and a gallery of modern foreign painting. Among
the treasures to be found are modern sculptures by Rodin, Moore and Epstein.
THE SCIENCE MUSEUM houses the national collections of science,
industry and medicine. Many exhibits are full size and there are many historic
objects of scientific and technological significance. Additionally there are exhibits
sectioned to show their internal construction and working models. The children's
gallery gives a dioramic history of the development of transport.
THE NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM is the home of the national
collections of living and fossil plants and animals. It also has collections of rocks,
minerals and meteorites, as well as coins, manuscripts and other treasures. At first
these collections were all kept in the British Museum as part of its exhibits. But,
over the years, so much was added to the collections that shortage of space became
a major problem and, in I860, it was decided to split off the natural history
departments and house them separately. The architect Alfred Waterhouse designed
a suitable building, the construction of which was completed in 1880. The building
of the National History Museum, which is over one hundred years old, also houses
a scientific research institution. More than 300 scientists are engaged in the
identification and classification of animals, plants and minerals.
THE NATIONAL ARMY MUSEUM covers the history of the British
Army from the formation of the Yeomen of the Guard by Henry VII in 1485 to the
outbreak of the First World War in 1914. It also displays the history of the
Commonwealth armies up to independence.
THE IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM gives a visual record of all the
campaigns in which British and Commonwealth armed forces have been engaged
since the outbreak of the First World War. Its portraits, books, photographs, maps
and films constitute an important source of reference for historians.
MADAME TUSSAUD'S MUSEUM OF WAXWORKS in Marylebone
Road is one of London's great attractions. Madame Tussaud first became
associated with life-size wax portraits in 1770 when, at the age of 9, she helped her
uncle open an exhibition in Paris. When she was 17 she made a wax portrait of
Voltaire and followed this with death-masks of Marie Antoinette, Robespierre and
other victims of the French Revolution. She came to England in 1802, travelling
with her exhibition for about thirty years before settling down permanently in
Baker Street. The Museum was founded in 1884 not far from this street. Madame
Tussaud continued to make wax models until she was 81. Her figures were
extremely realistic, and their costumes could be characterized by great accuracy.
The range of her works was really enormous. A visitor to London's great Wax
Museum will see kings and queens, statesmen and writers, actors and musicians,
artists and sportsmen, scientists, astronauts, world leaders and so on and so forth.
Unsuspecting visitors will be struck by the Chamber of Horrors displaying many
notorious criminals. The last of notable events on view includes those depicting the
historical Battle of Trafalgar and the Battle of Britain.
Vocabulary notes
court painter - придворный художник
outbreak – начало
engraver – гравер
prophet – пророк
rival – соперник
somber - мрачный
frenzy – неистовство
bequeathed -завещал
log-book – бортовой журнал
notorious – печально известный
Reading
In England, the greatest of the arts has always been literature. In the pictorial
art England's achievements have not only been more modest, but the best was done
by English painters during the two widely separated periods. The first of these
periods was the Middle Ages, but these achievements were mostly in stained glass
and manuscript illumination. As far as painting is concerned, it is difficult to judge
since very little survived. Nevertheless, from those works that did survive it may
be concluded that the level of quality was high. A typical example of English
painting of that period is the Wilton Diptych, called so because Wilton House is the
place where it has been kept for two centuries. It consists of two oak panels, the
first of which shows the young King Richard II kneeling in front of three patron
saints of England. In the second panel, King Richard is shown among eleven
angels encircling Virgin Mary who holds in her arms Infant Christ. One of the
angels carries the banner of St. George and Christ holds his hands as if to take the
banner and give it to Richard. It is one of the best known and loved paintings in
England. It represents the best traditions of medieval English painting, with its
attention to the beauty of line, its rich colour and fine craftsmanship. In the early
fifteenth century this tradition came to an end, and for the next three hundred years
pictorial art in England was dominated by the Continental influences: all leading
artists who worked in England were foreign by origin and training. The native
tradition was reborn only in the first quarter of the 18th century. With Van Dyck,
Hogarth, Reynolds, Gainsborough, Blake, Turner and Constable, English painting
became lively and original. And it was not by chance that England's most
significant contribution to painting was made during three overlapping periods of
European culture: the Age of Reason, the Age of Classicism, and the Age of
Romanticism. Each of these periods emphasized one or the other of the qualities
associated with English sensibility. The chief characteristics of the Age of Reason,
with its empirical approach to experience, are evident in the works of Van Dyck.
He was not English by birth, but, being always sensitive to national peculiarities of
the people among whom he lived, Van Dyck popularized thequalities of
atmosphere and the beauty of line that are most typical of English painting. He was
the first to begin a tradition to represent his sitters against a landscape background.
This feature became prominent for English portraits, distinguishing them from the
Continental practice. A typical example of his art is the portrait of Charles I: an
elegant and imposing figure of the king, sitting on a magnificent horse, is shown
against a peaceful and very romantic background. In the second part of the 18th
century the dominant force in painting was Classicism, which found in England
many supporters because it reflected English love of clarity, elegance and restraint.
It is useless to look for the psychological depth in the English portraits of this
period. The aim of Reynolds and Hogarth was not to explore individual
psychology but rather to depict a character. But English Classicism was not a
straightforward movement: it included different tendencies. If Hogarth was a
painter who always had his feet on the ground, William Blake was a visionary and
a philosopher. "Universe is not a mathematical diagram!"he used to say. In his
work, both as a poet and as a painter, he glorified imagination as the only creative
approach to experience. Romantic movement of the 19th century revealed the
English passion for sentiment and Nature. Landscape and sea scape surpass
portraiture in significance. It is interesting that, during the Romantic period, the
attitude of English artists toward nature became at once more imaginative and
more exact. During the previous periods there was something artificial about
landscapes. Gainsborough, for instance, rarely went to the countryside to paint
nature. Usually he built his landscapes in a box with a piece of glass for a lake and
dolls for human figures. On the other hand, both Turner and Constable went to the
mountainous regions of North Wales, the Lake District and Derbyshire, when they
wanted to paint. And they treated the anatomy of trees, the shape of waves and
weather effects in the spirit of almost scientific curiosity. "In an age as this,
painting should be understood, not considered only as a poetic aspiration," said
Constable. Yet this passion did not lead to pedantic, over-detailed type of painting.
On the contrary, the English artists worked with a new freedom of style, regarding
nature as something in a continuous change. As a sort of summary, it is necessary
to point out that English painting has always been more closely dependent than
most European schools on the national traditions and the national sensibility. That
is why it speaks a language that is less universal than does painting in Italy or
France. But if we take pains to understand the language of the English painters, the
English school begins to produce a really powerful effect.
1. Find in the text the following concepts, check your ability to explain them in
English, and add them to your working vocabulary:
pictorial art, very little survived, attention to the beauty of line, fine craftsmanship,
Continental influences, national sensibility, romantic background, a visionary.
2. Write out from the text the sentences or their parts, which contain the words and
phrases given below and translate them into Russian:
the pictorial art, stained glass, manuscript illumination, patron saints of England,
lively, a straightforward movement, a visionary,to surpass smth, the anatomy of
trees.
3. Explain in English what is meant by.
kneeling in front of, the banner of St. George, overlapping periods, English
sensibility, a sitter, an imposing figure, to have one's feet on the ground, to be a
visionary, imaginative, pedantic, a universal language.
4. Answer the following questions:
1. When were the best pictorial achievements done in England?
2. In what artistic genres did the medieval English painters make their most
significant contribution?
3. Why is it difficult to judge about the general level of quality of the medieval
English painting? What do the experts base their opinion on, when they praise
English medieval painting?
4. Whose figures does the Wilton Diptych show? What does it symbolize? Why is
this work so much loved in England?
5. When did the English pictorial tradition come to an end and was reborn again?
Does it mean that there were no artists in England between these centuries? How
do the art critics explain the phenomenal success of English painting in the 18 th and
19th centuries?
6. Whose works are thought to be the best achievements of the English painting
during the Age of Reason? Was this artist an Englishman? What features of the
Medieval English painting did he develop and perfect? What work is considered to
represent best of all his English period?
7. How do the critics explain why the Age of Classicism produced so many
talented painters in England? What is characteristic of English portraiture of that
period? Who are thought to represent English Classicism in its best? What kind of
artist was Hogarth? Why he and Blake are usually contrasted by the art critics? In
what way were the opposites? What did Blake want to glorify in his painting and
poetry?
8. What typically English qualities were revealed during the Period of
Romanticism? What features appeared in English painting under the influence of
Romantic philosophy? How do English Romantic landscapes compare with those
painted during the Age of Classicism? Who are thought to be the best
representatives of the English Romantic painting? What is especially remarkable
about their approach to depicting Nature?
5. Translate the text into English:

Король придворных живописцев


Ван Дейк не был скромным тружеником, как многие из его
современников. Рожденный в богатой купеческой семье, где он был
любимчиком, он всегда имел все, что ценил в этой жизни: славу,
приключения, страсти. Непостижимо было его жизнелюбие, но любовь к
искусству была еще сильней. И вместе с тем, будучи сыном своего отца, он и
деньги любил не меньше, никогда не упуская случая подзаработать.
