Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 79

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS AND

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF A PV WITH


DIESEL-BATTERY SYSTEM FOR REMOTE AREAS

Abstract

This project discusses the economic analysis and environmental impacts of


integrating a photovoltaic (PV) array into diesel-electric power systems for remote
villages. MATLAB Simulink is used to match the load with the demand and apportion
the electrical production between the PV and diesel-electric generator. The economic part
of the model calculates the fuel consumed, the kilo watt hours obtained per gallon of fuel
supplied, and the total cost of fuel. The environmental part of the model calculates the 2,
particulate matters (PM), and the x emitted to the atmosphere. Simulations based on an
actual system in the remote Alaskan community of Lime Village were performed for
three cases:
1) Diesel only;
2) diesel-battery; and
3) PV with diesel-battery using a one-year time period.
The simulation results were utilized to calculate the energy payback, the simple
payback time for the PV module, and the avoided costs of 2, x, and PM. Post-simulation
analysis includes the comparison of results with those predicted by Hybrid Optimization
Model for Electric Renewables (HOMER). The life-cycle cost (LCC) and air emissions
results of our Simulink model were comparable to those predicted by HOMER.

Page 1
I.INTRODUCTION

THE NEED for energy-efficient electric power sources in remote locations is a


driving force for research in hybrid energy systems. Power utilities in many countries
around the world are diverting their attention toward more energy- efficient and
renewable electric power sources. Reasons for this interest include the possibilities of
“taxes” or other penalties for emissions of greenhouse gases as well as other pollutants
plus the finite supply of fossil fuels. The use of renewable energy sources in remote
locations could help reduce the operating cost through the reduction in fuel consumption,
increase system efficiency, and reduce noise and emissions. In some remote villages,
including Lime Village, Alaska, stand-alone hybrid power systems are often more cost
effective than utility grid extensions, mainly due to the high cost of transmission lines.
Manuscript received March 26, 2004; revised August 20, 2004. This work was supported
by the Arctic Energy Technology and Development Laboratory (AETDL) under Grant
G00000406 with the United States Department of Energy. Paper no. TPWRS-00167-
2004.The authors are with the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department,
University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK 99775-5915 USA. Digital Object Identifier
10.1109/TPWRS.2005.846084 based on energy consumption studies compiled by the
U.S. Department of Energy, Alaska spends $28.71 per million BTU for electrical energy
versus $19.37 per million BTU for the rest of the United States. It is very expensive to
transport fuel for diesel electric generators (DEGs) in some villages of Alaska due to the
remoteness of the site. Furthermore, there are issues associated with oil spills and storage
of fuels. Therefore, photovoltaic (PV), wind, and other renewable sources of energy are
being integrated with DEGs to help reduce the fuel consumed by the DEGs.
This paper presents a model based on an existing hybrid electric power system for
a remote location in the Alaskan community of Lime Village. The input data to the model
are acquired using a remote terminal unit (RTU) that must first be installed at the site.
The RTU allows for remote data collection and system control while also providing
information necessary for modeling the hybrid power system. The information from the
RTU can be processed using the model described in this paper. In this way, the RTU and

Page 2
the model can be used to optimize the performance of the hybrid power system.
MATLAB Simulink is used to model the system and apportion the electrical production
between the PV array and diesel-electric generator. In general, the Simulink model can be
used to study the performance of any hybrid power system. Using Simulink, other
renewable energy sources, dynamic operation, and control system strategies can be easily
incorporated into the existing hybrid power system model to study the overall
performance of the system. Simulations are performed for three cases: 1) diesel only; 2)
diesel-battery; and 3) PV with diesel-battery using a one-year time period. The results of
the simulations are used to perform an economic analysis and predict the environmental
impacts of integrating a PV array into diesel-electric power systems for remote villages.
The economic part of the model calculates the fuel, consumed, the kilo watt hours
obtained per gallon of fuel supplied, and the total cost of fuel. The environmental part of
the model calculates the CO, particulate matter (PM), and the NO emitted to the
atmosphere. These results are then utilized to calculate the energy payback, the
simplepaybacktime for the PV module, and the avoided costs of CO, NO, and PM.

POWER SYSTEM MONITORING


Monitoring of power system operating status may include measurements of
analog signals, as well as measurements of CB contact status.

 Monitoring of local events


The local events associated with operation of a substation include operation of digital
relays in the event of a fault or simple switching of a circuit breaker as a consequence of
operator action performed through SCADA. As a part of the monitoring of local events,
the required measurements may be either local or system-wide.
1. Use of local measurements.
Typical situation where local measurements are used for local monitoring function is the
case where a Digital Fault Recorder (DFR) is wired to monitor substation analog
measurements and contacts from circuit breakers. In this case the sampling of all the
measurements (signals) is synchronous across the entire substation. Detailed analysis of

Page 3
protective relay operations can be performed to accurately determine the fault type and
the timing in the switching sequences that include multiple circuit breaker operations.
2. Use of system-wide measurements.
System-wide measurements may be of interest in analyzing local events when the
information about system topology and sparse measurements across the network are used
to make conclusion about local events. The case in point is a new fault location algorithm
that relies on a fitting procedure where the signals obtained from short circuit studies are
compared to the signals recorded in the field. A fault is placed in the system model and
simulations are performed to generate fault signals at the points in the system where field
measurements with DFRs are made. By comparing the field-recorded and simulated
signals, an optimization of the match is performed while moving the fault location in the
model. An optimal match is obtained by minimizing the error between the field and
simulated signals. The fault location in the model that leads to the minimum of the cost
function is then taken as the actual fault location. Obviously, this method requires that
both the network topology and system-wide measurements are determined for the same
time instant.
 Monitoring of system-wide events
Another monitoring situation is when the system wide events require the knowledge
of individual control actions performed at local substations. The case in point is an
analysis of a cascading event leading to a blackout. In this case, the impact of local events
causes broader impact at the system level.
1. Use of local measurements.
Local measurements of analog signals and contact status can contribute to the
understanding of system-wide events. An example is when the measurements are helping
in understanding actions from several protective relays. This is particularly important in
the case when N-2 contingency happens in the system. This type of contingency, while
still considered a local event, may significantly affect the operation of the entire power
system.

2. Use of system-wide measurements.


Page 4
This case is very common in any of the energy management system (EMS)
functions. Most of the EMS functions are system-wide and hence the measurements
required to execute the function are system-wide. Examples of such situations are the
state estimation and system stability monitoring functions.
As a summary of the discussion related to the monitoring background, Table I gives set
of examples where local and system-wide events may be monitored using either local or
system-wide measurements. While the mentioned examples are well known applications
in the power system, the specific use of the measurements given in Table 1 is a special
case of the application implementation that is not commonly used today but has distinct
benefits as described in the mentioned references.

Table. Monitoring and Measurements

 Monitoring in real-time
This type of monitoring requires that both the analog measurements of current and
voltages, as well as measurements of CB status are taken. Depending on the events of
interest, different type of measurements may be required as summarized in Table 2 and
discussed in detail in the following text.
1. Measurements of currents and voltages
Currents and voltages may be measured to determine time-domain representation
or to reconstruct a phasor. Various applications require different forms of current and
voltages. In order to perform the measurements, samples of current and voltages need to
be taken. Two distinctly different approaches in sampling synchronization may be
implemented: a) synchronized sampling and b) unsynchronized sampling commonly
Page 5
called signal scanning. Further discussion is focused on synchronized sampling, which is
less common but yet more desirable from the applications stand-point.

1.1. Sampling synchronization.


When trying to implement synchronized sampling, two basic implementation
requirements are considered: a) location of the signals to be sampled and b) source of the
synchronization clock. Regarding the signal location, several options are possible: single
three phase circuit, circuits in the same substation, circuits in the adjacent substations, or
any circuits system wide. In this case the three phase circuit consists of three currents and
three voltage signals. As a source of synchronization, two types of sampling
synchronization clocks may be used, namely the local (relative) and system-wide
(absolute). The local clock may be derived from the data acquisition system and may be
used to strobe the sample and hold (S/H) circuits located on each signal that is being
sampled. If the sampling synchronization is to be performed on a wider basis than just the
single three-phase circuit, than a more effective way of synchronizing the sampling is to
use a reference clock that may be received from the Global Positioning System (GPS) of
satellites. The GPS synchronization signal may be transferred to the data acquisition
system located anywhere in the power system through a GPS receiver, which is a low
cost device that may serve several data acquisition systems in a given substation. This is
done through a special arrangement for the GPS clock distribution offered by some
vendors.

1.2. Phasor synchronization.


Many monitoring applications in power systems are based on tracking the phasor
measurements of currents and voltages. Phasor-based models of power systems are
commonly used to perform load-flow, short-circuit, and stability studies. In order to track
the phasors, quite often it is important to compare the phasors at different points in the
system. This leads to a need to measure phasors synchronously across the power system,
which is accomplished with commonly known Wide Area Measurement Systems
(WAMS) implemented using Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) .

Page 6
2. Equipment switching status
While the measurements of analog signals are used by many power system
applications, it is inherently assumed that measurements of the equipment switching
status is also available since the analysis based on analog signals without knowing the
system topology is not feasible in many instances.
2.1. Status of single circuit breaker.
Many events in power systems, such as a fault, start on a single power system
element i.e. a transmission line, transformer, generator, etc. As a result, protective relays,
that are designed to disconnect the faulted power system components, will operate the
corresponding CB to disconnect the faulted element. In such cases, knowing the status of
the switching element during the switching sequence is a crucial part of the monitoring
task.
2.2. Topology status.
In many other applications, the switching status of the entire power system needs
to be know, which places a requirement for monitoring the network topology with very
accurate time synchronization.

Table. Monitoring location and time Synchronization

 Monitoring of Circuit Breaker Status


System wide real-time monitoring of circuit breaker operation and statuses
currently is implemented using RTUs of SCADA system. Based on detected voltage

Page 7
levels on circuit breaker contacts, these units are providing information on final status of
the circuit breakers such as “OPEN” or “CLOSE”. The transitions in time of control
signals, such as Trip or Close Initiate, X and Y coil currents, Control and Yard DC
voltages, Closing Coil and others, used by protection and maintenance engineers for
evaluation of CB performance cannot be monitored using RTU and SCADA approach.
Table 3 lists the CB control circuit signals that an alternative approach, proposed in this
paper, aims to monitor.
1. Architecture
The proposed solution is based on a new CB Monitor (CBM) which would be
permanently connected to the substation CBs. CBM captures detailed information about
each CB operation in real time, regardless of whether the operation is initiated manually
by the operator or automatically by the protection and control equipment and stores them
in COMTRADE file format. As shown in Fig.1, the relevant CB control circuit signals
are recorded and transmitted by wireless link to the concentrator PC, which automatically
performs the analysis.

Table 3. Signals of circuit breaker control circuit monitored by CBMA

Page 8
Figure CB monitoring system architecture

1.1. Multiple uses of CB Status.


The CB status information can be used at the local substation level as well as the
system level. At the substation level, the monitored signals can provide information about
the state of circuit breaker and whether it needs maintenance. At the system level, the
status information can be used to verify network topology and make topology data more
robust. As a result, different groups of utility staff may be involved in accessing the

Page 9
information and analyzing it, as suggested in Figure 1. In order to make the information
accessible to a wide range of users, an automated system for analysis of data coming
from the CB called Circuit Breaker Monitoring Analysis System. (CBMAS) has been
developed. Such system uses Data Acquisition Unit (DAU) to collect data from various
CBs. After the data is collected it is automatically processed to extract the information of
interest, which is then distributed to various users.
1.2. Client Server Solution.
The CBMA system supports client/server architecture. The client part resides in
substation. It consists of the DAUs attached to the CBs and software running on
concentrator PC, both permanently installed in the substation, as shown in Figure.

