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What are the RIS services

How to trouble shoot if a DHCP client wont get IP from DHCP Server?
What is the diff between publish and assign?
What is tombstone period?
What is online and offline fragmentations?
Garbage collections and white spaces?
Authoritative and non auth restore?
Tell me one example when Infracture master and Global catalog will be on one DC, what is the issue if both
resides on same system?
2003 modes?
FSMO roles?
Stress on PDC emulator?
2003 advantages?
About migration?(W2k to W2k3 and NT to W2k3).
Question on System State data Backup?
Diff types of DNS roles and Zones?

1. What is Bridge Head Server?


2. Crisis Management?
3. Mail flow in Exchange Server.
4. DMZ concept in Firewalls.
5. Is NAT uses Port Number if so what is the Port number?
6. Difference between Schema Master and Global Catlog?
7. Difference Between Incremental and Differential Backup? Which is best backup Microsoft has
recommended?
8. How DNS and DHCP are integrated?
9. If RID master fails what happens?
10. tool used for FSMO?
11. Difference between Assigning and Publishing through Group Policy?

12. What is the difference between windows 2003 DFS & windows 2000 DFS?
13. Compaq Insight Manager version?
14. What are the Classes in Windows 2003 Active directory?
15. What is the tool to delete lingering objects in windows 2003?
16. Through Compaq Insight Manager can we delete/create Raid?
17. What is the difference between ILO & rilo?
18. How to authenticate two windows 2003 forests?
19. Windows 2003 Features?
20. SUS implementation steps?
21. How to install dual booting in windows 2003 server?
22. I have a medium organization? I want to put multiple forests? What are the factors?
23. I have deleted one user. Deleted user having some permissions. I want to create the same user
name & same password. Will the permissions remain same & what is the SID status?
24. Where the roaming profile is exists?
25. What does u can do with Group policy?
26. What is server hardening?
27. What is the SUS version u r using?
28. There is on Scenario. I have one DHCP server and the IP address are configured as static. And I
want to get rid of the server. How do I create a new server with same configuration as old?
29. How does u transfer Schema master?
30. How do get Schema Snap in MMC? What u will do if wont get schema snaps in MMC?
31. What are the enhancement advantages of GC in 2003?
32. If u change the password in the client, how much time will it take too update the password in the
domain controller?
33. What r the modes in Terminal Server in windows 2003?

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Low Level

1. Features of windows2003
ACTIVE DIRECTORY
Easier Deployment and Management
ADMT version 2.0—migrates password from NT4 to 2000 to 20003 or from 2000 to
2003
Domain Rename--- supports changing Domain Name System and/or NetBios name
Schema Redefine--- Allows deactivation of attributes and class definitions in the Active
directory schema
AD/AM--- Active directory in application mode is a new capability of AD that addresses certain
deployment scenarios related to directory enabled applications
Group Policy Improvements----introduced GPMC tool to manage group policy
UI—Enhanced User Interface
Grater Security
Cross-forest Authentication
Cross-forest Authorization
Cross-certification Enhancements
IAS and Cross-forest authentication
Credential Manager
Software Restriction Policies
Improved Performance and Dependability
Easier logon for remote offices
Group Membership replication enhancements
Application Directory Partitions
Install Replica from media
Dependability Improvements--- updated Inter-Site Topology Generator (ISTG) that scales
better by supporting forests with a greater number of sites than Windows 2000.
FILE AND PRINT SERVICES
Volume shadow copy service
NTFS journaling file system
EFS
Improved CHDSK Performance
Enhanced DFS and FRS
Shadow copy of shared folders
Enhanced folder redirection
Remote document sharing (WEBDAV)
IIS
Fault-tolerant process architecture----- The IIS 6.0 fault-tolerant process architecture isolates Web
sites and applications into self-contained units called application pools
Health Monitoring---- IIS 6.0 periodically checks the status of an application pool with automatic
restart on failure of the Web sites and applications within that application pool, increasing application
availability. IIS 6.0 protects the server, and other applications, by automatically disabling Web sites and
applications that fail too often within a short amount of time

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Automatic Process Recycling--- IIS 6.0 automatically stops and restarts faulty Web sites and
applications based on a flexible set of criteria, including CPU utilization and memory consumption,
while queuing requests
Rapid-fail Protection---- If an application fails too often within a short amount of time, IIS 6.0 will
automatically disable it and return a "503 Service Unavailable" error message to any new or queued
requests to the application
Edit-While-Running

http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserver2003/evaluation/overview/technologies/default.mspx

2. Difference between NT & 2000


NT SAM database is a flat database. Where as in windows 2000 active directory database is a
hierarchical database.
In windows NT only PDC is having writable copy of SAM database but the BDC is only read only
database. In case of Windows 2000 both DC and ADC is having write copy of the database
Windows NT will not support FAT32 file system. Windows 2000 supports FAT32
Default authentication protocol in NT is NTLM (NT LAN manager). In windows 2000 default
authentication protocol is Kerberos V5.
Windows 2000 depends and Integrated with DNS. NT user Netbios names
Active Directory can be backed up easily with System state data

3. Difference between 2000 & 2003


Application Server mode is introduced in windows 2003
Possible to configure stub zones in windows 2003 DNS
Volume shadow copy services is introduced
Windows 2003 gives an option to replicate DNS data b/w all DNS servers in forest or All DNS servers
in the domain.
Refer Question 1 for all Enhancements

4. Difference between PDC & BDC


PDC contains a write copy of SAM database where as BDC contains read only copy of SAM database.
It is not possible to reset a password or create objects with out PDC in Windows NT.

5. Difference between DC & ADC


There is no difference between in DC and ADC both contains write copy of AD. Both can also handles
FSMO roles (If transfers from DC to ADC). It is just for identification. Functionality wise there is no
difference.

6. What is DNS & WINS


DNS is a Domain Naming System, which resolves Host names to IP addresses. It uses fully qualified
domain names. DNS is a Internet standard used to resolve host names
WINS is a Windows Internet Name Service, which resolves Netbios names to IP Address. This is
proprietary for Windows

7. Types of DNS Servers


Primary DNS
Secondary DNS
Active Directory Integrated DNS
Forwarder
Caching only DNS

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8. If DHCP is not available what happens to the client
Client will not get IP and it cannot be participated in network . If client already got the IP and having
lease duration it use the IP till the lease duration expires.

9. what are the different types of trust relationships


Implicit Trusts
Explicit Trusts—NT to Win2k or Forest to Forest

10. what is the process of DHCP for getting the IP address to the client
There is a four way negotiation process b/w client and server
DHCP Discover (Initiated by client)
DHCP Offer (Initiated by server)
DHCP Select (Initiated by client)
DHCP Acknowledgement (Initiated by Server)
DHCP Negative Acknowledgement (Initiated by server if any issues after DHCP offer)
11. Difference between FAT,NTFS & NTFSVersion5
NTFS Version 5 features
Encryption is possible
We can enable Disk Quotas
File compression is possible
Sparse files
Indexing Service
NTFS change journal

In FAT file system we can apply only share level security. File level protection is not possible. In NTFS
we can apply both share level as well as file level security
NTFS supports large partition sizes than FAT file systems
NTFS supports long file names than FAT file systems

12. What are the port numbers for FTP, Telnet, HTTP, DNS
FTP-21, Telnet – 23, HTTP-80, DNS-53, Kerberos-88, LDAP-389

13. what are the different types of profiles in 2000


Local Profiles
Roaming profiles
Mandatory Profiles

14. what is the database files used for Active Directory


NTDS.DIT
15. What is the location of AD Database
%System root%/NTDS/NTDS>DIT
16. What is the authentication protocol used in NT
NTLM (NT LAN Manager)
17. What is subnetting and supernetting
Subnetting is the process of borrowing bits from the host portion of an address to provide bits for
identifying additional sub-networks

Supernetting merges several smaller blocks of IP addresses (networks) that are continuous into one
larger block of addresses. Borrowing network bits to combine several smaller networks into one larger
network does supernetting

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18. what is the use of terminal services
Terminal services can be used as Remote Administration mode to administer remotely as well as
Application Server Mode to run the application in one server and users can login to that server to user
that application.
19. what is the protocol used for terminal services
RDP
20. what is the port number for RDP
3389

Medium Level

1. what is the difference between Authorized DHCP and Non Authorized DHCP
To avoid problems in the network causing by mis-configured DHCP servers, server in windows 2000
must be validate by AD before starting service to clients. If an authorized DHCP finds any DHCP server
in the network it stop serving the clients

2. Difference between inter-site and intra-site replication. Protocols using for replication.
Intra-site replication can be done between the domain controllers in the same site. Inter-site replication
can be done between two different sites over WAN links
BHS (Bridge Head Servers) is responsible for initiating replication between the sites. Inter-site
replication can be done B/w BHS in one site and BHS in another site.
We can use RPC over IP or SMTP as a replication protocol where as Domain partition is not possible to
replicate using SMTP

3. How to monitor replication


We can user Replmon tool from support tools
4. Brief explanation of RAID Levels
RAID 0 – Striping
RAID 1- Mirroring (minimum 2 HDD required)
RAID 5 – Striping With Parity (Minimum 3 HDD required)
RAID levels 1 and 5 only gives redundancy
5. What are the different backup strategies are available
Normal Backup
Incremental Backup
Differential Backup
Daily Backup
Copy Backup

6. What is a global catalog


Global catalog is a role, which maintains Indexes about objects. It contains full information of the
objects in its own domain and partial information of the objects in other domains. Universal Group
membership information will be stored in global catalog servers and replicate to all GC’s in the forest.

7. What is Active Directory and what is the use of it


Active directory is a directory service, which maintains the relation ship between resources and enabling
them to work together. Because of AD hierarchal structure windows 2000 is more scalable, reliable.
Active directory is derived from X.500 standards where information is stored is hierarchal tree like
structure. Active directory depends on two Internet standards one is DNS and other is LDAP.
Information in Active directory can be queried by using LDAP protocol

8. what is the physical and logical structure of AD


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Active directory physical structure is a hierarchal structure which fallows Forests—Trees—Domains—
Child Domains—Grand Child—etc
Active directory is logically divided into 3 partitions
1.Configuration partition 2. Schema Partition 3. Domain partition 4. Application Partition (only in
windows 2003 not available in windows 2000)
Out of these Configuration, Schema partitions can be replicated between the domain controllers in the in
the entire forest. Where as Domain partition can be replicated between the domain controllers in the
same domain

9. What is the process of user authentication (Kerberos V5) in windows 2000


After giving logon credentials an encryption key will be generated which is used to encrypt the time
stamp of the client machine. User name and encrypted timestamp information will be provided to
domain controller for authentication. Then Domain controller based on the password information stored
in AD for that user it decrypts the encrypted time stamp information. If produces time stamp matches to
its time stamp. It will provide logon session key and Ticket granting ticket to client in an encryption
format. Again client decrypts and if produced time stamp information is matching then it will use logon
session key to logon to the domain. Ticket granting ticket will be used to generate service granting ticket
when accessing network resources

10. what are the port numbers for Kerberos, LDAP and Global catalog
Kerberos – 88, LDAP – 389, Global Catalog – 3268
11. what is the use of LDAP (X.500 standard?)
LDAP is a directory access protocol, which is used to exchange directory information from server to
clients or from server to servers

12. what are the problems that are generally come across DHCP
Scope is full with IP addresses no IP’s available for new machines
If scope options are not configured properly eg default gateway
Incorrect creation of scopes etc

13. what is the role responsible for time synchronization


PDC Emulator is responsible for time synchronization. Time synchronization is important because
Kerberos authentication depends on time stamp information

14. what is TTL & how to set TTL time in DNS


TTL is Time to Live setting used for the amount of time that the record should remain in cache when
name resolution happened.
We can set TTL in SOA (start of authority record) of DNS
15. How to take DNS and WINS,DHCP backup
%System root%/system32/dns
%System root%/system32/WINS
%System root%/system32/DHCP

16. What is recovery console


Recovery console is a utility used to recover the system when it is not booting properly or not at all
booting. We can perform fallowing operations from recovery console
We can copy, rename, or replace operating system files and folders
Enable or disable service or device startup the next time that start computer
Repair the file system boot sector or the Master Boot Record
Create and format partitions on drives

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17. what is DFS & its usage
DFS is a distributed file system used to provide common environment for users to access files and
folders even when they are shared in different servers physically.
There are two types of DFS domain DFS and Stand alone DFS. We cannot provide redundancy for stand
alone DFS in case of failure. Domain DFS is used in a domain environment which can be accessed by
/domain name/root1 (root 1 is DFS root name). Stand alone DFS can be used in workgroup environment
which can be accessed through /server name/root1 (root 1 is DFS root name). Both the cases we need to
create DFS root ( Which appears like a shared folder for end users) and DFS links ( A logical link which
is pointing to the server where the folder is physically shared)
The maximum number of Dfs roots per server is 1.
The maximum numbers of Dfs root replicas are 31.
The maximum number of Dfs roots per domain is unlimited.
The maximum number of Dfs links or shared folders in a Dfs root is 1,000

18. what is RIS and what are its requirements


RIS is a remote installation service, which is used to install operation system remotely.
Client requirements
PXE DHCP-based boot ROM version 1.00 or later NIC, or a network adapter that is supported by the
RIS boot disk.
Should meet minimum operating system requirements
Software Requirements
Below network services must be active on RIS server or any server in the network
Domain Name System (DNS Service)
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
Active directory “Directory” service

19. How many root replicas can be created in DFS


31
20. What is the difference between Domain DFS and Standalone DFS
Refer question 17.