Прибыв в Англию по приглашению короля, он удивительно быстро
понял особенности национального характера англичан и усвоил
национальные особенности английской живописи. Как и его учителя-
голландцы, он тоже стремится к портретной точности, но не склонен
копаться в психологических проблемах человека, который ему позирует. Он
просто пытается показать своего героя в лучшем свете. Постоянно
появляются подозрения, что художник придает своим персонажам толику
своего собственного безупречного вкуса. Позы их всегда исполнены
благородства и изящества. Лучше своего учителя Рубенса он знает моды,
костюмы, красивое оружие. Он рисует не рыцарей в латах, а кавалеров и
придворных в безупречных костюмах, положивших руку на украшенный
драгоценными камнями эфес шпаги. Благородство их осанки испанское,
живость взгляда — французская, а респектабельность— чисто английская.
Пожалуй, самая известная картина его английского периода —
портрет Карла I. Он был задуман как парадный, но ничего официозного нет в
фигуре этого джентльмена среди монархов. По благородству стиля, по
рисунку и цвету этот портрет выдерживает сравнение с величайшими
полотнами мастеров Ренессанса. Может быть, вы и не почувствуете, глядя на
этот портрет, эстетического трепета, как перед полотном Рафаэля, но
равнодушными он вас точно не оставит, потому что сам художник никогда
не был равнодушным наблюдателем. Как будто предчувствуя свою скорую и
преждевременную смерть, художник успел написать невероятное количество
картин за эти последние восемь лет жизни, которые он провел среди
англичан. Он умер в Лондоне в 1641году, не дожив, к счастью, до краха
ценностей и самого образа жизни, которые он прославлял в своем творчестве.
Но мы помним его не как по-своему трагическую личность и не за отдельные
оставленные им шедевры вроде этого портрета. Ван Дейк ввел в моду свой
собственный живописный стиль и стал, таким образом, основателем целой
школы живописи. Поэтому потомство отводит ему особое место в истории
живописи.
UNIT 7
Cultural Life in Britain. Traditions. Holidays
1. Cultural life in Britain
2. Music.
3. Theatre.
4. Traditions.
5. Holidays.
Artistic and cultural life in Britain is rather rich. It passed several main
stages in its development. The Saxon King Alfred encouraged the arts and culture.
The chief debt owed to him by English literature is for his translations of and
commentaries on Latin works. Art, culture and literature flowered during the
Elizabethan age, during the reign of Elizabeth I; it was the period of English
domination of the oceans. It was at this time that William Shakespeare lived. The
empire, which was very powerful under Queen Victoria, saw another cultural and
artistic heyday as a result of industrialization and the expansion of international
trade. But German air raids caused much damage in the First World War and then
during the Second World War. The madness of the wars briefly interrupted the
development of culture. Immigrants who have arrived from all parts of the
Common-wealth since 1945 have not only created a mixture of nations, but have
also brought their cultures and habits with them. Monuments and traces of past
greatness are everywhere. There are buildings of all styles and periods. A great
number of museums and galleries display precious and interesting finds from all
parts of the world and from all stages in the development of nature, man and art.
London is one of the leading world centres for music, drama, opera and dance.
Festivals held in towns and cities throughout the country attract much interest.
Many British playwrights, composers, sculptors, painters, writers, actors, singers
and dancers are known all over the world. The people living in the British Isles are
very fond of music, and it is quite natural that concerts of the leading symphony
orchestras, numerous folk groups and pop music are very popular. The Promenade
concerts are probably the most famous. They were first held in 1840 in the Queen's
Hall, and later were directed by Sir Henry Wood. They still continue today in the
Royal Albert Hall. They take place every night for about three months in the
summer, and the programmes include new and contemporary works, as well as
classics. Among them are symphonies and other pieces of music composed by
Benjamin Britten, the famous English musician. Usually, there is a short winter
season lasting for about a fortnight. The audience may either listen to the music
from a seat or from the 'promenade', where they can stand or stroll about, or, if
there is room, sit down on the floor. Concerts are rarely given out-of-doors today
except for concerts by brass bands and military bands who play in the parks and at
seaside resorts during the summer. Folk music is still very much alive. There are
many folk groups. Their harmony singing and good humour win them friends
everywhere. Rock and pop music is extremely popular, especially among younger
people. In the 60s and 70s groups such as the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, the Who,
Led Zeppelin and Pink Floyd became very popular and successful. The Beatles,
with their style of singing new and exciting, their wonderful sense of humour
became the most successful pop group the world has ever known. Many of the
famous songs written by John Lennon and Paul McCartney are still popular. Some
of the more recent rock groups are Eurhythmies, Dire Straits, Black Sabbath, and
many others. British groups often set new trends in music. New stars and styles
continue to appear. One of the most popular contemporary musicians and
composers is Andrew Lloyd Webber. The musicals and rock operas by A. L.
Webber have been a great success both in Britain and overseas. Britain is now one
of the world's major theatres centres. Many British actors and actresses are known
all over the world. They are Dame Peggy Ashcroft, Glenda Jackson, Laurence
Olivier, John Gielgud and others. Drama is so popular with people of all ages that
there are several thousand amateur dramatic societies. Now Britain has about 300
professional theatres. Some of them are privately owned. The tickets are not hard
to get, but they are very expensive. Regular seasons of opera and ballet are given at
the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden in London. The National Theatre stages
modern and classical plays, the Royal Shakespeare Company produces plays
mainly by Shakespeare and his contemporaries when it performs in Stratford-on-
Avon, and modern plays in its two auditoria in the City's Barbican Centre. 25
Shakespeare's Globe Playhouse, about which you have probably read, was
reconstructed on its original site. Many other cities and large towns have at least
one theatre. There are many theatres and theatre companies for young people: the
National Youth Theatre and the Young Vic Company in London, the Scottish
Youth Theatre in Edinburgh. The National Youth Theatre, which stages classical
plays mainly by Shakespeare and modern plays about youth, was on tour in
Russian in 1989. The theatre-goers warmly received the production of Thomas
Stearns Eliot’s play ‘Murder in the Cathedral’. Many famous English actors started
their careers in the National Youth Theatre. Among them Timothy Dalton, the
actor who did the part of Rochester in ‘ Jane Eyre’ shown on TV in our country.
The British people are very proud of their traditions, cherish them and carefully
keep them up, because many of them are associated with the history and cultural
development of the country. Speaking about British traditions we should
distinguish bank, or public holidays, annual festivals, celebrations and pageant
ceremonies. There are eight public holidays a year in Great Britain, that is days on
which people need not go in to work. They are: Christmas Day, Boxing Day, New
Year's Day, Good Friday, Easter Monday, May Day, Spring Bank Holiday and
Late Summer Bank Holiday. Most of these holidays are of religious origin, though
it would be true to say that for the greater part of the population they have long lost
their religious significance and are simply days on which people relax, eat, drink
and make merry. All the public holidays, except Christmas Day and Boxing Day
observed on December 25th and 26th respectively, are movable, that is they do not
fall on the same date each year. Good Friday and Easter Monday depend on Easter
Sunday which falls on the first Sunday after a full moon on or after March 21st.
May Day falls on the first Monday in May The Spring Bank Holiday fall: on the
last Monday of May, while the Late Summer Bank Holiday comes on the last
Monday in August. Besides public holidays, there are other festivals, anniversaries
and celebration days on which certain traditions are observed, but unless they fall
on a Sunday, they are ordinary working days. They are: St. Valentine's Day,
Pancake Day, April Fool's Day, Bonfire Night (or Guy Fawkes' Night),
Remembrance (or Poppy) Day, Halloween and many others including Royal Ascot
— the biggest horse race in Britain, the Proms — a series of classical music
concerts, the London Marathon, Harvest Festival, Dog Shows and so on. The
British people are also proud of pageants and ceremonies of the national capital —
London. Many of them are world famous and attract numerous tourists from all
over the world. They include daily ceremonies and annuals. Changing of the Guard
at Buckingham Palace at 11.30 a. m., Ceremony of the Keys at 10 p. m. in the
Tower, Mounting the Guard at the Horse Guards square are most popular daily
ceremonies. Of those which are held annually the oldest and the most cherished
are: the glorious pageantry of Trooping the Colour, which marks the official
birthday of the Queen (the second Saturday in June); Firing the Royal Salute to
mark anniversaries of the Queen's Accession on February 6 and her birthday on
April 21; Opening of the Courts marking the start of the Legal Year in October;
and the Lord Mayor's Show on the second Saturday in November, when the newly
elected Lord Mayor is driven in the beautiful guilded coach pulled by 6 white
horses to the Royal Court of Justice where he takes his oath of office and becomes
second in importance in the City only to the Sovereign (Queen).
Vocabulary notes

READING
Early Britain
The man is said to have appeared on the British Isles during the Stone Age,
when the islands were still joined to the Continent by the land bridge. We know
almost nothing about these early inhabitants. The historians refer to them as the
Iberians because their descendants still live in Iberian Peninsula, where Spain is
situated now. The Iberians used stone weapons and tools, and are supposed to have
built stone structures called cromlechs. The most famous of them is Stonehenge in
Wiltshire. It consists of two circles of stones — 14 feet high up right stones that
support 4 feet long cross stones. In the centre is a flat stone, called the "altar
stone", and through the arches of the outer circle you can see a huge stone called
the Hele stone. If you stand by the altar stone on the morning of the longest day
of the year, you will see the sun rise exactly over the Heel stone, and for that
reason it is believed that Stonehenge was a temple for sun worship. From the 6th to
the 3rd century ВС the Celtic tribes came from the Continent. The tribes called the
Britons settled in the southern part, the Picts and the Scots penetrated into the
mountains of the north; some settled there and some crossed over to Ireland. The
Iberians were unable to stop the Celtic invaders armed with metal swords and axes.
