Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 65

� � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � �

1‫�׿‬г � Ч � ǿ � � � ѧ � � � �
��� � � � � � � � ߱ ��Ҫ � � � � � � Ч � ʡ � " ʹ ij �  � � � � � Ч � � " � � " � � � ij �  � � " � Ͼ � � ǽ
�� �ʡ � � � � � � � � � ʲ ô � � Ļ � � ﹤
� � � � � � � � � � � � � ҵ � � � � � � � ҽ Ժ � � �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� � � �� �� �� �  ‫����ڹ‬�‫�ڴ‬ѧ � �
� � � � ‫���ھ‬��Ϊ � � � � � � � � � � � ȱ � � � Ҫ � � ʱ � � � � � � � � � � � 飬
�Ǿ � � � ˵ � � � � � Ҫ � й � � � Ч � ʡ �
� � � � Ȼ � � һ Щ � � � � � � � � � � ȱ � � � � � � � ϵ ĸ � Ч � ʡ � � � � � � ձ � � � ǽ ϸ ߣ�������
����������кܿɹ۵� � ֪ ʶˮƽ�� � � � � � � Щ � � � ǡ � � ֪ ʶ�� � � � � � � ƺ � � � һ � � � ˵ Ĺ � � � Ч � ʲ � û � б �
Ȼ��� ϵ ��� � Щ � ˲ Ż � � � � 磬�����ǵĹ���Ч��ȴ����͵�����զ�
ࡣ� � � Dz � � � ⣬ � � � � � � �ܽ�������� Ĺ ۲ 챾�����
�һ � � � �
˲ɾ �ij� ͡� � � � � Ҳ � �֪ ���� Ҫ � � һ � � � ˵ Ķ � � � � � � ɹ � � � Ч � ʱ � � 뾭���
ࡢϵͳ��ѵ��������һ���������������ʲô����������ܼ�� һЩ � � � � Ч
� � � ĸ ߵ���ͷ����ߡ�������������ȥȥæ � ò � � � �ֺ��ʱ������ 򣬣�вŻ ���˳���������
� � ν � � æ µ � � " � � � Ӵ � � � � � " � � � � � � һ � 𣬣��
�Щ � � ͷ � � � � � ȴ һ � � һ � � � ӡ � � � � � ջ � � � � � � � � Ȱ � � � � � � ꣬ ��� ʹ� � � � � � � �
� ˹ � � � � � �ܵ�� Ԣ�ԡ�
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ֪ʶ�� � � � � Ҫ � � � � Դ � � � � � ǣ �ֻ��������߸���ͨ � � � � � � ߸� � г � Ч � Ĺ
� � � � �ܽ���� Щ � � Դ ‫��ת‬Ϊ �ɹ � �ʵ � � Ŀ � � � � � ԡ�ľ �Դ����� � � �һ��� ���Ե ġ

� � � � Ϊ ʲ ô � � Ҫ ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � �
��� � � � � � � � � � � � ˵ �Dz � � Զ � � � ġ � � � � � � � � � �ʱ � � �� � й ‫�����ع‬鼮����
�¿ � ν � Ǻ � ţ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ӹ � � � � ߵ�Ч � � � � � ⣬ � � ⵽�Ϊ � ʲ�ô �
� � � � � � � � Ч � ʵ � һ � � � � � � � ǣ � Ч � �ֻ�ǻ� � ‫�ڲ‬һЩ ֪ʶ�� � � � ⼼�����-�ߵ
‫��ܡ��ڹ‬ȥ� � � � � � � � ֪ ʶ�� � � �߲�����̫�ࡣ
� � � � � � � � � � Ͷ � � ˵ � � � � � � � � Ҫ � �ֻ��Ч � ʣ � � �ֻ��Ҫ � а � � � � � � � õ � � � � �
� � У � � � � � � � Ҫ � � ȥ ѡ � � � � � � � Щ � � � 顣������
�Ͷ��� Ч ��� н �� ߷�������������� ‫�׼���ڹ‬ȥ� � һ � � � � � У � � � � � � Ѿ � ѧ �
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ͷ � � � Ч � ʣ � � � � � � 涨����������
�Ҫ � � � � ʹ � � � � � п � � � � � ÿ � � � ˵ IJ � � � � � ȵ � � � ӡ �
� � � � � ‫�ڹ‬ȥ� � � � � � � � � � � ˡ � � � � � � � � Dz � � � � � � Ĺ � � ˻ � � � � � ǰ � ߴ��̵�ʿ�
� � � һ � л � � ‫ﶼ‬ռͳ�ε�λ����ˣ�����Ҫ̫���Ч�ʵ��ˣ�ֻ������߲㷢�
�ʩ�����Щ�˲���ҪЧ�ʡ������‫���ڻ‬Ա������ֻռ��С��һ���֣������� Ƿ�վ��‫�ס‬ţ � � � � �
���ҿ � �� ԰�Ч ��Ƕ � � � � � �Ǹ� ʵġ � � � � � � ˵ � ͣ � " � ϵ � " � Ķ � ͣ� Ϊ � � �‫������ڸ‬

�������������Ѿ � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ҫ � � � � ǧ � � � � � � � � ѧ � � � Ķ � � �
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ҵ � ; � � � ‫�ڡ‬һ � � � � ǰ � � � � ϱ � ս � � ʱ � ‫� � "�ڵ‬
�" �ֻ �λ � � � ļ � � � � � � � � � ɣ � � � Խ � � � � � � � ˵ � �ֱ���������ġ � �ֿ���ͳ��
� � ս � � � �ֻ������50� � � �ְ��Ա�����о�����Ȳ���"�� ����"��Ҳ���Ǿ���
ߣ�����ֻ�DZ � � � Ա � � ͡� � � 1 9 0 0 � �ǰ � � � � ¶ ࡣ� � ˹ � � � � � � � � � ʱ ʱ ��ȫ �ȫ� � �� �� �� �� �� � ͳ
� � � � Ա � � � � - � � � � Ŀ Ҳ � � � � ̫� ֻࡣ ֻ Ҫ � � � � � � λ � ‫������ڹ‬ǰ� � ƺ � � � � �
‫���������ڶ‬칫 � � ¥ � � � ó � � κ � һ � � ¥ � � � � � � ǰ 칫� � ´� � � � � � ˡ �
� � � � � � ȥ � � ҽ Ժ � � � � û � � � κ � " � � � � � � � � ‫ר‬ҵ��Ա"��x�⼰���鼼��Ա��Ӫ��ʦ������
‫���ר‬Լ���Ṥ���ߵȵȡ����‫�ڵ‬ҽԺ��ҪΪÿ100���˹��ö ൽ 250 � � � � � � � � � � � � Ա � � �
‫�ڹ‬ȥ� � � � � ˼ � � � ʿ � ⣬ ҽ Ժ ֻ������ �๤� � � � ʦ� � � � Ů � �ֻ��ҽ���� � ֪ ʶ�� � � �
ߣ���ʿ� � � � � � � ǵ � � � �֡ ����� 仰˵ � � � � ȥ � � Ĺ
‫�����������ؼ‬Щ� � � � Ͷ � �߰���Ҫ � � ѻ � ɺ ã � � � � ֪ ʶ�� � � � � � ‫�ڵ‬ʱ�Ļ��ֻ�Ǽ � � � � �
� � � � ʵ � � � ϣ � � � � ‫�ڵ‬ � ֪ ʶ�� � � � � � �ֻ�м � С- � � � � � � � ‫�����ֶ�����﹤��ڻ‬Ϊ
‫ר‬ҵ��Ա�Լ���ҵӪ���һ��Ļ����Թ�һ�����Ա��æ�����ǹ���Ч�ʵĸߵ�����ֻ�
漰��Ӱ�쵽��� DZ � � ˡ �
� � � � Ȼ � � � � � � � � � Ͳ � ͬ � ˣ�� � � � � � � � Ǵ � � � � � � � � � � Ļ � � � � Ҷ � � � � й � ģ �
� �ִ�����Ǹ� � � � �֯�� Ĵ� � � � ᡣ��ÿ � � � � � ‫ �֪��ڣ��������ڲ���������ת‬ʶ�
� � � � ‫�������ߣ������ڹ‬Ҫʹ� ø � � � � ǻ ۣ����Ƿ���ļ�������ɵ�˫�֡ ���� Щ� �ܹ
����ģ � � � � � � � � ʹ � � � ֪ ʶ�� � � � ‫ۺ‬͸����� ˽ � � � � � ȡ � � � � � � Ҫ � � � � ��ܵ��� ˶�
� Ϊ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ‫��ڸ‬Ե����������Ϊ�������ʱ����������ͺܽ�Ч �ʡ �
� � � � � � � ‫��ڣ‬Թ���Ч��������Ҳ���ܲ�� ȡ�뵱
Ȼ��̬ � �� ˣ ���Ҳ�� �ܼ�������� ȡ�Ӷ���̬ ���ˡ�
��� � � � � � Ϊ � � � � Ͷ � � � � � � � � һ � � ǿ � � � Եļ� �ϵͳ� � � � � ӹ � � � � � Ƶ � � � � �
� � ơ � � � � � � � � � Ͷ � � ˵ � � � � � Ե ò � � � � � � � � ˡ � � � � ̲� � � � � ϵ � Ϊ һ � � � � · � �
� õIJ � Ʒ � � � � � � � Ư � � � ͼ ֽ � � � � � � � � ˷Ѽ�ֱ����˿�Ц � � � á � Ҫ � � � � � � � £ � � � � � � �
� � Ͷ � � Ե � � � Ч � Ĺ ‫�ؼ‬Ҫ � � � � � � � � Ͷ � � ij � � � � � � � � � � � Ͷ � � Ǿ � � � в � ͨ � ġ��
� � � � � � � � � ޷��� � ֪ ʶ�� � � � ߽� � � � � �ܺ�� ϸ�µļ ල�����ǿ � � � ԰ � � �� �� �� �ǣ ǣ� �� �� �� �� �
� � � DZ � � � � Լ � � � � � � Լ � � � � Ծ � � � � � � � � � � Ծ � � � � � � ‫��ף‬Ծ � � ‫����׷‬Ч �

� � � � ǰ Щʱ � � � � һ � � � � С � Ŧ Լ � ˡ � � � � � ‫�־‬ϣ�������һ �������������һ ��
칫 � ң � � � � � � � - � � �֣�����ֿ� ˹ � � � � ˾ � � � � �ܾ������ ˹ � � ʷ � � ˹ � � � � �
‫�ڵ‬ǽ� �ֻ����һ � � � � � � ӣ � � � � � � � д � Ÿ � " ˼ " �֡ ����� ‫ ڰ‬칫 � � � � � � Ǹ � � ˰ � �ֻ�Ÿ߸
‫ߵ ظ� ڰ‬칫 � � � ϣ������� 컨��������Ȧ������պ����λ������͵��˾�������һ����

� � � " � � ˵ ʷ � � ˹ � Dz � � � � � � ‫��ڿ‬Ƿ�����������⣿
� � � � ˵ ʵ � ‫ڵ‬ģ � � � � Ƕ � � ֪ ʶ�� � � � � � � � ‫���ڿ‬ʲô � � � � Ū � � � � � � � � Ȼ � � � � � � � � �
� � � � � � Ҫ � � Ĺ � � � � � � Ǿ � � � � � � � �ַ�ʽ����й���ġ�
� � � � ֪ʶ�� � � � ߵĹ � � � � ȡ � � � � � � Ĺ � � � Ч � 棬 ȡ�������‫������ڹ‬Ƿ�������ɾ͡�
� � � һ � � � ˵ Ĺ � � � ȱ � � Ч � 棬��ô � � � � � ù � � � � � � � �
‫ܿ�������׵‬ � ͻ����ˣ���ͻ���ÿ���9�㵽����5 � � � ʱ � � � � ˡ �
� � � � ֪ʶ�� � � � ߵijɹ� � � � � � � � � Ч � 档��
�Dz � � � � � � � � � ε IJ � Ʒ � � � � � � һ ˫ Ь � � ij � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ֪ ʶ�� � 뷨���
�Ϣ������Щ"��Ʒ"������ԣ����Dz�û���ô���ֻ�е � � � � � һ � � � � � � ֪ ʶˮƽ�� �˽
� � � Щ " � � Ʒ " � � Ϊ � Լ � � � � � � 룬����������
‫��ת‬Ϊ � � � ʱ � � � � � Dz Ż � � � � � � � � ļ �ֵ�����������˲ � � � � � ǻ ۣ������Ӧ�õ�ʵ
� � � � ȥ � � � � Ҳ ֻ�Ǻ � � � � � � � � һ � � � � � ϶ � � ѡ � � � ˣ � � ֪ ʶ�� � � �߲��ò � � � һ Щ � � � �
Ͷ�� ߴ������Ҫ � � � � � � 飬֪ʶ�� � � �߱��뽲����Ч �ʡ � � � � � �
޷�ʹ�Լ � � � � � � � Ʒ � � � � һ ˫ � Ƶ ú ܺõ � Ь һ � � � � � Ͼ Ϳ � � Ա � ʹ � á �
� � � � ʶ��֪ � � � � � � һ � � � � � � � " � � � � � � � " � � ͨ � � � � һ � � � ‫�أ‬һЩ � � � � � � � � � ŷ � �
� ձ � � � � � ߶ȷ�չ�����;���ʵ���ʹ�Լ���ò�������ǿ��Լ�������
� � � � � � � � � � ���ĵ ��ⷽ � �� �е � � � � � � � � � � � � Դ � � � � � � ӵ � �һͣ � � � � � � � ơ
� � � � � � � � Ľ � � � � к ܶ��д � � � �ĵ
‫��������ط‬Ͷ������ � � � � � � � � Ī �� � ġ �� � � � � �һ � � � � Ϊ �� � � �Ͷ� ʣ �
�� � � һ � � � � Ȼ � � ѧ � � � � IJ �ʿ � �
� ķ � 1 0 һ 20 � � � � Ԫ � � � � � Ͷ � ʡ � � � � � � � � � һ � � û � � ʲ ô � � � �ְҵ��� �ܵ Ĵ� ‫��ר‬Ҳ � � ķ
� 5 � � � � Ԫ � � � ϵ � � ʽ � � � � � Ψ � � ʮ �ָ�ԣ � � � � � � � �ܰ 쵽��� ¡�
��� � � � ˣ � � � � � � � � � � � � � һ � � � � � �  ԣ �Ĺ� � � �ӵ �е�һ� � � � � � � � � � ơ �
� � Ȼ � � һ � � � � �ܷ�� õ� � �ַ��ӣ � � �ȡ � � � � � ֪ ʶ�� � � � ߵĹ � � � � Ƿ � � ‫�ڳ‬Ч � � � ֪ ʶ�� � � �
ߵ������ʵ� � � Ͼ � � � � � � � � � � Ӧ � � ȥ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ҳ � � � � � � � ǵ Ĺ �
� �Ч � 档
�� � � ʲô � � � � � ˲���ǹ �ǹ ����� �
� � � � � � � ִ � � � ҵ��֯��  ÿ� �� ֪ ʶ�� � � � � � � � � � λ � �� ֪ ʶ�� � � �ܳ�� Ϊ" � � � � � � " � � � �
� �ܻᱻ���� ϸ���ĸ�λ������Ϊ���ƻ����������ͻ�óɹ�����Լ��Ĺ�� ‫� � � � � � � � ˵�������ס‬