High Level

1. Can we establish trust relationship between two forests


In Windows 2000 it is not possible. In Windows 2003 it is possible

2. What is FSMO Roles


Flexible single master operation (FSMO) roll are
Domain Naming Master
Schema Master
PDC Emulator
Infrastructure Master
RID Master
3. Brief all the FSMO Roles
Domain Naming master and schema master are forest level roles. PDC emulator, Infrastructure master
and RID master are Domain level roles;
First server in the forest performs all 5 roles by default. Later we can transfer the roles
Domain Naming Master: Domain naming master is responsible for maintaining the relation ship
between the domains. With out this role it is not possible to add or remove any domain.

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Schema Master: Schema contains set of classes and attributes. eg User, computer, printer are the
objects in AD which are having their own set of attributes.. Schema master is responsible for
maintaining this schema. Changes to the schema will affect entire forest.
PDC Emulator: Server, which is performing this role, acts as a PDC in a mixed mode to synchronize
directory information between windows 2000 DC to Windows NT BDC. Server, which is performing
this role, will contain latest password information. This role is also responsible for time synchronization
in the forest.
Infrastructure Master: It is responsible for managing group membership information in the domain.
This role is responsible for updating DN when name or location of the object is modified.
RID Master: Server, which is performing this role, will provide pool of RID to other domain controllers
in the domain. SID is the combination of SID and RID SID=SID+RID where SID is Security identifier
common for all objects in the domain and RID is relative identifier unique for each object

4. How to manually configure FSMO Roles to separate DC’s


We can configure manually by two ways
Through MMC
We can configure Domain Naming Master role through Active directory domains and trusts
We can configure Schema Master role through Active Directory schema
Other Three roles we can configure by Active directory users and computers
Through command promt
By using command NTDSUTIL—type ROLES—type CONNECTIONS—CONNECT TO SERVER
SERVERNAME where server name is the name of the domain controller that you want to assign role----
Type transfer role, where role is the role that you want to transfer. For a list of roles that you can
transfer, type ? at the fsmo maintenance prompt, and then press ENTER, or see the list of roles at the
start of this article. For example, to transfer the RID master role, type transfer rid master. The one
exception is for the PDC emulator role, whose syntax is transfer pdc, not transfer pdc emulator.

5. What is the difference between authoritative and non-authoritative restore


In authoritative restore, Objects that are restored will be replicated to all domain controllers in the
domain. This can be used specifically when the entire OU is disturbed in all domain controllers or
specifically restore a single object, which is disturbed in all DC’s
In non-authoritative restore, Restored directory information will be updated by other domain controllers
based on the latest modification time.

6. what is Active Directory De-fragmentation


De-fragmentation of AD means separating used space and empty space created by deleted objects and
reduces directory size (only in offline De-fragmentation)

7. Difference between online and offline de-fragmentation


Online De-fragmentation will be performed by garbage collection process, which runs for every 12
hours by default which separate used space and white space (white space is the space created because of
object deletion in AD eg User) and improves the efficiency of AD when the domain controller up and
running

Offline defragmentation can be done manually by taking domain controller into Restoration mode. We
can only reduce the file size of directory database where as the efficiency will be same as in online
defragmentation

8. What is tombstone period

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Tombstones are nothing but objects marked for deletion. After deleting an object in AD the objects will
not be deleted permanently. It will be remain 60 days by default (which can be configurable) it adds an
entry as marked for deletion on the object and replicates to all DC’s. After 60 days object will be deleted
permanently from all Dc’s.

9. what is white space and Garbage collection


refer question 7

10. what are the monitoring tools used for Server and Network Heath. How to define alert mechanism
Spot Light , SNMP Need to enable .

11. How to deploy the patches and what are the softwares used for this process

Using SUS (Software update services) server we can deploy patches to all clients in the network. We
need to configure an option called “Synchronize with Microsoft software update server” option and
schedule time to synchronize in server. We need to approve new update based on the requirement. Then
approved update will be deployed to clients
We can configure clients by changing the registry manually or through Group policy by adding WUAU
administrative template in group policy

12. What is Clustering. Briefly define & explain it


Clustering is a technology, which is used to provide High Availability for mission critical applications.
We can configure cluster by installing MCS (Microsoft cluster service) component from Add remove
programs, which can only available in Enterprise Edition and Data center edition.

In Windows we can configure two types of clusters

NLB (network load balancing) cluster for balancing load between servers. This cluster will not
provide any high availability. Usually preferable at edge servers like web or proxy.
Server Cluster: This provides High availability by configuring active-active or active-passive cluster.
In 2 node active-passive cluster one node will be active and one node will be stand by. When active
server fails the application will FAILOVER to stand by server automatically. When the original server
backs we need to FAILBACK the application

Quorum: A shared storage need to provide for all servers which keeps information about clustered
application and session state and is useful in FAILOVER situation. This is very important if Quorum
disk fails entire cluster will fails
Heartbeat: Heartbeat is a private connectivity between the servers in the cluster, which is used to
identify the status of other servers in cluster.

13. How to configure SNMP


SNMP can be configured by installing SNMP from Monitoring and Management tools from Add and
Remove programs.
For SNMP programs to communicate we need to configure common community name for those
machines where SNMP programs (eg DELL OPEN MANAGER) running. This can be configured from
services.msc--- SNMP service -- Security

14. Is it possible to rename the Domain name & how?


In Windows 2000 it is not possible. In windows 2003 it is possible. On Domain controller by going to
MYCOMPUTER properties we can change.

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15. What is SOA Record
SOA is a Start Of Authority record, which is a first record in DNS, which controls the startup behavior
of DNS. We can configure TTL, refresh, and retry intervals in this record.

16. What is a Stub zone and what is the use of it.


Stub zones are a new feature of DNS in Windows Server 2003 that can be used to streamline name resolution, especially
in a split namespace scenario. They also help reduce the amount of DNS traffic on your network, making DNS more
efficient especially over slow WAN links.

17. What are the different types of partitions present in AD


Active directory is divided into three partitions
Configuration Partition—replicates entire forest
Schema Partition—replicates entire forest
Domain Partition—replicate only in domain
Application Partition (Only in Windows 2003)

18. What are the (two) services required for replication


File Replication Service (FRS)
Knowledge Consistency Checker (KCC)

19. Can we use a Linux DNS Sever in 2000 Domain


We can use, But the BIND version should be 8 or greater

20. What is the difference between IIS Version 5 and IIS Version 6
Refer Question 1

21. What is ASR (Automated System Recovery) and how to implement it


ASR is a two-part system; it includes ASR backup and ASR restore. The ASR Wizard, located in
Backup, does the backup portion. The wizard backs up the system state, system services, and all the
disks that are associated with the operating system components. ASR also creates a file that contains
information about the backup, the disk configurations (including basic and dynamic volumes), and how
to perform a restore.

You can access the restore portion by pressing F2 when prompted in the text-mode portion of setup.
ASR reads the disk configurations from the file that it creates. It restores all the disk signatures,
volumes, and partitions on (at a minimum) the disks that you need to start the computer. ASR will try to
restore all the disk configurations, but under some circumstances it might not be able to. ASR then
installs a simple installation of Windows and automatically starts a restoration using the backup created
by the ASR Wizard.

22. What are the different levels that we can apply Group Policy
We can apply group policy at SITE level---Domain Level---OU level

23. What is Domain Policy, Domain controller policy, Local policy and Group policy
Domain Policy will apply to all computers in the domain, because by default it will be associated with
domain GPO, Where as Domain controller policy will be applied only on domain controller. By default
domain controller security policy will be associated with domain controller GPO. Local policy will be
applied to that particular machine only and effects to that computer only.

24. What is the use of SYSVOL folder

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Policies and scripts saved in SYSVOL folder will be replicated to all domain controllers in the domain.
FRS (File replication service) is responsible for replicating all policies and scripts

25. What is folder redirection?

Folder Redirection is a User group policy. Once you create the group policy and link it to the
appropriate folder object, an administrator can designate which folders to redirect and where To do this,
the administrator needs to navigate to the following location in the Group Policy Object:
User Configuration\Windows Settings\Folder Redirection
In the Properties of the folder, you can choose Basic or Advanced folder redirection, and you can
designate the server file system path to which the folder should be redirected.

The %USERNAME% variable may be used as part of the redirection path, thus allowing the system to
dynamically create a newly redirected folder for each user to whom the policy object applies.

26. What different modes in windows 2003 (Mixed, native & intrim….etc)
Different Active Directory features are available at different functional levels. Raising domain and forest
functional levels is required to enable certain new features as domain controllers are upgraded from
Windows NT 4.0 and Windows 2000 to Windows Server 2003
Domain Functional Levels: Windows 2000 Mixed mode, Windows 2000 Native mode, Windows
server 2003 and Windows server 2003 interim ( Only available when upgrades directly from Windows
NT 4.0 to Windows 2003)
Forest Functional Levels: Windows 2000 and Windows 2003

27. Ipsec usage and difference window 2000 & 2003.

Microsoft doesn’t recommend Internet Protocol security (IPSec) network address translation (NAT)
traversal (NAT-T) for Windows deployments that include VPN servers and that are located behind
network address translators. When a server is behind a network address translator, and the server uses
IPSec NAT-T, unintended side effects may occur because of the way that network address translators
translate network traffic
If you put a server behind a network address translator, you may experience connection problems
because clients that connect to the server over the Internet require a public IP address. To reach servers
that are located behind network address translators from the Internet, static mappings must be
configured on the network address translator. For example, to reach a Windows Server 2003-based
computer that is behind a network address translator from the Internet, configure the network address
translator with the following static network address translator mappings:

• Public IP address/UDP port 500 to the server's private IP address/UDP port 500.
• Public IP address/UDP port 4500 to the server's private IP address/UDP port 4500.
These mappings are required so that all Internet Key Exchange (IKE) and IPSec NAT-T traffic that is
sent to the public address of the network address translator is automatically translated and forwarded to
the Windows Server 2003-based computer
28. How to create application partition windows 2003 and its usage?
An application directory partition is a directory partition that is replicated only to specific domain
controllers. A domain controller that participates in the replication of a particular application directory

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partition hosts a replica of that partition. Only domain controllers running Windows Server 2003 can
host a replica of an application directory partition.
Applications and services can use application directory partitions to store application-specific data.
Application directory partitions can contain any type of object, except security principals. TAPI is an
example of a service that stores its application-specific data in an application directory partition.
Application directory partitions are usually created by the applications that will use them to store and
replicate data. For testing and troubleshooting purposes, members of the Enterprise Admins group can
manually create or manage application directory partitions using the Ntdsutil command-line tool.

