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Chapter 9 Folio:
Substances In

Name : Muhamad Haykal Bin Zol Hamidy

Class : 4 Ibnu Khaldun
School:MJSC Merbok
Content Page


2.Sulphuric Acid

3.Ammonia And Its Salt


5.Synthetic Polymers

6.Glass And Ceramic

7.Composite Materials
In retrospect, the definition of chemistry seems to invariably change per decade, as new
discoveries and theories add to the functionality of the science. Shown below are some of
the standard definitions used by various noted chemists:

• Alchemy (330) – the study of the composition of waters, movement,

growth, embodying and disembodying, drawing the spirits from bodies and
bonding the spirits within bodies (Zosimos).
Chymistry (1661) – the subject of the material principles of mixture bodies

• Chymistry (1663) – a scientific art, by which one learns to dissolve bodies, and
draw from them the different substances on their composition, and how to unite
them again, and exalt them to an higher perfection (Glaser).

• Chemistry (1730) – the art of resolving mixture, compound, or aggregate bodies

into their principles; and of composing such bodies from those principles (Stahl).

• Chemistry (1837) – the science concerned with the laws and effects of molecular
forces (Dumas).

• Chemistry (1947) – the science of substances: their structure, their properties, and
the reactions that change them into other substances (Pauling).

• Chemistry (1998) – the study of matter and the changes it undergoes (Chang).

In the study of matter, chemistry also investigates its interactions with energy and
Because of the diversity of matter, which is mostly composed of different combinations
of atoms, chemists often study how atoms of different chemical elements interact to form
molecules and how molecules interact with each other.
2.Sulphuric Acid
Properties of sulphuric acid

1.Sulphuric acid is a strong mineral acid

2.Its molecular formula is H2SO4.
3.It is soluble in water.
3.Sulphuric acid is non-volatile diprotic acid.
4. It is a highly corrosive, dense and oily liquid.
5. Concentrated sulphuric acid is a viscous colourless liquid.

A Uses Of Sulphuric Acid.

1) To manufacture fertilizers

a ) Calcium dihydrogen phosphate (superphosphate)

2H 2 SO 4 + Ca 3 (PO 4)2  Ca(H 2 PO 4)2 + 2Ca SO4
Sulphuric acid + tricalcium phosphate  calcium dihydrogen phosphate

b) Ammonium sulphate

H2SO4 + 2NH3  (NH4)2 SO4

Sulphuric acid + aqueous ammonia  ammonium sulphate

c) Potassium sulphate
2) To manufacture detergents
Sulphuric acid reacts with hydrocarbon to produce sulphonic acid. Sulphonic acid
is then neutralized with sodium hydroxide to produce detergents.Examples of

3) To manufactured synthetic fibres

Synthetic fibres are polymers (long chain molecules). Rayon is an example of a
synthetic fibre that is produced from the action of sulphuric acid on cellulose.

4) To manufactured paint pigment

The white pigment is paint is usually barium sulphate,BaSO 4.The neutralization of
sulphuric acid and barium hydroxide produces barium sulphate.

5) As an electrolyte in lead-acid accumulators.

6) To remove metal oxides from metal surfaces before electroplating.

7) To manufacture pesticides.

8) The uses of sulphuric acid in school laboratories are :

a. As a strong acid.
b. As a drying or dehydrating agent
c. As an oxidizing agent.
d. As a sulphonating agent.
e. As a catalyst.
The industrial process in manufacture sulphuric acid.
1. Sulphuric acid is manufactured by the Contact process.
2. Sulphuric acid is produced from sulfur, oxygen and water via the contact process.
3. The Contact process involves three stages.

Sulphur  Sulphur dioxide  Sulphur trioxide Sulphuric acid


4. Stage I: Production of sulphur dioxide gas, SO2

This can be done by two methods,

a) Burning of sulphur in dry air.

S + O2 SO2

b) Burning of metal sulphide such as zinc sulphide in dry air.

2ZnS + 3O2  2SO2+ 2ZnO

5. Stage II : Conversion of sulphur dioxide to sulphur trioxide SO3.

This is then oxidised to sulfur trioxide under the following conditions:

a ) The presence of a vanadium(V) oxide as a catalyst.

b ) A temperature of between 450°C to 550°C.
c ) A pressure of one atmosphere.

2SO2 + O2  2SO3
6. Stage III : Production of sulphuric acid
a ) Sulphur trioxide is dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid,H2SO4 to produce
oleum, H2S2O7.
H2SO4 + SO3  H2S2O7
b ) Oleum is reacted with water to form concentrated H2SO4

H2S2O7 + H2O  2H2SO4

7. In stage II, sulphur dioxide is dried first before being added to dry air to
Produce sulphur trioxide. This is :
a ) To remove water vapour
b ) To remove contaminants

8. In stage III, sulphur trioxide is not dissolved directly in water to produce

Sulphuric acid. This is because :
a ) sulphur trioxide has low solubility in water
b ) sulphur trioxide reacts violently and mists are formed instead of a liquid.