Figure Client server solution

When breaker operates, recorded files are wirelessly transmitted to the


concentrator PC. The client application automatically performs the analysis of recorded
signals. For more efficient data manipulation, IEEE file naming convention is used for
naming the recordings files. The signal processing module of the analysis software
extracts various parameters from recorded signal samples and expert system evaluates
them against empirically obtained values and tolerances selected for specific type of
circuit breaker.
The resulting report describes detected abnormalities and possible causes of the
problem. If discovered problem presents serious threat to the reliability of future circuit
breaker operation, programmable notification is sent to the server located in the central
office. The notification is then processed and a warning is sent via email or pager to the
Page 10
maintenance and protection personal. Reporting is provided for both local and
geographically dislocated users through implementation of local database and web server
supporting information exchange through dynamic HTML pages. Recorded files and
reports can be downloaded to the server via Ethernet network relying on standard, fast
and reliable TCP/IP protocol. In the central office or control center, the server part of
CBMAS consisting of the analysis module, a central database and master web server is
running. The central database allows for easy archiving and retrieving of the records and
analysis reports from all system substations. Master web application allows remote users
to search for the records and/or analysis reports from anywhere on the corporate network
(Intranet).
2. Hardware, software and communications
The system hardware in substation consists of DAUs located on each breaker in
the switch yard and a concentrator PC, used for gathering data, placed in the control
room.
2.1. DAU for CB monitoring. The data acquisition unit (DAU) has three main tasks:
• Perform data acquisition of signals from the CB control circuit and record sequences of
tripping and closing
• Convert captured signals into files according to COMTRADE file specifications
• Transmit files wirelessly to the concentrator device.

Figure Circuit Breaker Control Circuit

Page 11
The DAU captures 15 electrical signals, listed earlier, from the circuit breaker
control circuit shown in Figure 3. The signals are generated during either tripping or
closing of the breaker. Of these 15 signals, 11 are analog and four are status signals. The
system is shown in Figure 4. It consists of:
Signal conditioning. The signal conditioning boards provide conditioning, galvanic
isolation and convert the signals to appropriate voltage levels for data acquisition. The
voltage levels of signals at circuit breaker are either 130VDC or 1 VDC. The signal
conditioning module scales the input signals to be in the [-5V, +5V] range as required at
the input of the A/D converter module.

Analog to digital converter.


The A/D converter takes the input from signal conditioning board and converts it
to digital form. All signals are sampled synchronously to get accurate signal
reproduction.
Microprocessor. A microprocessor is used for controlling the data acquisition and
running the communication protocols.
Wireless Transmitter.
A wireless transmission system, which employs commonly available Frequency
Hopping Spread Spectrum technology, is capable of transmitting data to distances over
300m is used for transmitting the recorded data to the concentrator PC.

Figure Functional block diagram of DAU

Page 12
2.2. Master-Slave data transfer.
The master unit communicates with the slave units using a wireless link. When an
event occurs, the slave unit records the electrical signals and upon completion of
recording sends a request to master unit for accepting data. If the master unit is ready to
accept data it sends a begin transfer message to slave. The slave then transmits the
header, configuration and data files in COMTRADE format to the master. A protocol for
data transfer is established and the receiving software is set up appropriately. The master
unit receives the COMTRADE files and stores them in a database. Figure 5 shows the
master-slave system diagram.

Figure Master-slave communication

5. Application benefits
The ability to closely monitor CB status has multiple benefits. They relate to
different application functions that involve information about combined analog signal and
contact status measurements where the status is either taken from a single CB or from the
entire population of CBs in the network topology. To illustrate the benefits, two
important applications, namely fault analysis and state estimation, are described next. In
each case, due to a close monitoring of CBs, together with accurate measurements of
analog signals, new implementation algorithms for the mentioned functions are feasible.
1. Fault Analysis

Page 13
Fault analysis includes an accurate determination of fault clearing sequence, as
well as calculation of the fault location. The applications are improved with better CB
monitoring and better measurements of analog signals.
1.1. Sequence of events.
One aspect of fault analysis is to determine, as precisely as possible, a detailed
sequence of events involved in a fault clearing sequence. This involves fault detection,
fault classification, relay communication channel actions, relay trip decision, circuit
breaker operation, interruption of fault currents, auto-reclosing sequence, etc. An
automated analysis of field recordings of currents and voltages, as well as contact statuses
from circuit breakers and communication channels is possible if synchronous sampling of
all the mentioned signals is performed across the substation. This is typically available if
all the signals are wired to a single instrument such as DFR. If recordings from Digital
Protective Relays (DPRs) are used to implement the automated analysis, then there may
be some difficulty in performing an automated analysis if some of the signals needed in
the analysis come from multiple relays. The problem is the signal sampling
synchronization, which would only be provided for the signals related to one relay but
will not in general be available for the signals that involve multiple relays since the
sampling synchronization across the relays is not readily available today.
The analysis capabilities coming from CB monitoring improvements are multiple.
The existing analysis depends on the reliability of CB “a” and “b” contacts, while the
new CB monitoring expands the number of signals to verify the opening and closing
sequence for CB. In addition, the new monitoring scheme monitors CB currents allowing
for confirmation of the final status of the CB by verifying the existence of the CB
currents. Finally, if the signal sampling for CB monitoring is synchronized with the
sampling of other signals available for other IEDs, a powerful correlation between signals
coming from different IEDs observing the same event, such as DFRs, DPRs and CBMs,
can be performed to enhance the analysis of the switching sequence.
1.2. Fault location.
It is well known that fault location can be quite accurate if phasors of voltages and
currents area available from both ends of the transmission line, and if both phasor sets are
synchronized. What is not as widely known is that fault location can be significantly

Page 14
improved for two extreme cases of signals measurements: a) if the measurements at both
transmission line ends (and all ends in the case of multi-terminal lines) are taken
synchronously, and b) if phasor measurements are not available at both transmission line
ends, but multiple sparse phasor measurements are available at several points in the
power system network
The CB monitoring approach explained in this paper significantly affects the
second case. Since fault location in the second case can be treated as an optimization
problem where the cost function is the minimum of the sum of the difference between the
measured and simulated phasors, it is important to make sure that the measurements are
taken for the same system topology used to perform the simulations. Having CB
monitored across the network with a common signal sampling synchronization enables a
common time reference for determining the network switching status that corresponds to
the moment of the fault. Adding a common time reference for sampling synchronization
allows determination of current phasors, which also needs to be available for an accurate
comparison between the measured and simulated signals. Overall, the new CB
monitoring has both properties and can be used as a source of field data for improved
fault location.
2 State estimation
Improved CB monitoring can create benefits for two implementations of the state
estimation algorithm, namely the topology processor part. In both cases, the ability to
recognize exact state of CBs across the entire system or a substation is what makes the
room for improvements.
2.1. Topology processor.
The topology processor for a state estimator has to be accurate in order for the
estimator to produce reliable results. If the topology changes quickly due to a series of
switching events, it may happen that the refresh rate of the analog measurements does not
capture correctly the dynamic changes in the network topology. Besides, due to a
switching event, the observability for the system may be violated since some of the
measurements may be lost as certain parts of the substation circuit are disconnected.
The new CB monitoring system enables precise indication of the switching state
of a CB. If signal sampling of all the CB DAUs are synchronized using GPS, it will be

Page 15
possible to determine the switching state of the entire network very accurately, which in
turn would provide a state estimator with a topology processor that is indeed reliable.
This feature is not presently available for any state estimator implementation, but can be
easily added by performing the topology analysis at the substation level and uploading
the information to the SCADA database.

2.2. Two-stage estimator.


This approach requires a re-formulation of the state estimator for the case when
the estimator indicates an error at a suspect substation. Since it is not easy to determine if
the error is caused by a wrong topology or measurement, this approach allows expansion
of the system model to include a precise topology of the substation. By doing this a
possible cause of error associated with the topology is eliminated and further analysis
may be focused on the measurement errors. Determining the substation topology and
maintaining dynamic changes is a task that can significantly be improved through the
new CB monitoring system. If signal sampling on all the CBM DAUs is synchronized
through GPS receiver, than the topology analysis is much easier to perform.
 Future needs
Based on the discussion of the real time approach for CB monitoring, changes in
the present practice will be desirable. The changes bring significant benefits, the
implementation requirements for the changes are rather simple and the involved cost is
reasonable. Further discussion is focused on some of the immediate needs for the
improvements that may be met by development of the new approach.
1. Change in measurement architecture
The architecture for making measurements of analog current and voltage signals,
as well as digital contact statuses is quite inadequate today if one wants to make the
improvements discussed in this paper. If one relies on SCADA to perform the
measurements, the analog signals are scanned and reported by exception if the values of
RMS exceed a threshold. The contact signals are also scanned and reported by exception
where the entire conclusion about the CB status depends on how reliable the “a” and “b”
contacts and related communications are. Further discussion indicates how the
measurements may be improved through introduction of the CBMAS and an expansion
Page 16
of the measurement points through the use of other substation IEDs. The focus of the
improvements are the introduction of synchronized sampling through the use of GPS
receivers and the ability to correlate measurements from the Circuit Breaker Monitoring
Analysis System (CBMAS) and a Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) that uses
Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs).
1.1. Synchronized sampling.
While many different techniques were used in the past to synchronize signal
sampling across different IEDs, the prevailing method in use today is to perform the
synchronization using a reference time signal from the Global Positioning System (GPS)
of satellites [19]. The systems that are designed to perform precise measurement of
voltage phasors are the WAMS systems that rely on the use of PMUs. The problem that
we are addressing in this paper, namely the topology determination in real time, does not
seem to be related to the WAMS system when in fact a close correlation between the
measurements from the two systems can indeed be beneficial. To make sure the
correlation is meaningful, both systems need to be synchronized through a common or
separate GPS receiver. The CBM system may be synchronized to GPS time reference
signal by introducing a GPS synchronization input at the DAU level. Once the CBM
system is GPS synchronized, further benefits of correlating changes in the voltage
phasors detecting by the WAMS to the to the changes in the status signal and
corresponding current signals detected by the CBM system can be explored.
1.2. Correlation between analog and status measurements.
One obvious benefit of the correlation between the analog and CB status signals is
an ability to precisely define the sequence of events related to fault clearing. This is not
only improving the analysis of operation of a single breaker, but enables analysis of
operation of multiple breakers, including the case when two breakers need to be operated
to clear a fault on a transmission line terminating in a substation with a breaker and a half
bus arrangement.
Another situation where the correlation helps is when a dynamic change in the
substation topology needs to be verified using analog measurements. This can be
significantly facilitated if both the CB contact changes and phasor changes are measured
with a common time reference, which assures that a given measurement scan is “aligned”

Page 17
in time avoiding possible confusions about the sequence of events. Some techniques for
fault location mentioned earlier can also benefit from the alignment between the phasor
and status measurements across the entire power system network. The measurements are
used to match simulations in the system, which can be accomplished if all the
measurements are taken using the same time reference.
2 Change in data processing
To achieve the correlation between the analog and status measurements across
different measurement infrastructures, a new approach to data integration and
information exchange is needed. Further discussion concentrates on the data integration
at the substation level where the data from different IEDs is collected in a common
database and process to extract the relevant information, which can be then shared among
a variety of applications.
2.1. Data integration
To perform data integration, one has to design a corresponding substation
database which will be interfaced to different substation IEDs. The data base may reside
on a separate substation PC or may be integrated in an expanded RTU. Creation of the
database enables merger of the data coming from different infrastructures such as WAMS
and CBM system. Through such integration, correlation between accurate measurements
of phasors and CB contact statuses may be achieved. To illustrate this concept, Figure 6
and Figure 7 are showing an existing and future monitoring infrastructure respectively.