29. Is it possible to do implicit transitive forest to forest trust relation ship in windows 2003?
Implicit Transitive trust will not be possible in windows 2003. Between forests we can create explicit
trust
Two-way trust
One-way: incoming
One-way: Outgoing

30. What is universal group membership cache in windows 2003.

Information is stored locally once this option is enabled and a user attempts to log on for the first time.
The domain controller obtains the universal group membership for that user from a global catalog. Once
the universal group membership information is obtained, it is cached on the domain controller for that
site indefinitely and is periodically refreshed. The next time that user attempts to log on, the
authenticating domain controller running Windows Server 2003 will obtain the universal group
membership information from its local cache without the need to contact a global catalog.
By default, the universal group membership information contained in the cache of each domain
controller will be refreshed every 8 hours.

31. GPMC & RSOP in windows 2003?


GPMC is tool which will be used for managing group policies and will display information like how
many policies applied, on which OU’s the policies applied, What are the settings enabled in each policy,
Who are the users effecting by these polices, who is managing these policies. GPMC will display all the
above information.

RSoP provides details about all policy settings that are configured by an Administrator, including
Administrative Templates, Folder Redirection, Internet Explorer Maintenance, Security Settings,
Scripts, and Group Policy Software Installation.
When policies are applied on multiple levels (for example, site, domain, domain controller, and
organizational unit), the results can conflict. RSoP can help you determine a set of applied policies and
their precedence (the order in which policies are applied).

32. Assign & Publish the applications in GP & how?


Through Group policy you can Assign and Publish the applications by creating .msi package for that
application
With Assign option you can apply policy for both user and computer. If it is applied to computer then
the policy will apply to user who logs on to that computer. If it is applied on user it will apply where
ever he logs on to the domain. It will be appear in Start menu—Programs. Once user click the shortcut
or open any document having that extension then the application install into the local machine. If any
application program files missing it will automatically repair.

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With Publish option you can apply only on users. It will not install automatically when any application
program files are corrupted or deleted.

33. DFS in windows 2003?


Refer Question 17 on level 2

34. How to use recovery console?


The Windows 2000 Recovery Console is a command-line console that you can start from the
Windows 2000 Setup program. Using the Recovery Console, you can start and stop services, format
drives, read and write data on a local drive (including drives formatted to use NTFS), and perform many
other administrative tasks. The Recovery Console is particularly useful if you need to repair your system
by copying a file from a floppy disk or CD-ROM to your hard drive, or if you need to reconfigure a
service that is preventing your computer from starting properly. Because the Recovery Console is quite
powerful, it should only be used by advanced users who have a thorough knowledge of Windows 2000.
In addition, you must be an administrator to use the Recovery Console.

There are two ways to start the Recovery Console:


your Windows 2000 Setup
If you are unable to start your computer, you can run the Recovery Console from
disks or from the Windows 2000 Professional CD (if you can start your computer from your CD-ROM
drive).
As an alternative, you can install the Recovery Console on your computer to make it available in case
you are unable to restart Windows 2000. You can then select the Recovery Console option from the list
of available operating systems

35. PPTP protocol for VPN in windows 2003?


Point-to-Point-Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) is a networking technology that supports multiprotocol virtual
private networks (VPN), enableing remote users to access corporate networks securely across the
Microsoft Windows NT® Workstation, Windows® 95, and Windows 98 operating systems and other
point-to-point protocol (PPP)-enabled systems to dial into a local Internet service provider to connect
securely to their corporate network through the Internet

Netdom.exe is domain management tool to rename domain controller


SID history

34. What is Bridge Head Server?


35. Crisis Management?
36. Mail flow in Exchange Server.
37. DMZ concept in Firewalls.
38. Is NAT uses Port Number if so what is the Port number?
39. Difference between Schema Master and Global Catlog?
40. Difference Between Incremental and Differential Backup? Which is best backup Microsoft has
recommended? (depends on the volume of data)
41. How DNS and DHCP are integrated?
42. If RID master fails what happens?
43. tool used for FSMO?
44. Difference between Assigning and Publishing through Group Policy?

Netdom.exe is domain management tool to rename domain controller

13
Second level
What are the services installed when RIS is installed. Read about RIS.
How to trouble shoot if a DHCP client won’t get IP from DHCP Server?
What is the diff between publish and assign?
What is tombstone and what is the period of tombstone?
What is online and offline fragmentations?
Garbage collections and white spaces?
Authoritative and non auth restore?
Tell me one example when Infracture master and Global catalog will be on one DC, what is the issue if both
resides on same system?
When you require a Infrastructure Master.
What are Windows 2003 modes?
What are FSMO roles and explain then?
Stress on PDC emulator?
2003 advantages?
About migration?(W2k to W2k3 and NT to W2k3).
Question on System State data Backup?
Diff types of DNS roles and Zones?
What are the steps you follow when you are promoting a server as ADC in windows 2003?
What are the two parameters you run before upgrading the server to an ADC(/forestprep, /domainprep).
What is the authentication process?
What is the role of GC in authentication process?
What happens if DNS server fails. Can a user is able to login if the DNS server fails(if you have only one DNS
Server).
How do you promote a server to a domain controller(in windows 2003) over a slow wan links.
A) Take the backup of systemstate from the DC and restore it in the server where you are promoting using
“dcpromo /adv” and select restore from backup.

1. What is the difference between windows 2003 DFS & windows 2000 DFS?
2. Compaq Insight Manager version?
3. What are the Classes in Windows 2003 Active directory?
4. What is the tool to delete lingering objects in windows 2003?
5. Through Compaq Insight Manager can we delete/create Raid?
6. What is the difference between ILO & rilo?
7. How to authenticate two windows 2003 forests?
8. Windows 2003 Features?
9. SUS implementation steps?
10. How to install dual booting in windows 2003 server?
11. I have a medium organization? I want to put multiple forests? What are the factors?
12. I have deleted one user. Deleted user having some permissions. I want to create the same user name & same
password. Will the permissions remain same & what is the SID status?
13. Where the roaming profile is exists?
14. What does u can do with Group policy?
15. What is server hardening?
16. What is the SUS version u r using?
17. There is on Scenario. I have one DHCP server and the IP address are configured as static. And I want
to get rid of the server. How do I create a new server with same configuration as old?
18. How does u transfer Schema master?
19. How do get Schema Snap in MMC? What u will do if wont get schema snaps in MMC?
20. What are the enhancement advantages of GC in 2003?
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21. If u change the password in the client, how much time will it take too update the password in the
domain controller?
22. What r the modes in Terminal Server in windows 2003?
Low Level

21. Features of windows2003


ACTIVE DIRECTORY
Easier Deployment and Management
ADMT version 2.0—migrates password from NT4 to 2000 to 20003 or from 2000 to
2003
Domain Rename--- supports changing Domain Name System and/or NetBios name
Schema Redefine--- Allows deactivation of attributes and class definitions in the Active
directory schema
AD/AM--- Active directory in application mode is a new capability of AD that addresses certain
deployment scenarios related to directory enabled applications
Group Policy Improvements----introduced GPMC tool to manage group policy
UI—Enhanced User Interface
Grater Security
Cross-forest Authentication
Cross-forest Authorization
Cross-certification Enhancements
IAS and Cross-forest authentication
Credential Manager
Software Restriction Policies
Improved Performance and Dependability
Easier logon for remote offices
Group Membership replication enhancements
Application Directory Partitions
Install Replica from media
Dependability Improvements--- updated Inter-Site Topology Generator (ISTG) that scales
better by supporting forests with a greater number of sites than Windows 2000.
FILE AND PRINT SERVICES
Volume shadow copy service
NTFS journaling file system
EFS
Improved CHDSK Performance
Enhanced DFS and FRS
Shadow copy of shared folders
Enhanced folder redirection
Remote document sharing (WEBDAV)
IIS
Fault-tolerant process architecture----- The IIS 6.0 fault-tolerant process architecture isolates Web
sites and applications into self-contained units called application pools
Health Monitoring---- IIS 6.0 periodically checks the status of an application pool with automatic
restart on failure of the Web sites and applications within that application pool, increasing application
availability. IIS 6.0 protects the server, and other applications, by automatically disabling Web sites and
applications that fail too often within a short amount of time

15
Automatic Process Recycling--- IIS 6.0 automatically stops and restarts faulty Web sites and
applications based on a flexible set of criteria, including CPU utilization and memory consumption,
while queuing requests
Rapid-fail Protection---- If an application fails too often within a short amount of time, IIS 6.0 will
automatically disable it and return a "503 Service Unavailable" error message to any new or queued
requests to the application
Edit-While-Running

http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserver2003/evaluation/overview/technologies/default.mspx

22. Difference between NT & 2000


NT SAM database is a flat database. Where as in windows 2000 active directory database is a
hierarchical database.
In windows NT only PDC is having writable copy of SAM database but the BDC is only contain read
only database. In case of Windows 2000 both DC and ADC is having write copy of the database
Windows NT will not support FAT32 file system. Windows 2000 supports FAT32
Default authentication protocol in NT is NTLM (NT LAN manager). In windows 2000 default
authentication protocol is Kerberos V5.
Windows 2000 depends and Integrated with DNS. NT user Netbios names
Active Directory can be backed up easily with System state data

23. Difference between 2000 & 2003


Application Server mode is introduced in windows 2003
Possible to configure stub zones in windows 2003 DNS
Volume shadow copy services is introduced
Windows 2003 gives an option to replicate DNS data b/w all DNS servers in forest or All DNS servers
in the domain.
Refer Question 1 for all Enhancements

24. Difference between PDC & BDC


PDC contains a write copy of SAM database where as BDC contains read only copy of SAM database.
It is not possible to reset a password with out PDC in Windows NT.

25. Difference between DC & ADC


There is no difference between in DC and ADC both contains write copy of AD. Both can also handles
FSMO roles (If transfers from DC to ADC). It is just for identification. Functionality wise there is no
difference.

26. What is DNS & WINS


DNS is a Domain Naming System, which resolves Host names to IP addresses. It uses fully qualified
domain names. DNS is a Internet standard used to resolve host names
WINS is a Windows Internet Name Service, which resolves Netbios names to IP Address. This is
proprietary for Windows

27. Types of DNS Servers


Primary DNS
Secondary DNS
Active Directory Integrated DNS
Forwarder
Caching only DNS
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28. If DHCP is not available what happens to the client
Client will not get IP and it cannot be participated in network. If client already got the IP and having
lease duration it use the IP till the lease duration expires.

29. what are the different types of trust relationships


Implicit Trusts
Explicit Trusts—NT to Win2k or Forest to Forest

30. what is the process of DHCP for getting the IP address to the client
There is a four way negotiation process b/w client and server
DHCP Discover (Initiated by client)
DHCP Offer (Initiated by server)
DHCP Select (Initiated by client)
DHCP Acknowledgement (Initiated by Server)
DHCP Negative Acknowledgement (Initiated by server if any issues after DHCP offer)
31. Difference between FAT,NTFS & NTFSVersion5
NTFS Version 5 features
Encryption is possible
We can enable Disk Quotas
File compression is possible
Sparse files
Indexing Service
NTFS change journal

In FAT file system we can apply only share level security. File level protection is not possible. In NTFS
we can apply both share level as well as file level security
NTFS supports large partition sizes than FAT file systems
NTFS supports long file names than FAT file systems

32. What are the port numbers for FTP, Telnet, HTTP, DNS
FTP-21, Telnet – 23, HTTP-80, DNS-53, Kerberos-88, LDAP-389

33. what are the different types of profiles in 2000


Local Profiles
Roaming profiles
Mandatory Profiles

34. what is the database files used for Active Directory


NTDS.DIT
35. What is the location of AD Database
%System root%/NTDS/NTDS>DIT
36. What is the authentication protocol used in NT
NTLM (NT LAN Manager)
37. What is subnetting and supernetting
Subnetting is the process of borrowing bits from the host portion of an address to provide bits for
identifying additional sub-networks

Supernetting merges several smaller blocks of IP addresses (networks) that are continuous into one
larger block of addresses. Borrowing network bits to combine several smaller networks into one larger
network does supernetting
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38. what is the use of terminal services
Terminal services can be used as Remote Administration mode to administer remotely as well as
Application Server Mode to run the application in one server and users can login to that server to user
that application.
39. what is the protocol used for terminal services
RDP
40. what is the port number for RDP
3389

Medium Level

21. what is the difference between Authorized DHCP and Non Authorized DHCP
To avoid problems in the network causing by mis-configured DHCP servers, server in windows 2000
must be validate by AD before starting service to clients. If an authorized DHCP finds any DHCP server
in the network it stop serving the clients

22. Difference between inter-site and intra-site replication. Protocols using for replication.
Intra-site replication can be done between the domain controllers in the same site. Inter-site replication
can be done between two different sites over WAN links
BHS (Bridge Head Servers) is responsible for initiating replication between the sites. Inter-site
replication can be done B/w BHS in one site and BHS in another site.
We can use RPC over IP or SMTP as a replication protocols where as Domain partition is not possible
to replicate using SMTP

23. How to monitor replication


We can user Replmon tool from support tools
24. Brief explanation of RAID Levels
RAID 0 – Striping
RAID 1- Mirroring (minimum 2 HDD required)
RAID 5 – Striping With Parity (Minimum 3 HDD required)
RAID levels 1 and 5 only gives redundancy
25. What are the different backup strategies are available
Normal Backup
Incremental Backup
Differential Backup
Daily Backup
Copy Backup

26. What is a global catalog


Global catalog is a role, which maintains Indexes about objects. It contains full information of the
objects in its own domain and partial information of the objects in other domains. Universal Group
membership information will be stored in global catalog servers and replicate to all GC’s in the forest.