The Contact Process

Sulphur Oxygen
In The Converter

S(s) + O2 (g)SO2(g) 2SO (g) + O2 (g) 2SO3 (g) Unreacted

2%SO2 is
Temperature: 450-500°C
flowed back
Pressure: 2-3 atmospheres
to converter
Oxygen Catalyst: Vanadium (V) oxide
together with

SO2 (g) + H2SO4 (aq) H2S2O7

H2S2O7 (l) + H2O (l) 2H2SO4

Outline of Contact process


1. Sulphur dioxide is one of the by-products of contact process. It is a colourless and

poisonous gas with a very pungent smell.
2. Sulphur dioxide which escapes into the air causes air pollution.
3. Sulphur dioxide is an acidic which dissolves in water to form sulphurous acidic,
H2SO3. In the atmosphere, sulphur dioxide dissolve in water droplets to form
sulphurous acidic.

SO2 (g) + H2O (l)  H2SO3 (aq)

4. Oxidation of sulphur acid by oxygen produces sulphuric acid, H2SO4, which falls to
the earth as acid rain. Sulphur trioxide is also easily oxidised in the air to form
sulphur trioxide. Sulphur trioxide dissolve in rainwater to produce sulphuric acid.

SO3 (g) + H2O (l)  H2SO4 (aq)

Acid rain and environmental pollution

3.Ammonia And Its Salts
1. Ammonia that is produce commercially has many uses.
2. It uses:
i. In the manufacture of chemical fertilizers such as ammonium sulphate, ammonia
nitric, ammonia phosphate and urea.
ii. To manufacture nitric acid and explosive.
iii. In the making of synthetic fiber and nylon.
iv. As a degreasing agent in aqueous form to remove greasy stains in the kitchen.

Properties Of Ammonia Gas

1. The physical properties of ammonia gas include the following:
i. It colourless and has a pungent odour.
ii. It is vary soluble in water and form a weak alkaline solution.
iii. It less dense then water.
iv. It easily liquefied (at about 35.5°C) when cool.
2. The chemical properties of ammonia gas:
a) Ammonia gas dissolves in water to form a weak alkali.

NH3 (g) + H2O (l) NH4+ (aq) + OH-(aq)

b) The presence of hydroxide icon causes the aqueous solution to become alkaline.
Thus aqueous ammonia solution:
i. Turns red litmus paper blue.
ii. Reacts with acid to form only salt and waterin neutralization reaction.

NH3(aq) + HCI(aq)  NH4CI(aq)

2NH3 + H2SO4(aq)  (NH4)2SO4(aq)
iii. Reacts with solution of metallic cations to produce precipitates.

Fe²+(aq) + 2OH(aq)  Fe (OH)2(s)

(Form ammonia solution) Dirty green precipitate


1. Ammonia is manufacture on a large scale in industry through the Haber process. In

this process, ammonia is formed form direct combination of nitrogen and hydrogen
gas in the volume ratio 1:3.
2. The gas nitrogen obtain form the fractional distillation of liquefied air. The hydrogen
gas is obtained from the cracking of petroleum or from the catalysed reaction of
natural gas, CH4, with steam.

CH4 (g) + H2O (g)  CO (g) + 3H2 (g)

3. The mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen gases is passed over an iron catalyst under
controlled optimum condition as below to form ammonia gas.
i. Temperature: 450-500°C
ii. Pressure: 200-500 atmospheres
iii. Catalyst used: Iron fillings

N2 (g) + 3H2 (g) 2NH3 (g)

4. Under these control optimum condition, only 15% of the gas mixture turn into
ammonia gas. The nitrogen and hydrogen that have not reacted are then flow back over
the catalyst again in the reactor chamber.
5. The ammonia product is then cooled at a low temperature so that it condenses into a
liquid in the cooling chamber.
The Harber Process

Nitrogen Hydrogen
Unreacted N2 and
H2 gases
N2 andInHthe
2 are mixed in the proportion of
reactor chamber

N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g)

Temperature: 450-500°C
Pressure: 200-500 atmospheres
Catalyst used: Iron fillings

In cooling chamber

Outline Of Habert process

1. Nitrogen is required in large amount by plant to make proteins which are necessary
for growth and cell repair.
2. Most plant are not able to get a nitrogen supply directly from the air although it is
abundant in the air (78%). Plants can only absorb soluble nitrogen compounds from
soil through their roots.
3. The nitrogen compounds are usually soluble nitric salt, ammonia and ammonia salt
which are manufacture as chemical fertilizer.
4. Reactions of ammonia with acids produce ammonium fertilizers.

NH3(aq) + HNO3(aq)  NH4NO3(aq)

Ammonium nitrate
3NH3(aq) + H3PO4(aq)  (NH4)3PO4(aq)
Ammonium phosphate

2NH3(aq) +H2SO4(aq)  (NH4)2SO4(aq)


1. The atom of pure metals is packed together closely. This causes the metal to have a
high density
2. The forces of attraction between atoms (metallic bonds) are strong. More heat
energy is needed to overcome the metallic bond so that the atoms are further apart
during the melting. This is why metals usually have high melting point.
3. Heat energy can be transferred easily from one atom to the next by vibration. This
makes metal good conduct of heat.
4. The freely moving outermost electrons within the metal’s structure are able to
conduct electricity. Metal are, therefore, good electrical conductors.
5. Since atoms of pure metal are of the same size, they are arranged orderly in a regular
layered pattern. When a force is applied to metal, layer of atom slide easily over one
another. This makes pure metals soft, malleable and ductile.

Metals are ductile

The shape of the
metal change

Matel are malleable