Page 18
A- Analogue inputs S- Status (contact) inputs
SC-substation computer MS-master station
CFL-centralized fault loc. EM-energy management
PE-protection engineer IS- integrated systems
DFR-Digital fault recorder FL-Fault locator
IED-Intelligent Electronic Device
RTU-Remote terminal unit
SER-Sequence of events recorder
DPR-Digital protective relay
Figure Legacy infrastructure

Page 19
DDR- Digital Disturbance Recorder
Figure Future infrastructure

2.2 Information exchange


Once the mentioned data integration infrastructure is available, it becomes
straight forward to process the data to extract information of interest. As the information
about local substation events is extracted, the next step is to share the information with
the appropriate users, including EMS. This may be represented with the functional
diagram shown in Figure 8. The information exchange concept allows the information
about substation topology to be exchanged among different applications that may reside
at other substations or at the centralized level. The utility groups that may be interest in
the topology status are, besides operations, protection, substation control, maintenance
and planning.

Page 20
PLC-Programmable logic controller
PQM-Power Quality Monitor
CBM-Circuit Breaker Monitor
Figure Information Exchange Concept

Diesel engine systems


Diesel engines comprise the vast majority of prime movers for standby power
generators because of their reliability, durability and performance under load. Diesel
powered generators are depended on for back-up power systems in the most critical
locations: hospitals, airports, government buildings, telecommunications facilities, and
even nuclear power plants. In standby power applications, diesel generators can start and
assume full-rated load in less than 10 seconds, and they typically can go 30,000 hours or
more between major overhauls.
This remarkable set of credentials is unique to diesel engines, but like any
mechanical device, maintenance is critical for ensuring that a diesel powered standby
generator will start and run when needed. Facilities with qualified in-house technical
personnel can often perform required preventive maintenance on diesel generators. Other
facility managers prefer to contract with a local service provider or power system
distributor for regular maintenance service—especially if they have generators in
multiple locations. (For unplanned maintenance, engine repairs or overhauls, it is always
best to use qualified diesel service technicians.)

Page 21
A well-planned maintenance program is essential to the operation of any power
generation system.

Preventive maintenance
Because of the durability of diesel engines, most maintenance is preventive in
nature. Preventive diesel engine maintenance consists of the following operations:
• General inspection
• Lubrication service
• Cooling system service
• Fuel system service
• Servicing and testing starting batteries
• Regular engine exercise
It is generally a good idea to establish and adhere to a schedule of maintenance and
service based on the specific power application and the severity of the environment. For
example, if the generator set will be used frequently or subjected to extreme operating
conditions, the recommended service intervals should be reduced accordingly. Some of
the factors that can affect the maintenance schedule include:
• Using the diesel generator set for continuous duty (prime power)
• Extreme ambient temperatures

Page 22
• Exposure to weather
• Exposure to salt water
• Exposure to dust, sand or other airborne contaminates
If the generator set will be subjected to some or all of these extreme operating
conditions, it is best to consult with the engine manufacturer to develop an appropriate
maintenance schedule. The best way to keep track of maintenance intervals is to use the
running time meter on the generator set to keep an accurate log of all service performed.
This log will also be important for warranty support. FIGURE shows a typical diesel
engine maintenance schedule for generator sets.

General inspection
When the generator set is running, operators need to be alert for mechanical
problems that could create unsafe or hazardous conditions. Following are several areas
that should be inspected frequently to maintain safe and reliable operation.
• Exhaust system: With the generator set operating, inspect the entire exhaust system
including the exhaust manifold, muffler and exhaust pipe. Check for leaks at all
connections, welds, gaskets and joints, and make sure that the exhaust pipes are not
heating surrounding areas excessively. Repair any leaks immediately.
• Fuel system: With the generator set operating, inspect the fuel supply lines, return
lines, filters and fittings for cracks or abrasions. Make sure the lines are not rubbing
against anything that could cause an eventual breakage. Repair any leaks or alter line
routing to eliminate wear immediately.
• DC electrical system: Check the terminals on the starting batteries for clean and tight
connections. Loose or corroded connections create resistance which can hinder starting.
• Engine: Monitor fluid levels, oil pressure and coolant temperatures frequently. Most
engine problems give an early warning. Look and listen for changes in engine
performance, sound, or appearance that will indicate that service or repair is needed. Be
alert for misfires, vibration, excessive exhaust smoke, and loss of power or increases in
oil or fuel consumption.

Page 23
FIGURE – Typical diesel maintenance schedule.
Lubrication service
Check the engine oil level when the engine is shut down at the interval specified
in FIGURE 1. For accurate readings on the engine’s dipstick, shut off the engine and wait
approximately 10 minutes to allow the oil in the upper portions of the engine to drain
back into the crankcase. Follow the engine manufacturer’s recommendations for API oil
classification and oil viscosity.
Keep the oil level as near as possible to the “full” mark on the dipstick by adding
the same quality and brand of oil.
Change the oil and filter at the intervals recommended in FIGURE 1. Check with
the engine manufacturer for procedures for draining the oil and replacing the oil filter.

Page 24
Used oil and filters must be disposed of properly to avoid environmental damage or
liability cooling system service
Check the coolant level during shutdown periods at the interval specified in
FIGURE 1. Remove the radiator cap after allowing the engine to cool and, if necessary,
add coolant until the level is about 3/4-inch below the radiator cap lower sealing surface.
Heavy duty diesel engines require a balanced coolant mixture of water, antifreeze and
coolant additives. Use a coolant solution as recommended by the engine manufacturer.
Inspect the exterior of the radiator for obstructions and remove all dirt or foreign material
with a soft brush or cloth. Use care to avoid damaging the fins. If available, use low
pressure compressed air or a stream of water in the opposite direction of normal air flow
to clean the radiator. Check the operation of the coolant heater by verifying that hot
coolant is being discharged from the outlet hose.
Fuel system service
Diesel fuel is subject to contamination and deterioration over time, and one reason
for regular generator set exercise is to use up stored fuel over the course of a year before
it degrades. In additional to other fuel system service recommended by the engine
manufacturer, the fuel filters should be drained at the interval indicated in FIGURE
Water vapor accumulates and condenses in the fuel tank and must also be periodically
drained from the tank along with any sediment present. The charge-air piping and hoses
should be inspected daily for leaks, holes, cracks or loose connections. Tighten the hose
clamps as necessary. Also, inspect the charge-air cooler for dirt and debris that may be
blocking the fins. Check for cracks, holes or other damage.
The engine air intake components should be checked at the interval indicated in FIGURE.
The frequency of cleaning or replacing air cleaner filter elements is primarily determined
by the conditions in which the generator set operates. Air cleaners typically contain a
paper cartridge filter element which can be cleaned and reused if not damaged.
Starting batteries
Weak or undercharged starting batteries are the most common cause of standby
power system failures. Even when kept fully charged and maintained, lead-acid starting
batteries are subject to deterioration over time and must be periodically replaced when
they no longer hold a proper charge. Only a regular schedule of inspection and testing

Page 25
under load can prevent generator starting problems. See FIGURE for the recommended
inspection interval for the batteries and charging system.
• Testing batteries: Merely checking the output voltage of the batteries is not indicative
of their ability to deliver adequate starting power. As batteries age, their internal
resistance to current flow goes up, and the only accurate measure of terminal voltage
must be done under load. This test is performed automatically every time the generator is
started on Cummins Power Generation generator sets equipped with Power command. On
other generators, use a manual battery load tester to verify the condition of each starting
battery.
• Cleaning batteries: Keep the batteries clean by wiping them with a damp cloth
whenever dirt appears excessive. If corrosion is present around the terminals, remove the
battery cables and wash the terminals with a solution of baking soda and water (1/4-
pound baking soda to one quart of water). Be careful to prevent the solution from
entering the battery cells, and flush the batteries with clean water when done. After
replacing the connections, coat the terminals with a light application of petroleum jelly.
• Checking specific gravity: Use a battery hydrometer to check the specific gravity of
the electrolyte in each battery cell. A fully charged battery will have a specific gravity of
1.260. Charge the battery if the specific gravity reading is below

• Checking electrolyte level: Check the level of the electrolyte in the batteries at least
every 200 hours of operation. If low, fill the battery cells to the bottom of the filler neck
with distilled water.
Generator set exercise
Generator sets on continuous standby must be able to go from a cold start to being
fully operational in a matter of seconds. This can impose a severe burden on engine parts.
However, regular exercising keeps engine parts lubricated, prevents oxidation of
electrical contacts, uses up fuel before it deteriorates, and, in general, helps provide
reliable engine starting. Exercise the generator set at least once a month for a minimum of
30 minutes loaded to no less than one-third of the nameplate rating. Periods of no-load
operation should be held to a minimum, because unburned fuel tends to accumulate in the
exhaust system. If connecting to the normal load is not convenient for test purposes, the

Page 26
best engine performance and longevity will be obtained by connecting it to a load bank of
at least one-third the nameplate rating.
> White paper_ By Timothy A.
HYBRID POWER SYSTEMS
Introduction
Electrical energy requirements for many remote applications are too large to
allow the cost-effective use of stand-alone or autonomous PV systems. In these cases, it
may prove more feasible to combine several different types of power sources to form
what is known as a "hybrid" system. To date, PV has been effectively combined with
other types of power generators such as wind, hydro, thermoelectric, petroleum-fueled
and even hydrogen. The selection process for hybrid power source types at a given site
can include a combination of many factors including site topography, seasonal
availability of energy sources, cost of source implementation, cost of energy storage and
delivery, total site energy requirements, etc.

•Hybrid power systems use local renewable resource to provide power.


•Village hybrid power systems can range in size from small household systems (100
Wh/day) to ones supplying a whole area (10’s MWh/day).
•They combine many technologies to provide reliable power that is tailored to the local
resources and community.
•Potential components include: PV, wind, micro-hydro, river-run hydro, biomass,
batteries and conventional generators.

A. Configuration of hybrid system


Figure shows the basic configuration of hybrid system discussed in this study.
The hybrid system was consisted of reduction gear, main-motor (EM1), sub- motor
(EM2), engine, power controller and battery. It was supposed that a double-motor system
was prepared for the driving system discussed in this study. At first, acceleration was
assisted by was applied only by main motor when the driving speed was low, while the
corporation by two motors was often achieved to drive the system.

Page 27
If the SOC (state of charge) of battery was decreased below the specific threshold,
the battery was charged by sub-motor. This operation was priority to over other actions.
Figure 2 shows the modified configuration of hybrid system proposed in this study. In the
modified system, CVT was utilized to keep constant revolution numbers of the sub-motor
when the sub-motor contributed to assist the system.

Schematic view of double motor hybrid system with CVT

Petroleum-fueled engine generators (Gensets)


Petroleum-fueled gensets (operating continuously in many cases) are presently the
most common method of supplying power at sites remote from the utility grid such as
villages, lodges, resorts, cottages and a variety of industrial sites including
telecommunications, mining and logging camps, and military and other government
operated locations. Although gensets are relatively inexpensive in initial cost, they are not
inexpensive to operate. Costs for fuel and maintenance can increase exponentially when
these needs must be met in a remote location. Environmental factors such as noise,
carbon oxide emissions, transport and storage of fuel must also be considered.

Page 28
Figure Hybrid PV/Generator System Example; Courtesy Photron Canada Inc., Location:
Sheep Mountain Interpretive Centre, Parks Canada Kluone National Park, Yukon
Territories, Canada, 63° North Latitude; Components shown include: generator (120/240
V), battery (deep cycle industrial rated @ ± 10 kWh capacity), DC to AC stand-alone
inverter (2500 W @ 120 V output), miscellaneous safety + control equipment including
PV array disconnect, PV control/regulator, automatic generator start/-stop control,
DC/AC system metering etc.; -Components not shown: PV array (800 W peak).
Fuel to power conversion efficiencies may be as high as 25% (for a diesel fueled
unit operating at rated capacity). Under part load conditions, however, efficiencies may
decline to a few percent. Considerable waste heat is therefore available and may be
utilized for other requirements such as space and/or water heating.

