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Course Overview

• Motivation

• Standardization issues

• UMTS architecture basics

• UMTS radio link

– Physical layer

– Signaling

• UE, UTRAN, PS Domain, CS Domain

• Basic functionalities:

• IMS

– Accessing the network

– Transferring data

– Detaching from the network

– Information storage

• Mobility

• QoS

• Security

• Charging

• UMTS Evolution:

from R99 to Rel7

• Beyond UMTS

WS 04/05, TKN TU Berlin, Cornelia Kappler

Course UMTS Networks, XIV. UMTS Evolution

1

UMTS Evolution

• UMTS Releases Overview

• From GSM via GPRS to UMTS R99

• Rel4 Features

• Rel5 Features

• Rel6 Features

WS 04/05, TKN TU Berlin, Cornelia Kappler

Course UMTS Networks, XIV. UMTS Evolution

2

UMTS Evolution - Literature

TS 23.234 „3GPP System to WLAN Interworking“ TS 23.246 „Multimedia Broadcast / Multicast Service (MBMS)

Supplementary Reading:

„Interworking Architecture between 3GPP and WLAN Systems“ K. Ahmavaara et al., IEEE Communication Magazine Nov. 2003

WS 04/05, TKN TU Berlin, Cornelia Kappler

Course UMTS Networks, XIV. UMTS Evolution

3

UMTS Releases Overview

• (almost) each year, a new Release of the UMTS standard is published

– UTMS is evolving

– first UMTS Release is "R99“, finalized in 2000 (not 1999)

– subsequently numbered Rel4, Rel5,

– Rel7 is currently starting

WS 04/05, TKN TU Berlin, Cornelia Kappler

Course UMTS Networks, XIV. UMTS Evolution

4

UMTS Evolution

• UMTS Releases Overview

• GSM -> GPRS -> UMTS R99 -> UMTS Rel4

• Rel5 Features

• Rel6 Features

WS 04/05, TKN TU Berlin, Cornelia Kappler

Course UMTS Networks, XIV. UMTS Evolution

5

GSM -> GPRS -> UMTS R99 -> UMTS Rel4 I

• GSM

– CS domain

– GSM RAN

• initially < 10kb/s, evolved to today (EDGE) 384 kb/s

• GPRS

– adds PS Domain, in parallel to CS Domain

– Initially higher transmission rates than GSM (max 115 kb/s)

• can also be used with EDGE

– Shared radio channel (DSCH)

=> more efficient usage of radio resources, because bandwidth demands of e.g. web traffic are highly fluctuating (user needs time to read page) and bursty

– allows a direct connection to e.g. the Internet

– charging per data volume possible

• in GSM always charging per time unit

WS 04/05, TKN TU Berlin, Cornelia Kappler

Course UMTS Networks, XIV. UMTS Evolution

6

GSM -> GPRS -> UMTS R99 -> UMTS Rel4 II

• UMTS R99

– GSM RAN replaced by UTRAN

• W-CDMA

• Higher bandwidth

– Up to 2Mb/s

• Macrodiversity, soft(er) handover

• Functionality differently distributed compared to GSM RAN

– Support for QoS classes

• UMTS Rel4

– Separation of Transport and Control in CS domain

– CS Domain may also be IP-based

WS 04/05, TKN TU Berlin, Cornelia Kappler

Course UMTS Networks, XIV. UMTS Evolution

7

UMTS Evolution

• UMTS Releases Overview

• GSM -> GPRS -> UMTS R99 -> UMTS Rel4

• Rel5 Features

• Rel6 Features

WS 04/05, TKN TU Berlin, Cornelia Kappler

Course UMTS Networks, XIV. UMTS Evolution

8

Rel5 Features

• IMS

• Layer 2 between RNC and GGSN not necessarily ATM- based

• Flexible RANs

– May attach GSM RAN and GERAN to PS domain (see next slide)

• GERAN = GSM EDGE Radio Access Network

– The proper term to refer to a system including GERAN and GSM RAN is „3GPP network“ rather than „UMTS network“

• UMTS network implies UTRAN

• Iu Flex

– Breaking hierarchical mapping of RNCs to SGSNs (MSCs)