27. What is Active Directory and what is the use of it


Active directory is a directory service, which maintains the relation ship between resources and enabling
them to work together. Because of AD hierarchal structure windows 2000 is more scalable, reliable.
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Active directory is derived from X.500 standards where information is stored is hierarchal tree like
structure. Active directory depends on two Internet standards one is DNS and other is LDAP.
Information in Active directory can be queried by using LDAP protocol

28. what is the physical and logical structure of AD


Active directory physical structure is a hierarchal structure which fallows Forests—Trees—Domains—
Child Domains—Grand Child—etc
Active directory is logically divided into 3 partitions
1.Configuration partition 2. Schema Partition 3. Domain partition 4. Application Partition (only in
windows 2003 not available in windows 2000)
Out of these Configuration, Schema partitions can be replicated between the domain controllers in the in
the entire forest. Where as Domain partition can be replicated between the domain controllers in the
same domain

29. What is the process of user authentication (Kerberos V5) in windows 2000
After giving logon credentials an encryption key will be generated which is used to encrypt the time
stamp of the client machine. User name and encrypted timestamp information will be provided to
domain controller for authentication. Then Domain controller based on the password information stored
in AD for that user it decrypts the encrypted time stamp information. If produces time stamp matches to
its time stamp. It will provide logon session key and Ticket granting ticket to client in an encryption
format. Again client decrypts and if produced time stamp information is matching then it will use logon
session key to logon to the domain. Ticket granting ticket will be used to generate service granting ticket
when accessing network resources

30. what are the port numbers for Kerberos, LDAP and Global catalog
Kerberos – 88, LDAP – 389, Global Catalog – 3268
31. what is the use of LDAP (X.500 standard?)
LDAP is a directory access protocol, which is used to exchange directory information from server to
clients or from server to servers

32. what are the problems that are generally come across DHCP
Scope is full with IP addresses no IP’s available for new machines
If scope options are not configured properly eg default gateway
Incorrect creation of scopes etc

33. what is the role responsible for time synchronization


PDC Emulator is responsible for time synchronization. Time synchronization is important because
Kerberos authentication depends on time stamp information

34. what is TTL & how to set TTL time in DNS


TTL is Time to Live setting used for the amount of time that the record should remain in cache when
name resolution happened.
We can set TTL in SOA (start of authority record) of DNS
35. How to take DNS and WINS,DHCP backup
%System root%/system32/dns
%System root%/system32/WINS
%System root%/system32/DHCP

36. What is recovery console


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Recovery console is a utility used to recover the system when it is not booting properly or not at all
booting. We can perform fallowing operations from recovery console
We can copy, rename, or replace operating system files and folders
Enable or disable service or device startup the next time that start computer
Repair the file system boot sector or the Master Boot Record
Create and format partitions on drives

37. what is DFS & its usage


DFS is a distributed file system used to provide common environment for users to access files and
folders even when they are shared in different servers physically.
There are two types of DFS domain DFS and Stand alone DFS. We cannot provide redundancy for stand
alone DFS in case of failure. Domain DFS is used in a domain environment which can be accessed by
/domain name/root1 (root 1 is DFS root name). Stand alone DFS can be used in workgroup environment
which can be accessed through /server name/root1 (root 1 is DFS root name). Both the cases we need to
create DFS root ( Which appears like a shared folder for end users) and DFS links ( A logical link which
is pointing to the server where the folder is physically shared)
The maximum number of Dfs roots per server is 1.
The maximum numbers of Dfs root replicas are 31.
The maximum number of Dfs roots per domain is unlimited.
The maximum number of Dfs links or shared folders in a Dfs root is 1,000

38. what is RIS and what are its requirements


RIS is a remote installation service, which is used to install operation system remotely.
Client requirements
PXE DHCP-based boot ROM version 1.00 or later NIC, or a network adapter that is supported by the
RIS boot disk.
Should meet minimum operating system requirements
Software Requirements
Below network services must be active on RIS server or any server in the network
Domain Name System (DNS Service)
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
Active directory “Directory” service

39. How many root replicas can be created in DFS


31
40. What is the difference between Domain DFS and Standalone DFS
Refer question 17.

High Level

36. Can we establish trust relationship between two forests


In Windows 2000 it is not possible. In Windows 2003 it is possible

37. What is FSMO Roles


Flexible single master operation (FSMO) roll are
Domain Naming Master
Schema Master
PDC Emulator
Infrastructure Master
RID Master
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38. Brief all the FSMO Roles
Domain Naming master and schema master are forest level roles. PDC emulator, Infrastructure master
and RID master are Domain level roles;
First server in the forest performs all 5 roles by default. Later we can transfer the roles
Domain Naming Master: Domain naming master is responsible for maintaining the relation ship
between the domains. With out this role it is not possible to add or remove any domain.
Schema Master: Schema contains set of classes and attributes. eg User, computer, printer are the
objects in AD which are having their own set of attributes.. Schema master is responsible for
maintaining this schema. Changes to the schema will affect entire forest.
PDC Emulator: Server, which is performing this role, acts as a PDC in a mixed mode to synchronize
directory information between windows 2000 DC to Windows NT BDC. Server, which is performing
this role, will contain latest password information. This role is also responsible for time synchronization
in the forest.
Infrastructure Master: It is responsible for managing group membership information in the domain.
This role is responsible for updating DN when name or location of the object is modified.
RID Master: Server, which is performing this role, will provide pool of RID to other domain controllers
in the domain. SID is the combination of SID and RID SID=SID+RID where SID is Security identifier
common for all objects in the domain and RID is relative identifier unique for each object

39. How to manually configure FSMO Roles to separate DC’s


We can configure manually by two ways
Through MMC
We can configure Domain Naming Master role through Active directory domains and trusts
We can configure Schema Master role through Active Directory schema
Other Three roles we can configure by Active directory users and computers
Through command promt
By using command NTDSUTIL—type ROLES—type CONNECTIONS—CONNECT TO SERVER
SERVERNAME where server name is the name of the domain controller that you want to assign role----
Type transfer role, where role is the role that you want to transfer. For a list of roles that you can
transfer, type ? at the fsmo maintenance prompt, and then press ENTER, or see the list of roles at the
start of this article. For example, to transfer the RID master role, type transfer rid master. The one
exception is for the PDC emulator role, whose syntax is transfer pdc, not transfer pdc emulator.

40. What is the difference between authoritative and non-authoritative restore


In authoritative restore, Objects that are restored will be replicated to all domain controllers in the
domain. This can be used specifically when the entire OU is disturbed in all domain controllers or
specifically restore a single object, which is disturbed in all DC’s
In non-authoritative restore, Restored directory information will be updated by other domain controllers
based on the latest modification time.

41. what is Active Directory De-fragmentation


De-fragmentation of AD means separating used space and empty space created by deleted objects and
reduces directory size (only in offline De-fragmentation)

42. Difference between online and offline de-fragmentation


Online De-fragmentation will be performed by garbage collection process, which runs for every 12
hours by default which separate used space and white space (white space is the space created because of
object deletion in AD eg User) and improves the efficiency of AD when the domain controller up and
running

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Offline defragmentation can be done manually by taking domain controller into Restoration mode. We
can only reduce the file size of directory database where as the efficiency will be same as in online
defragmentation

43. What is tombstone period


Tombstones are nothing but objects marked for deletion. After deleting an object in AD the objects will
not be deleted permanently. It will be remain 60 days by default (which can be configurable) it adds an
entry as marked for deletion on the object and replicates to all DC’s. After 60 days object will be deleted
permanently from all Dc’s.

44. what is white space and Garbage collection


refer question 7

45. what are the monitoring tools used for Server and Network Heath. How to define alert mechanism
Spot Light , SNMP Need to enable .

46. How to deploy the patches and what are the softwares used for this process

Using SUS (Software update services) server we can deploy patches to all clients in the network. We
need to configure an option called “Synchronize with Microsoft software update server” option and
schedule time to synchronize in server. We need to approve new update based on the requirement. Then
approved update will be deployed to clients
We can configure clients by changing the registry manually or through Group policy by adding WUAU
administrative template in group policy

47. What is Clustering. Briefly define & explain it


Clustering is a technology, which is used to provide High Availability for mission critical applications.
We can configure cluster by installing MCS (Microsoft cluster service) component from Add remove
programs, which can only available in Enterprise Edition and Data center edition.

In Windows we can configure two types of clusters

NLB (network load balancing) cluster for balancing load between servers. This cluster will not
provide any high availability. Usually preferable at edge servers like web or proxy.
Server Cluster: This provides High availability by configuring active-active or active-passive cluster.
In 2 node active-passive cluster one node will be active and one node will be stand by. When active
server fails the application will FAILOVER to stand by server automatically. When the original server
backs we need to FAILBACK the application

Quorum: A shared storage need to provide for all servers which keeps information about clustered
application and session state and is useful in FAILOVER situation. This is very important if Quorum
disk fails entire cluster will fails
Heartbeat: Heartbeat is a private connectivity between the servers in the cluster, which is used to
identify the status of other servers in cluster.

48. How to configure SNMP


SNMP can be configured by installing SNMP from Monitoring and Management tools from Add and
Remove programs.
For SNMP programs to communicate we need to configure common community name for those
machines where SNMP programs (eg DELL OPEN MANAGER) running. This can be configured from
services.msc--- SNMP service -- Security
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49. Is it possible to rename the Domain name & how?
In Windows 2000 it is not possible. In windows 2003 it is possible. On Domain controller by going to
MYCOMPUTER properties we can change.

50. What is SOA Record


SOA is a Start Of Authority record, which is a first record in DNS, which controls the startup behavior
of DNS. We can configure TTL, refresh, and retry intervals in this record.

51. What is a Stub zone and what is the use of it.


Stub zones are a new feature of DNS in Windows Server 2003 that can be used to streamline name resolution, especially
in a split namespace scenario. They also help reduce the amount of DNS traffic on your network, making DNS more
efficient especially over slow WAN links.

52. What are the different types of partitions present in AD


Active directory is divided into three partitions
Configuration Partition—replicates entire forest
Schema Partition—replicates entire forest
Domain Partition—replicate only in domain
Application Partition (Only in Windows 2003)

53. What are the (two) services required for replication


File Replication Service (FRS)
Knowledge Consistency Checker (KCC)

54. Can we use a Linux DNS Sever in 2000 Domain


We can use, But the BIND version should be 8 or greater

55. What is the difference between IIS Version 5 and IIS Version 6
Refer Question 1

56. What is ASR (Automated System Recovery) and how to implement it


ASR is a two-part system; it includes ASR backup and ASR restore. The ASR Wizard, located in
Backup, does the backup portion. The wizard backs up the system state, system services, and all the
disks that are associated with the operating system components. ASR also creates a file that contains
information about the backup, the disk configurations (including basic and dynamic volumes), and how
to perform a restore.

You can access the restore portion by pressing F2 when prompted in the text-mode portion of setup.
ASR reads the disk configurations from the file that it creates. It restores all the disk signatures,
volumes, and partitions on (at a minimum) the disks that you need to start the computer. ASR will try to
restore all the disk configurations, but under some circumstances it might not be able to. ASR then
installs a simple installation of Windows and automatically starts a restoration using the backup created
by the ASR Wizard.