Page 29
Figure: Genset fuel efficiency vs. capacity utilized.

Why a PV/genset hybrid?


PV and genset systems do not have much in common. It is precisely for this
reason that they can be mated to form a hybrid system that goes far in overcoming the
drawbacks to each technology. Table 10.1 lists the respective advantages and
disadvantages. As the sun is a variable energy source, PV system designs are increased in
size (and therefore cost) to allow for a degree of system autonomy. Autonomy is required
to allow for provision of reliable power during "worst case" situations, which are usually
periods of adverse weather, seasonally low solar isolation values or an unpredicted
increased demand for power. The addition of autonomy to the system is accomplished by
increasing the size of the PV array and its requisite energy storage system (the battery).

Page 30
When a genset is added, additional battery charging and direct AC load supply
capabilities are provided. The need to build in system autonomy is therefore greatly
reduced. When energy demands cannot be met by the PV portion of the system for any
reason, the genset is brought on line to provide the required backup power. Substantial
cost savings can be achieved and overall system reliability is enhanced.
PV/genset hybrid systems have been utilized at sites with daily energy
requirements ranging from as low as 1 kWh per day to as high as 1 MWh per day, which
illustrates their extreme flexibility. They are a proven and reliable method for efficient
and cost-effective power supply at remote sites.

PV/genset hybrid system description


The PV/genset hybrid utilizes two diverse energy sources to power a site's loads.
The PV array is employed to generate DC energy that is consumed by any existing DC
loads, with the balance (if any) being used to charge the system's DC energy storage
battery. The PV array is automatically on line and feeding power into the system
whenever solar insulation is available and continues to produce system power during
daylight hours until its rate of production exceeds what all existing DC loads and the
storage battery can absorb. Should this occur, the array is inhibited by the system
controller from feeding any further energy into the loads or battery? A genset is
employed to generate AC energy that is consumed by any existing AC loads, with the
balance (if any) being used by the battery charger to generate DC energy that is used in
the identical fashion to that described for the PV array above.

Page 31
Figure Block diagram of a hybrid PV-Genset system.
At times when the genset is not running, all site AC power is derived from the
system's power conditioner or inverter, which automatically converts system DCenergy
into AC energy whenever AC loads are being operated. The genset is operated cyclically
in direct response to the need for maintaining a suitable state of charge level in the
system's battery storage bank.
Figure Hybrid PV/Generator System Example. Courtesy Photron Inc., Location:
Caples Lake, California, USA; 65 kVA 3 0 @ 480 V generator which includes co-
generation equipment (i.e. heat exchangers to utilize the thermal energy created by unit
operation).

Page 32
Other PV/hybrid types
Certain specific site locations may offer access to other forms of power
generation. Access to flowing water presents the potential for hydro power. Access to
consistent wind at sufficient velocity presents the potential for wind power. PV/hydro and
PV/wind hybrid systems have been utilized at sites with daily energy requirement ranges
similar to those described for PV/genset hybrids. Their use, however, is much more site
dependent, as their energy source is a factor of that locations' topography.
PV/Thermoelectric generator hybrid systems have been used effectively at sites
whose daily energy requirement is relatively low, ranging from 1 to 20 kWh per day.
Propane is the fuel source for the thermoelectric process, and conversion efficiencies of
up to 8% can be achieved. Considerable waste heat is therefore available which may be
utilized for other requirements. In cold climates, this heat is often used to maintain the
battery storage system at desired temperature levels. Table 10.1 Relative Advantages of
Energy Sources: Genset vs. PV

Page 33
Architectural Integration
Motivation
The last two decades have brought significant changes to the design profession. In
the wake of traumatic escalations in energy prices, shortages, embargoes and war along
with heightened concerns over pollution, environmental degradation and resource
depletion, awareness of the environmental impact of our work as design professionals has
dramatically increased. In the process, the shortcomings of yesterday's buildings have
also become increasingly clear: inefficient electrical and climate conditioning systems
squander great amounts of energy. Combustion of fossil fuels on-site and at power plants
adds greenhouse gases, acid rain and other pollutants to the environment. Inside, many
building materials, furnishings and finishes give off toxic by-products contributing to
indoor air pollution. Poorly designed lighting and ventilation systems can induce
headaches and fatigue.
Architects with vision have come to understand it is no longer the goal of good
design to simply create a building that is aesthetically pleasing - buildings of the future
must be environmentally responsive as well. They have responded by specifying
increased levels of thermal insulation, healthier interiors, higher-efficiency lighting,
better glazing and HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) equipment, air-to-air
heat exchangers and heat-recovery ventilation systems. Significant advances have been
made and this progress is a very important first step in the right direction. However, it is
not enough. For the developed countries to continue to enjoy the comforts of the late
twentieth century and for the developing world to ever hope to attain them, sustainability
must become the cornerstone of our design philosophy. Rather than merely using less
non-renewable fuels and creating less pollution, we must come to design sustainable
buildings that rely on renewable resources to produce some or all of their own energy and
create no pollution. One of the most promising renewable energy technologies is
photovoltaics. Photovoltaics (PV) are a truly elegant means of producing electricity on
site, directly from the sun, without concern for energy supply or environmental harm.
These solid-state devices simply make electricity out of sunlight, silently with no
maintenance, no pollution and no depletion of materials. Photovoltaics are also

Page 34
exceedingly versatile - the same technology that can pump water, grind grain and provide
communications and village electrification in the developing world can produce
electricity for the buildings and distribution grids of the industrialized countries.

Figure HEW, Hamburg, Germany: 16.8 kWp facade-integrated PV system. The


polycrystalline PV modules are installed as fixed shading devices.

There is a growing consensus that distributed photovoltaic systems which provide


electricity at the point of use will be the first to reach widespread commercialization.
Chief among these distributed applications are PV power systems for individual
buildings. Interest in the building integration of photovoltaics, where the PV elements
actually become an integral part of the building, often serving as the exterior weathering
skin, is growing world-wide. PV specialists from some 15 countries are working within

Page 35
the International Energy Agency's Task 16 on a 5-year effort to optimize these systems
and architects are now beginning to explore innovative ways of incorporating solar
electricity into their building designs.

Figure SOS Kinderdorf, Zwickau, Germany: 2.9 kWp roof-integrated PV system.


Frameless architectural laminated glass with amorphous silicon cells.

Planning context of an energy conscious design project


The possibilities of an active and passive solar energy use in buildings are greatly
influenced by the form, design, and construction and manufacturing process of the
building envelope. A promising possibility of active solar energy use is the production of
electricity with photovoltaics. This technology can be adapted to existing buildings as
well as to new buildings. It can be integrated into the roof, into the facade or into
different building components, such as a Photovoltaic roof tile. Such integration makes
sense for various reasons:
·The solar irradiation is a distributed energy source; the energy demand is distributed as
well.
·The building envelopes supply sufficient area for PV generators and therefore
·additional land use is avoided as well as costs for mounting structures and energy
transport.

Page 36
Active and Passive Solar Design Principles (© Ingo Hagemann

In order to use PV together with other available techniques of active and passive
solar energy, it must be considered that some techniques fit well together and others
exclude each other. For example: As a kind of a "passive cooling system", creepers are
used for covering the south facade of building. The leaves evaporate water and provide
shade on the facade. This helps to avoid penetration of direct sunlight and reduces the
temperature in the rooms behind the facade. At the same time the leaves create shading
on PV modules that may be mounted on the facade resulting in a far lower electricity
production. To avoid such design faults it is necessary to compare and evaluate the
different techniques that are available for creating an energy conscious building. An

Page 37
overall energy concept for a building should be made at the beginning of the design
process. Therefore, the architect and the other experts involved in the design and
planning process need to work together right from the beginning of the design and
planning process. All together they have to search right from the beginning for the best
design for a building project.

Photovoltaics and Architecture


Photovoltaic’s and Architecture are a challenge for a new generation of buildings.
Installations fulfilling a number of technical approaches do not automatically represent
aesthetical solutions. Collaboration between engineers and architects is essential to create
outstanding overall designs. This again will support the wide use of PV. These systems
will acquire a new image, ceasing to be a toy or a solar module reserved for a mountain
chalet but becoming a modern building unit, integrated into the design of roofs and
facades. The architects, together with the engineers involved are asked to integrate PV at
least on four levels during the planning and realization of a building:
· Design of a building (shape, size, orientation, color)
· Mechanical integration (multi functionality of a PV element)
· Electrical integration (grid connection and/or direct use of the power)
· Maintenance and operation control of the PV system must be integrated into the usual
building maintenance and control.

Page 38
Planning Responsibilities and Lay Down of Energy Consumption.

THE PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAY


A PV array consists of a number of PV modules, mounted in the same plane and
electrically connected to give the required electrical output for the application. The PV
array can be of any size from a few hundred watts to hundreds of kilowatts, although the
larger systems are often divided into several electrically independent sub arrays each
feeding into their own power conditioning system.

Page 39
PHOTOVOLTAIC TECHNOLOGY
Photovoltaic’s is the field of technology and research related to the devices which
directly convert sunlight into electricity using semiconductors that exhibit the
photovoltaic effect. Photovoltaic effect involves the creation of voltage in a material upon
exposure to electro magnetic radiation.
The photovoltaic effect was first noted by a French physicist, Edmund Bequerel,
in 1839, who found that certain materials would produce small amounts of electric
current when exposed to light. In 1905, Albert Einstein described the nature of light and
the photoelectric effect on which photovoltaic technology is based, for which he later
won a Nobel prize in physics. The first photovoltaic module was built by Bell
Laboratories in 1954. It was billed as a solar battery and was mostly just a curiosity as it
was too expensive to gain widespread use. In the 1960s, the space industry began to make
the first serious use of the technology to provide power aboard spacecraft. Through the
space programs, the technology advanced, its reliability was established, and the cost
began to decline. During the energy crisis in the 1970s, photovoltaic technology gained
recognition as a source of power for non-space applications.
The solar cell is the elementary building block of the photovoltaic technology.
Solar cells are made of semiconductor materials, such as silicon. One of the properties of
semiconductors that makes them most useful is that their conductivity may easily be
modified by introducing impurities into their crystal lattice. For instance, in the
fabrication of a photovoltaic solar cell, silicon, which has four valence electrons, is
treated to increase its conductivity. On one side of the cell, the impurities, which are
phosphorus atoms with five valence electrons (n-donor), donate weakly bound valence
electrons to the silicon material, creating excess negative charge carriers. On the other
side, atoms of boron with three valence electrons (p-donor) create a greater affinity than
silicon to attract electrons. Because the p-type silicon is in intimate contact with the n-
type silicon a p-n junction is established and a diffusion of electrons occurs from the
region of high electron concentration (the n-type side) into the region of low electron
concentration (p-type side). When the electrons diffuse across the p-n junction, they

Page 40
recombine with holes on the p-type side. However, the diffusion of carriers does not
occur indefinitely, because the imbalance of charge immediately on either sides of the
junction originates an electric field. This electric field forms a diode that promotes
current to flow in only one direction.
Ohmic metal-semiconductor contacts are made to both the n-type and p-type sides
of the solar cell, and the electrodes are ready to be connected to an external load. When
photons of light fall on the cell, they transfer their energy to the charge carriers. The
electric field across the junction separates photo-generated positive charge carriers
(holes) from their negative counterpart (electrons). In this way an electrical current is
extracted once the circuit is closed on an external load.