• HDSPA (High Speed Downlink Packet Access)

– New Shared Channel on downlink

– Up to 16 Mb/s

WS 04/05, TKN TU Berlin, Cornelia Kappler

Course UMTS Networks, XIV. UMTS Evolution

9

Rel5 Features – Flexible RANs

HLR HSS
HLR
HSS
Application Server (AS)
Application Server (AS)
Application Server (AS)

Application Server (AS)

Application Server (AS)
control transport
control
transport
to SGSN, MSC-S., Cx GMSC-S. Mw CSCF CSCF SIP SIP to UE via Mr connectivity
to SGSN,
MSC-S.,
Cx
GMSC-S.
Mw
CSCF
CSCF
SIP
SIP
to UE via
Mr
connectivity service
MRF
Go
COPS
Gn
IP
SGSN
GGSN
IP
Gi
PS domain
IMS
Nc
MSC-S.
GMSC-S.
Mc
Mc
IP or
Nb
CS-MGW
ATM
MGW

Mg

to CSCF (SIP), SGSN, MSC-S., GMSC-S.

CS-GW SGW
CS-GW
SGW

Mm

SIP

CS domain

SIP

GSM Radio
GSM
Radio

Gb/

A

Gb/

Iu ps

GERANMm SIP CS domain SIP GSM Radio Gb/ A Gb/ Iu ps UTRAN Gb/A/ Iu cs/

UTRAN
UTRAN
Gb/A/ Iu cs/ Iu ps
Gb/A/
Iu cs/
Iu ps

A/

Iu cs

Iu ps/Gb/ Iu ps GERAN UTRAN Gb/A/ Iu cs/ Iu ps A/ Iu cs Iu cs A/

Iu cs

A/

Iu cs

GSM / UMTS Core Network

WS 04/05, TKN TU Berlin, Cornelia Kappler

Course UMTS Networks, XIV. UMTS Evolution

Internet

Intranet

PSTN

/ISDN

10

Rel5 Features – Iu Flex I

• Up to Rel5, RNC to SGSN relation hierarchical

– Each RNC is assigned to exactly one SGSN

– Each SGSN serves one or more RNCs

RNC SGSN RNC GGSN RNC SGSN RNC
RNC
SGSN
RNC
GGSN
RNC
SGSN
RNC

WS 04/05, TKN TU Berlin, Cornelia Kappler

Course UMTS Networks, XIV. UMTS Evolution

11

Rel5 Features – Iu Flex II

• Iu Flex allows many-to-many relation of RNCs and SGSNs (and MSCs)

– RNCs and SGSNs grouped as belonging to “Pool Areas”

– A Pool Area is served by one or more SGSNs in parallel.

– All the cells controlled by a RNC belong to the same one [or more] Pool Area[s].

– UE may roam in Pool Area without need to change the serving SGSN.

SGSNs serving Pool Area 1 SGSN Pool Area 1 RNC SGSN RNC GGSN Overlap of
SGSNs
serving
Pool Area 1
SGSN
Pool Area 1
RNC
SGSN
RNC
GGSN
Overlap of
Pool Areas 1 and 2
RNC
SGSN
serving
Pool Area 2
SGSN
RNC
Pool Area 2

WS 04/05, TKN TU Berlin, Cornelia Kappler

Course UMTS Networks, XIV. UMTS Evolution

12

Rel5 Features: HDSPA I

• HDSPA Features

– New shared downlink channel:

HS-DSCH (High-Speed Downlink Channel)

• Associated with it up- and downlink feedback / control channels

• Can be allocated to a single PDP context or to multiple PDP contexts of several suscribers

– Can accommodate peek-rates up to 16 Mb/s

– Sustained rates of 1 – 5 Mb/s (depending on cell size)

WS 04/05, TKN TU Berlin, Cornelia Kappler

Course UMTS Networks, XIV. UMTS Evolution

13

Rel5 Features: HDSPA II

• Technical Realisation

– 16QAM modulation used in addition to QPSK

• Codes 4 bits per phase/amplitude shift

– Node B based scheduling

• Reduces delay

– E.g. retransmissions handled more quickly

– Node B based adaptation code rate and modulation

• Depending on currently necessary throughput adapt code rate and modulation scheme