They were driven westwards into the mountains of what is now Wales and the
others mixed with the Celts.
We know more about the Celts than about the earlier inhabitants because the
Greek historians mentioned them in their books. The Britons built their houses of
sticks and mud (wattle-and-daub), with thatched roofs and earth floors. They wore
skins of animals for their dresses and painted bodies and faces bright blue in order
to look more terrible to their enemies. year 55 ВС the Roman emperor Julius
Caesar crossed the Channel and the Romans invaded the island. They built good
roads, stone walls, fortresses and villas, trying to make the country more habitable.
One of the monuments of Roman Britain is the long stone wall in Northumberland,
usually called Hadrian's Wall because Emperor Hadrian ordered it to be built. It
was about120 km long. As time went on, the people knocked down parts of it in
order to use the stone to build houses. This way, for instance, many houses in the
city of Newcastle were built. But the remains of Hadrian's Wall are still there. Lots
of tourists walk along it, stopping on their way to look at the remains of Roman
towns and camps. Many of these are still buried in the earth. One Roman town
called Vindolanda is being excavated now. Many interesting things were found
there, for instance, the eggs of flies 2,000 years old. These were found on dried
leaves, which the Romans used to cover the floors of their houses. They did not
change the layers of leaves when they became dry and dirty. They just put another
layer on top of it! Roman Invasion lasted for about 400 years and ended in the
5thcentury AD, when the Goths swept across Europe, threatening to destroy
Roman Empire. The Roman legions departed to defend Rome, leaving Britain
open to other invasions.
Soon after their departure, the Germanic tribes known as the Saxons, the
Angles and the Jutes began to raid the towns of the Britons, driving them to the
mountains of Wales and Cornwall. As a whole, these people called themselves
Anglo-Saxons. Their folklore and literature ("Beowulf) give insight into their
character. They valued personal liberty, loved adventure, and were good warriors.
Due to these qualities, they had been able to defend themselves from the invasions
for about 200 years, but in 850 AD the invasions were resumed, this time of the
Danes, also called the Vikings. There are few things to remind us how they lived in
Britain. There are not even graves of the Viking warriors because they never
buried their dead in the earth, but laid them on their own ships, set them on fire and
pushed into the sea. The people in the Shetland Isles have an interesting festival
called Up-Helly-Aa, which reminds them about this custom of the Vikings. During
it, a splendid painted ship, an exact copy of an old Viking galley, is drawn through
the streets by the people dressed as Vikings, followed by torch-bearers. When the
procession reaches the shore, the torch-bearers form a circle round the ship. They
sing an old song and, as soon as they finish singing, they throw their blazing
torches into the ship. When the ship becomes a mass of golden flame, it is pushed
into the sea.
King Alfred the Great fought back the Danish invaders, keeping England
English. But after his death, the Danes conquered most of England, and though
Anglo-Saxon monarchy was restored in 1042, in1066 it fell again, as a result of the
Norman Conquest. Duke William of Normandy and his warriors invaded the island,
and during the next two hundred years hardly any aspect of English life was left
unchanged. Great estates grew up throughout England, each centred around a
private fortress called castle. The church became the dominant influence in the
lives of people and many splendid cathedrals were built. But the British castles and
cathedrals we shall discuss during the next part of this unit, while speaking about
British architecture.
EXERCISES
1. Find in the text the following concepts, check your ability to explain them in
English, and add them to your working vocabulary.
the Stone Age, Stonehenge, the Celts, the Britons, the Scots, Roman Invasion,
Hadrian's Wall, the Saxons, the Angles, the Jutes, the Danes (Vikings), Up-Helly-
Aa, the Norman Conquest.
2. Write out from the text the sentences or their parts, which contain the words and
phrases given below and translate them into Russian:
the land bridge, to cross over to, to excavate, to give insight into, torch-bearers,
estates.
3. Explain in English what is meant by:
descendants, cromlechs, invaders, wattle-and-daub, a villa, blazing torches.
4. Answer the following questions:
1. When did the man appear on the British Isles? What do we know about the early
inhabitants? What monuments did they build? Why do the historians think that
Stonehenge was a temple for sun worship?
2. When did the Celts appear on the British Isles? Where did they come from? In
what parts of the island did they settle? Why was it so difficult for the early
inhabitants to stop the invasion?
13. Why do we know more about the Celts than about the earliest inhabitants?
What do the historians say about their life and habits?
4. When did the Romans appear in Britain? What did they do to make their life
more comfortable? What for did they build stone walls all over the island? The
remains of what wall can be seen in Northumberland? What interesting objects
were excavated in the Roman settlements? When and why did the Romans leave
the island?
5. When did the Germanic tribes begin to raid the towns of the Britons? What did
they call themselves? What happened to the Britons? What do we know about the
new invaders? How long were they able to defend their towns and villages from
the new invaders?
6. Who were the people who also tried to settle in the island? Why do we know so
little about them? What colourful ceremony do the people of the Shetland Isles
have, which reminds us about the customs of those invaders?
7. When and how did the Anglo-Saxon royal line come to an end? What did the
new invaders begin doing in order to settle on the island more securely?
5. Translate the text into English:
Вековые традиции
С давних времен на Британских островах сохранилось множество
красочных обычаев и церемоний, которые по-своему отражают историю этой
страны. Возьмем, к примеру, Ночь Гая Фокса — вечер 5 ноября, когда по
традиции отмечают раскрытие так называемого «Порохового заговора»,
устроенного католиками с целью покушения на короля Якова I, который
должен был прибыть на заседание парламента. В подвале здания были
запасены бочки с порохом, а фитиль должен был зажечь в нужную минуту
некий Гай Фокс. Заговор раскрыли, злодеев повесили. И это чудесное
спасение короля празднуется каждый год грандиозным фейерверком, во
время которого сжигается чучело главы «Порохового заговора». В некоторых
городах проводятся факельные шествия.
С этим же историческим событием связана другая красочная
церемония. В день официального открытия сессии парламента(обычно в
конце октября или после всеобщих выборов), когда королева выступает с
тронной речью, соблюдается еще одна традиция: дворцовая стража с
зажженными фонарями в руках тщательно осматривает подвалы здания
парламента, проверяя, нет ли там бочек с порохом или еще какого-нибудь
сюрприза.
А в лондонском Тауэре проходит ежедневная церемония передачи
ключей. Старший страж закрывает ворота, и после традиционного диалога с
часовым («Стой, кто идет?»— «Ключи!» — «Чьи ключи?» — «Королевы
Елизаветы» — «Проходите, ключи королевы Елизаветы! Все спокойно!»
—«Бог, храни королеву!» — «Аминь».) ключи передаются на хранение
коменданту.
Главная функция парламента — выпускать законы, действующие на
всей территории Соединенного Королевства. Остров Мэн хотя и является
частью королевства, но имеет свой собственный парламент, называемый
Тинуолдом (от древне скандинавского «поле для собраний»). Каждый год 5
июля вице-губернатор, являющийся представителем королевы на острове, со
своей свитой отправляется в церковь св. Иоанна, а затем — на Тинуолдский
холм, откуда и зачитывает новые законы, выпущенные британским
парламентом за год, — сначала на английском, а потом на древнем мэнкском
языке.
Подобная демонстрация автономии запечатлена во многих
традиционных церемониях в разных частях Соединенного королевства.
Например, в июне молодые люди из шотландского Хэвика объезжают
центральную площадь своего городка в ознаменование битвы при Флоддене
1513 года, в которой шотландцы, правда, потерпели поражение от
английской армии Генриха VIII, но жители Хэвика все-таки отличились,
захватив сине-золотое знамя. Во время церемонии передовой всадник несет
копию этого знамени.
Интересно, что у англичан нет праздников, посвященных военным
победам. Единственная церемония, в названии которой фигурирует слово
«битва», проводится в августе на острове Джерси. Главное событие — парад
различных транспортных средств, украшенных цветами. После награждения
за лучшие цветочные композиции начинается самое интересное:
конкурсанты и зрители начинают забрасывать друг друга цветами. Так среди
всеобщего веселья заканчивается этот праздник под названием Битва цветов.
Не только составные части королевства, но и отдельные города любят
демонстрировать свою независимость от центральной власти. Так,
представитель королевы в городе Личфилд в графстве Стаффордшир во
время пышной церемонии, происходящей в сентябре, объезжает город со
своей свитой по всему периметру, останавливаясь каждого памятного знака
или там, где эти знаки когда-то стояли, символизируя тем самым
незыблемость исторических границ города и его права на автономию. А
лорд-мэр Лондона вынуждает саму королеву просить у него разрешение
въехать в своей золоченой карете на суверенную территорию лондонского
Сити. Карета останавливается у ворот под названием Темпл-Бар, где дорогу
преграждает натянутая красная лента. Лорд-мэр разрешает королеве
проехать через ворота и затем, в знак своей лояльности, вручает ей Меч
Города с рукояткой, украшенной жемчугом. Королева тотчас же возвращает
его лорду-мэру, признавая привилегии города.