SOLAR CELL
The photovoltaic effect was first reported by Edmund Bequerel in 1839 when he
observed that the action of light on a silver coated platinum electrode immersed in
electrolyte produced an electric current. Forty years later the _rst solid state photovoltaic
devices were constructed by workers investigating the recently discovered
photoconductivity of selenium. In 1876 William Adams and Richard Day found that a
photocurrent could be produced in a sample of selenium when contacted by two heated
platinum contacts. The photovoltaic action of the selenium di_ered from its
photoconductive action in that a current was produced spontaneously by the action of
light. No external power supply was needed. In this early photovoltaic device, a
rectifying junction had been formed between the semiconductor and the metal contact. In
1894, Charles Fritts prepared what was probably the _rst large area solar cell by pressing

Page 41
a layer of selenium between gold and another metal. In the following years photovoltaic
e_ects were observed in copper {copper oxide thin _lm structures, in lead sulphide and
thallium sulphide. These early cells were thin _lm Schottky barrier devices, where a
semitransparent layer of metal deposited on top of the semiconductor provided both the
asymmetric electronic junction, which is necessary for photovoltaic action and access to
the junction for the incident light. The photovoltaic eject of structures like this was
related to the existence of a barrier to current ow at one of the semiconductor {metal
interfaces (i.e., rectifying action) by Goldman and Brodsky in 1914. Later, during the
1930s, the theory of metal {semiconductor barrier layers was developed by Walter
Schottky, Neville Mott and others.
However, it was not the photovoltaic properties of materials like selenium which
excited researchers, but the photoconductivity. The fact that the current produced was
proportional to the intensity of the incident light, and related to the wavelength in a
definite way meant that photoconductive materials were ideal for photographic light
meters. The photovoltaic effect in barrier structures was an added benefit, meaning that
the light meter could operate without a power supply. It was not until the 1950s, with the
development of good quality silicon wafers for applications in the new solid state
electronics, that potentially useful quantities of power were produced by photovoltaic
devices in crystalline silicon.
In the 1950s, the development of silicon electronics followed the discovery of a
way to manufacture p{n junctions in silicon. Naturally n type silicon wafers developed a
p type skin when exposed to the gas boron trichloride. Part of the skin could be etched
away to give access to the n type layer beneath. These p {n junction structures produced
much better rectifying action than Schottky barriers, and better photovoltaic behaviour.
The first silicon solar cell was reported by Chapin, Fuller and Pearson in 1954 and
converted sunlight with an efficiency of 6%, six times higher than the best previous
attempt. That _figure was to rise significantly over the following years and decades but,
at an estimated production cost of some $200 per Watt, these cells were not seriously
considered for power generation for several decades. Nevertheless, the early silicon solar
cell did introduce the possibility of power generation in remote locations where fuel
could not easily be delivered. The obvious application was to satellites where the

Page 42
requirement of reliability and low weight made the cost of the cells unimportant and
during the 1950s and 60s, silicon solar cells were widely developed for applications in
space.
Also in 1954, a cadmium sulphide p{n junction was produced with an efficiency
of 6%, and in the following years studies of p{n junction photovoltaic devices in gallium
arsenide, indium phosphide and cadmium telluride were stimulated by theoretical work
indicating that these materials would over a higher effciency. However, silicon remained
and remains the foremost photovoltaic material, benethting from the advances of silicon
technology for the microelectronics industry. Short histories of the solar cell are given
elsewhere [Shive, 1959; Wolf, 1972; Green, 1990].
In the 1970s the crisis in energy supply experienced by the oil-dependent western
world led to a sudden growth of interest in alternative sources of energy, and funding for
research and development in those areas. Photovoltaics were a subject of intense interest
during this period, and a range of strategies for producing photovoltaic devices and
materials more cheaply and for improving device efficiency were explored. Routes to
lower cost included photo electrochemical junctions, and alternative materials such as
polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, other `thin _lm' materials and organic
conductors. Strategies for higher efficiency included tandem and other multiple band gap
designs. Although none of these led to widespread commercial development, our
understanding of the science of photovoltaics is mainly rooted in this period.
During the 1990s, interest in photovoltaics expanded, along with growing
awareness of the need to secure sources of electricity alternative to fossil fuels. The trend
coincides with the widespread deregulation of the electricity markets and growing
recognition of the viability of decentralized power. During this period, the economics of
photovoltaics improved primarily through economies of scale. In the late 1990s the
photovoltaic production expanded at a rate of 15{25% per annum, driving a reduction in
cost. Photovoltaics first became competitive in contexts where conventional electricity
supply is most expensive, for instance, for remote low power applications such as
navigation, telecommunications, and rural electri_cation and for enhancement of supply
in grid-connected loads at peak use. As prices fall, new markets are opened up. An

Page 43
important example is building integrated photovoltaic applications, where the cost of the
photovoltaic system is set by the savings in building materials.
There are several types of solar cells. However, more than 90 % of the solar cells
currently made worldwide consist of wafer-based silicon cells. They are either cut from a
single crystal rod or from a block composed of many crystals and are correspondingly
called mono-crystalline or multi-crystalline silicon solar cells. Wafer-based silicon solar
cells are approximately 200 μm thick. Another important family of solar cells is based on
thin-films, which are approximately 1-2 μm thick and therefore require significantly less
active, semiconducting material. Thin-film solar cells can be manufactured at lower cost
in large production quantities; hence their market share will likely increase in the future.
However, they indicate lower efficiencies than wafer-based silicon solar cells, which
mean that more exposure surface and material for the installation is required for a similar
performance.
A number of solar cells electrically connected to each other and mounted in a
single support structure or frame is called a ‘photovoltaic module’. Modules are designed
to supply electricity at a certain voltage, such as a common 12 volt system. The current
produced is directly dependent on the intensity of light reaching the module. Several
modules can be wired together to form an array. Photovoltaic modules and arrays
produce direct-current electricity. They can be connected in both series and parallel
electrical arrangements to produce any required voltage and current combination.

Page 44
ELECTRICAL CONNECTION OF THE CELLS
The electrical output of a single cell is dependent on the design of the device and
the Semi-conductor material(s) chosen, but is usually insufficient for most applications.
In order to provide the appropriate quantity of electrical power, a number of cells must be
electrically connected. There are two basic connection methods: series connection, in
which the top contact of each cell is connected to the back contact of the next cell in the
sequence, and parallel connection, in which all the top contacts are connected together, as
are all the bottom contacts. In both cases, this results in just two electrical connection
points for the group of cells.
 Series connection:
Figure shows the series connection of three individual cells as an example and the
resultant group of connected cells is commonly referred to as a series string. The current
output of the string is equivalent to the current of a single cell, but the voltage output is
increased, being an addition of the voltages from all the cells in the string (i.e. in this
case, the voltage output is equal to 3Vcell).

Page 45
Fig. Series connection of cells, with resulting current–voltage characteristic.

It is important to have well matched cells in the series string, particularly with
respect to current. If one cell produces a significantly lower current than the other cells
(under the same illumination conditions), then the string will operate at that lower current
level and the remaining cells will not be operating at their maximum power points.
 Parallel connection
Figure shows the parallel connection of three individual cells as an example. In this
case, the current from the cell group is equivalent to the addition of the current from each
cell (in this case, 3 Icell), but the voltage remains equivalent to that of a single cell.
As before, it is important to have the cells well matched in order to gain
maximum output, but this time the voltage is the important parameter since all cells must
be at the same operating voltage. If the voltage at the maximum power point is
substantially different for one of the cells, then this will force all the cells to operate off
their maximum power point, with the poorer cell being pushed towards its open-circuit
voltage value and the better cells to voltages below the maximum power point voltage. In
all cases, the power level will be reduced below the optimum.

Page 46
Fig. Parallel connection of cells, with resulting current–voltage characteristic.

MOUNTING STRUCTURE
The main purpose of the mounting structure is to hold the modules in the required
position without undue stress. The structure may also provide a route for the electrical
wiring and may be free standing or part of another structure (e.g. a building). At its
simplest, the mounting structure is a metal framework, securely fixed into the ground. It
must be capable of withstanding appropriate environmental stresses, such as wind
loading, for the location. As well as the mechanical issues, the mounting has an influence
on the operating temperature of the system, depending on how easily heat can be
dissipated by the module.

TILT ANGLE AND ORIENTATION


The orientation of the module with respect to the direction of the Sun determines
the intensity of the sunlight falling on the module surface. Two main parameters are
defined to describe this. The first is the tilt angle, which is the angle between the plane of
the module and the horizontal. The second parameter is the azimuth angle, which is the
angle between the plane of the module and due south (or sometimes due north depending
Page 47
on the definition used). Correction of the direct normal irradiance to that on any surface
can be determined using the cosine of the angle between the normal to the Sun and the
module plane.
The optimum array orientation will depend on the latitude of the site, prevailing
weather conditions and the loads to be met. It is generally accepted that, for low latitudes,
the maximum annual output is obtained when the array tilt angle is roughly equal to the
latitude angle and the array faces due south (in the northern hemisphere) or due north (for
the southern hemisphere). For higher latitudes, such as those in northern Europe, the
maximum output is usually obtained for tilt angles of approximately the latitude angle
minus 10–15 degrees. The optimum tilt angle is also affected by the proportion of diffuse
radiation in the sunlight, since diffuse light is only weakly directional. Therefore, for
locations with a high proportion of diffuse sunlight, the effect of tilt angle is reduced.
However, although this condition will give the maximum output over the year,
there can be considerable variation in output with season. This is particularly true in high-
latitude locations where the day length varies significantly between summer and winter.
Therefore, if a constant or reasonably constant load is to be met or, particularly, if the
winter load is higher than the summer load, then the best tilt angle may be higher in order
to boost winter output. Prevailing weather conditions can influence the optimisation of
the array orientation if they affect the sunlight levels available at certain times of the day.
Alternatively, the load to be met may also vary during the day and the array can be
designed to match the output with this variable demand by varying the azimuth angle.
Notwithstanding the ability to tailor the output profile by altering the tilt and azimuth
angles, the overall array performance does not vary substantially for small differences in
array orientation. Figure shows the percentage variation in annual insolation levels for
the location of London as tilt angle is varied between 0 and 90 degrees and azimuth angle
is varied between –45o (south east) and +45o (south west). The maximum insolation
level is obtained for a south-facing surface at a tilt angle of about 35 degrees, as would be
expected for latitude of about 51oN. However, the insolation level varies by less than
10% with changing azimuth angle at this tilt angle. A similarly low variation is observed
for south facing surfaces for a variation of +/- 30 degrees from the optimum tilt angle.

Page 48
Fig. Percentage variation of annual sunlight levels as a function of tilt angle and azimuth
angle.

The calculations were carried out for the location of London using Meteonorm
Version 3.0. The final aspect to consider when deciding on array orientation is the
incorporation in the support structure. For building-integrated applications, the system
orientation is also dictated by the nature of the roof or façade in which it is to be
incorporated. It may be necessary to trade off the additional output from the optimum
orientation against any additional costs that might be incurred to accomplish this. The
aesthetic issues must also be considered.