57. What are the different levels that we can apply Group Policy
We can apply group policy at SITE level---Domain Level---OU level

58. What is Domain Policy, Domain controller policy, Local policy and Group policy
Domain Policy will apply to all computers in the domain, because by default it will be associated with
domain GPO, Where as Domain controller policy will be applied only on domain controller. By default

23
domain controller security policy will be associated with domain controller GPO. Local policy will be
applied to that particular machine only and effects to that computer only.

59. What is the use of SYSVOL folder


Policies and scripts saved in SYSVOL folder will be replicated to all domain controllers in the domain.
FRS (File replication service) is responsible for replicating all policies and scripts

60. What is folder redirection?

Folder Redirection is a User group policy. Once you create the group policy and link it to the
appropriate folder object, an administrator can designate which folders to redirect and where To do this,
the administrator needs to navigate to the following location in the Group Policy Object:
User Configuration\Windows Settings\Folder Redirection
In the Properties of the folder, you can choose Basic or Advanced folder redirection, and you can
designate the server file system path to which the folder should be redirected.

The %USERNAME% variable may be used as part of the redirection path, thus allowing the system to
dynamically create a newly redirected folder for each user to whom the policy object applies.

61. What different modes in windows 2003 (Mixed, native & intrim….etc)
Different Active Directory features are available at different functional levels. Raising domain and forest
functional levels is required to enable certain new features as domain controllers are upgraded from
Windows NT 4.0 and Windows 2000 to Windows Server 2003
Domain Functional Levels: Windows 2000 Mixed mode, Windows 2000 Native mode, Windows
server 2003 and Windows server 2003 interim ( Only available when upgrades directly from Windows
NT 4.0 to Windows 2003)
Forest Functional Levels: Windows 2000 and Windows 2003

62. Ipsec usage and difference window 2000 & 2003.

Microsoft doesn’t recommend Internet Protocol security (IPSec) network address translation (NAT)
traversal (NAT-T) for Windows deployments that include VPN servers and that are located behind
network address translators. When a server is behind a network address translator, and the server uses
IPSec NAT-T, unintended side effects may occur because of the way that network address translators
translate network traffic
If you put a server behind a network address translator, you may experience connection problems
because clients that connect to the server over the Internet require a public IP address. To reach servers
that are located behind network address translators from the Internet, static mappings must be
configured on the network address translator. For example, to reach a Windows Server 2003-based
computer that is behind a network address translator from the Internet, configure the network address
translator with the following static network address translator mappings:

• Public IP address/UDP port 500 to the server's private IP address/UDP port 500.
• Public IP address/UDP port 4500 to the server's private IP address/UDP port 4500.

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These mappings are required so that all Internet Key Exchange (IKE) and IPSec NAT-T traffic that is
sent to the public address of the network address translator is automatically translated and forwarded to
the Windows Server 2003-based computer
63. How to create application partition windows 2003 and its usage?
An application directory partition is a directory partition that is replicated only to specific domain
controllers. A domain controller that participates in the replication of a particular application directory
partition hosts a replica of that partition. Only domain controllers running Windows Server 2003 can
host a replica of an application directory partition.
Applications and services can use application directory partitions to store application-specific data.
Application directory partitions can contain any type of object, except security principals. TAPI is an
example of a service that stores its application-specific data in an application directory partition.
Application directory partitions are usually created by the applications that will use them to store and
replicate data. For testing and troubleshooting purposes, members of the Enterprise Admins group can
manually create or manage application directory partitions using the Ntdsutil command-line tool.

64. Is it possible to do implicit transitive forest to forest trust relation ship in windows 2003?
Implicit Transitive trust will not be possible in windows 2003. Between forests we can create explicit
trust
Two-way trust
One-way: incoming
One-way: Outgoing

65. What is universal group membership cache in windows 2003.

Information is stored locally once this option is enabled and a user attempts to log on for the first time.
The domain controller obtains the universal group membership for that user from a global catalog. Once
the universal group membership information is obtained, it is cached on the domain controller for that
site indefinitely and is periodically refreshed. The next time that user attempts to log on, the
authenticating domain controller running Windows Server 2003 will obtain the universal group
membership information from its local cache without the need to contact a global catalog.
By default, the universal group membership information contained in the cache of each domain
controller will be refreshed every 8 hours.

66. GPMC & RSOP in windows 2003?


GPMC is tool which will be used for managing group policies and will display information like how
many policies applied, on which OU’s the policies applied, What are the settings enabled in each policy,
Who are the users effecting by these polices, who is managing these policies. GPMC will display all the
above information.

RSoP provides details about all policy settings that are configured by an Administrator, including
Administrative Templates, Folder Redirection, Internet Explorer Maintenance, Security Settings,
Scripts, and Group Policy Software Installation.
When policies are applied on multiple levels (for example, site, domain, domain controller, and
organizational unit), the results can conflict. RSoP can help you determine a set of applied policies and
their precedence (the order in which policies are applied).

67. Assign & Publish the applications in GP & how?

25
Through Group policy you can Assign and Publish the applications by creating .msi package for that
application
With Assign option you can apply policy for both user and computer. If it is applied to computer then
the policy will apply to user who logs on to that computer. If it is applied on user it will apply where
ever he logs on to the domain. It will be appear in Start menu—Programs. Once user click the shortcut
or open any document having that extension then the application install into the local machine. If any
application program files missing it will automatically repair.
With Publish option you can apply only on users. It will not install automatically when any application
program files are corrupted or deleted.

68. DFS in windows 2003?


Refer Question 17 on level 2

69. How to use recovery console?


The Windows 2000 Recovery Console is a command-line console that you can start from the
Windows 2000 Setup program. Using the Recovery Console, you can start and stop services, format
drives, read and write data on a local drive (including drives formatted to use NTFS), and perform many
other administrative tasks. The Recovery Console is particularly useful if you need to repair your system
by copying a file from a floppy disk or CD-ROM to your hard drive, or if you need to reconfigure a
service that is preventing your computer from starting properly. Because the Recovery Console is quite
powerful, it should only be used by advanced users who have a thorough knowledge of Windows 2000.
In addition, you must be an administrator to use the Recovery Console.

There are two ways to start the Recovery Console:


your Windows 2000 Setup
If you are unable to start your computer, you can run the Recovery Console from
disks or from the Windows 2000 Professional CD (if you can start your computer from your CD-ROM
drive).
As an alternative, you can install the Recovery Console on your computer to make it available in case
you are unable to restart Windows 2000. You can then select the Recovery Console option from the list
of available operating systems

70. PPTP protocol for VPN in windows 2003?


Point-to-Point-Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) is a networking technology that supports multiprotocol virtual
private networks (VPN), enableing remote users to access corporate networks securely across the
Microsoft Windows NT® Workstation, Windows® 95, and Windows 98 operating systems and other
point-to-point protocol (PPP)-enabled systems to dial into a local Internet service provider to connect
securely to their corporate network through the Internet

Netdom.exe is domain management tool to rename domain controller


SID history

Low Level

41. Features of windows2003


ACTIVE DIRECTORY
Easier Deployment and Management
ADMT version 2.0—migrates password from NT4 to 2000 to 20003 or from 2000 to
2003
Domain Rename--- supports changing Domain Name System and/or NetBios name

26
Schema Redefine--- Allows deactivation of attributes and class definitions in the Active
directory schema
AD/AM--- Active directory in application mode is a new capability of AD that addresses certain
deployment scenarios related to directory enabled applications
Group Policy Improvements----introduced GPMC tool to manage group policy
UI—Enhanced User Interface
Grater Security
Cross-forest Authentication
Cross-forest Authorization
Cross-certification Enhancements
IAS and Cross-forest authentication
Credential Manager
Software Restriction Policies
Improved Performance and Dependability
Easier logon for remote offices
Group Membership replication enhancements
Application Directory Partitions
Install Replica from media
Dependability Improvements--- updated Inter-Site Topology Generator (ISTG) that scales
better by supporting forests with a greater number of sites than Windows 2000.
FILE AND PRINT SERVICES
Volume shadow copy service
NTFS journaling file system
EFS
Improved CHDSK Performance
Enhanced DFS and FRS
Shadow copy of shared folders
Enhanced folder redirection
Remote document sharing (WEBDAV)
IIS
Fault-tolerant process architecture----- The IIS 6.0 fault-tolerant process architecture isolates Web
sites and applications into self-contained units called application pools
Health Monitoring---- IIS 6.0 periodically checks the status of an application pool with automatic
restart on failure of the Web sites and applications within that application pool, increasing application
availability. IIS 6.0 protects the server, and other applications, by automatically disabling Web sites and
applications that fail too often within a short amount of time

Automatic Process Recycling--- IIS 6.0 automatically stops and restarts faulty Web sites and
applications based on a flexible set of criteria, including CPU utilization and memory consumption,
while queuing requests
Rapid-fail Protection---- If an application fails too often within a short amount of time, IIS 6.0 will
automatically disable it and return a "503 Service Unavailable" error message to any new or queued
requests to the application
Edit-While-Running

http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserver2003/evaluation/overview/technologies/default.mspx

42. Difference between NT & 2000


NT SAM database is a flat database. Where as in windows 2000 active directory database is a
hierarchical database.

27
In windows NT only PDC is having writable copy of SAM database but the BDC is only contain read
only database. In case of Windows 2000 both DC and ADC is having write copy of the database
Windows NT will not support FAT32 file system. Windows 2000 supports FAT32
Default authentication protocol in NT is NTLM (NT LAN manager). In windows 2000 default
authentication protocol is Kerberos V5.
Windows 2000 depends and Integrated with DNS. NT user Netbios names
Active Directory can be backed up easily with System state data

43. Difference between 2000 & 2003


Application Server mode is introduced in windows 2003
Possible to configure stub zones in windows 2003 DNS
Volume shadow copy services is introduced
Windows 2003 gives an option to replicate DNS data b/w all DNS servers in forest or All DNS servers
in the domain.
Refer Question 1 for all Enhancements

44. Difference between PDC & BDC


PDC contains a write copy of SAM database where as BDC contains read only copy of SAM database.
It is not possible to reset a password with out PDC in Windows NT.

45. Difference between DC & ADC


There is no difference between in DC and ADC both contains write copy of AD. Both can also handles
FSMO roles (If transfers from DC to ADC). It is just for identification. Functionality wise there is no
difference.

46. What is DNS & WINS


DNS is a Domain Naming System, which resolves Host names to IP addresses. It uses fully qualified
domain names. DNS is a Internet standard used to resolve host names
WINS is a Windows Internet Name Service, which resolves Netbios names to IP Address. This is
proprietary for Windows

47. Types of DNS Servers


Primary DNS
Secondary DNS
Active Directory Integrated DNS
Forwarder
Caching only DNS

48. If DHCP is not available what happens to the client


Client will not get IP and it cannot be participated in network. If client already got the IP and having
lease duration it use the IP till the lease duration expires.

