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‫بسم هللا الرحمن الرحيم‬

(3124400) Digital Integrated Circuits

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What is a Digital Circuit? (Continued)
• An analog transistor circuit concentrates on
the linear mode of operation of the transistor.
• In the linear mode, the output current of the
transistor, is a linear multiple (b) of the input current.

• A digital transistor circuit concentrates on


the “cut-off” and “saturation” modes.
• In the cut-off mode, the output current is almost 0
no matter how the input current changes.
• In the saturation mode, the output current is mostly
constant (non-0) no matter how the input current
changes.

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What is a Digital Circuit? (Continued)

• In digital circuits, the transistor switches back and


fourth between cut-off and saturation.

• Cut-off mode is where the transistor as a switch is


considered off.
• Saturation mode is where the transistor as a switch is
considered on.

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What is an Integrated Circuit?
• An integrated circuit is a “complete circuit”
that performs a “complete task” and has been
reduced tremendously and manufactured on
one piece of “semi-conductor”.
• Integrated circuits are manufactured on very thin,
circular plates of semiconductor called “wafers”.

• The complement of an Integrated Circuit is a


Discrete Circuit. In a discrete circuit, each
circuit element is a discrete package and the
packages are connected to each other with
external wires.

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What is a semi-conductor?

• A conductor is a metal that carries current


constantly. Like Aluminum (Al), Copper (Cu),
Iron (Fe).

• A semi-conductor is a metal that carries


current under certain conditions and acts
almost like an open circuit under others.
Examples are: Silicon (Si) Gallium Arsenide
(GaAs).

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What is a semi-conductor? (Continued)

• Manufacturing an Integrated Circuit starts


with “pure” semiconductor. Then impurities are
added to form the different types needed for
the circuit.
• Negative ions (extra electrons) are added to form N-
Type semiconductor.
• Positive ions (missing electrons, also known as holes)
are added to form P-Type semiconductor.
• The extra electrons and the holes are known as
“carriers”. They are the means by which current flows
in the circuit.

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