SUN-TRACKING/CONCENTRATOR SYSTEMS
The previous section has assumed a fixed array with no change of orientation
during operation. This is the usual configuration for a flat-plate array. However, some
arrays are designed to track the path of the Sun. This can account fully for the sun’s
movements by tracking in two axes or can account partially by tracking only in one axis,
from east to west. For a flat-plate array, single-axis tracking, where the array follows the
east-west movement of the Sun, has been shown to increase the output by up to 30% for a

Page 49
location with predominantly clear sky conditions. Two-axis tracking, where the array
follows both the daily east-west and north-south movement of the sun, could provide a
further increase of about 20% (Lepley, 1990). For locations where there are frequent
overcast conditions, such as northern Europe, the benefits of tracking are considerably
less. It is usually more economical to install a larger panel for locations with less than
about 3000 hours of direct sunshine per annum. For each case, the additional output from
the system must be compared to the additional cost of including the tracking system,
which includes both the control system and the mechanism for moving the array. For
concentrator systems, the system must track the Sun to maintain the concentrated light
falling on the cell. The accuracy of tracking, and hence the cost of the tracking system,
increases as the concentration ratio increases.
SHADING
Shading of any part of the array will reduce its output, but this reduction will vary
in magnitude depending on the electrical configuration of the array. Clearly, the output of
any cell or module which is shaded will be reduced according to the reduction of light
intensity falling on it. However, if this shaded cell or module is electrically connected to
other cells and modules which are unshaded, their performance may also be reduced
since this is essentially a mismatch situation.
For example, if a single module of a series string is partially shaded, its current
output will be reduced and this will then dictate the operating point of the whole string. If
several modules are shaded, the string voltage may be reduced to the point where the
open-circuit voltage of that string is below the operating point of the rest of the array, and
then that string will not contribute to the array output. If this is likely to occur, it is often
useful to include a blocking diode for string protection, as discussed earlier.
Thus, the reduction in output from shading of an array can be significantly greater
than the reduction in illuminated area, since it results from
• The loss of output from shaded cells and modules;
• The loss of output from illuminated modules in any severely shaded strings that cannot
maintain operating voltage; and
• The loss of output from the remainder of the array because the strings are not operating
at their individual maximum power points.

Page 50
For some systems, such as those in a city environment, it may be impossible to
avoid all shading without severely restricting the size of the array and hence losing output
at other times. In these cases, good system design, including the optimum interconnection
of modules, the use of string or module inverters and, where appropriate, the use of
protection devices such as blocking diodes, can minimize the reduction in system output
for the most prevalent shading conditions.

THE PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM


A PV system consists of a number of interconnected components designed to
accomplish a desired task, which may be to feed electricity into the main distribution
grid, to pump water from a well, to power a small calculator or one of many more
possible uses of solar-generated electricity. The design of the system depends on the task
it must perform and the location and other site conditions under which it must operate.
This section will consider the components of a PV system, variations in design according
to the purpose of the system, system sizing and aspects of system operation and
maintenance.

System design
There are two main system configurations – stand-alone and grid-connected. As
its name implies, the stand-alone PV system operates independently of any other power
supply and it usually supplies electricity to a dedicated load or loads. It may include a
storage facility (e.g. battery bank) to allow electricity to be provided during the night or
at times of poor sunlight levels. Stand-alone systems are also often referred to as
autonomous systems since their operation is independent of other power sources. By
contrast, the grid-connected PV system operates in parallel with the conventional
electricity distribution system. It can be used to feed electricity into the grid distribution
system or to power loads which can also be fed from the grid.
It is also possible to add one or more alternative power supplies (e.g. diesel
generator, wind turbine) to the system to meet some of the load requirements. These
systems are then known as ‘hybrid’ systems. Hybrid systems can be used in both stand-
alone and grid-connected applications but are more common in the former because,

Page 51
provided the power supplies have been chosen to be complementary, they allow
reduction of the storage requirement without increased loss of load probability. Figures
below illustrate the schematic diagrams of the three main system types.

Fig. Schematic diagram of a stand-alone photovoltaic system.

Fig. Schematic diagram of grid-connected photovoltaic system.

Page 52
Fig. Schematic diagram of hybrid system incorporating a photovoltaic array and a motor
generator (e.g. diesel or wind).

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS


THE rising concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) of anthropogenic origin
in the atmosphere such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide
(N2O) have increased, since the late 19th century. According to the Third Assessment
Report (TAR) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change1, because of the
increase in concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (for e.g., CO2 by 29 per
cent, CH4 by 150 per cent and N2O by 15 per cent) in the last 100 years, the mean
surface temperature has risen by 0.4–0.8°C globally. The precipitation has become
spatially variable and the intensity and frequency of extreme events has increased. The
sea level also has risen at an average annual rate of 1–2 mm during this period. The
continued increase in concentration of GHG in the atmosphere is likely to lead to climate
change resulting in large changes in ecosystems, leading to possible catastrophic
disruptions of livelihoods, economic activity, living conditions, and human health2.
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change3 requires the
parties to protect the climate system in accordance with their ‘common but differentiated
responsibilities’ and respective capabilities. It enjoins upon developed countries to take
the lead role for combating climate change and the adverse effects thereof, considering
their historically higher contribution to the total anthropogenic load of greenhouse gases

Page 53
in the atmosphere. In the year 1990, the developed world (Australia, Canada, USA,
Europe, former USSR and Japan) emitted around 66 per cent of the total global GHG
emissions, which though has reduced to 54 per cent in 2000, mainly offset by the rise in
Chinese emissions (see Figure 1). The South Asian region, including three-fourths
emission share of India, contributed only 3 per cent of the total global GHG emissions in
1990 and the share of emissions from South Asia has grown merely by 4 per cent in
2000. In accordance with the Article 12 of the climate convention, the parties are required
to report on a continuous basis an information on implementation of the convention inter
alia an inventory of greenhouse gases by sources and removals by sinks (see note 1) and
also the steps taken to address climate change. Towards the fulfillment of the obligations
under the convention, India submitted its Initial National Communication to the
UNFCCC on 22 June 2004.
This analyses the improvements made in GHG inventory estimation reported
therein with respect to earlier published estimates and highlights the strengths, the gaps
that still exist and the future challenges for its refinement. Further, the paper examines the
key sources where efforts are needed to develop a more refined inventory with attendant
reduction in uncertainties. The also makes an assessment of the current and projected
trends of GHG emission from India and some selected countries.

Figure Regionwise GHG emissions in (a) 1990 and (b) 2000

Page 54
Summary of greenhouse gas emissions in Gg (thousand tonnes) from India in
1994 by sources and sinks

Greenhouse gas inventory estimation


Estimations of anthropogenic GHG emission inventories in India, began in a
limited scale in 1991, which were enlarged and revised and the first definitive report for
the base year 1990 was published4 in 1992. Since then, several papers and reports have
been published which have upgraded the methodologies for estimation, included country-
specific emission factors (see note 2) and activity data (see note 3)5, accounted for new
sources of emissions and new gases or pollutants6–10. A comprehensive inventory of the
Indian emissions from all energy, industrial processes, agriculture activities, land use,
land use change and forestry and waste management practices has recently been reported
in India’s Initial National Communication to the UNFCCC11 for the base year 1994. All
these emission estimates reported have been made using the IPCC guidelines for
preparing national greenhouse gas inventories, either by Tier I, Tier II or Tier III. The use
of any of these tiers depended upon the level of disaggregated activity data available for a
particular source of GHG emissions and its relative importance as a GHG emission
source with respect to the total emissions from the country. Table 1 summarizes the GHG
inventory estimates reported under the aegis of India’s initial national communication11.
In 1994, 1228 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent (see note 7) emissions took place
from all anthropogenic activities in India, accounting for 3 per cent of the total global
emissions. About 794 million tonnes, i.e. about 63 per cent of the total CO2 equivalent
emissions was emitted as CO2, while 33 per cent of the total emissions (18 million
tonnes) was CH4, and the rest 4 per cent (178 thousand tonnes) was N2O. The CO2
emissions were dominated by emissions due to fuel combustion in the energy and

Page 55
transformation activities, road transport, cement and steel production. The CH4 emissions
were dominated by emissions from enteric fermentation in ruminant livestock and rice
cultivation.The major contribution to the total N2O emissions came from the agricultural
soils due to fertilizer applications. At a sectoral level, the energy sector contributed 61 per
cent of the total CO2 equivalent emissions, with agriculture contributing about 28 per
cent, the rest of the emissions were distributed amongst industrial processes, waste
generation, and land use, land use change and forestry.
A comparison of the GHG inventory reported in the Initial National
Communication11 with respect to the one prepared in a former effort7, indicates that the
improvements and refinements made in the latter are in terms of inclusion of more
emission sources in the energy sector such as combustion in
industrial/commercial/institutional and residential sectors. Further, the inclusion of
sources in the industrial process sector such as the production of lime, lime stone and
dolomite use, soda ash use, ammonia, carbide, iron and steel, ferro alloys, aluminum,
black carbon, styrene, etc., have added to the comprehensive ness of the GHG inventory.
Further, the inclusion of country-specific emission factors and use of higher levels of
disaggregation has made the inventory more robust.
GHG emissions from about quarter of the source categories reported in the initial
national communication were based on the country-specific emission factors, developed
during project period. The emission factors thus developed were the net calorific value
(NCV) based CO2 emission factors for combustion of coking coal, noncoking coal and
lignite13 which took into account the wide variation in the ash content, moisture content
and petrographic makeup of Indian coal types; the CO2 emission factors for the transport
sector14 which captured the different types of vehicles, their vintages and fuel mix plying
on Indian roads; the production technology specific (dry, wet and semi dry) CO2
emission factor for cement production15, the N2O emission factor for nitric acid
production15 based on measurements carried out at small and large production plants; the
CH4 emission factor for all coal mining process16 such as surface mining as well as
underground mining for various levels of gassiness in coal seam; CH4 emission factors
for enteric fermentation17in dairy and non-dairy cattle capturing the typical low level of
feed intake by the Indian cattle in comparison to the cattle from the western countries;

Page 56
and CH4 emission factors from rice cultivation18 for various water management
practices pursued by farmers in India.

Comparative trends of greenhouse gas emissions for some countries

Comparative national emission trends

The compounded annual growth rate of CO2 equivalent emissions from India
between 1990 and 2000 (preliminary estimates made by authors) show7,11 an overall
increase by 4.2 per cent per annum (see Table 2). On a sectoral basis, the maximum
growth in emissions is from the industrial process sector (21.3 per cent per annum),
followed by the emissions from the waste sector (7.3 per cent per annum). The energy
sector emissions have only grown by 4.4 per cent per annum with almost no increase in
emissions registered from the agriculture sector. Significant increase in emissions from
the industrial process sector can be attributed to the growth in cement and steel
production in India over the decade. Similarly, increase in emissions from the waste
sector can be attributed to increase in quantity of waste generated due to the large influx
of population from villages to cities19 in 2000 with respect to 1990, where because of
Page 57
systematic waste disposal practices; anaerobic conditions are created leading to CH4
emissions. Data from some of the developed countries (see Table ) indicate that between
1990 and 2000, there has been a decline in the compounded annual growth rates of GHGs
(see note 8) such as in the case of Russian federation, Germany and UK were the growth
rates have decreased by –2.8, –2.0 and –1.4 per cent per annum respectively. In
comparison, the emissions from Japan, USA and India have grown by 1.6, 2.0 and 4.2 per
cent per annum respectively within the same period. Even the emissions from China and
Brazil for the period 1990–1995 show a high compounded annual growth rate of 5 and 6
per cent respectively.
Though the compounded annual growth rates of CO2 equivalent emissions from
India are on a higher side (4.2 per cent per annum), the absolute value of these emissions
is still 1/6th of that of USA. Also, the per capita GHG emissions from India are one of the
lowest (see Table).