UNIT 8
THE MEDIA
1. The press. The characteristics of the national press.
2. Radio and television; organization and style.

The media
British people watch a lot of television. They are also reported to be the world's
most dedicated home-video users. But this does not mean that they have given up
reading. They are the world's third biggest newspaper buyers; only the Japanese
and the Swedes buy more.
Newspaper publication is dominated by the national press, which is an
indication of the comparatively weakness of regional identity in Britain. Nearly
80% of all household buy a copy of one of the main national papers every day.
There are more than eighty local regional daily papers; but the total circulation of
all of them together is much less than the combined circulation of the national
'dailies'. The only non-national papers with significant circulations are published in
the evenings, when they do not compete with the national papers, which always
appear in the mornings.
Most local papers do not appear on Sundays, so on that day the dominance of
the national press is absolute. The 'Sundays papers' are so-called because that is the
only day on which they appear. Some of them are sisters of a daily (published by
the company) but employing separate editors and journalist.
The morning newspaper is a British household institution; such an important
one that, until the laws were relaxed in the early 1990s, newsagents were the only
shops that were allowed to open on Sundays. People could not be expected to do
without their newspapers for even one day, especially a day when there was more
free time to read them. The Sunday paper sell slightly more copies than the
national dailies and are thicker. Some of them have six or more sections making up
a total of well over 200 pages.
Another indication of the importance of 'the papers' is the morning 'paper
round'. Most newsagents organize these, and more than half of the country's
readers get their morning paper delivered to their door by a teenager who gets up at
around half-past five every day in order to earn a bit of extra pocket money.

The national papers


There is an exception to the dominance of the national press throughout Britain.
This is in Scotland, where one paper, the Sunday Post, sells well over a million
copies. Another weekly, Scotland on Sunday, also has a large circulation. There
are three other notable 'Scotland only' papers, but two of these, the Glasgow Herald
and the Scotsman, are quality papers with small circulations and the other, the
Daily Record, is actually the sister paper of the (London) Daily Mirror. The other
national British papers are all sold in Scotland, although sometimes in special
Scottish editions.
Each of the national papers can be characterized as belonging to one of two
distinct categories. The 'quality papers', or 'broadsheets', cater for the better
educated readers. The 'popular papers', or 'tabliods', sell to a much larger
readership. They contact far less print than the broadsheets and far more pictures.
They use larger headlines and write in a simpler style of English. While the
broadsheets devote much space to politics and other 'serious' news, the tabloids
concentrate on 'human interest' stories, which often means sex and scandal!
However, the broadsheets do not completely ignore sex and scandal or any
other aspect of public life. both types of paper devote equal amounts of attention to
sport. The difference between them is in the treatment of the topics they cover, and
in which topics are given the most prominence.
The reason that the quality newspapers are called broadsheets and the popular
ones tabloids is because they are different shapes. The broadsheets are twice as
large as the tabloids. It is a mystery why, in Britain, reading intelligent papers
should need highly-developed skills of paper-folding! But it certainly seems to be
the rule. In 1989 a new paper was published, the Sunday Correspondent,
advertising itself as the country's first 'quality tabloid'. It closed after one year.
The way politics is presented in the national newspapers reflects the fact that
British political parties are essentially parliamentary organizations. Although
different papers have differing political outlooks, none of the large newspapers is
an organ of a political party. Many are often obviously in favour of the policies of
this or that party (and even more obviously against the policies of another party),
but none of them would ever use 'we' or 'us' to refer to a certain partly.
What counts for the newspaper publishers is business. All of them are in the
business first and foremost to make money. Their primary concern is to sell as
many copies as possible and to attract as much advertising as possible. They
normally put selling copies ahead of political integrity. The abrupt turnabout in the
stance of the Scottish edition of the Sun in early 1991 is a good example. It had
previously, along with the Conservative party which it normally supports,
vigorously opposed any idea of Scottish independence or home rule; but when it
saw the opinion polls in early 1991 (and bearing in mind its comparatively low
sales in Scotland), it decided to change its mind completely.
The British press is controlled by a rather small number of extremely large
multinational companies. This fact helps to explain two notable features. One of
these is its freedom from interference from government influence, which is
virtually absolute. The press is so powerful in this respect that it is sometimes
referred to as 'the fourth estate' (the other three being the Commons, the Lords and
the monarch). This freedom is ensured there is a general feeling in the country that
'freedom of speech' is a basic constitutional right. A striking example of the
importance of freedom of speech occurred during the Second World War. During
this time, the country had a coalition government of Conservative and Labour
politicians, so that there was really no opposition in Parliament at all. At one time,
the cabinet wanted to use a special wartime regulation to temporarily ban the Daily
Mirror, which had been consistently critical of the government. The Labour party,
which until then had been completely loyal to the government, immediately
demanded a debate on the matter, and the other national papers, although they
disagree with the opinions of the Mirror, all leapt to its defence and opposed the
ban. The government was forced to back down and the Mirror continued to appear
throughout the war.
None of the big national newspapers 'belongs' to a political party. However,
each paper has an idea of what kind of reader it is appealing to and a fairly
predictable political outlook. Each can therefore be seen, rather simplistically, as
occupying a certain position on the right-left spectrum.
As you can see, the right seems to be heavily over-represented in the national
press. This is not because such a large majority of British people hold right-wing
views. It is partly because the press tends to be owned by Conservative party
supporters. In any case, a large number of readers are not very interested in the
political coverage of a paper. They buy it for the sport, or the human interest
stories, or for some other reason.
The other feature of the national press which is partially the result of the
commercial interests of its owners is its shallowness. Few other European
countries have a popular press which is so 'low'. Some of the tabloids have almost
given up even the pretence of dealing with serious matters. Apart from sport, their
pages are full of little except stories about the private lives of famous people.
Sometimes their 'stories' are not articles at all, they are just excuses to show
pictures of almost naked women. During the 1980s, page three of the Sun became
infamous in this respect and the women who posed for its photographs became
known as 'page three girls'.
The desire to attract more readers at all costs has meant that, in the late
twentieth century, even the broadsheets in Britain can look rather 'popular' when
compared to equivalent 'quality' papers in some other countries. They are still
serious newspapers containing high-quality articles whose presentation of factual
information is usually reliable. But even they now give a lot of coverage to news
with a 'human interest' angle when they have the opportunity.
This emphasis on revealing the details of people's private lives has led to
discussion about the possible need to restrict the freedom of the press. This is
because, in behaving this way, the press has found itself in conflict with another
British principle which is as strongly felt as that of freedom of speech - the right to
privacy. Many journalists now appear to spend their time trying to discover the
most sensational secrets of well-known personalities, or even of ordinary people
who, by chance, find themselves connected with some newsworthy situation.
There is a widespread feeling that, in doing so, they behave too intrusively.
Complaints regarding invasions of privacy are dealt with by the Press
Complaints Commission (PCC). This organization is made up of newspaper
editors and journalists. In other words, the press is supposed to regulate itself. It
follows a Code of Practice which sets limits on the extent to which newspapers
should published details of people's private lives. Many people are not happy with
this arrangement and various governments have tried to formulate laws on the
matter. However, against the right to privacy the press has successfully been able
to oppose the concept of the public's 'right to known'.
Of course, Britain is not the only country where the press is controlled by large
companies with the same single aim of making profits. So why is the British press
more frivolous? The answer may lie in the function of the British press for its
readers. British adults never read comics. These publications, which consist
entirely of picture stories, are read only by children. It would be embarrassing for
an adult to be seen reading one. Adults who want to read something very simple,
with plenty of pictures to help them, have almost nowhere to go but the national
press. Most people don't use newspapers for 'serious' news. For this, they turn to
another source - broadcasting.
Sex and scandal sell newspapers. In September 1992, when there were plenty of
such stories around involving famous people and royalty, sales of tabloids went up
by 122,000. But in October, when stories of this kind had dried up, they fell by
more than 200,000. Even the quality Observer got in on the act. On 11 October
1992, its magazine section featured nine pages of photos of the pop-star Madonna
taken from Sex (her best-selling book). That week, its sales were 74,000 greater
than usual. The next Sunday, without Madonna, they were exactly 74,000 less than
they had been the week before.
If you go into any well-stocked newsagent's in Britain, you will not only find
newspapers. You will also see rows and rows of magazines catering for almost
every imaginable taste and specializing in almost every imaginable pastime.
Among these publications there are a few weeklies dealing with news and current
affairs. Partly because the national press is so predictable (and often so trivial),
some of these periodicals manage to achieve a circulation of more than a hundred
thousand.
The Economist is of the same type as Time, Newsweek, Der Spiegel and
L'Express. Its analyses, however, are generally more thorough. It is fairly
obviously right-wing in its views, but the writing is of very high-quality and that is
why it has the reputation of being one of the best weeklies in the world.
The New Statesman and Society is the left-wing equivalent of The Economist
and is equally serious and well-written.
Private Eye is a satirical magazine which makes fun of all parties and
politicians, and also makes fun of the mainstream press. It specializes in political
scandal and, as a result, is forever defending itself in legal actions. It is so
outrageous that some chains of newsagents sometimes refuse to sell it. Although
its humour is often very 'schoolboyish', it is also well-written and it is said that no
politician can resist reading it.