– Without HDSPA code rate fixed per session

optimize throughput

Hybrid ARQ

Upon detection of frame errors, receiver requests retransmission (normal ARQ)

Information encoded redundantly in each transmission. Retransmission doesn’t resend complete information, but only some more redundancy, complementing the redundant data that has already been sent (Hybrid ARQ)

Turbo Codes

Powerful error correcting / encoding scheme suited for low signal-noise ratios

WS 04/05, TKN TU Berlin, Cornelia Kappler

Course UMTS Networks, XIV. UMTS Evolution

14

Rel5 Features: HDSPA III

Rel5 Features: HDSPA III WS 04/05, TKN TU Berlin, Cornelia Kappler Course UMTS Networks, XIV. UMTS

WS 04/05, TKN TU Berlin, Cornelia Kappler

Course UMTS Networks, XIV. UMTS Evolution

15

UMTS Evolution

• UMTS Releases Overview

• GSM -> GPRS -> UMTS R99 -> UMTS Rel4

• Rel5 Features

• Rel6 Features

WS 04/05, TKN TU Berlin, Cornelia Kappler

Course UMTS Networks, XIV. UMTS Evolution

16

Rel6 Features – Overview I

•Network Sharing

–Allow cost efficient sharing of network resources •Scenario 1: Multiple core networks sharing common radio access network (already in R99) •Scenario 2: Geographically split networks sharing •Scenario 3: Common Network Sharing •Scenario 4: Common spectrum network sharing •Scenario 5: Multiple radio access networks sharing common core network

•IMS Services •MBMS (Multimedia Broadcast and Multicast Service) •WLAN interworking

– use WLAN as access network for IMS instead of PS Domain

•MIMO

–Multiple antennas in UE and Node B / spacial multiplexing

•and many more…

WS 04/05, TKN TU Berlin, Cornelia Kappler

Course UMTS Networks, XIV. UMTS Evolution

17

Rel6 Features – IMS Services I

• Push Service

– See student presentation

• IMS Group Management

– Setting up and maintaining user groups

– Supporting service for other services

• Multiparty conferencing

• Push-to-talk

• Etc.

• IMS Presence Service

– See student presentation

WS 04/05, TKN TU Berlin, Cornelia Kappler

Course UMTS Networks, XIV. UMTS Evolution

18

Rel6 Features – IMS Services II

•IMS Messaging

–SIP-based messaging –Instant messaging, „Chat room“, and deferred messaging (equivalent to MMS) –Interworks with Presence Service to determine whether addressee available

•Multiparty-multimedia conferencing service in IMS

– utilizing MRF

•Push-to-talk

– see student presentation

•Location-based services in IMS

–UE indicates it wishes to use local service. S-CSCF routes request back to visited network –Mechanism for UE to retrieve / receive information about locally available services

WS 04/05, TKN TU Berlin, Cornelia Kappler

Course UMTS Networks, XIV. UMTS Evolution

19

Rel6 Features – MBMS I

• MBMS - Multimedia Broadcast and Multicast Service

• Enables resource and cost efficient data transfer to many users in parallel

• Applications

– Multicast of e.g. sport events

– Broadcast of emergency information

– Download of software (games)

– Multiparty conferencing

– Push-to-talk

• “streaming type reception”:

present data as it is received

• “download type reception”:

store data and replay later

WS 04/05, TKN TU Berlin, Cornelia Kappler

Course UMTS Networks, XIV. UMTS Evolution

20

Rel6 Features – MBMS II

• How does it work

– Application server submits multicast / broadcast data via Gi interface

• May be BMCS (Broadcast Multicast Service Center), or e.g. MRF

• Multicast effective especially on air interface

– Control channel via Gmb interface

• Authorisation, sending encryption keys,…

• Network resource configuration

– In multicast mode, data is transmitted only to cells with UEs that joined the service