In the year 2000, the US per capita CO2 equivalent emission was 15.3 times
more than that of India. The German per capita emissions were 8.0 times higher.
Similarly, the Japanese per capita CO2 equivalent emissions were 6.7 times higher than
that of India. Even when compared with developing countries such as China and Brazil,
the Indian per capita emissions were 2.2 and 1.3 times lower respectively.
For almost all the countries, the share of CO2 emissions is actually increasing
continuously between the period 1990 and 2000 and it is the CH4 and N2O emissions
which have decreased in this period, resulting in an overall decrease in the growth rates
of the CO2 equivalent emissions (Figure 2 depicting the trends of emission of these gases

Page 58
between 1990 and 2000 for the USA). Exceptions are in the case of India, where the N2O
emissions are also increasing, and in the case of UK and Germany, where all three
emissions are declining. Further the decrease in emission trends in Germany and the UK,
is due to the fact that the solid and liquid fuel use in these countries is on the decline and
the natural gas consumption is increasing. Japan is the only country amongst all the
countries considered, where the solid fuel use has increased between 1990 and 2000. In
the USA, the fuel mix has remained same between 1990 and 2002, with maximum use of
liquid fuel, followed by gaseous and solid fuel. In India too, the commercial fuel mix has
remained almost the same between 1990 and 2002, wherein 10 per cent of the fuel used is
solid fuel, 81 per cent is liquid fuel and the rest is gaseous fuel. Penetration of
commercial biomass as a main fuel source is still very low

II. HYBRID POWER SYSTEM MODEL


A. General Model
In general, when two or more different sources of electricity are connected to a
common grid and operate hand in hand to

Page 59
Fig.. General hybrid power system model.

Supply the desired load, the system becomes a hybrid electric power system.Asimple
block diagram of a hybrid power system is shown in Fig. . The sources of electric power
in this hybrid system consist of a diesel generator, a battery bank, a PV array, and a wind
generator. The diesel generator is the main source of power for many of the remote
villages in Alaska and around the world. The output of the diesel generator is regulated ac
voltage, which supplies the load directly through the main distribution transformer. The
battery bank, the PV array, and the wind turbine are interlinked through a dc bus. The
RTU regulates the flow of power to and from the different units, depending on the load.
The integration of a RTU into a hybrid power system is important to enhance the
performance of the system. The overall purpose of the RTU is to give knowledgeable
personnel the ability to monitor and control the hybrid system from an external control
center. Since the hybrid systems of interest in this research are located in remote areas,
the ability for external monitoring and control is of utmost importance. The RTU is
interfaced with a variety of sensors and control devices located at key locations within the
hybrid system. The RTU processes the data from these sensors and transmits it to a
control center. In addition, the RTU is also capable of receiving control signals and
adjusting parameters within the system without the physical presence of the operating
personnel.

B. Lime Village Model


This paper investigates the integration of a PV array with a diesel-battery hybrid
electric power system located in Lime Village, Alaska. The hybrid power system of
remote area consists of 21- and 35-kW diesel generators, 100 kWh (95 two-volt cells) of
valve-regulated lead acid batteries, and a 12-kW PV array. The PV array consists of 8
kW of BP275 solar panels and 4 kW of Siemens M55 solar panels. Wind generation is
not a viable renewable energy source for Lime Village due to the low wind speeds in this
area. A 30-kVA bidirectional power converter/ controller is used to supply power to and
from the batteries and from the PV array. Figures from the Alaska Energy Authority
(AEA) show that the operating cost of fuel supplied for the generators of Lime Village

Page 60
ranges from $2.80 per gallon in summer to $4.80 per gallon in winter. Due to the high
cost of fuel, it is desired that the diesel generators operate efficiently and economically.
The use of renewable energy in the form of a PV array combined with regulated battery
storage helps in constraining the use of the diesel generator while optimizing the
efficiency and economics of the system. Efforts are already underway to install an RTU
at Lime Village, further enhancing the performance of the system.

III. SIMULATION MODEL


A model of a hybrid power system of Lime Village was designed using
MATLAB Simulink. The Simulink model was developed so that it can be used to study
the performance of any hybrid power system. Using the -function in Simulink, blocks
representing other renewable energy sources can be easily incorporated into the existing
hybrid power system model. Simulink also allows the dynamic operation and the control
system strategy to be incorporated into the hybrid power system model to study the
dynamic performance of the system. The overall block diagram of the current system is
shown in Fig. The model consists of nine different subsystems contained in blocks. The
Input Parameters block includes data files obtained from the site. After the installation of
the RTU, the model will acquire the data directly from the RTU. This data can be used by
engineers and operators to evaluate and optimize the performance of the system.

Sensors on the system are used to gather information, such as the amount of
sunlight incident upon the PV arrays, charge level of the batteries, and important
operating parameters of the diesel generator. The voltage or current signals from these
sensors are transmitted to signal conditioning devices that convert the signals to an
instrumentation level. These signals are then passed to analog input modules of the RTU
and digitized for processing. The processing consists of scaling the inputs and converting
them to a meaningful unit. The data is then saved within the memory of the RTU and
unloaded to a database on a central server at a location outside of the village at a user-
specified time interval. The data are transferred through TCP/IP connections and are
usually accomplished through dial-up/Ethernet connections with the RTU. At this point,

Page 61
the data are placed in a database and accessed via a web page or other methods and are
available as input to the model.

The input data files to the model are the system electrical load, solar insolation
values, ambient temperature, and the kilowatt ratings of the different energy components.
The Simulink model developed here uses data from the manufacturer to calculate the
efficiency and the amount of fuel used for the DEG. Knowing the above parameters, the
Simulink model can be used to study the performance of any hybrid power system.

After being processed by the Input Parameters block of the model, this
information is used by all of the other subsystems to calculate efficiency, fuel
consumption, and total cost of fuel. The PV Model block is the model of the 12-kW PV
array installed at Lime Village. This block calculates the power available from the PV
array, depending on the intensity of sunlight. The -function written in MATLAB
performs the following tasks.

1) The total power available from the PV array (aligned due south and tilted at a 15
angle) is calculated using the solar insolation values, the total area of the collector,
and the efficiency of the solar collector. The solar insolation values were obtained as
the input of the PV Model from the output of the Input Parameters block. These input

Page 62
values were obtained using a solar map developed by the National Renewable Energy
Laboratory (NREL). This map utilizes extrapolations of 30-yr data from
measurements at other locations combined with satellite data on cloud cover. The
total collector area for the PV array was obtained from the manufacturer data sheet.
The efficiency of commercially available solar collector is about 15%. In this project,
a collector efficiency of 12% is assumed.

2) The model compares the calculated PV power to the required load. If the PV power is
more than the load on the system, the model checks the battery kilo watt hours. If the
battery kilowatthours is less than 95% of its rated kilowatthours, the model will send
the excess available power to charge the battery bank. On the other hand, if the
kilowatthours rating of the battery is more than 95% of its rated kilowatthours, the
model will send the excess power to the dump load. The dump load consists of
resistive banks that can adsorb excess power available from the PV array, which can
subsequently be used to provide space heating. Lime Village does not currently have
dump load. If the PV power is less than the load on the system, all of the power
available from the PV array will go to the load. The battery bank will supply the
remaining load. If the battery bank is unable to supply the rest of the load, the load is
passed to the diesel generator. The diesel generator then supplies the load and charges
the battery bank simultaneously. The hybrid power system is designed in such a way
that the PV array has the highest priority to supply the load. If the load is not met by
the PV power, the battery bank is used to supply the required load. If the battery bank
is less than 20% charged, the controller sends the signal to start up the diesel
generator. The diesel generator is then used to supply the desired load and charge the
battery bank simultaneously. On the other hand, if there is excess power available
from the PV array, the excess power is used to charge the battery bank. If the battery
bank is 95% charged, the excess power is sent to a resistive dump load, which can be
used for space-heating purposes. In the Simulink model, the roundtrip efficiency of
the rectifier/inverter and the internal loss in the battery bank per cycle was considered
as 90%.

Page 63
The Battery Model block consists of the battery bank and controller. The Battery
Model has the second highest priority to supply the load. Once the RTU is installed at
Lime Village, it will regulate the power output of the diesel generator, the PV array, and
the battery bank through digital/analog output capabilities that enable equipment to be
switched “on” and “off.” The control settings and set point configurations are
programmed WIES into the memory of the RTU. These set points of the RTU can be
changed while the simulation is in progress in order to further optimize the system. The
-function in the Battery Model block performs the following tasks.
1) The total battery voltage is calculated using the number of battery cells ( ) and the
voltage per cell as follows:

Where volt per cell is obtained from the output of the Input Parameters block.

2) The model then compares the required load with the maximum capacity of the two
generators. If the required load exceeds the capacity of the two generators, then the
model displays the message that the load cannot be supplied with the available
generators. If the load is less then the maximum capacity of the two generators, then
the model checks for the available kilowatthours and the mode (charging or
discharging) of the battery bank. If the available kilowatthours of the battery bank is
greater than 20% and the battery is in the discharging state, then the battery energy
will be used to supply the load. If the available kilowatthours of the battery bank is
less than 20% of its rated kilowatthours or if the battery bank is in the charging stage,
then the energy from the diesel generator will be used to supply the load and charge
the battery bank simultaneously.

The Generator Model block contains the manufacturer’s specifications for the
efficiency of the electric generator. Knowing the efficiency and the load on the generator,
the power input to the generator can be calculated as

Page 64
Where is the load on the diesel generator?

The Generator Model block is designed in such a way that the diesel generators
are always operating at 95% of their kilowatt rating while operating in conjunction with
the battery bank and the PV array. This way, the generators operate at their maximum
efficiencies and also give better displacement power factor. If one generator is
insufficient to supply the load, the second generator is turned “on.” In Lime Village, one
generator is always sufficient to supply the load, while the other generator acts as a back-
up generator. If the model is used for other villages where two generators are used to
supply the load, the percentage load on both the generators is the same. Therefore, both
generators operate at 95% of their kilowatt rating.

The Fuel Consumption Model block calculates the amount of fuel required by the
diesel engine to supply the load. The fuel consumed by the engine depends on the load
and the electrical efficiency of the generator. The electrical efficiency is dependent on the
displacement power factor of the load. If there are two generators operating, the block
will calculate the fuel required
by each engine and also the total fuel required to supply the load. The plot for the fuel
consumption obtained from the manufacturer’s data sheet can be mathematically
interpreted as follows:

Where is the input power to the generator given in kilowatts; 7.1 is the factor that
converts pounds (lbs) to gallons, depending on the type of fuel that is used. For different

Page 65
types of generators, the fuel consumption can be obtained from the manufacturer’s data
sheet.
The Error block calculates the difference between the supplied power and the
required power. The error within the model is calculated by

where is the power supplied by the battery bank, is the power supplied by the
diesel generators, is the power supplied by the PV array, is the power delivered to the
load, and is the power delivered to the dump load. The Error block also calculates the
rms value of the error power. The rms value of the error will depend on the time interval
over which the simulation is performed, the time increment between the two simulation
steps, and the fluctuation in load. The rms value of error is given by

Where is the ratio of the simulation time to the time increment between the two
simulation steps?
The Calculate Other Parameters block calculates the parameters such as the total
kilowatthours per gallon supplied by the generator, fuel consumed in pounds and gallons,
the total cost of fuel (in U.S. dollars), the , particulate matter (PM), and the emissions.
The kilowatthours per gallon and total fuel cost are calculated as

Page 66
Where kWh is the total kilowatthours supplied by the diesel generator, and is the
total fuel consumed (in gallons).
The Display Parameters block is used to display all the calculated parameters,
including the fuel consumption, the total cost of fuel, the kilowatthours per gallon, and
the amount of greenhouse gases emitted to the environment.

IV. MODEL VALIDATON


In Alaska, there is less sunlight available during the winter months and, therefore,
very few diesel-hybrid power systems that incorporate PV arrays. As a result, field data
are not easily available for the PV with diesel-battery system to validate the

Fig.. Annual load profile for Lime Village.