The country's bestselling magazine is the Radio Times, which, as well as listing
all the television and radio programmes for the coming week, contains some fifty
pages of articles. (None the typically British appeal to continuity in the name
'Radio Times'. The magazine was first published before television existed and has
never bothered to update its title).

The BBC
Just as the British Parliament has the reputation for being 'the mother of
parliaments', so the BBC might be said to be 'the mother of information services'.
Its reputation for impartiality and objectivity in news reporting is, at least when
compared to news broadcasting in many other countries, largely justified.
Whenever it is accused of bias by one side of the political spectrum, it can always
point out that the other side has complained of the same thing at some other time,
so the complaints are evenly balanced. In fact, the BBC has often shown itself to
be rather proud of the fact that it gets complaints from both sides of the political
divide, because this testified not only to its impartiality but also to its
independence.
Interestingly, though, this independence is as much the result of habit and
common agreement as it is the result of its legal status. It is true that it depends
neither on advertising nor (directly) on the government for its income. It gets this
from the licence fee which everybody who uses a television set has to pay.
However, the government decides how much this fee is going to be, appoints the
BBC's board of governors and its director general, has the right to veto any BBC
programme before it has been transmitted and even has the right to take away the
BBC's licence to broadcast. In theory, therefore, it would be easy for a government
to influence what the BBC does.
Nevertheless, partly by historical accident, the BBC began, right from the start,
to establish its effective independence and its reputation for impartiality. This first
occurred through the medium of radio broadcast to people in Britain. Then, in 1932
the BBC World Service was set up, with a licence to broadcast first to the empire
and then to other parts of the world. During the Second World War it became
identified with the principles of democracy and free speech. In this way the BBC's
fame became international. Today, the World Service still broadcasts around the
globe, in English and in several other languages. In 1986 the Prime Minister of
India, Mrs Indhira Ghandi, was assassinated. When her son Rajiv first heard
reports that she had been attacked, he immediately turned to the BBC World
Service to get details that he could rely on. The BBC also runs five national radio
stations inside Britain and several local ones.

BBC radio
Radio 1 began broadcasting in 1967. Devoted almost entirely to pop music, its
birth was a signal that popular youth culture could no longer be ignored by the
country's established institutions. In spite of recent competition from independent
radio stations, it still has over ten million listeners.
Radio 2 broadcasts mainly light music and chat shows.
Radio 3 is devoted to classical music.
Radio 4 broadcasts a variety of programmes, from plays and comedy shows to
consumer advice programmes and in-depth news coverage. It has a small but
dedicated following.
Radio 5 is largely given over to sports coverage and news.
Two particular radio programmes should be mentioned. Soap operas are
normally associated with television, but The Archers is actually the longest-
running soap in the world. It describes itself as 'an everyday story of country folk'.
Its audience, which is mainly middle-class with a large proportion of elderly
people, cannot compare in size with the television soaps, but it has become so
famous that everybody in Britain knows about it and tourist attractions have been
designed to capitalize on its fame.
Another radio 'institution' is the live commentary of cricket Test Matches in the
summer.
Vocabulary notes

Reading
Television: organization
In terms of the size of its audience, television has long since taken over from
radio as the most significant from of broadcasting in Britain. Its independence
from government interference is largely a matter of tacit agreement. There have
been occasions when the government has successfully persuaded the BBC not to
show something. But there have also been many occasions when the BBC has
refused to bow to government pressure. Most recent cases have involved Northern
Ireland. For a brief period starting in the late 1980s, the government broke with the
convention of non-interference and banned the transmission of interviews with
members of outlawed organizations such as the IRA on television. The BBC's
response was to make a mockery of this law by showing such interviews on the
screen with an actor's voice (with just the right accent) dubbed over the moving
mouth of the interviewee!
There is no advertising on the BBC. But Independent Television (ITV), which
started in 1954, gets its money from the advertisements it screens. It consists of a
number of privately owned companies, each of which is responsible for
programming in different parts of the country on the single channel given to it. In
practice, these companies cannot afford to make all their own programmes, and so
they generally share those they make. As a result, it is common for exactly the
same programme to be showing on the ITV channel throughout the country.
When commercial television began, it was feared that advertisers would have
too much control over programming and that the new channel would exhibit all the
worst features of tabloid journalism. The Labour party, in opposition at the time of
its introduction, was absolutely against it. So were a number of Conservative and
Liberal politicians. Over the years, however, these fears have proved to be
unfounded. Commercial television in Britain has not developed the habit of
showing programmes sponsored by manufactures. There has recently been some
relaxation of this policy, but advertisers have never had the influence over
programming that they have had in the USA.
Most importantly for the structure of commercial television, ITV news
programmes are not made by individual television companies. Independent
Television News (ITN) is owned jointly by all of them. For this and other reasons,
it has always been protected from commercial influence. There is no significant
difference between the style and content of the news on ITV and that on the BBC.
The same fears about the quality of television programmes that were expressed
when ITV started are now heard with regard to satellite and cable television. This
time the fears may be more justified, as the companies that run satellite and cable
television channels are in a similar commercial and legal position on those which
own the big newspapers (and in some cases are actually the same companies).
However, only about a third of households receive satellite and/or cable, and so far
these channels have not significantly reduced the viewing figures for the main
national channels.
Although the advent of ITV did not affect television coverage of news and
current affairs, it did cause a change in the style and content of other programmes
shown on television. The amount of money that a television company can charge
an advertiser depends on the expected number of viewers at the time when the
advertisement is to be shown. Therefore, there was pressure on ITV from the start
to make its output popular. In its early years ITV captured nearly three-quarters of
the BBC's audience. The BBC then responded by making its own programmes
equally accessible to a mass audience. Ever since then, there has been little
significant difference in what is shown on the BBC and commercial television.
Both BBC1 and ITV (and also the more recent Channel 5) show a wide variety of
programmes. They are in constant competition with each other to attract the largest
audience (this is known as the ratings war). But they do not each try to show a
more popular type of programme than the other. They try instead to do the same
type of programme 'better'.
Of particular importance in the ratings war is the performance of the channels'
various soap operas. The two most popular and long-running of these, which are
shown at least twice a week, are not glamorous American productions showing
rich and powerful people (although series such as Dallas and Dynasty are
sometimes shown). They are ITV's Coronation Street, which is set in a working-
class area near Manchester, and BBC1's EastEnders, which is set in a working-
class area of London. They, and other British-made soap and popular comedies,
certainly do not paint an idealized picture of life. Nor are they very sensational or
dramatic. They depict (relatively) ordinary lives in relatively ordinary
circumstances. So why are they popular? The answer seems to be that their viewers
can see themselves and other people they known in the characters and, even more
so, in the things that happen to these characters.
The British prefer this kind of pseudo-realism in their soaps. In the early 1990s,
the BBC spent a lot of money filming a new soap called Eldorado, set in a small
Spanish village which was home to a large number of expatriate British people.
Although the BBC used its most successful soap producers and directors, it was a
complete failure. Viewers found the complicated storylines and the Spanish
accents too difficult to follow, and could not identify with the situations in which
the characters found themselves. It was all just too glamorous for them. It was
abandoned after only a year.
It became obvious in the early 1960s that the popularity of soap operas and light
entertainment shows meant that there was less room for programmes which lived
up to the original educational aims of television. Since 1982 Britain has had two
channels (BBC2 and Channel 4) which act as the main promoters of learning and
'culture'. Both have been successful in presenting programmes on serious and
weighty topics which are nevertheless attractive to quite large audiences. BBC2 is
famous for its highly acclaimed dramatizations of great works of literature and for
certain documentary series that have become world-famous 'classics' (the art
history series Civilisation and the natural history series Life On Earth are
examples). Another thing that these channels do well, particularity Channel 4, is to
shown a wide variety of programmes catering to minority interests - including,
even, subtitled foreign soap operas!

Glued to the goggle box


As long ago as 1953, it was estimated that twenty million viewers watched the
BBC's coverage of the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II. By 1970, 94% of British
households had a television set (known colloquially as a 'goggle box'), mostly
rented rather than bought. Now, 99% of households own or rent a television and
the most popular programmes are watched by as many people as claim to read the
Sun and the Daily Mirror combined.
Television broadcasting in Britain has expanded to fill every part of every day
of the week. One of the four channels (ITV) never takes a break (it broadcasts for
twenty-four hours) and the others broadcasts from around six in the morning until
after midnight. A survey reported in early 1994 that 40% of British people watched
more than three hours of television every day; and 16% watched seven hours or
more! Television news is watched every day by more than half of the population.
As a result, its presenters are among the best-known names and faces in the whole
country - one of them once boasted that he was more famous than royalty!

The ratings: a typical week


The ratings are dominated by the soaps (Coronation Street, EastEnders,
Neighbours and Emmerdale) and soap-style dramas (Casualty, which is set in a
hospital, and The Bill, which is about the police). Light-entertainment talk shows
also feature prominently (e.g. This Your Life, Barrymore and Noel's House Party)
and quiz shows are sometimes very popular (e.g. Countdown). It is unusual that
only one comedy programme appears below (Red Draft). Certain cinema films can
also get high ratings (marked ** below). Science fiction remains a popular genre;
Quantum Leap and Red Draft are both long-running series. Sports programmes
appear in the top ten when they feature a particular sporting occasion. This
happens frequently. There is one example in the list below (The Big Fight Live).