Application MBMS User Service MBMS Server Appli- e.g.BMSC cation MBMS bearer service control UE Gmb
Application
MBMS User Service
MBMS
Server
Appli-
e.g.BMSC
cation
MBMS bearer service control
UE
Gmb (AAA protocol)
S
G
R
MBMS
G
G
A
Bearer
S
S
N
Gi (IP multicast)
Service
N
N

MBMS data distribution tree

WS 04/05, TKN TU Berlin, Cornelia Kappler

Course UMTS Networks, XIV. UMTS Evolution

21

Rel6 Features: WLAN interworking I

• Use WLAN as access network

• WLAN operated either by 3GPP operator or by 3rd party

• 6 scenarios are defined:

– Scenario 1: Common billing and customer care

• Receive only one bill

– Scenario 2: Common access control (authentication and authorisation) using a (U)SIM based solution and charging

– Scenario 3: Access to all 3GPP packet-switched services (e.g., IMS, Push etc.) and services like SMS or MMS

– Scenario 4: Service continuity between different accesses like WLAN and UTRAN (i.e. service must not be set-up again, if access technology is changed)

– Scenario 5:

Seamless mobility between WLAN and 3GPP access networks

– Scenario 6: Seamless handover even for CS services

• In Rel6, only scenarios 1-3 are supported

In Rel7, WiMAX interworking forseen additionally

Course UMTS Networks, XIV. UMTS Evolution

WS 04/05, TKN TU Berlin, Cornelia Kappler

22

Rel6 Features: WLAN interworking II

• Architecture for supporting authentication, authorization and charging (scenarios 1 and 2)

– AAA Server is an IETF-standardized entity doing “authentication, authorization, accounting”

– AAA Server receives data from HSS / HLR

– WLAN UEs

• multihomed with WLAN and 3GPP access capability

• Contain USIM

– USIM in WLAN UE allows using 3GPP subscription

USIM

WLAN

UE

Ww

3GPP Home Network Intranet / Internet HSS / HLR Wa 3GPP AAA Charging WLAN Access
3GPP Home Network
Intranet / Internet
HSS / HLR
Wa
3GPP AAA
Charging
WLAN Access Network
Server

WS 04/05, TKN TU Berlin, Cornelia Kappler

Course UMTS Networks, XIV. UMTS Evolution

23

Rel6 Features: WLAN interworking III

• Architecture for supporting access to 3GPP packet- switched services (Scenario 3)

3GPP Visited Network Intranet / Internet 3GPP AAA Charging Proxy WLAN Ww WLAN Access Network
3GPP Visited Network
Intranet / Internet
3GPP AAA
Charging
Proxy
WLAN
Ww
WLAN Access Network
Wn
UE
WAG
Wa
Wm
3GPP AAA
Wu
Packet Data
Charging
Server
Gateway
HSS / HLR
Wg
3GPP Home Network
Scenario 3
Wp
Wi
Wd

WS 04/05, TKN TU Berlin, Cornelia Kappler

Course UMTS Networks, XIV. UMTS Evolution

24

Rel6 Features: WLAN interworking IV

• UE is authenticated by Proxy AAA Server in visited network relaying data to AAA Server in home network

• PDG (Packet Data Gateway)

– A tunnel is established between UE and PDG

– PDG provides access to 3GPP services (e.g. IMS)

– PDG acts as Policy Enforcement Point for Service Bases Local Policy (similar to GGSN)

• WAG (WLAN Access Gateway)

– Gateway to WLAN, i.e. all packets to/from WLAN routed via WAG

– Enforces routing of packets to PDG

WS 04/05, TKN TU Berlin, Cornelia Kappler

Course UMTS Networks, XIV. UMTS Evolution

25

Summary

• UMTS R99 (compared to GPRS)

– GSM RAN replaced by UTRAN

– Support for QoS classes

• UMTS Rel4

– No major changes to packet-based part

• UMTS Rel5

– IMS

– HDSPA

– Iu Flex

• UMTS Rel6

– WLAN Interworking

– Numerous services are being defined

WS 04/05, TKN TU Berlin, Cornelia Kappler

Course UMTS Networks, XIV. UMTS Evolution

26