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Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK

January 2011

January 2011
January 2011

Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK

Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK January 2011
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK
January 2011
ISSN: 0976-3759 Journal of School Social Work Price Rs 20.00 A National School Social Work
ISSN: 0976-3759
Journal of
School Social Work
Price Rs 20.00
A National School Social Work monthly dedicated to networking of parents and teachers.
Volume
VII Issue 08
Contents
January 2011
Page
Editorial
Value Education:
02
The Need of the Hour
Vidya and Values
Values: So Near, Yet So Far
Living Values Education
Dr Saraswati Raju Iyer
Mary Princess Lavanya
Dr Ragini G P
Mahespriya L
Ranjit L
Rajeswari M
03
11
16
21
Essentials of Values
Value Education and
Personality Development
Value Education and Teachers
25
Amudha S
28
Viji T
31
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Focus: Values Education
Hony. Special Editor:
Dr Catherine Joseph,MA, MPhil, PhD,
Assistant Professor, Department of Social work,
Stella Maris College, Chennai.
JournalofSchoolSocial Work,
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Mobile: 98406 02325 E-mail: jssw.india@gmail.com and PJ.Naidu@yahoo.in
Note: Views expressed by the contributors are not necessarily the official view of the Journal.
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK
January 2011
01

Editorial

Values for Transformation

Values are the standards of behaviour in day-to-day activities and guiding principles in critical life situations. Values are ideal virtues and qualities that are primary doctrines that shape the world’s outlook. In the 21st Century values education is the only tool that could bring order, security and assured development in the chaotic world. It is a programme of planned educational action and a methodical effort deliberately framed to bring transformation in the society. It starts at home and continued in schools. It begins with childhood and should be present throughout one’s life. The family system in India has a long tradition of teaching values effortlessly. But westernization, urbanization, globalization and the fast changing roles of parents have necessitated institutional intervention through schools, colleges, religious organizations and departments of governments to meet the rising needs of the modern society. These activities focus on the development of children and young adults by concentrating on core values like compassion, humility, unity, simplicity,

honesty, integrity, acceptance of differences and peaceful coexistence. There has been a revolutionary need for values education and it is

constantly increasing because of greed and lack of unity in the society, behavioural disorders and violent acts of terrorism. In today’s world human values are either discarded or distorted. Only when the basic ideologies are restored, world will be

a better place to live in. ‘In order to

preserve, maintain and advance the position of our country in the world, it

is imperative that there should be a

comprehensive programme of value- based education starting from the pre-primary level, embracing the entire spectrum of educational process’ (Parliamentary Committee in

India,1999).

Values education is strongly recommended at all levels of formal and informal education. It is indeed an intervention technique to prevent the recurrence of scandals like CWG/ 2G spectrum and witch-hunting the whistle-blowers. Aren’t values in a society the true indicators of the development of any nation?

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January 2011

Value Education: The Need of the Hour

Saraswati Raju Iyer*

*Dr Saraswati Raju Iyer, Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology and Social Work, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar, Guntur – 522 510.

Introduction Education comes from the Latin word ‘educatio’ which means ‘development of character.’ In addition to the search for truth through scientific and scholarly pursuits an important task of education is a concern with values. The Kothari commission with its accent on education for national development includes among the functions of higher education, cultivation of right interests, attitudes and moral and intellectual values. The inseparable link between education and values is evident in the nature and aim of education. The primary task of education is the creative extension of knowledge, but it does not end there. The educator’s task is holistic and he cannot restrict himself to the care of knowledge enrichment only. Young children at the school level should be given an understanding of different types of values at par with the rest of their education. If the business of education is to enrich the meaning of life, then a proper value – orientation

of education becomes imperative. In

the present day’s education system values have been, sadly, delinked from education. It is needless to say

that promotion of values during schooling lays a strong foundation for the entire future. Unless the student realizes the merits of knowledge as

a tool for social empowerment,

education can degenerate into materialism and corruption. Value education Value is an endless belief that a specific mode of conduct or state of

existence is personally preferable to an opposing or converse mode of conduct with a focus on what is right and what is wrong. Mohan Rakesh

in one of his novels states that the

real problem in this world is not the fight between right and wrong. The

real problem is that the fight is always between right and right. Or as Albert Scheitzer says, the fundamental idea

of good is that it consists in preserving

life, in favouring it, in wanting to bring it to its highest value and even consist

in destroying life.