The list includes just one representative of 'high culture': the dramatization of
the novel Middlemarch, by the nineteenth century author George Eliton. There are
two documentaries, a travel series (Great Railway Journeys) and a science series
(Horizon).
The Antiques Roadshow comes from a different location in the country every
week. In it, local people bring along objects from their houses and ask experts how
much they are worth.
Apart from the films, there is only one American programme in the list below
(Quantum Leap).

EXERCISES:
1. Find in the text the following concepts, check your ability to explain them in
English, and add them to your working vocabulary:
royalty, a mockery, consumer advice programmes, was assassinated, a licence,
right-wing, impartiality, to bow to government pressure, dubbed.
2. Write out from the text the sentences or their parts, which contain the words and
phrases given below and translate them into Russian:
has expanded to fill every part of every day, never takes a break, the worst features
of tabloid journalism, convention of non-interference, 'the fourth estate', 'the
mother of information services'.
3. Explain in English what is meant by:
high ratings, long-running series, 'high culture', 'goggle box', outlawed
organizations, was a complete failure.
4. Answer the following questions:
1. What are the essential characteristics of British newspapers? What are the two
main types called, and who reads them?
2. To what extent are newspapers, radio and television funded by advertising?
3. Are there any limits to press freedom?
4. What is the essential dilemma faced by the press concerning the respect of
privacy?
5. The dominant force in British Broadcasting is the BBS. What enabled it to
achieve its position, and how does it maintain this? Which characteristics give
the BBS its special position in Britain and in the rest of the world? Will British
television maintain its world reputation for excellence?
6. What are British viewing habits?
5. Translate the text into English:
The Independent — британское  интернет-издание, до 2016 года
ежедневная газета. Идеологически близка к либерально-демократической
партии, особое внимание обращает на проблематику прав человека.
Последний печатный тираж The Independent вышел в субботу, 20 марта 2016.
С тех пор издание существует только в цифровом формате. Тираж газеты в
2009 году составлял 183,5 тыс экземпляров (самый малый среди
общебританских ежедневных газет), тираж воскресного выпуска («The
Independent on Sunday») — 155,6 тыс. экземпляров. В ноябре 2013 года тираж
газеты, по данным исследовательской компании ABC, насчитывал 67,7 тыс.
экземпляров; в апреле 2014 года — 63,4 тыс. экземпляров.
Основана в 1986 году тремя бывшими журналистами The Daily Telegraph —
Андреасом Уиттамом Смитом, Стивеном Гловером и Мэтью Симондсом.
В марте 2010 года было объявлено о приобретении газеты российским
предпринимателем Александром Лебедевым. Цена сделки составила
символический 1 фунт]. Одновременно с продажей газеты объявлено об
уходе в отставку Айвена Фаллона, непосредственно руководившего
«Индепендент» и «Independent on Sunday».
26 октября 2010 года начало выходить новое компактное ежедневное
приложение «i», ориентированное на молодого читателя.
Приложение
Abdication - отречение от престола короля Эдуарда VIII (в 1936 г. в связи
сего женитьбой на Уоллис Сим-пеон
the Acts of Parliament - парламентские акты (законы, принятые парламентом
и одобренные монархом)
Administrative Class - высшие чины в государственной службе [Civil Service]
Admonition - замечание спикера палаты общин члену парламента за
нарушение парламентский этики или процедуры
the Address from the Throne - тронная речь монарха (то же, что the Throne
Speech)
the Anglican Church - англиканская церковь (то же, что Church of England)
(государственная религия Англии, одна из протестантских ответвлений
христианской церкви)
the Anglo-Saxons - англосаксы (общее название германских племен —
англов, саксов и ютов, завоевавших в V— VI вв.Британию и образовавших
вскоре одну народность)
articled clerk - клерк-стажер (служащий конторы солиситора[solicitor],
работающий ради практики, без жалования)
Baby of the House – «дитя» палаты общин (самый молодой член парламента)
backbencher – «заднескамеечник» (рядовой член палаты общин)
backwoodsman - «гость из глухомани» (член палаты лордов, редко
посещающий заседания)
Banqueting House - Банкуэтинг-хаус (известное здание на улице Уайтхолл,
построенное в классическом стиле Иниго Джонсом как часть дворца
Уайтхолл)
Bar - 1. адвокатура; 2. барьер (металлическая раздвижная
перекладина, отделяющая палату общин от палаты лордов)
Chilterns - гряда холмов в графстве Бакингемшир
the chine - узкая долина между голыми холмами в Англии
Chippendale - чиппендейл (стиль мебели XVIII в. по имени мастера-
краснодеревщика Томаса Чиппендейла "рококо с обилием тонкой резьбы) "
CID - сокр. от Criminal Investigation Department - департамент уголовного
розыска Лондонской полиции
city - город (обычно большой — но не обязательно; главное — с
кафедральным собором и самоуправлением)
City - Сити (исторический центр Лондона, крупнейший коммерческий и
финансовый центр западного мира)
the city fathers - разг. отцы города (члены городского совета); ср.City
Councillors
civic centre - административный центр (комплекс зданий, где расположены
муниципалитет и основные административные службы города)
civil courts - гражданские суды (для решения споров между гражданами,
особенно не затрагивающих интересы государства)
civil list - цивильный лист (выделяемая государством сумма на содержание
королевской семьи и двора)
the Civil Service - государственная служба (чиновничий аппарат,
неменяющийся при смене правительства. Госслужащий [civil servant] не
может быть членом парламента или какой-либо политической партии)
cliffs - меловые утесы
closure - прекращение дебатов (в парламенте)
comb - лощина между холмами (на востоке Англии)
cooperative society - кооператив (объединение в области производства и
торговли; организуется на средства его членов);сокр. co-op
Commissioner - комиссар полиции (глава столичной полиции, назначаемый
королевой по рекомендации министра внутренних дел)
Common Law - общее, или прецедентное право (часть английского
законодательства, основанная на прецедентах и обычае)
Commonwealth- Английская республика (существовала с 1650 по 1653 г. и с
1659по 1660 г. во время революционных потрясений)
commuter - регулярный пассажир (поезда или автобуса, свершающий
ежедневные поездки из пригородов на работу в Лондон и обратно)
constable - констебль (рядовой полицейский)
Continent - континентальная часть Европы (т.е. без островов
Великобритании)
the cоnurbation - конурбация (слияние крупного города с близлежащими
населенными пунктами)
Cornish pasty- корнуэльский пирог (горячий, жареный, с картофельной
начинкой)
Cotswolds - Котсуолдские холмы (гряда холмов в графстве Глостершир, а
также порода овец с длинной шерстью, выведенная там, за свой размер
шутливо называемая Cotswold lions — «котсуолдскими львами»)
the Counsel - официальный титул адвоката; defending С. —защитник, С.
forprosecution — представитель обвинения, Queen's С. — высшее адвокатское
звание
country house - загородный дом, загородный замок (часто исторический или
архитектурный памятник)
county - графство (главная административная единица страны)
county court - суд графства (высшая судебная инстанция графства по
гражданским делам)
County of Greater London - графство Большого Лондона (административно
территориальная единица; состоит из Лондона, графства Мидлсекс и частей
соседних графств)
county palatine - графство-палатинат (графство пограничной территории,
имеющее несколько большую автономию, чем другие)
Court of Appeal - Апелляционный суд (отделение Верховного суда,
рассматривающее гражданские дела)
coventrize - подвергать разрушительной бомбежке с воздуха(от названия
города Coventry, почти полностью разрушенного во время второй мировой
войны)
criminal court - уголовный суд (рассматривающий правонарушения
,затрагивающие интересы не только отдельных граждан, но и всего
государства)
cromlech - кромлех (сооружение бронзового века из каменных глыб;
наиболее известное — Стоунхендж в графстве Уилтшир)
Crossbenchers - независимые члены парламента (не принадлежащие к
парламентским фракциям. Сидят на поперечных скамьях [cross benches],
лицом к спикеру)
Crown court - коронный суд (суд второй инстанции по уголовным делам)
Glorious Revolution - Славная революция (государственный переворот,
завершившийся свержением Якова II и утверждением на престоле
Вильгельма III Оранского и его супруги Марии. Привел к установлению
конституционной парламентской монархии)
goer - ходок {любитель пеших прогулок по горам)
gown - мантия (широкое длинное одеяние черного цвета, которое носят
адвокаты, преподаватели и студенты-старшекурсники университетов;
Guildhall - Гилдхолл (здание ратуши лондонского Сити, в котором
устраиваются официальные приемы по особо торжественным случаям).
Gulf Stream - Гольфстрим (теплое течение, начинающееся в Мексиканском
заливе у берегов Америки и значительно влияющее на климат Англии)
Gunpowder Plot - «Пороховой заговор» (устроенный католиками, но, к
счастью, вовремя раскрытый заговор с целью убийства короля Якова I
вовремя открытия заседания парламента)
Hadrian's Wall - Римский вал (в период римского владычества построен по
приказу императора Адриана для защиты северной границы Англии от
нападений кельтов; длина 120 км)
Hampstead - Хампстед {фешенебельный район на севере Лондона с
лесопарком Хампстед-Хит [HampsteadHeath]; no сей день сохраняет вид
живописной деревни; известен ярмарками и аттракционами)
Hampton Court - Хэмптон-Корт (дворец с парком на берегу Темзы близ
Лондона, памятник архитектуры; королевская резиденция до 1760 г.)