49. what are the different types of trust relationships


Implicit Trusts
Explicit Trusts—NT to Win2k or Forest to Forest

50. what is the process of DHCP for getting the IP address to the client
There is a four way negotiation process b/w client and server
DHCP Discover (Initiated by client)
DHCP Offer (Initiated by server)
DHCP Select (Initiated by client)
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DHCP Acknowledgement (Initiated by Server)
DHCP Negative Acknowledgement (Initiated by server if any issues after DHCP offer)
51. Difference between FAT,NTFS & NTFSVersion5
NTFS Version 5 features
Encryption is possible
We can enable Disk Quotas
File compression is possible
Sparse files
Indexing Service
NTFS change journal

In FAT file system we can apply only share level security. File level protection is not possible. In NTFS
we can apply both share level as well as file level security
NTFS supports large partition sizes than FAT file systems
NTFS supports long file names than FAT file systems

52. What are the port numbers for FTP, Telnet, HTTP, DNS
FTP-21, Telnet – 23, HTTP-80, DNS-53, Kerberos-88, LDAP-389

53. what are the different types of profiles in 2000


Local Profiles
Roaming profiles
Mandatory Profiles

54. what is the database files used for Active Directory


NTDS.DIT
55. What is the location of AD Database
%System root%/NTDS/NTDS>DIT
56. What is the authentication protocol used in NT
NTLM (NT LAN Manager)
57. What is subnetting and supernetting
Subnetting is the process of borrowing bits from the host portion of an address to provide bits for
identifying additional sub-networks

Supernetting merges several smaller blocks of IP addresses (networks) that are continuous into one
larger block of addresses. Borrowing network bits to combine several smaller networks into one larger
network does supernetting

58. what is the use of terminal services


Terminal services can be used as Remote Administration mode to administer remotely as well as
Application Server Mode to run the application in one server and users can login to that server to user
that application.
59. what is the protocol used for terminal services
RDP
60. what is the port number for RDP
3389

Medium Level

41. what is the difference between Authorized DHCP and Non Authorized DHCP
29
To avoid problems in the network causing by mis-configured DHCP servers, server in windows 2000
must be validate by AD before starting service to clients. If an authorized DHCP finds any DHCP server
in the network it stop serving the clients

42. Difference between inter-site and intra-site replication. Protocols using for replication.
Intra-site replication can be done between the domain controllers in the same site. Inter-site replication
can be done between two different sites over WAN links
BHS (Bridge Head Servers) is responsible for initiating replication between the sites. Inter-site
replication can be done B/w BHS in one site and BHS in another site.
We can use RPC over IP or SMTP as a replication protocols where as Domain partition is not possible
to replicate using SMTP

43. How to monitor replication


We can user Replmon tool from support tools
44. Brief explanation of RAID Levels
RAID 0 – Striping
RAID 1- Mirroring (minimum 2 HDD required)
RAID 5 – Striping With Parity (Minimum 3 HDD required)
RAID levels 1 and 5 only gives redundancy
45. What are the different backup strategies are available
Normal Backup
Incremental Backup
Differential Backup
Daily Backup
Copy Backup

46. What is a global catalog


Global catalog is a role, which maintains Indexes about objects. It contains full information of the
objects in its own domain and partial information of the objects in other domains. Universal Group
membership information will be stored in global catalog servers and replicate to all GC’s in the forest.

47. What is Active Directory and what is the use of it


Active directory is a directory service, which maintains the relation ship between resources and enabling
them to work together. Because of AD hierarchal structure windows 2000 is more scalable, reliable.
Active directory is derived from X.500 standards where information is stored is hierarchal tree like
structure. Active directory depends on two Internet standards one is DNS and other is LDAP.
Information in Active directory can be queried by using LDAP protocol

48. what is the physical and logical structure of AD


Active directory physical structure is a hierarchal structure which fallows Forests—Trees—Domains—
Child Domains—Grand Child—etc
Active directory is logically divided into 3 partitions
1.Configuration partition 2. Schema Partition 3. Domain partition 4. Application Partition (only in
windows 2003 not available in windows 2000)
Out of these Configuration, Schema partitions can be replicated between the domain controllers in the in
the entire forest. Where as Domain partition can be replicated between the domain controllers in the
same domain

49. What is the process of user authentication (Kerberos V5) in windows 2000
After giving logon credentials an encryption key will be generated which is used to encrypt the time
stamp of the client machine. User name and encrypted timestamp information will be provided to
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domain controller for authentication. Then Domain controller based on the password information stored
in AD for that user it decrypts the encrypted time stamp information. If produces time stamp matches to
its time stamp. It will provide logon session key and Ticket granting ticket to client in an encryption
format. Again client decrypts and if produced time stamp information is matching then it will use logon
session key to logon to the domain. Ticket granting ticket will be used to generate service granting ticket
when accessing network resources

50. what are the port numbers for Kerberos, LDAP and Global catalog
Kerberos – 88, LDAP – 389, Global Catalog – 3268
51. what is the use of LDAP (X.500 standard?)
LDAP is a directory access protocol, which is used to exchange directory information from server to
clients or from server to servers

52. what are the problems that are generally come across DHCP
Scope is full with IP addresses no IP’s available for new machines
If scope options are not configured properly eg default gateway
Incorrect creation of scopes etc

53. what is the role responsible for time synchronization


PDC Emulator is responsible for time synchronization. Time synchronization is important because
Kerberos authentication depends on time stamp information

54. what is TTL & how to set TTL time in DNS


TTL is Time to Live setting used for the amount of time that the record should remain in cache when
name resolution happened.
We can set TTL in SOA (start of authority record) of DNS
55. How to take DNS and WINS,DHCP backup
%System root%/system32/dns
%System root%/system32/WINS
%System root%/system32/DHCP

56. What is recovery console


Recovery console is a utility used to recover the system when it is not booting properly or not at all
booting. We can perform fallowing operations from recovery console
We can copy, rename, or replace operating system files and folders
Enable or disable service or device startup the next time that start computer
Repair the file system boot sector or the Master Boot Record
Create and format partitions on drives

57. what is DFS & its usage


DFS is a distributed file system used to provide common environment for users to access files and
folders even when they are shared in different servers physically.
There are two types of DFS domain DFS and Stand alone DFS. We cannot provide redundancy for stand
alone DFS in case of failure. Domain DFS is used in a domain environment which can be accessed by
/domain name/root1 (root 1 is DFS root name). Stand alone DFS can be used in workgroup environment
which can be accessed through /server name/root1 (root 1 is DFS root name). Both the cases we need to
create DFS root ( Which appears like a shared folder for end users) and DFS links ( A logical link which
is pointing to the server where the folder is physically shared)
The maximum number of Dfs roots per server is 1.
The maximum numbers of Dfs root replicas are 31.
The maximum number of Dfs roots per domain is unlimited.
31
The maximum number of Dfs links or shared folders in a Dfs root is 1,000

58. what is RIS and what are its requirements


RIS is a remote installation service, which is used to install operation system remotely.
Client requirements
PXE DHCP-based boot ROM version 1.00 or later NIC, or a network adapter that is supported by the
RIS boot disk.
Should meet minimum operating system requirements
Software Requirements
Below network services must be active on RIS server or any server in the network
Domain Name System (DNS Service)
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
Active directory “Directory” service

59. How many root replicas can be created in DFS


31
60. What is the difference between Domain DFS and Standalone DFS
Refer question 17.

High Level

71. Can we establish trust relationship between two forests


In Windows 2000 it is not possible. In Windows 2003 it is possible

72. What is FSMO Roles


Flexible single master operation (FSMO) roll are
Domain Naming Master
Schema Master
PDC Emulator
Infrastructure Master
RID Master
73. Brief all the FSMO Roles
Domain Naming master and schema master are forest level roles. PDC emulator, Infrastructure master
and RID master are Domain level roles;
First server in the forest performs all 5 roles by default. Later we can transfer the roles
Domain Naming Master: Domain naming master is responsible for maintaining the relation ship
between the domains. With out this role it is not possible to add or remove any domain.
Schema Master: Schema contains set of classes and attributes. eg User, computer, printer are the
objects in AD which are having their own set of attributes.. Schema master is responsible for
maintaining this schema. Changes to the schema will affect entire forest.
PDC Emulator: Server, which is performing this role, acts as a PDC in a mixed mode to synchronize
directory information between windows 2000 DC to Windows NT BDC. Server, which is performing
this role, will contain latest password information. This role is also responsible for time synchronization
in the forest.
Infrastructure Master: It is responsible for managing group membership information in the domain.
This role is responsible for updating DN when name or location of the object is modified.
RID Master: Server, which is performing this role, will provide pool of RID to other domain controllers
in the domain. SID is the combination of SID and RID SID=SID+RID where SID is Security identifier
common for all objects in the domain and RID is relative identifier unique for each object

74. How to manually configure FSMO Roles to separate DC’s


32
We can configure manually by two ways
Through MMC
We can configure Domain Naming Master role through Active directory domains and trusts
We can configure Schema Master role through Active Directory schema
Other Three roles we can configure by Active directory users and computers
Through command promt
By using command NTDSUTIL—type ROLES—type CONNECTIONS—CONNECT TO SERVER
SERVERNAME where server name is the name of the domain controller that you want to assign role----
Type transfer role, where role is the role that you want to transfer. For a list of roles that you can
transfer, type ? at the fsmo maintenance prompt, and then press ENTER, or see the list of roles at the
start of this article. For example, to transfer the RID master role, type transfer rid master. The one
exception is for the PDC emulator role, whose syntax is transfer pdc, not transfer pdc emulator.

75. What is the difference between authoritative and non-authoritative restore


In authoritative restore, Objects that are restored will be replicated to all domain controllers in the
domain. This can be used specifically when the entire OU is disturbed in all domain controllers or
specifically restore a single object, which is disturbed in all DC’s
In non-authoritative restore, Restored directory information will be updated by other domain controllers
based on the latest modification time.

76. what is Active Directory De-fragmentation


De-fragmentation of AD means separating used space and empty space created by deleted objects and
reduces directory size (only in offline De-fragmentation)

77. Difference between online and offline de-fragmentation


Online De-fragmentation will be performed by garbage collection process, which runs for every 12
hours by default which separate used space and white space (white space is the space created because of
object deletion in AD eg User) and improves the efficiency of AD when the domain controller up and
running

Offline defragmentation can be done manually by taking domain controller into Restoration mode. We
can only reduce the file size of directory database where as the efficiency will be same as in online
defragmentation

78. What is tombstone period


Tombstones are nothing but objects marked for deletion. After deleting an object in AD the objects will
not be deleted permanently. It will be remain 60 days by default (which can be configurable) it adds an
entry as marked for deletion on the object and replicates to all DC’s. After 60 days object will be deleted
permanently from all Dc’s.

79. what is white space and Garbage collection


refer question 7

80. what are the monitoring tools used for Server and Network Heath. How to define alert mechanism
Spot Light , SNMP Need to enable .

81. How to deploy the patches and what are the softwares used for this process

Using SUS (Software update services) server we can deploy patches to all clients in the network. We
need to configure an option called “Synchronize with Microsoft software update server” option and

33
schedule time to synchronize in server. We need to approve new update based on the requirement. Then
approved update will be deployed to clients
We can configure clients by changing the registry manually or through Group policy by adding WUAU
administrative template in group policy

82. What is Clustering. Briefly define & explain it


Clustering is a technology, which is used to provide High Availability for mission critical applications.
We can configure cluster by installing MCS (Microsoft cluster service) component from Add remove
programs, which can only available in Enterprise Edition and Data center edition.

In Windows we can configure two types of clusters

NLB (network load balancing) cluster for balancing load between servers. This cluster will not
provide any high availability. Usually preferable at edge servers like web or proxy.
Server Cluster: This provides High availability by configuring active-active or active-passive cluster.
In 2 node active-passive cluster one node will be active and one node will be stand by. When active
server fails the application will FAILOVER to stand by server automatically. When the original server
backs we need to FAILBACK the application

Quorum: A shared storage need to provide for all servers which keeps information about clustered
application and session state and is useful in FAILOVER situation. This is very important if Quorum
disk fails entire cluster will fails
Heartbeat: Heartbeat is a private connectivity between the servers in the cluster, which is used to
identify the status of other servers in cluster.

83. How to configure SNMP


SNMP can be configured by installing SNMP from Monitoring and Management tools from Add and
Remove programs.
For SNMP programs to communicate we need to configure common community name for those
machines where SNMP programs (eg DELL OPEN MANAGER) running. This can be configured from
services.msc--- SNMP service -- Security

84. Is it possible to rename the Domain name & how?


In Windows 2000 it is not possible. In windows 2003 it is possible. On Domain controller by going to
MYCOMPUTER properties we can change.

85. What is SOA Record


SOA is a Start Of Authority record, which is a first record in DNS, which controls the startup behavior
of DNS. We can configure TTL, refresh, and retry intervals in this record.

86. What is a Stub zone and what is the use of it.


Stub zones are a new feature of DNS in Windows Server 2003 that can be used to streamline name resolution, especially
in a split namespace scenario. They also help reduce the amount of DNS traffic on your network, making DNS more
efficient especially over slow WAN links.