� Ҳ � � � �ָ��ҵ�Ƴ�һ���²�Ʒ�������������ָռ�����г��‫���������ݶ‬Ҳ
� � � �ָһ � � ҽ Ժ � � � � � ṩ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ȵ ȡ � � � � � � � � � � 븺���
ߣ�����ֻ�ǹǹ� �˾�ǹ� ǹ �ָ������ е� � � � � � � ‫������������׵‬ѧʶԨ��
��� � � � Ϊ � � � � �ʺ � � � � ߹
���ġ � � � ľ � Ҳ � � ᱻ ȡ��Ҳ���ܻ������� н�ְ��ְ��������ֻҪ � � һ � 촦�
ߵ����‫�ڹ‬λ � � � ϣ � � � � � � Ҫ � � � � Լ � � � Ŀ � � ͱ � ‫������׼‬Ҫ � � � � Լ � � Ĺ � � ‫�ס‬
� � � � � � � � � � ľ � � � � ǹ � � � � ߣ�������Щ � � һ � � � ǡ � � ‫�������ڵ‬У � � � � Ǿ
� � � � � � Ա Ҳ � � � ‫�ڳ‬Ϊ � � � � � ߡ��������Ѿ �֪ ��� ġ � � � ȥ � � � � � У � һ Щ � Ӱ � � �
� � Ͷ � � Ļ � � � � Ҫ " � � � � " � � Ҳ � � Ҫ � � � � � � ‫׵� "ר‬ҵ�� ˲�"��� 𡢾�ߺͷ���ʩ�
��� � � � -
� � � Ҳ � � ɴ � � � �ֽ�ϵ �һƪ � ɷ ñ � � � � е õ � � �ֵ�˵ � � ɷ õĶ � � � � � һ λ � μ ӹ � Խ ս � � � � � � � �
�IJ � � � � � ξ � �
� � � � � � � м � � ߼� � � " � � � � �ֻ��ҵľ����£�������ô��ʹְȨ � ģ � " � � λ � � � � �
� � ξ � ‫ � � � � � � � � � "���ش‬ � �ֻ�Ǹ � � � � ˡ � � � � � � � � � � ‫�����������ڴ‬
�ȴ�ֲ ֲ�֪�֪������֪
� � � � � ô� 죬���
�ʱ��������̫ Զ��û���������Ǹ���ô�ж����ҵ �ְ����Ҫ � � � � � �֪ ������ ô � ж � � � � � � � �
� ô � ж � � � ȡ � � � ‫�ڵ‬ʱ�����ֻ���������Լ���жϡ�������Ȼ���ң�������ô
� � ȴ ȡ � � � � � ‫��ڳ‬ĸ � � ˡ � " � � � λ � ս � У � ÿ � � � ˶ � � � " � � � � � � " . Ҳ � � � � � � � � �
� Ա � � � � � ǹ � � � � ߡ�����˵ � � � � � � � � � � � � DZ � � ˵ � � � ˾ � � � � � � � � � � �
� � � µ � � � � � � � � � � 治�١���������Ի�����������������ܴ��� Ӱ�졣���쳧�
�Ĺ � ͷ � � � � � � � � һ � � � ˡ � � � ‫ݸ‬ôʵ� � � � � � � ˼ � � � � � Ǿ � � � " � ๤".� � � ˵ � � � � � �
"� � � � " � Ļ � � � � � � � � � Ϊ � � � ǹ � � � � � ˵ Ĺ � � � � � ǣ � � � � Ƕ Թ � � � ķ � � � � � � ‫ݡ‬
�����Լ�������û�����Σ�Ҳû�й�ϽȨ�������Ծɿ��� ԰�Чʺ������Ҫ���
�� � � � ǵĹ� � � � � м � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ƶ � � � � � � � � Щ � � � Լ � � � � � � � � � �
Ͷ�� ߵij߶ȶ�������Ȼ���á�
� � � � � � � � ෴��һ � � � ֪ ʶ�� � � � � � Ƿ � � ǹ � � � �߲���ȡ�������Ƿ������ˡ�һ����ҵ��һλ�г���
� � Ա � � � ¿ � �ܻ���� 200 � ˣ � � � � � һ � Ҿ � � � � � � � � ҵ � � � � г � � � � � Ա ȴ � �ֻ��һ �
ˣ � � � �ֻ��һ � � � � � 顣��Ϊ � � ҵ � � � � � � һ � � � ϣ � � � � � � � �֮ �� 䲻
Ӧ�ô���ʲô����˶�����ֻ����������ϵ �һ Щ ϸ � 200���‫ � ˵ �ڡ‬Ȼ � � � Ա � һ � � � ˹ � � � � �
ö࣬�����Ⲣ������˵200�˵�Ч����‫׿‬ ͹� � ϶�� � һ � � � ˵ Ĵ �
��� � � � � � � � Ͷ � � � � Ȳ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ҳ � � � � � � Ͷ � � � � � � � � � � � ж
ϡ��������Ͷ��ijɹ���ҪӦ��������ǿ���Ĺ�ģ�ж����߼� � � � ж � ߡ�
� � � � � ú ܶ������г � � � � в � � � � � Ҳ � � � � � � Ч � 棬���
�ʹ� � � � � � � Ϊ � � ̣� ʹ � � � � � � � ӷ ḻ � � ʹ � � � � � � � � � һ � � � � ߣ������ɻ��ù�˾��ǿ��
� ‫�ٷ‬չ� � ȡ � ó ɹ � � � DZ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 2 0 0 � � � ˹ � � � � � � ൱���˵ġ
� Ȼ � � Ҳ � � �ܻ �ܻᷢ����� һ � � � � � � � � � 2 0 0 � � � � һ � 鹤�
�ͻ����������⣬������Ƕ�����������������ô����ͻ ᱻ��Щ � � � �
Ū � ý � ͷ � � � 죬���
�æ � � " � � � � " � � Щ � � � ⣬ � � � � Ͼ � � � г ˼ � � � У � � � � Ҳ � � û � � � � � � κ θ � � Ե ľ � ߡ�
��Ҳ � � � � � æ � ‫ ���� ֡����˶ں‬û � �ʱ � � � � � � � " � � � ǵ � � г � " � � � � � � ô � � � ˡ � � �
� � � � � � � � £ � � � Ҳ � � � � � � � г � � � һ Щ � ‫�ش‬仯����ǡǡ � � � � � � Щ � 仯��
� � � � � � Ȼ � � � � � � � � ‫��ڵ‬г � � � � � � � Ա Ҳ � � � � Ч � � � � � � ͳ � Ч � � � �֮ �����
�Ҳ � � �ܳ�� Ϊ֪ʶ�ͷḻ�� � � � � � Ȫ Դ � � � � � � � � Ĺ � ˾ � � � � � � � �� �� � ߣ���Ứ�ܶ�� ʱ��ȥ�� Ѱ һ Щϸ�
‫ �ڣ‬һЩ � � ѧ � � � � � � � � Ϊ � � � о � � ɹ � � ϸ �
‫�����ڣ‬г � � � � � ȴ � � ȡ � Ӷ � � � � � � ŵ � ̬� ȣ � � � � ‫����ڿ‬Խ������� �Ǿ͸ ̸�����ˡ �
� � � � � ‫�������ڴ‬Ͷ�� Ļ ��  ����һ Щ � 䲻������˵ � ȴ � ǹ � � � �
ߵ��ˡ � � � � Ǻ � � � � ҵ � � � һ � � � � � � Խ � ϴ � � � � � � � � � � � ӣ � � � � � � � � � � � £ �
� � � � � е � � κ � һ Ա � � ʱ � � � � Ҫ � � � ij Щ � � � � � � � ˵ � � � � � � � � ‫ص‬ľ � � � � ʵ � � � � �
﹤� � � һλ � � ѧ
‫���������ר‬Լ�̽���˼·����������������ʱ����Ҳ���������һ��
� � ҵ � � ߣ�����һ � � � Ҳ � � � � � � � ˾� δ �� 𵽾 ��Ե� �ԵӰ��Ӱ � 졣�
�Ҳ � � � � ʵ � � � ҵ � � � � Σ � � � Ҳ � � � �ֻ��һ � � � � � � � � Ļͨ ͨ � � � κ ʦ ι� � � � � � � ͨͨѧ � � �
� �Ρ ͬ� ĵ � δ
ͬ �Ľ �� ij � � � Ӳ � � �ֲ � Ƕ��Ʒ���
� � о��ߣ�������ǹ �� ˾ �߼� � � ��ܲ õ�ְ�𡣵�
�ǣ � � � � ʽ � dz � � Ҳ � � � � � � � � � � � � � ľ � ‫���ߡ��ڽ‬Ĵ � � �  � � � � � � � � � � � � � ˵
� ż � �ʵ ġ �
� � � � � ҽ � � � Щ ֪ʶ�� � � � ߡ������Լ�‫ר‬ҵ��Ա���� � ֮ Ϊ" � � � � � � " � � � � � � � � � ǵ ĵ
�λ � � � ֪ ʶ�� � � � � � � � � � � � � � ‫���������������ڹ‬Ч � � � � � � Զ Ӱ � � ľ � ߡ���
���� � ֪ ʶ�� � � � � � в � � � ռ � � � � � � � Ϊ � � � � Ͷ � � � � � � � һ Щ � � � � һ � � �ܻ���� һ � � � � �
ճ������Եġ�����Ҫʲô��� �ܵ Ĺ � � � � � � � ֪ ʶ�� � � � � � У � � � � � � � � � � � � � õ � � � � � � ʵ �ʱ � � � �
� � � Ҫ � � � � � � � κ � һ � � � � � � ı � � � ߵöࡣ
� � � � � � � � � ѿ � ʼ � � ʶ � � � � һ � 㡢��Ҳ � � � Դ Ӳ � � ‫پ����ר‬ҵ��Ա����
‫ܵ����������׺‬ � � � � Ӳ � � õ � � � � � � � һ � � � ϳ �ַ�ӳ� � � � � � � � � Ŀ ǰ Ϊ ֹ � � � � � � � � � � һ � � � �
��� � � � � � � � � ˻����̫ � ̫ ࣺ ��� ʹ� � � � � � ƽ � � � Ļ � �  � � � � � ж � � � � � � � � � � �
� � һ Щ � ‫�ش���ֲ�����ת‬ľ� ߣ���ʵ�� � ֪ ʶ��Ȩ � � �ְ���� Ȩ � �� � �Ǻ ͬϷ � � ġ � ‫ר‬ҵ��Ա���ľ�
��� � � ߹
���������ľ
� � � � � � � � � � �� �‫��������֪��ڶ‬
� �Ӧ� � � �ǻ һ �� 㾭��Ҳ
� ġ � � �� ���������ǿ �빫˾� �ն��ܲ û � �� �������� � Ҫ � ۵ 㡣��
‫ͬ��������ع‬ � � Ĺ� � � � � ƻ � � � � �֯���� ‫ۺ‬ϣ�����ԣ��ⶨ�����Ч � � � � 㾭��
�Ͻ � ķ � Χ Ҳ � � � ൱���‫ְ��������ޣ‬Ȩ � � Χ ֮ � ‫���ڣ‬ȷȷʵʵ����һλ�����ߡ�
�����
ͬ ͬ � � � � ÿһλ � � � � � � � � � � � � � 빫˾� �ܲ û � � � � � �
‫ͬ������������������ظ‬ � ͬ ģ� � � � ͬ �ֻ��ǰ � ߵľ � ߷�ΧҲ � � � ൱���‫��������ޡ‬
���ֺ͹ � Ͻ � � Χ û � г � � � � ‫ ���ͼ�ڻ‬ϣ ����‫��ڲ‬ĵ 绰���
�Ҳû � � � � � � � �֣������ ȷʵҲ��һλ�����ߡ�
� � � � � � ˣ � � � � � � � � ǵ � һ � � �ֻ��dz � � է � � � � � � �֣�������� Ҫ � � � � � � �
�Ч �ʡ �
��� � � � � � � � � � � õ � � � � � � � Ӷ � � � � � � � � � � � ӡ � ҽԺ � � � � ҵ � ȵ � λ� � � � Ҫ
� � � � � ˵ Ĺ � � � ; � � 顣������ĺô � � � � � Щ � � � ϳ � � � � ‫����ڹ‬ļ � ¼ � � � м � �
‫˱���أ‬Ƚ����‫�׻‬á � � � � ⣬ � � � � � � � � Ҫ � � С � � � � � � � ‫ � � � � �˵�������׷‬⡣
� � � � Ȼ � � � � � � � ۵ IJ� � � � Ǹ � ߲ ��ԱҪ��ʲô�����ʲô�����⡣������Ϊ��Щ�Դ‫����ٽ‬Ч � � ‫�ת‬
����ж � � ; � � � � � ε � � ֪ ʶ�� � � � � � � д � ģ � � � ‫��ר‬Ϊ � � Щ � � � ҳ � � ֮ Ϊ" � � � � � � " � � � �
� �д �ġ �
��� � � � � � � � ߱ ����Ե���ʵ
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ‫�ٵ‬ʵ� � � � � � ǣ � � � Ҫ � � � � �ְ��Ч � � � � � � � � � ú � � � �
� � � һ � 㡣������ܿ������� ‫׿‬
�г � Ч � � � ¹ � � �򣬷 �� �Ļ� � � � � � � � � � � �ʹ� � � � � � κ � � � � 顣
� � � � Ϊ � ˸ � õ � � � � � � � � � � ⣬ � � � � � � � � � � � � » �֮ ���� �֪ ʶ�� � � � � � � � ʵ �ʻ� �
� � � � Ӵ � � � � � ˵ � � һ � � � ‫�ڿ‬ҽ��Ͳ����й���Ч�ʵ����⡣�������ҽ��ʱ���
��Ѿ � ߱ ��ʹҽ � � �ַ���֪� ʶ�� Ч � õ �һ � � � � � ‫��ء‬벡���
��һ � � � � Ƕ � ʱ � � � �ҽ �� ͨ � ͨ� � � � � � � ų � һ � и � � š � � � � Լ � � � ȫ � � � � � � � � � � ‫�ڲ‬
�����ϡ�����ϣ��ҽ����ʲô����һĿ��Ȼ�ġ����������Ƿ���Ҫ�����
� � � Χ � � � Ų � � � � � � � Կ � � ǡ � ҽ � � � ‫ � � � � � � � � ˵��ݲ‬ʲ ô � � � � � � � � ʲ ô � � � Ի �
һ � � � � ҽ � � � Ŀ � � ʮ � � � � ȷ � � �ָ����˵Ľ � � � � � � � � � � � � ‫ٱ���������ʹ��ڿ‬ ࡣ �ʹ � � � � � � � � �‫�ٱ‬ҽ
� � � � Ҫ � � ʲ ô � �֯����������� Ǻ � � � � � � � � � � ‫���ڹ‬Ч � � � ϻ � � ʲ ô ë � � � �
� � � � � � � � ‫��ڲ‬Ĺ � � � � � � � � � � � -
�� � �ȫ �� � ͬ Ĵ� � � � �� � � �
� ��
� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� Լ� �Լ �� �� �� ϶� �϶ �� � ͨ ޷����ơ���Щ�
ͨ
ͬ
� � � ǻ � � � � � � � � � � � � � ɵ ģ � � � � � � � ճ � � � � � � Ƿ ֲ� � � � ġ � � � � � � � � � Σ � �
� �ò � � � � � Щ � � � ɱ � � � � � � � � � � � � Ȼ � � ÿ � � � � � � � � � ʩ � � ѹ � � � � � � � �
� � � � � � � Ч � � ʹ � � � � ‫���ת‬顣