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January 2011

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Development of values The purpose of value education is for the development of body and mind,

Value education means inculcating the children’s sense of humanism, a deep concern for the well being of

Need for value education To make an individual a good citizen, education has to be imparted in a

which human beings respond to their environment. The development of a people is significantly conditioned by

to develop integrated and balanced personality. Values are acquired, inherited and inculcated. The family, its environment, traditions and samskara, along with community and humanitarianism play an important role in value development in our students and us. Value is a relationship between a

others and the nation. This can be accomplished only when we instill in children a deep feeling of commitment. Influencing factors Value education intended for desired modifications in the individual’s behavioural patterns apparently involves the following four factors:

manner reinforcing his or her role in the society .This has to be done at all levels of education. A person who is not sensitive to the suffering of his fellow beings cannot be ‘good’ unless he is taught the joy of working for the betterment of society. Value education is a sine qua non to give education its profound meaning and

the values held by them. Dogmas and superstitions always inhibit the growth process of a people just as climate and food habits condition their health and life style. Human values have a significant role in national development. The transformation of a developing country, presupposes a change in values conducive to

person and an environmental

Individual

to

bring some order into the prevailing

progress in work ethics and social

situation which evoke an appreciative response in the individual. Any human activity, thought or idea, feeling, sentiment or emotion, which could promote self-development of the individual in all its dimensions could be said to constitute a value. The other complimentary functions of

Family Society School Individual’s personality is projected as good or bad as a result of his or her interaction with family and school synchromeshed with the society. Objective of value education

anarchy. Education is a methodical effort towards learning basic facts about humanity and making right choices always. And the core idea behind value education is to cultivate essential values in the students so that the civilization that teaches us to

contract. As Indians we have to be aware and even be proud of the glory of our heritage and never be blind to the defects. Purpose of value – based education The purpose of value-based education is:

a

value are it should also contribute

The objective of value education in

manage complexities can be sustained and further developed. It

To help the school community

to

the welfare of the larger social unit

schools may be stated as:

begins at home and it is continued in

think about and reflect upon positive

as the family, the community and the nation of which the individual is a member. Value system contains:

A set of beliefs about the nature

1.Developing the appropriate sensitivities– moral, aesthetic, cultural, spiritual – in children. 2.Enabling the student to

schools. Everyone accepts certain things in his/her life through family, society or government. Social growth and values

universal values and the practical implications of expressing them in relation to themselves, others, the community and the world.

of man.

understand, appreciate and practise

A

close look at the history of a country

To inspire individuals to choose

Rules indicating what ought to be done and what is not to be done. Motives that incline us to choose the right and shun the wrong.

them. The educational curriculum, people feel, fails to introduce the eternal principles of living in to student’s life.

shows a significant correlation between traditional values and the growth of society. Values widely shared determine the manner in

their own positive personal, social, moral and spiritual values and be aware of ways for developing and deepening them as world citizens.

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January 2011

 

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Value-based education supports schools in promoting an inclusive school ethos and the methods of working that raises achievement and helps pupils to raise their self- esteem and take responsibility for their own behaviour. Overall, it enables pupils to examine the kind of life that is worth living and to consider what kind of life they want for themselves. Strategies A variety of activities and strategies have to be employed by the teacher to impart value education, which includes:

Display of writing on the bulletin board / notice board. Training of proper habits by presenting self (teacher) as an example. Teaching, instruction, explanation, discussion (to foster the cognitive understanding of the moral, aesthetic and cultural phenomena). Role play of situations. Exposure to works of art, beauty in nature, actions of moral worth (to kindle the ecological and heritage sensibilities). Providing situations and opportunities to practise the values

(to enable internalization of values). Exposure to value-loaded incidents through video shows followed by discussion. Debates comparing and contrasting behaviours and actions. Discussion on the lives and teachings of great religious, spiritual and national leaders. Discussions of situations of moral dilemma. Analysis of drama, music and dance concepts. Development of a sense of the consequences of one’s actions. Visit to places of worship of different religions – Temples, churches, mosques, gurudwaras, ashrams and mutts, places of historical importance, to villages and countryside. Exhibitions and cultural festivals. Quiz programmes. Visits to places of worship of different religions develop amongst children values of religious tolerance, while visit to exhibitions help them to appreciate Indian art and culture and develop a sense of unity. There can hardly be any single strategy for cultivation of values in different context at different levels.

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Principles of value education 1.The foundation of (value- education) should not be made dependent on myth, nor tied to any authority, lest doubts about the myth, or about the legitimacy of the authority imperil the foundation of sound judgment and action. 2.The approach should be to provoke the students to think independently and analyze their own life – its goal, various aspirations–, and the world view in a scientific manner, just as they are trained to analyze the world outside (Dhar,

2000).

The approaches In the light of above principles, values clarification approach (Raths, Harmin and Simons, 1966) and values analysis approach (Metcalf, 1968), critical thinking experiences (Stephenson, 1998) are very relevant approaches for inculcating values among students at secondary / senior secondary and even at graduate and post graduate levels. Value education can also be provided directly, indirectly or incidentally. Direct value education refers to deliberate, systematic instruction in values in specially provided periods in the

schools’ timetable. In many states moral education is imparted in this manner. In this method, the values to be inculcated are explained, discussed and illustrated through stories and fables, anecdotes, moral dilemmas from real-life events. Indirectly value education can be imparted through the regular subjects of the school curriculum and co- curricular activities. Value education is incidental wherever it is resorted to in relation to a specific event or situation that actually occurs in the school. Each approach has its strengths and weaknesses. They must be combined judiciously always bearing in mind the maturity level of the learner. The interplay of head and heart will be involved in the process of value inculcation. Since education is ‘becoming’ it involves the whole person.