87. What are the different types of partitions present in AD


Active directory is divided into three partitions
Configuration Partition—replicates entire forest
Schema Partition—replicates entire forest
Domain Partition—replicate only in domain

34
Application Partition (Only in Windows 2003)

88. What are the (two) services required for replication


File Replication Service (FRS)
Knowledge Consistency Checker (KCC)

89. Can we use a Linux DNS Sever in 2000 Domain


We can use, But the BIND version should be 8 or greater

90. What is the difference between IIS Version 5 and IIS Version 6
Refer Question 1

91. What is ASR (Automated System Recovery) and how to implement it


ASR is a two-part system; it includes ASR backup and ASR restore. The ASR Wizard, located in
Backup, does the backup portion. The wizard backs up the system state, system services, and all the
disks that are associated with the operating system components. ASR also creates a file that contains
information about the backup, the disk configurations (including basic and dynamic volumes), and how
to perform a restore.

You can access the restore portion by pressing F2 when prompted in the text-mode portion of setup.
ASR reads the disk configurations from the file that it creates. It restores all the disk signatures,
volumes, and partitions on (at a minimum) the disks that you need to start the computer. ASR will try to
restore all the disk configurations, but under some circumstances it might not be able to. ASR then
installs a simple installation of Windows and automatically starts a restoration using the backup created
by the ASR Wizard.

92. What are the different levels that we can apply Group Policy
We can apply group policy at SITE level---Domain Level---OU level

93. What is Domain Policy, Domain controller policy, Local policy and Group policy
Domain Policy will apply to all computers in the domain, because by default it will be associated with
domain GPO, Where as Domain controller policy will be applied only on domain controller. By default
domain controller security policy will be associated with domain controller GPO. Local policy will be
applied to that particular machine only and effects to that computer only.

94. What is the use of SYSVOL folder


Policies and scripts saved in SYSVOL folder will be replicated to all domain controllers in the domain.
FRS (File replication service) is responsible for replicating all policies and scripts

95. What is folder redirection?

Folder Redirection is a User group policy. Once you create the group policy and link it to the
appropriate folder object, an administrator can designate which folders to redirect and where To do this,
the administrator needs to navigate to the following location in the Group Policy Object:
User Configuration\Windows Settings\Folder Redirection
In the Properties of the folder, you can choose Basic or Advanced folder redirection, and you can
designate the server file system path to which the folder should be redirected.

The %USERNAME% variable may be used as part of the redirection path, thus allowing the system to
dynamically create a newly redirected folder for each user to whom the policy object applies.
35
96. What different modes in windows 2003 (Mixed, native & intrim….etc)
Different Active Directory features are available at different functional levels. Raising domain and forest
functional levels is required to enable certain new features as domain controllers are upgraded from
Windows NT 4.0 and Windows 2000 to Windows Server 2003
Domain Functional Levels: Windows 2000 Mixed mode, Windows 2000 Native mode, Windows
server 2003 and Windows server 2003 interim ( Only available when upgrades directly from Windows
NT 4.0 to Windows 2003)
Forest Functional Levels: Windows 2000 and Windows 2003

97. Ipsec usage and difference window 2000 & 2003.

Microsoft doesn’t recommend Internet Protocol security (IPSec) network address translation (NAT)
traversal (NAT-T) for Windows deployments that include VPN servers and that are located behind
network address translators. When a server is behind a network address translator, and the server uses
IPSec NAT-T, unintended side effects may occur because of the way that network address translators
translate network traffic
If you put a server behind a network address translator, you may experience connection problems
because clients that connect to the server over the Internet require a public IP address. To reach servers
that are located behind network address translators from the Internet, static mappings must be
configured on the network address translator. For example, to reach a Windows Server 2003-based
computer that is behind a network address translator from the Internet, configure the network address
translator with the following static network address translator mappings:

• Public IP address/UDP port 500 to the server's private IP address/UDP port 500.
• Public IP address/UDP port 4500 to the server's private IP address/UDP port 4500.
These mappings are required so that all Internet Key Exchange (IKE) and IPSec NAT-T traffic that is
sent to the public address of the network address translator is automatically translated and forwarded to
the Windows Server 2003-based computer
98. How to create application partition windows 2003 and its usage?
An application directory partition is a directory partition that is replicated only to specific domain
controllers. A domain controller that participates in the replication of a particular application directory
partition hosts a replica of that partition. Only domain controllers running Windows Server 2003 can
host a replica of an application directory partition.
Applications and services can use application directory partitions to store application-specific data.
Application directory partitions can contain any type of object, except security principals. TAPI is an
example of a service that stores its application-specific data in an application directory partition.
Application directory partitions are usually created by the applications that will use them to store and
replicate data. For testing and troubleshooting purposes, members of the Enterprise Admins group can
manually create or manage application directory partitions using the Ntdsutil command-line tool.

99. Is it possible to do implicit transitive forest to forest trust relation ship in windows 2003?
Implicit Transitive trust will not be possible in windows 2003. Between forests we can create explicit
trust
Two-way trust
One-way: incoming
36
One-way: Outgoing

100. What is universal group membership cache in windows 2003.

Information is stored locally once this option is enabled and a user attempts to log on for the first time.
The domain controller obtains the universal group membership for that user from a global catalog. Once
the universal group membership information is obtained, it is cached on the domain controller for that
site indefinitely and is periodically refreshed. The next time that user attempts to log on, the
authenticating domain controller running Windows Server 2003 will obtain the universal group
membership information from its local cache without the need to contact a global catalog.
By default, the universal group membership information contained in the cache of each domain
controller will be refreshed every 8 hours.

101. GPMC & RSOP in windows 2003?


GPMC is tool which will be used for managing group policies and will display information like how
many policies applied, on which OU’s the policies applied, What are the settings enabled in each policy,
Who are the users effecting by these polices, who is managing these policies. GPMC will display all the
above information.

RSoP provides details about all policy settings that are configured by an Administrator, including
Administrative Templates, Folder Redirection, Internet Explorer Maintenance, Security Settings,
Scripts, and Group Policy Software Installation.
When policies are applied on multiple levels (for example, site, domain, domain controller, and
organizational unit), the results can conflict. RSoP can help you determine a set of applied policies and
their precedence (the order in which policies are applied).

102. Assign & Publish the applications in GP & how?


Through Group policy you can Assign and Publish the applications by creating .msi package for that
application
With Assign option you can apply policy for both user and computer. If it is applied to computer then
the policy will apply to user who logs on to that computer. If it is applied on user it will apply where
ever he logs on to the domain. It will be appear in Start menu—Programs. Once user click the shortcut
or open any document having that extension then the application install into the local machine. If any
application program files missing it will automatically repair.
With Publish option you can apply only on users. It will not install automatically when any application
program files are corrupted or deleted.

103. DFS in windows 2003?


Refer Question 17 on level 2

104. How to use recovery console?


The Windows 2000 Recovery Console is a command-line console that you can start from the
Windows 2000 Setup program. Using the Recovery Console, you can start and stop services, format
drives, read and write data on a local drive (including drives formatted to use NTFS), and perform many
other administrative tasks. The Recovery Console is particularly useful if you need to repair your system
by copying a file from a floppy disk or CD-ROM to your hard drive, or if you need to reconfigure a
service that is preventing your computer from starting properly. Because the Recovery Console is quite
powerful, it should only be used by advanced users who have a thorough knowledge of Windows 2000.
In addition, you must be an administrator to use the Recovery Console.

37
There are two ways to start the Recovery Console:
your Windows 2000 Setup
If you are unable to start your computer, you can run the Recovery Console from
disks or from the Windows 2000 Professional CD (if you can start your computer from your CD-ROM
drive).
As an alternative, you can install the Recovery Console on your computer to make it available in case
you are unable to restart Windows 2000. You can then select the Recovery Console option from the list
of available operating systems

105. PPTP protocol for VPN in windows 2003?


Point-to-Point-Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) is a networking technology that supports multiprotocol virtual
private networks (VPN), enableing remote users to access corporate networks securely across the
Microsoft Windows NT® Workstation, Windows® 95, and Windows 98 operating systems and other
point-to-point protocol (PPP)-enabled systems to dial into a local Internet service provider to connect
securely to their corporate network through the Internet

Netdom.exe is domain management tool to rename domain controller


SID history

45. What is Bridge Head Server?


46. Crisis Management?
47. Mail flow in Exchange Server.
48. DMZ concept in Firewalls.
49. Is NAT uses Port Number if so what is the Port number?
50. Difference between Schema Master and Global Catlog?
51. Difference Between Incremental and Differential Backup? Which is best backup Microsoft has
recommended?
52. How DNS and DHCP are integrated?
53. If RID master fails what happens?
54. tool used for FSMO?
55. Difference between Assigning and Publishing through Group Policy?

Netdom.exe is domain management tool to rename domain controller

Low Level

61. Features of windows2003

Automated System Recovery (ASR) provides a facility to get Windows Server 2003 systems back up and
running quickly after a failure occurs.

Internet Information Service 6.0 (By default will not install)


Highly secured and locked down by default, new architectural model that includes features such as process
isolation and a metabase stored in XML format.

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Saved Queries: Active Directory Users and Computers now includes a new node named Saved Queries,
which allows an administrator to create a number of predefined queries that are saved for future access.

Group Policy Management Console (GPMC) is a new a new tool for managing Group Policy in Windows
Server 2003. While Group Policy–related elements have typically been found across a range of tools—such
as Active Directory Users And Computers, the Group Policy MMC snap-in, and others—GPMC acts as a
single consolidated environment for carrying out Group Policy–related tasks.

RSoP tool, the administrator could generate a query that would process all the applicable Group Policy
settings for that user for the local computer or another computer on the network. After processing the query,
RSoP would present the exact Group Policy settings that apply to that user, as well as the source Group
Policy object that was responsible for the setting.

Remote Desktop: In Windows Server 2003, Terminal Services Remote Administration mode is known as
Remote Desktop. Remote Desktop connections are enabled via the Remote tab in the System applet in
Control Panel. When connecting to a terminal server using an RDP 5.1 client, many of the local resources
are available within the remote session, including the client file system, smart cards, audio (output), serial
ports, printers (including network), and the clipboard.

Cross-Forest Trust Relationships : Windows Server 2003 supports cross-forest transitive trust
relationships to allow users in one forest to access resources in any domain in another, and vice versa.

Domain Renaming & Domain Controller renaming is possible.

Universal Group Membership Caching: Windows Server 2003 introduces a new feature aimed at
reducing the need for global catalog servers at all remote locations. Universal group membership caching is
a new feature that can be enabled on selected domain controllers, making them capable of caching universal
group information locally without being a full-fledged global catalog server.

Volume shadow copies of shared folders feature makes point-in-time backups of user data to ensure that
previous versions are easily accessible in cases where a user has accidentally deleted a file.

Application Directory Partitions: Active Directory forest has a copy of the schema partition, which
defines the object types that can be created, and their associated properties. Similarly, all domain controllers
in the forest hold a copy of the configuration partition, which holds information about sites and services.
Within a domain, all domain controllers hold a copy of the domain partition, which includes information
about the objects within that particular domain only.

Application directory partition. This new partition is unique in that it allows directory information to be
replicated to certain domain controllers only, on an as-necessary basis. Specifically designed for directory-
enabled applications and services, application directory partitions can contain any type of object, with the
exception of security principals such as users, computers, or security group accounts.

Distributed File System: DFS is enhanced for Windows Server 2003, Enterprise Edition and Windows
Server, Datacenter Edition by allowing multiple DFS roots on a single server. You can use this feature to
host multiple DFS roots on a single server, reducing administrative and hardware costs of managing
multiple namespaces and multiple replicated namespaces.

Improvements in Clustering:
In Datacenter Edition, the maximum supported cluster size has been increased from 4-nodes in Windows
2000, to 8-nodes in Windows Server 2003.
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In Enterprise Edition, the maximum supported cluster size has been increased from 2-nodes in Windows
2000 Advanced Server to 8-nodes in Windows Server 2003.

Server clusters running Windows Server 2003, Enterprise Edition or Datacenter Edition integrate with the
Microsoft Active Directory® service.
This integration ensures that a "virtual" computer object is registered in Active Directory. This allows
applications to use Kerberos authentication and delegation to highly available services running in a cluster.
The computer object also provides a default location for Active Directory-aware services to publish service
control points.

Server clusters are fully supported on computers running the 64-bit versions of Windows Server 2003.
Windows Server 2003 supports Encrypting File System (EFS) on clustered (shared) disks.