Hanovers - Ганноверская династия английских королей, сменившая
Стюартов. Первый ее представитель—Георг I (1714 — 1727), последний
королева Виктория (1837 — 1901)
Hansard – «Хансард» (стенографический отчет о заседаниях парламента,
выпускается ежедневно в период сессий)
heath - равнинная пустошь, поросшая вереском живая изгородь
(традиционно разделяющая поля, принадлежащие разным владельцам)
Hepplewhite - хепплуайт (стиль мебели, отличающейся овальными и
веерообразными спинками кресел, изогнутыми ножками и подлокотниками)
по имени мастера-краснодеревщика Джорджа Хепплуайта.
Hereford cattle - херефордская порода (самая распространенная порода
мясного скота; белоголовая, красной масти; выведена в графстве
Херефордшир)
High Court of Justice - Высокий суд правосудия (суд первой инстанции;
входит в состав Верховного суда [SupremeCourt of Judicature]; состоит из
трех отделений: Королевской скамьи [Queen's Bench], Канцлерского суда
[Chancery] и отделения по разводами завещаниям [Family Division])
Highland Britain - гористая часть Великобритании (свыше 300 м. над
уровнем моря)
Highland Regiment - шотландский полк
home counties - графства, окружающие Лондон (в которых расположены
дома людей, большинство из которых работает в Лондоне; тоже, что
Commuter Landи dormitory suburbs of London)
honourable member - уважаемый член палаты (формула обращения одного
члена парламента к другому; обычно с названием округа; напр., Honourable
Member for Bristol)
housing estate - район жилой застройки (обычно муниципальным жильем
[council houses])
improved land - пастбищная земля {специально подготовленная под
пастбище земля)
independent member - независимый парламентарий (член парламента, не
принадлежащий ни к одной из парламентских фракций; обычно сидит на
одной из поперечных скамей [cross benches], лицом к спикеру)
Industrial Revolution - промышленная революция (переход от ручного
производства к фабричной системе, опирающейся на машинную технику)
inner London - центральные районы Лондона
Inns of Court – «Судебные инны» (четыре корпорации, пользующиеся
исключительным правом приема в адвокатуру:Inner Temple,Middle Temple,
Lincoln'sInn, Gray's Inn)
Isle of Man- остров Мэн (остров в Ирландском море; имеет мягкий климат и
живописные ландшафты и поэтому популярен как центр туризма, где, в
частности, проводятся мотоциклетные гонки Tourist.
Isle of Ely - административный район в Восточной Англии (известен
средневековым монастырем и собором, построенными еще в те времена,
когда это место было окружено непроходимыми болотами [thefens]. Сейчас
болота осушены и превращены в пахотную землю)
Jacobites - якобиты (сторонники короля Якова II [Charles II] и его
наследников, которые пытались вернуться на английский трон после
переворота, известного как Славная революция [Glorious Revolution],в
результате которого к власти пришли Вильгельм III Оранский и Мария II,
правившие страной вместе)
John Bull- Джон Булль (типичный англичанин; по имени простоватого
фермера в памфлете Док. Арбетнота)
junior minister - младший министр (руководитель министерства, не
представленного в кабинете, или первый заместитель члена кабинета)
jury - коллегия присяжных (12 человек [jurors], выносящих вердикт о
виновности или невиновности подсудимого)
Justice of the Peace - мировой судья, магистрат (член магистратского суда
[magistrates' court], имеющего право рассматривать только мелкие уголовные
и гражданские дела; не имеет юридического образования и работает на
общественных началах)
Jutes - юты (германское племя, принимавшее участие в завоевании Британии
в V— VI вв. н. э.)
juvenile court - суд по делам несовершеннолетних (т. е. лиц от10 до 17лет; в
состав суда входят три человека, в том числе обязательно одна женщина)
knight - рыцарь (личное дворянское звание, присваиваемое за особые
заслуги; перед именем рыцаря ставится титул «сэр» [Sir], перед фамилией его
жены —леди [Lady]. Аналогичное женское звание — «дама» [Dame])
Lady - леди (принятая форма титулования маркизы, графини или баронессы,
жены маркиза, графа или барона, а также заменяющая официальный титул
«дама»)
Lake District - Озерный край (живописный район гор и озер на северо-западе
Англии, где в XIX в. жили известные поэты-романтики У. Вордсворт,
С.Колриджи Р. Саути)
Land's End – «Край света» (мыс на юго-западной оконечности полуострова
Корнуолл; крайняя юго-западная точка острова Великобритания. Название
это входит в выражение from Land's End to John O'Groat's, что означает «от
края и до края»)
Law Lords - лорды-судьи (лорд-канцлер [Lord Chancellor] и девять судей
апелляционного суда при палате лордов)
Law Society - Общество юристов (профессиональный союз солиситоров
[solicitor]; принимает в коллегию, может привлекать своих членов к
ответственности и исключать из своих рядов за нарушения
профессиональной этики)
life peer - пожизненный пэр (лицо, получившее титул барона [baron], дающий
право быть членом палаты лордов, но без передачи этого права по
наследству)
Lincoln sheep - линкольнская порода (мясо-шерстная порода овец с длинной
шерстью; самая крупная в Великобритании; разводится в графстве
Линкольншир)
Lord Chancellor - лорд-канцлер (спикер палаты лордов, сидящий на «мешке
с шерстью» [Woolsack]; высшее судебное должностное лицо; один из
ведущих членов кабинета)
Lord Mayor of London - лорд-мэр Лондона (титул главы муниципалитета
лондонского Сити, а не всего Лондона. Делами всего Лондона занимается
Совет Большого Лондона [Greater London Council] во главе с его
председателем [Chairman])
Lord Mayors - лорды-мэры (главы муниципалитетов наиболее крупных
английских городов)
Madame Tussaud's - музей мадам Тюссо (лондонский музей восковых
фигур)
magistrates' court - магистратский суд (состоит из мировых судей[Justice of
the Peace]; рассматривает дела о мелких правонарушениях)
Magna Carta- Великая хартия вольностей (подписана королем Иоанном
Безземельным под давлением восставших баронов; ограничивала права
короля и законодательно закрепляла права аристократии)
mares' tails – «кобыльи хвосты» (перистые облака)
mayor - мэр (глава муниципалитета города или одного из районов столицы;
выбирается из числа олдерменов(членов муниципалитета) [alderman] сроком
на один год)
mayoress - мэресса (супруга мэра или женщина, несущая общественные
обязанности супруги мэра, — если он холост или вдов)
Mendips - Мендипы (гряда высоких холмов на востоке Англии; состоящие из
песчаника, они имеют множество пещер и отвесных скал и поэтому очень
живописны)
metropolitan county - графство-метрополия (одна из шести конурбаций—
слияний крупнейших английских городов с окружающими населенными
пунктами.
Merry Monarch - Веселый Король (прозвище Карла [Charles II], взошедшего
на престол после ликвидации республиканского правления и восстановления
в Англии монархии)
Minister of State- государственный министр (глава министерства, не
представленного в кабинете, или первый заместитель члена кабинета,
ведающего особенно крупным департаментом, типа Министерств
иностранных и внутренних дел. Тоже, что junior minister)
moor - холмистая вересковая пустошь (в отличие от heath — равнинной
вересковой пустоши)
Morris and Austin – «Моррис» и «Остин» (марки известных английских
автомобилей компании «Бритиш Лейлэнд»
My Lord - милорд (прямое обращение к лорду; в 3-м лице —His Lordship)
national park - национальный парк (открытый для туристов заповедник со
значительными ограничениями для транспортных средств)
National Trust – «Национальный трест» (организация по охране
исторических памятников, достопримечательностей и живописных мест;
финансируется из частных пожертвований и небольших государственных
ассигнований; основана в 1895 г.)
New Forest - Нью-Форест (живописный лесопарк [forest park]на юге Англии,
где водятся полудикие ньюфорестские пони)
new town - город-спутник (один из городов, построенных близ Лондона и
других крупных городов в целях решения проблемы перенаселенности;
отличается современной архитектурой и удобной планировкой)
Norfolk rotation - норфолкский четырехпольный севооборот ([rotation of
crops]; получил распространение еще в XVIII в. в графстве Норфолк в
восточной Англии)
Norfolk turkey – «норфолкский индюк» (шутливое прозвище уроженца
графства Норфолк)
Norman architecture - нормандский архитектурный стиль (английский
вариант романского стиля: округлые арки над глубокими дверными
проемами, квадратные башни)
Norwich School - Нориджская школа живописи (известна пейзажами и
сценами из сельской жизни Норфолка; основана в 1803 г. жителями г.