Page 67
Fig Solar insolation profile for Lime Village.
Model. In order to validate the model, simulations were performed for the PV with
diesel-battery system for the load profile shown in Fig. This load profile was obtained by
interpolating and averaging a 24-h summer load profile and a 24-h winter load profile
obtained from Lime Village over a one-year time period. Each data point represents a
daily average, and a second-order polynomial fit to the data is used, as shown in the
figure.
The solar insolation profile for Lime Village is shown in Fig. 4. A third-order
polynomial fit to the data is used, as shown in the figure. It can be observed from this plot
that during summer days, there is abundant sunlight; hence, the energy available from the
sun is distributed throughout the day. If there is any extra power available from the PV
array after supplying the load, it is utilized to charge the battery bank. The post-
simulation analysis includes the comparison of results from the Simulink model with
those predicted by Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables (HOMER).
HOMER online was released in fall 2001 at NREL. HOMER is a computer model that
designers can use to simulate and optimize standalone electric power systems. HOMER
can model any combination of wind turbines, solar PV panels, run-on-river hydro, small
modular biomass, conventional generators (diesel, propane, and gasoline), and battery
storage. The trial version and description of HOMER are available in [8]. HOMER can

Page 68
be used to design a stand-alone power system in a remote village, investigate the cost of
powering an off-grid house, and assess the potential of renewable energy. The
comparison results of Simulink model with HOMER are described in more detail in
Section V-C.

V. SIMULATIONS AND RESULTS


Simulations were performed for three cases using the Lime Village model and a
one-year time period. The three cases studied in this work include diesel-only system,
diesel-battery system, and PV with diesel-battery system. Table I shows the costs of the
different components installed at Lime Village for the three cases. The costs of the
different components were obtained from the various manufacturers. The engineering
cost, commissioning, installation, freight, and other miscellaneous costs were obtained
from a report prepared by the Alaska Energy Authority (AEA) [4]. Due to the remoteness
of the site, the cost for transporting the various components is relatively high. Table II
shows the results for the three cases. In this model, the roundtrip efficiency of the
rectifier/inverter and the internal loss in the battery bank per cycle was considered as
90%. The collector efficiency for the PV array is assumed as 12%. As mentioned in
HOMER, the heating value of fuel is assumed to be 48.5 MJ/kg, and the density of fuel is
assumed to be 840.
The post-simulation analysis includes an economic and environmental component
illustrating the simple payback and avoided cost of emission reductions using the PV
array.
A. Economic Analysis
The economic analysis part of the simulation model involves calculation of the
simple payback time (SPBT) for the PV module and calculation of energy payback time
(EPBT) for the PV array. In most of the remote villages, battery banks are used as back-
up sources for power. Therefore, the PV with diesel-battery system is compared to the
diesel-battery system in the analysis of SPBT. The SPBT is given as

Page 69
In order to calculate the EPBT for the PV array, it is essential to know the energy
required in the construction of the PV array (also called embodied energy). In [9], Knapp
et al. describe a method to calculate the embodied energy of a PV array. In this method,
the total energy required is the sum of energies

Page 70
required for raw materials and the energy required in the various processes involved to
convert the raw materials into the PV array. The embodied energy of a PV system is
given by

Where kWh is the embodied energy, kW is the rated power of the PV array, and is
the energy generation rate of the PV array. For Lime Village, the PV array is rated to
produce 12 kW, and from Table II, the value for is 9445 kWh/yr.

Page 71
B. Environmental Analysis
The environmental analysis part of the model involves the calculation of the
avoided costs for, PM, and. The figures for PM and obtained in Table II are based on the
values obtained from the manufacturer. The emission of 3.1 kg /kg fuel is based on the
mass balance for the combustion of the fuel. In [10], Narula et al. describe a way of
calculating the avoided costs for. One way of reducing the greenhouse gas emissions
from electric power plants is by removing the gases through the use of chemical or other
processes. Some DEGs have pollution control equipment to reduce emissions. DEGs in
most Alaskan villages are not currently required to have emissions monitored. The cost
associated with the removal processes is called removal cost (RC) and is described in
[10].
The use of a PV array with the DEGs in Lime Village results in decreased
emissions. The cost associated with the difference in the amount of emitted pollution is
called the avoided cost.
The avoided cost is calculated as

Where
AC avoided cost ($/ton);
COE cost of electricity from low emission plant;
COE cost of electricity from high emission plant;
Emission from high emission plant (ton);
Emission from low emission plant (ton).

Page 72
To calculate avoided cost, it is essential to calculate the cost of electricity for each
system. Therefore, it is necessary to know the ratio for a system, where is the annual
payment on a loan whose principal is at an interest rate for a given period ( ). Details of
these calculations are described. The following assumptions are used for the analysis
presented here.
1) Interest rate.
2) Life-cycle period for PV years.
3) Life-cycle period for diesel battery system years.
4) Life-cycle period for diesel battery system when
Operating in conjunction with PV years. The higher life cycle period for the diesel-
battery system
When operating in conjunction with the PV array is assumed because in the PV with
diesel-battery system, about 10% of the load is supplied by the PV array. So, the life of
the diesel-battery system will increase. The formula for is given as

Similarly, for other cases is calculated and tabulated in Table III.


The annual cost of electricity for different systems is calculated As

Page 73
Where the cost of the PV with diesel-battery system is, is the cost of diesel-battery
system, and is the annual cost of fuel. Substituting the values from Table II

Similarly, COE is calculated as $61 735.


Using (12), the avoided costs for different emissions of
Table II are calculated and are listed in Table IV.
The first cost is in the range of estimates provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change (IPCC) [12], which has estimated the cost for capture at power stations
to be in the range of $30–$50 per ton of avoided . The California Air Resources Board
(CARB) [13] estimated a cost of about

$25 per pound of PM avoided by retrofitting buses with diesel particle filters (DPFs).
CARB also reported $23 and $13 per pound for and, respectively, as averages paid for
emissions offsets transactions in 35 California districts.

Page 74
C. Comparison of Simulink Model with HOMER
Table V shows the comparison of the results of Lime Village using the Simulink
model with those predicted by HOMER. It was observed that the efficiency of the diesel
generator is higher using the Simulink model. This is because in the Simulink model, the
battery bank has a longer charge/discharge cycle. So, whenever the diesel generator is
“on,” it operates at a higher load and, hence, more efficiently. This is achieved by
sacrificing the life of the battery bank. So, the life of the battery bank is less in the
Simulink model as compared to that of HOMER.
In HOMER, the energy generated by the diesel engine is higher because the
battery bank is designed to cycle between 40% and 82% of its kilowatt-hour rating rather
than between 20% and 95% in the Simulink model. The inverter and rectifier are
operating with much less efficiency in HOMER as compared to the Simulink model
(about 20% difference). In HOMER, the DEG is loaded anywhere between 6.3–21 kW,
with the average load of 13.4 kW, and, hence, operates with a lower electrical efficiency
than in the Simulink model. In the Simulink model, the battery bank acts as a source of
power. So. Whenever the DEG is “on,” it operates at 95% of its rated power—therefore,
with a higher electrical efficiency. If the load on the DEG is less than 95% of its rated
power, the excess power is utilized to charge the battery bank. It can also be observed
that the efficiencies for the DEG-battery and PV-DEG-battery are the same in the
Simulink analysis. In the above analysis, HOMER has the advantage with a higher net
present value (NPV) due to the longer life of the battery bank over the Simulink model.
The battery bank is the most expensive component of the system.
D. Overall Results
After performing the simulations for the three cases, it was observed that case 3
provided superior results in terms of fuel consumption for the diesel generator and the
greenhouse emissions. It was observed that the diesel generator operates most efficiently
for case 3, while the diesel-battery system in case 2 has the highest kilowatthours per
gallon.

Page 75
In case 1, the entire load was supplied without the PV array and the battery bank,
leaving the load to be supplied by the diesel generator. Since the diesel generator operates
with the lowest load for the diesel-only system, it is the least efficient system and has the
lowest kilowatthours per gallon. In case 2, when the battery bank is discharged, the diesel
generator is used to charge the battery bank, so eventually, the entire load is supplied
with the help of the diesel generator. In case 3, part of the load was supplied using the PV
array. As a result, there is substantial saving in the fuel consumption by the diesel
generator due to use of the battery bank and the PV array with the diesel-only system.
The LCC and air emissions results of our Simulink model were comparable to those
predicted by HOMER.

Page 76
VI. CONCLUSION

The preliminary results reported here demonstrate that the integration of a PV


array into a diesel-battery stand-alone hybrid power system reduces the operating costs
and the greenhouse gases and particulate matter emitted to the atmosphere. The hybrid
system has been in reliable operation since July 2001. A Simulink model of the PV with
diesel-battery hybrid power system installed at Lime Village, AK, was developed in this
project. The Simulink model can be used to study the performance of any PV with diesel-
battery hybrid power system if the operating characteristics of the power system are
known. With few modifications, the model can be extended to incorporate other
renewable energy sources. The incorporation of additional renewable sources of energy,
such as wind turbines in this system, could further reduce fuel consumption. The dynamic
performance and the control system strategy of the power system can also be
incorporated into the model. The model was validated by comparing the results for
supplying an annual load profile with those predicted by HOMER. The LCC and air
emissions results of our Simulink model were comparable to those predicted by HOMER.
Although there is a significant capital investment to purchase a PV system for this
application, the PV system may have acceptable 20-yr LCCs for many remote locations.
Furthermore, over its life cycle, the PV hybrid power system will consume less fuel and
emit less , and PM than the diesel-only system. If the external costs associated with these
emissions are taken into account, the PV system discounted payback period will further
decrease. Hybrid energy systems, which result in more economical and efficient
generation of electrical energy, would not only enhance the capability of automated and
precision generation systems, but would also help to extend the life of nonrenewable
energy sources.

REFERENCES
Page 77
[1] W. S. Fyfe, M. A. Powell, B. R. Hart, and B. Ratanasthien, “A global crisis: Energy in
the future,” Nonrenewable Resources, pp. 187–195, 1993.
[2] F. P. Dawson and S. B. Dewan, “Remote diesel generator with photovoltaic
cogeneration,” in Proc. Solar Conf., Denver, CO, Sep. 1989, pp. 269–274.
[3] (2003). U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Authority. [Online].
Available: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/sep/ak/frame.html
[4] Lime Village Power System Alternatives, Alaska Energy Authority, Anchorage, AK,
2001.
[5] Performance and Economic Analysis of the Addition of Wind Power to the Diesel
Electric Generating Plant at Wales, Alaska, National Renewable Energy Laboratory,
Golden, CO, 1997.
[6] “ Rural Alaska Energy Plan Initiatives Aimed at Improving Rural Energy Efficiency
and Reliability,” Alaska Energy Authority, Anchorage, AK, 2002.
[7] Wales, Alaska High Penetration Wind-Diesel Hybrid Power System: Theory of
Operation, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, 2002.
[8] (2003). National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO. [Online]. Available:
http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar
[9] PV Payback, 2000.
[10] R. G. Narula, H. Wen, K. Himes, and B. Power, “Incremental cost of CO reduction
in power plants,” in Proc. ASME Turbo Expo., 2002, pp. 1–7.
[11] Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems: A Handbook of Recommended Design Practices
(Revised), Sandia National Labs, Albuquerque, NM, 1995.
[12] Climate Change 2001: Working Group III: Mitigation: 3.8.4.4 Technical CO
Removal and Sequestration (2003, Nov.). [Online]. Available:
http://www.grida.no/climate/ipcc
[13] Staff Analysis of PM Emission Reductions and Cost-Effectiveness, Appendix F,
California Air Resources Board 2002 (2003, Nov.). [Online]. Available:
http://www.arb.ca.gov/regact/bus02/appf.pdf

Page 78
[14] G. Kats, “The Costs and Financial Benefits of Green Buildings,” California’s
Sustainable Building Task Force, 2003. 700 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER
SYSTEMS, VOL. 20, NO. 2, MAY 2005 horage.

Page 79