RIS server supports to deploy all editions of Windows 2000, Windows XP Professional, and all editions of
Windows Server 2003 (except Windows 2000 Datacenter Server and Windows Server 2003, Datacenter
Edition.) In addition, administrators can use RIS servers using Risetup to deploy Windows XP 64-bit
Edition and the 64-bit versions of Windows Server 2003.

Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) : Windows Server 2003 delivers a native PPPoE driver
for making broadband connections to certain Internet service providers (ISPs) without the need for
additional software.
Small businesses or corporate branch offices may also utilize PPPoE's demand dial capabilities to integrate
with the Routing and Remote Access service and NAT.

Internet Connection Firewall (ICF): ICF, designed for use in a small business, provides basic protection
on computers directly connected to the Internet or on local area network (LAN) segments. ICF is available
for LAN, dial-up, VPN, or PPPoE connections. ICF integrates with ICS or with the Routing and Remote
Access service.

Open File Backup: The backup utility included with Windows Server 2003 now supports "open file
backup". In Windows 2000, files had to be closed before initiating backup operations. Backup now uses
shadow copies to ensure that any open files being accessed by users are also backed up.(Need to modify
some registry keys)

Stub Zones: This is introduced in windows 2003 DNS. A stub zone is like a secondary zone in that it
obtains its resource records from other name servers (one or more master name servers). A stub zone is also
read-only like a secondary zone, so administrators can't manually add, remove, or modify resource records
on it. First, while secondary zones contain copies of all the resource records in the corresponding zone on
the master name server, stub zones contain only three kinds of resource records:
a. A copy of the SOA record for the zone.
b. Copies of NS records for all name servers authoritative for the zone.
c. Copies of (glue)A records for all name servers authoritative for the zone.

That's it--no CNAME records, MX records, SRV records, or A records for other hosts in the zone. So while
a secondary zone can be quite large for a big company's network, a stub zone is always very small, just a
few records. This means replicating zone information from master to stub zone adds almost nil DNS traffic
to your network as the records for name servers rarely change unless you decommission an old name server
or deploy a new one.

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62. Difference between NT & 2000

 Windows NT SAM database is a flat database. And windows 2000 active directory database is a
hierarchical database.

 In Windows NT only PDC is having writable copy of SAM database but the BDC is only having
read only database. In case of Windows 2000 both DC and ADC is having write copy of the
database.

 Windows NT will not support FAT32 file system. Windows 2000 supports FAT32.
 Default authentication protocol in NT is NTLM (NT LAN manager). In windows 2000 default
authentication protocol is Kerberos V5.

So many more features introduced in windows 2000, those are not Windows NT.
 NTFS v5 supports Disk quotas.
 Remote Installation Service
 Built in VPN & NAT support
 IPv6 supports.
 USB support.
 Distributed File System.
 Clustering support.
 ICS (Internet Connection Sharing)

63. Difference between 2000 & 2003.


Refer question no.1

64. Difference between PDC & BDC

PDC contains a write copy of SAM database where as BDC contains read only copy of SAM database.
It is not possible to reset a password with out PDC in Windows NT. But both can participate in the user
authentication. If PDC fails, we have to manually promote BDC to PDC from server manger.

65. Difference between DC & ADC.

There is no difference between in DC and ADC both contains write copy of AD. Both can also handles
FSMO roles (If transfers from DC to ADC). Functionality wise there is no difference. ADC just require for
load balancing & redundancy. If two physical sites are segregated with WAN link come under same
domain, better to keep one ADC in other site, and act as a main domain controller for that site. This will
reduce the WAN traffic and also user authentication performance will increase.

66. What is DNS & WINS


DNS is a Domain Naming System/Server, use for resolve the Host names to IP addresses and also do the
IP address to host name. It uses fully qualified domain names. DNS is a Internet standard used to resolve
host names. Support up to 256 characters.
WINS is a Windows Internet Name Service, which resolves Netbios names to IP Address and also
resolve the IP address to Netbios names. This is proprietary of Microsoft and meant for windows only.
Support up to 15 characters.

67. Types of DNS Servers


We can configure 7 types of DNS servers in windows.
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Primary DNS
Secondary DNS
Active Directory Integrated DNS
Root DNS
Forwarder
Master
Caching only DNS

68. If DHCP server is not available what happens to the client

First time client is trying to get IP address DHCP server, If DHCP server is not found. Client will get
the class C -IP address from APIPA (Automatic Private I P Address) range 192.168.0.1-254.
If client already got the IP and having lease duration it use the IP till the lease duration expires.

69. what are the different types of trust relationships

Implicit Trusts ----- Establish trust relationship automatically.


Explicit Trusts ----- We have to build manually trust relationship .NT to Win2k or
Forest to Forest
Transitive ----- If A  B  C then A C
Non-Transitive ----- If A  B  C then A is not trusting C
One way ----- One side
Two way ----- two sides

Windows Server 2003 Active Directory supports the following types of trust relationships:
Tree-root trust Tree-root trust relationships are automatically established when you add a new tree root
domain to an existing forest. This trust relationship is transitive and two-way.
Parent-child trust Parent-child trust relationships are automatically established when you add a new
child domain to an existing tree. This trust relationship is also transitive and two-way.
Shortcut trust Shortcut trusts are trust relationships that are manually created by systems
administrators. These trusts can be defined between any two domains in a forest, generally for the
purpose of improving user logon and resource access performance. Shortcut trusts can be especially
useful in situations where users in one domain often need to access resources in another, but a long path
of transitive trusts separates the two domains. Often referred to as cross-link trusts, shortcut trust
relationships are transitive and can be configured as one-way or two-way as needs dictate.
Realm trust Realm trusts are manually created by systems administrators between a non–Windows
Kerberos realm and a Windows Server 2003 Active Directory domain. This type of trust relationship
provides cross-platform interoperability with security services in any Kerberos version 5 realm, such as
a UNIX implementation. Realm trusts can be either transitive or nontransitive, and one-way or two-way
as needs dictate.
External trust External trusts are manually created by systems administrators between Active Directory
domains that are in different forests, or between a Windows Server 2003 Active Directory domain and a
Windows NT 4.0 domain. These trust relationships provide backward compatibility with Windows NT
4.0 environments, and communication with domains located in other forests that are not con-figured to
use forest trusts. External trusts are nontransitive and can be configured as either one-way or two-way as
needs dictate.
Forest trust Forest trusts are trust relationships that are manually created by systems administrators
between forest root domains in two separate forests. If a forest trust relationship is two-way, it
effectively allows authentication requests from users in one forest to reach another, and for users in
either forest to access resources in both. Forest trust relationships are transitive between two forests only
and can be configured as either one-way or two-way as needs dictate.
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By default implicit two way transitive trust relationship establish between all domains in the
windows 2000/2003 forest.

70. what is the process of DHCP for getting the IP address to the client

Discover ----- Client broadcast the packets to find the DHCP server
Offer ----- Server offers
Request for IP address ---- Client request for IP address to the offered server.
Acknowledge ----- Server sends the Acknowledgement to the client

NACK -------- If client not get the IP address after server given offer, then Server sends the Negative
Acknowledgement.

DHCP Server uses port no.: 67


DHCP Client uses port no.: 68

71. Difference between FAT, NTFS, NTFSver5 & NTFS ver6?

72. What are the port numbers for FTP,Telnet,HTTP,DNS


73. what are the different types of profiles in 2000
74. what is the database files used for ActiveDirectory
75. what is the location of AD Database
76. what is the authentication protocol used in NT
77. what is subnetting and supernetting
78. what is the use of terminal services
79. what is the protocol used for terminal services
80. what is the port number for RDP

Medium Level

61. what is the difference between Authorized DHCP and Non Authorized DHCP
62. Difference between inter-site and intra-site replication. Protocols using for replication.
63. How to monitor replication
64. Brief explanation of RAID Levels
65. what are the different backup strategies are available
66. what is a global catalog
67. what is Active Directory and what is the use of it
68. what is the physical and logical structure of AD
69. What is the process of user authentication(kerbros V5) in windows 2000
70. what are the port numbers for Kerberos, LDAP and Global catalog
71. what is the use of LDAP (X.500 standard?)
72. what are the problems that are generally come across DHCP
73. what is the role responsible for time synchronization
74. what is TTL & how to set TTL time in DNS
75. How to take DNS and WINS Backup
76. What is recovery console
77. what is DFS & its usage
78. what is RIS and what are its requirements
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79. How many root replicas can be created in DFS
80. what is the difference between Domain DFS and Standalone DFS

High Level

106. Can we establish trust relationship between two forests


107. What is FSMO Roles
108. Brief all the FSMO Roles
109. How to manually configure FSMO Roles to separate DC’s
110. What is the difference between authoritative and non-authoritative restore
111. what is Active Directory De-fragmentation
112. Difference between online and offline de-fragmentation
113. What is tombstone period
114. what is white space and Garbage collection
115. what are the monitoring tools used for Server and Network Heath. How to define alert
mechanism
116. How to deploy the patches and what are the softwares used for this process
117. What is Clustering. Briefly define & explain it
118. How to configure SNMP
119. Is it possible to rename the Domain name & how?
120. What is SOA Record
121. What is a Stub zone and what is the use of it.
122. what are the different types of partitions present in AD
123. What are the (two) services required for replication
124. Can we use a linux DNS Sever in 2000 Domain
125. What is the difference between IIS Version 5 and IIS Version 6
126. What is ASR (Automated System Recovery) and how to implement it
127. What are the different levels that we can apply Group Policy
128. What is Domain Policy,Domain controller policy, Local policy and Group policy
129. What is the use of SYSVOL folder
130. What is folder redirection.
131. What different modes in windows 2003 (Mixed, native & intrim….etc)
132. Ipsec usage and difference window 2000 & 2003.
133. How to create application partition windows 2003 and its usage?
134. Is it possible to do implicit transitive forest to forest trust relation ship in windows 2003 ?
135. what is universal group membership cache in windows 2003.
136. GPMC & RSOP in windows 2003?
137. Assign & Publish the applications in GP & how?
138. DFS in windows 2003?
139. How to use recovery console ?
140. PPEP protocol for VPN in windows 2003?

56. What is Bridge Head Server?


57. Crisis Management?
58. Mail flow in Exchange Server.
59. DMZ concept in Firewalls.
60. Is NAT uses Port Number if so what is the Port number?
61. Difference between Schema Master and Global Catlog?
62. Difference Between Incremental and Differential Backup? Which is best backup Microsoft has
recommended?
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63. How DNS and DHCP are integrated?
64. If RID master fails what happens?
65. tool used for FSMO?
66. Difference between Assigning and Publishing through Group Policy?

DHCP Server port no : 67


DHCP Client port no : 68

NTDS.DIT ------ New Technology Directory Services. Directory Information Tree

After installing the Domain controller,to know the function of DC..

Dcpromo.log c:\windows\system32\dcpromp

Dcdiag
Netdiag

AAAA records use for IPv6 as A record

Responsible record in DNS ---- for know the responsible for person.
SYSVOL Consistency Considerations
SYSVOL is a file system folder that stores files that must be available and synchronized among all domain controllers. SYSVOL
contains the NETLOGON share, Group Policy settings, and File Replication service (FRS) staging directories and files. SYSVOL is
required for Active Directory to function properly.
SYSVOL is replicated by the File Replication service (FRS). FRS has a fixed tombstone lifetime of 60 days. Because you cannot
change this interval, any domain controller that is disconnected for more than 60 days potentially has an outdated SYSVOL. Updating
SYSVOL requires performing a non-authoritative restore of SYSVOL.
In addition, SYSVOL replication cannot be synchronized manually. For this reason, ensuring that SYSVOL is updated prior to
disconnecting the domain controller is more difficult than simply updating SYSVOL when the domain controller is reconnected.
Regardless of the length of the disconnection, to

ensure that SYSVOL is synchronized when the domain controller is reconnected, prepare the domain controller to perform a non-
authoritative restore of SYSVOL prior to disconnecting it. When it restarts, non-authoritative restore of SYSVOL occurs
automatically. For information about performing non-authoritative restore of SYSVOL, see “Restoring and Rebuilding SYSVOL”
earlier in this guide.

Rename the domains


Rendom
Netdom

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