Direct method Instruction in values can be given by an experienced and competent teacher of the school, a retired headmaster or a spiritual leader in a specified period of the school timetable. This may require readjustment in the school timetable

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and may cause an increase in the work load of the particular teacher. Indirect method Value based themes can be integrated or incorporated at appropriate points in different subjects such as language, science, history etc. there is no necessity of a separate period of special books for value education. Every teacher has to be a teacher of values. But this may require analysis of text book, identification of plug points, and incorporation of value-based themes at appropriate plug points. Incidental approach Specific values can be imparted on appropriate occasions, for example acts of courage, bravery and discipline can be highlighted on various occasions in the school such as morning assembly and sports day. Value clarification The value clarification approach may be followed by the teacher to discuss about a problem involving value conflict such as small family norm. In this approach the teacher is not an expert on values. He is to create an atmosphere for the students which will help them to explore values, clarify their doubts, choose

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appropriate values, internalize the values and behave accordingly. In the present set up of our schools and society the integrated approach, the incidental approach and the value clarification approach may be recommended for value education. In the National Curriculum Frame Work for School Education (NCERT, 2000) the following methods have been suggested. At the elementary stage The school assembly, group singing, practicing silence and meditation. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teaching of prophets, saints and sacred texts of different religions. Field activities like games and sports leading to the attitude of service (Seva) to other persons and creatures, even to nature and to the precept ‘Work is Worship’ Cultural activities and plays on appropriate themes. At the secondary and higher secondary stages The morning assembly, readings from books of wisdom, great literature or an appropriate address by a teacher or a guest speaker.

Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK

January 2011

Essential teachings of the major world religions, comparative study of the philosophy or religions. Social service during holidays and outside school hours. Community singing programmes, national integration groups, national social service, NCC, Scouts and Guides programmes. Cultural activities, plays, debates on appropriate themes. Interstate cultural exchange programmes. Exhibitions, bal-meals, fairs and folk cultural activities. Appropriate guidance and counselling. This would generate better understanding, appreciation and respect for one another and create a tolerant and cohesive society. Experience has shown that inculcating values through co- and extra-curricular activities produce better results. Materials Text books, supplementary reading materials and other materials for general reading in different subject areas will have to contain built-in universal human values. These have to be written carefully and reviewed

frequently so that they are not counterproductive. These reading materials do not have to be direct and didactic in nature. In addition to these, picture books, cartoons, picture cards, newspaper cuttings, writings on the bulletin board, wall magazines and competitions can also be used for the purpose. Use of mass media is a desirable strategy. Research studies need to be conducted to determine empirically the effectiveness of content matter and different strategies to cultivate values in different settings. This is a challenge which needs to be met by researchers working in the realm of value education. Conclusion The younger generation is neither Indian nor Western in outlook. The economy driven society seeks security in money, and in concern for social wellbeing leading to corruption, injustice, exploitation, and violence. Indian ethos is spirituality driven which lays emphasis on dharma, soul and universal brotherhood. The evils of hatred, jealousy and enmity in the society has spilled over to the educational institutions and manifest as groupism, bullying, mass copying,

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indiscipline, defiance and student unrest. There is an urgent need for appropriate remedial action to meet these challenges and to stem the rot. Value-oriented education comprises of all types of education: aesthetic, ethical, health, intellectual, scientific and spiritual. It promotes a shared

vocabulary, based on shared positive human values, which can provide a sense of direction and vision about how to create a stable moral society. Finally we can conclude that human behaviour becomes chaotic and education becomes directionless without values.

References:

Agarwal J C (1975): Educational Research – An Introduction, New Delhi: Aryan Book Depot. Dahlke, Otto H (1958): Values in Culture and Class Room, New York: Hamper and Bros., Publishers. Gail M Inlow (1972):Values in Transition a Handbook., New York: John Wiley and Sons. Harding, D W (1966): Social Psychology and Individual Values, London:

Hutchinson & Company Limited. Kulsherestha S P (1979): Emerging Value – Pattern of Teachers and new Trends of Education in India, New Delhi: Light and Life publishers. Marie Mignon Mascarenhas (1986): Family Life Education, Value Education - A Text Book for College Students,Bangalore: Centre for Research Education Service & Training for Family Life Promotion. Morris, Harles (Year):Varieties of Human Values, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Rama Maikhuri and Archana Shah, Value Education: Some Reflections”, November 2005; Volume XXXIII; No 11. Vijayalakshmi Ghali: Prioritization of Secondary School Children’s Values by Their Parents and Teachers, Edutracks; Volume. 5, No.7, Pp. 34-37.

 

Future Focus

Month

HSE Dr Shivani Mishra Dr Lakshmamma Sadhana Adhikary Rekha Mistry

Topic School Safety Programmes Juvenile Delinquency Attention Seeking Children RET and Problem Solving

Feb 2011

Mar 2011

Apr 2011

May2011

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