Нориджа Дж. Котманом и Дж. Кромом)
Old Bailey - Олд-Бейли (здание Центрального уголовного суда)
Opposition Bench- скамья оппозиции (передняя скамья по левую руку от
спикера, на которой сидят лидеры главной оппозиционной партии,
представленной в парламенте).
orders of the day - повестка дня (заседания парламента)
pass the Bar - сдать экзамены на получение адвокатского звания
Patron Saints - святые покровители стран, входящих в Соединенное
Королевство (св. Георгий — покровитель Англии, св. Андрей Шотландии и
св. Патрик — Ирландии.
pea souper – «гороховый суп» (густой лондонский туман, который обычно
бывает желтоватого цвета)
peers of England - пэры Англии (сословие пэров — наследственного
титулованного дворянства; имеет пять ступеней: герцог [duke], маркиз
[marquess], граф [earl],виконт [viscount] и барон [baron])
Pennines - Пеннинские горы (высокогорье на севере Англии) острая горная
вершина
pike – острая горная вершина
plain-clothes man - полицейский в штатском
plaintiff - истец (официальный термин для подающего жалобу в суд)
Plantagenets - Плантагенеты (королевская династия, правившая с 1154 по
1399 г. — от Генриха II до Ричарда III)
poaching - браконьерство
Portland stone - портлендский камень ( строительный камень с полуострова
Портленд; использовался для восстановления Лондона после Великого
пожара)
Prince Regent - принц-регент (титул Георга, принца Уэльского, когда он
правил вместо своего отца, Георга III, страдавшего психическим
расстройством)
Privy Council - Тайный совет (юридически главный орган государственного
управления, созданный в Средние века; в настоящее время выполняет
номинальные функции и служит для придания юридической силы
королевским указам; в него входят монарх, принцы крови, высшая
аристократия, высшие судебные чиновники, весь кабинет и многие видные
деятели науки и культуры)
Privy Councillor - член Тайного совета [Privy Council] (имеет право на титул
«достопочтенный» [Right Honourable], употребляемый перед именем его
обладателя
Puritans - пуритане (движение XVI— XVII вв. за очищение англиканской
церкви от остатков католицизма в богослужении; отличались строгостью
нравов и религиозным фанатизмом)
Putney - Патни {южный пригород Лондона; известен многочисленными
гребными состязаниями, устраиваемыми на р. Темзе)
Queen's Bench - Суд королевской скамьи {отделение Высокого суда
правосудия [High Court of Justice], осуществляющее надзор за низшими
судами и рассматривающее особо важные уголовные дела)
Queen's Counsel - королевский адвокат (высшее адвокатское звание, знак
обладания им — шелковая мантия. Отсюда термин to take silk —«стать
королевским адвокатом»)
Question Time - время для вопросов (с 14.35 до 15.30, когда члены
парламента задают вопросы правительству)
recess of Parliament - роспуск парламента на каникулы
Reform Bill - Билль о реформе (первая парламентская реформа, давшая
парламентское представительство новым промышленным центрам,
уничтожив «гнилые местечки» [rotten boroughs])
Reform Club - Реформ-клуб (лондонский клуб, членами которого могут быть
высшие госчиновники, политические деятели и видные журналисты;
основанв1832 г.)
Regency - период регентства (1811— 1820гг., период правления принца-
регента [Prince Regent])
residential estate - жилой район
Right Honourable - достопочтенный (титул члена Тайного совета [Privy
Councillor])
rotten boroughs – «гнилые местечки» (обезлюдевшие в начале XIX в.
избирательные округа в небольших городах и деревнях; в них депутаты
фактически назначались помещиком; были упразднены Биллем о реформе
[Reform Bill])
rough grazing - выпас скота на горных склонах весной и ранним летом, пока
трава не заколосилась
Roundheads – «круглоголовые» (прозвище пуритан [Puritans], коротко
стригших волосы и не признававших париков, в отличие от «кавалеров» —
сторонников короля)
Royal Standard - королевский штандарт (личный флаг монарха: три золотых
льва на красном фоне, три красных льва на золотом фоне и три золотые арфы
на черном фоне. Вывешивается перед королевским дворцом, когда в нем
находится монарх)
Saxons- саксы (одно из германских племен, принявших участие в завоевании
Британии в V— VI вв. н.э.)
Scots - скотты (кельтское племя, переселившееся в VI в. н.э. из Ирландии на
территорию нынешней Шотландии)
secretary of state - министр (член кабинета, возглавляющий одно из
ключевых министерств)место в парламенте
session of Parliament - парламентская сессия (обычно продолжается с
октября по август)
Shadow Cabinet – «теневой кабинет» (лидеры главной оппозиционной
партии, занимающиеся теми же вопросами, что и члены кабинета, с тем
чтобы занять их места, как только эта партия наберет большинство голосов
на очередных выборах)
Sheraton - шератон (стиль мебели XVIII в. из атласного дерева, отличается
классической простотой и тонким изяществом; назван по имени мастера
Т. Шератона)
Sherwood Forest - Шервудский лес (старинный королевский парк в графстве
Ноттингемшир, с которым связаны легенды о Робин Гуде)
Shropshire sheep - шропширы (порода короткошерстных мясных овец,
выведенная в графстве Шропшир)
Smoky Northwest – «Дымный северо-запад» (промышленная зона на северо-
западе Англии вокруг г. Манчестера; центр текстильной промышленности)
solicitor - солиситор, стряпчий (юрист, консультирующий клиентов, в том
числе фирмы; имеет право выступать в судах первой инстанции, а если дело
клиента переходит в суд высшей инстанции, готовит дела для барристера
[barrister], который будет ими заниматься)
Sovereign - монарх (король или королева, стоящая во главе государства
standing committee - постоянная комиссия (в парламенте или органах
местной власти)
St. Paul's Cathedral - собор св. Павла (главный собор англиканской церкви;
находится в лондонском Сити
Strangers' Gallery - галерея для публики (в обеих палатах парламента)
statute law - парламентский акт (закон, принятый парламентом и
утвержденный монархом)
Statutory Board - совет директоров, управляющий национализированным
предприятием; его члены назначаются премьер-министром и утверждаются
монархом
Stilton cheese - стилтон (выдержанный полутвердый белый сыр повышенной
жирности с синими прожилками плесени; производится в Мидленде)
stipendiary magistrate - платный магистрат (судья магистратского суда,
получающий жалованье, в отличие от мировых судей, которые работают на
общественных началах)
Stonehenge - Стонхендж (один из самых больших в мире кромлехов
[cromlech]; расположен близ Солсбери)
Stuarts- Стюарты (династия шотландских и английских королей, сменившая
на английском троне Тюдоров [TudorsJ; правила с 1603 по 1714 г.; ее
правление прерывалось с 1649 по 1660 г., когда в Англии было
республиканское правление)
Suffolk Punch - суффолкский тяжеловоз (крупная лошадь-тяжеловоз рыжей
масти, выведенная в графстве Суффолк)
suffragettes - суфражистки (участницы женского движения конца XIX в.
,боровшиеся за предоставление женщинам избирательных прав)
summer visitors - дачники
Temple Bar - Темпл-Бар (ворота, которые в течение нескольких веков стояли
на западной границе лондонского Сити)
Throne speech - тронная речь (речь, читаемая монархом с трона,
установленного в палате лордов, на открытии очередной сессии парламента,
в которой указываются цели, которые ставит перед собой правительство в
текущем году. Текст речи составляется премьер-министром)
traffic warden - инспектор дорожного движения (обычно женщина;
контролирует соблюдение правил парковки автомобилей, иногда помогает
полиции в регулировке дорожного движения)
Treasury Bench - правительственная скамья (передняя скамья справа от
спикера в палате общин, предназначена для премьер-министра и членов его
кабинета)
trial by battle - судебный поединок, или Божий суд (решается силой оружия
на поединке, за которым наблюдают судьи)
Tudors- Тюдоры (королевская династия, сменившая Плантагенетов; правила
с 1485 по 1603 г.)
Tweed - Твид (река на границе между Англией и Шотландией, давшая
название известной шерстяной ткани)
Tynwald - тинуолд (парламент о-ва Мэн, состоит из назначаемой верхней
палаты [Upper House] и избираемой нижней [House of Keys])
Undersecretary of State - заместитель министра, должность которого на
зывается Secretary of State
Union Jack – «Юнион Джек» (государственный флаг Соединенного
Королевства; сочетание цветов и расположение полос отражает особенности
национальных флагов трех «соединившихся» стран: Англии, Шотландии и
Ирландии)
Up-Helly-Aa - ап-хелли-о (народный праздник на Шетландских островах,
напоминающий о правлении скандинавов(викингов); факельное шествие,
завершающееся тем, что участники поджигают модель галеры викингов и
отталкивают ее от берега)
Victorianism - викторианство (эпоха правления королевы Виктории, с
которой ассоциируется так называемая «викторианская мораль», основанная
на лицемерии, ханжестве и нетерпимости)
viscount - виконт (титул пэра; выше барона [baron], ниже графа [earl])
Wars of the Roses - война Алой и Белой розы (междоусобная война за
английский престол между двумя ветвями династии Плантагенетов: Домом
Ланкастеров и Домом Йорков; название дано по эмблемам этих домов)
Wedgewood pottery – «веджвуд» (тип фарфора и фаянса компании
«Веджвуд», основанной в 1759 г.; особенно славится фарфор с белым
рельефом в виде камеи)
Wessex - Уэссекс (королевство западных саксов, исчезнувшее к X в. н. э.
Слово вернулось в английский язык благодаря «Уэссекским романам»
Томаса Гарди