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � ǣ � 1 . � � � � � ߵĹ� � � ʱ � � � � � �ֻ���‫��ڱ‬ˣ� � � � � � � � Լ �
��� � � � � � ҵ � �Ľ Ƕ ȸ � " � � � � � � " �¸ � � 壬
�Dz � � ò � � � � � � � � ߶����" � � � � � ͽ " . ÿ � � � ˶ � � � � � � � � ռ � � � � � ʱ � 䡣������߱
���Դ � ȴ � Ե ú � � �ް 취����� ‫�޷����ڿ‬ҽ������������ͷȥ�Ի�ʿ˵���"�
‫�����ڽ‬İ � Сʱ ��  � 벻 Ҫ � � � � � � � � � � ҡ � " � � � � �߰칫 � � � ϵĵ 绰��һ � 죬�� ͵� � � � � 绰�
빫ͨ ˾ͨ� � � � Ҫ � ͻ ��ͨ ��� �Ҫ� � � � � � � � � ĸ �
߼� � � Ա � � � Լ � � � � � ˾ ˵ � � � � � � � � � ǣ � � � � � � � İ � � С ʱ � � � � � � � ˡ �
� � � � 2 . � � � � � � � � � � � Ȱ � � � " � � һ � ‫װ‬취" � �չ � � � � � � � � � Ǹ � �
‫�ڲ‬ȡ�ж���ı�������Χ��һ�С�
��� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ı � Թ � � � � ˾ � �ܲ û� � � � � � � ߼� � � � � � � Ա � Ծ � �
‫�����򹤳ڹ����ۻ‬Ȼ����� ‫��������ڸ‬ҵ����Ӧ��ʱ�仨������
�ҵ������Ч���ϡ���ʱ�����ǽ���һ����֮ �������������� һ � � � � �
�Ĺ � � � � � Ա �
ͨ ͨ����Ǵ �ְ�� ���ܲ
� ŵ � ‫ר‬ҵ��Ա���������ģ������‫ڵ������ۺ‬Ϲ
� � � � � � κ 󲢲 � � � � � � ϶ � � � � � Щ � � � � � � ɵ � ϰ � ߡ�������һЩ � � � � � � � � � ȫ �
�ͬ� Ĺ � � � � ���ı� � Ҳ � � � � � � � Ƶ  Թ � � � � �
ͬ 磬����
�ն�������Ϊ��Ĺ���ͨ� �߲
�ͨ����ְͨ
ͨͨ λ� � � � � � ͨ � � Ǻ � � � � � � 鴦����Ϊ � � � � � ﹤
� � � � ˶ � � � � � � � � � Ȥ � 㷺�Ķ� � � �֡ �� Ȼ������ ‫ڵ‬
¹� � � ʿ � ͺ � � � � һ Щ � � �˾Ҳ�� � ǿ � � � � Ը ߲������ʿֻ‫����ץ‬ҵ��‫���������ץ‬
�������������������ֻ 򻹲� � � � ����� ֻ� � � � ‫ڸ‬ ߲ ���У� � ‫������ڸ‬Ա���ձ��������������� 󡣲��
� � � � � � � � � � � ˹ � � � � � Ա � � � � � � � � � � � ˵ � ϰ � � � � �֮ �� ⣬һ���������
�ԭ � �
� � � � � � � � ԭ � � � � � � � ‫����������ڹ‬ʵ� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ı � � � һ �
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � ǰ � � � � � � � һ � � � Ҫ � ɵ � � � � 飬������æ � � � � Ͼ � � ˡ �
� � � � � � � ‫�ڿ‬ҽ���˵��Ҫ�ɺð�����ǰ��һ��������Ǻ���ġ�����һ�����
ҽ��ͻ�̧��ͷ��ʵ��"�������ô���"���Dz��ͻὫ� ˾ͻὫ � й ‫������ص‬ҽ������
� � � � � ˵ � � � " ҽ � � � � ˯ � � � ž � � � � � � � � � � � ‫�ڶ‬û � � ˯ � ù � " � � � � � � Ҫ � � ҽ � �
� ˽ � � � � � � � Ҫ � � � � �  � � ʹ �� �ļ ��һ � � � ʹ ͨʹ 飬 ҽ����ʧ��ֻ�Dz � � ˸ � Ϊ � � �
‫�����ؼ‬һ�ִ�Ҫ֢‫�״‬Ļ � � � � � � � Ҳ � � � ȡ ij �ִ�ʩ���Ա��ò����ܰ�� ˯ � � � � � � � ϡ �
� � � � � � � ǹ � � � � � � � � � � ‫�ٵ‬һ � � � � � � � ȴ � � � ‫������ٸ‬κ � � � � � � ˵ � � � �
� �ʾ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ˡ � � � ҽ � � � ˵ � � � � � ˵ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ģ
� � � Ϊ � �ֱ�ӹ�ϵ�����˵�ʹ������������Ե����Ҫ��ҽ���ӵöࡣ� � Щ � � � � � � � � Ҫ � ģ � � ǹ � � � �߱
���ȥ� � ģ � � � Щ � � � �ֻ���ɢ � � � ‫��������ע‬Dz � � � � � һ Ŀ � � Ȼ � ġ � � � � � Ҳ � �
��� � � � � � � � �֢‫�����״‬Ϊҽ���ṩ����
��� � � � � � � � � � ߱ ӭ������һ������������ң�һͷ�������������ͻ � � � � ͻ
� � � Լ � � � ʱ � � � � ĥ � � � � Щ � � � � � � � � � � � 档�
�Ҳ � � � Ǹ �ܳ���� ˲š � � � � � � � һ � � � � �ܿ ϶�� � �ܷ������� ã � � � ԭ � � � � � � ȡ
� ֪ ʶ�Ͳ � �
� õ � һ ЩЧ � � Ҳ � � ɥ ʧ � � � � � � � � � � Ҫ � � � � һ Щ � � ‫���׼‬԰ � � � � � ʶ � � � � Щ � � � � � �
��� � � � � Ҫ � � � � Щ � � � � � � � ԰�Ч �� �� 棬��Щ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
‫���������ף‬һ � � � � � � � � м � � � � ޷��ҵ���Щ��‫��׼‬
� � � � 3 . � � � � � � � ù � � � � � ɥ ʧ � � � � Ч � ʵ � � � ʵ � � � � � � � � Ϊ � � � � � �֮ �� ‫���ڡ‬
Ҳ� � � � ˵ � ֻ е � � � � � � � ʹ � � � � Ĺ � � � ʱ � � � � Ĺ � � � Ż � � � Ч � 档��֯��
�ʹ� � � � � � � �ֵ��-� � �ֶΣ � � � � ˵ � � ֪ ʶ-
� � � � � �֯������ գ���Ϳ��Գ�Ϊ���� � ֪ ʶ�� � � � � � � ù � � � Ķ � � � � � � Դ � � � � � � � � � ԰����
� �ǿ � � � � � � µ � � � � � � � � � ֪ ʶ�� � � � � ͨ � � � � � � �ܲ���� һ � µ � � � һ � � � � � � Ϊ � � �
Ǹ� � � � � ֪ ʶ�� � �
� � � � � � � Ǹ � � ˶ � � � � Լ � � � ‫���������ר‬Լ������顣
�е � � � Ҳ � � � ˰ � � � � � Ȥ � � � е � � ˻ � � � � � � � � ϸ � � ѧ � � Ҫ � � � Ͷ � � � ѵ δ � � и � � � �
� � Ҫ � � Ա � � � � � 顣��������‫ ڰ‬칫 � � � � һλҲ � �ֻ�Գ ɱ � � � � � е � һ Щ ϸ �
‫���ڸ‬Ȥ������ֻ������ҽԺ�ľ�Ӫ���Ҫ��ֻ�������䲼�����
�Ȩ � ĺ Ϸ � � � � � � � � � � ж � � ӡ � � � � Ǹ � � ˶ � � � Ҫ ʹ � ñ � � ˵ ij ɹ �
� � � � һ � � ˵ � � � � � � � � � ߵĹ � � � Ч �ʹ � ϵ � � � � � е � � � � � � � � ǹ � � � � � � � � �ֱ�ӿ
��Ƶ � �ˣ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ﹤
� � � � ˡ � � � � �֯�� ĽǶȿ�������ֻ��" � � � � � ŵ � � � Ա " � � � � � � � � � � � ǹ � � � � ߵ��ϼ
� � � � � ǹ � � � � � � � � � � ȥ � Ӵ � � � Щ � ˣ � ʹ � Լ � � � � � Ĺ � � ‫ܷ����������׶‬ � � � ij� � � �
� ã � � � � � � � � � ߾Ͳ� � � � � ʲ ô � � � � Ч � � � ̸� �
�� � � 4. � �� 󣬹 �� � � � � � � � �֮֯�� ‫ڣ�����֮֮֯���ޡ‬ ��‫ڣ‬�ܵ����������
� �����֯
� � � � ҵ���о�
� � � � � � � ‫���ء‬ѧ���ǿ վ���������ǰ���֯�� ‫ � � � � � � � ¿����ڲ‬ʵ � � ʺ � � � �� �
Ҫ � � � � ʵ � � � � � � � Ҫ � ۲�������Ļ� � � � � Ҳ � ֻ �������ͨ
� � � � � һ� �� ͸�õ ��� һ ЩŤ � �
� ˵ � � � � � � � � � � � ‫���ڷ‬ʲô� � � � � � � ߺ��ѵõ � � � һ �ֵ����������˽ � � � � �
� � � � � � �� ��ͨ ����� �֯��‫��ڲ‬ı� � 棬��Щ� � � 澭����‫ۼ‬ӹ����ѽ���֯��
‫���ڲ‬һЩ � � ‫׼‬ǿ � Ӹ � � � � Ŀ ͹ � � � � � � � � � ÷ dz � � � � �
� � � � � � � � � � ֯������Ǹ � � � � ĸ � �  � � � � ѧ � Ƕ � � � � � � � �ֻ���һ � � 㣬�
�û � д � С � � Ҳ û � � � � � 졣���������ʵ� � � � � � Ƚ ϣ � � � � � � � � � � � �֯ Ҳ � � � Ե � � � � �
‫���׽‬
� � � � � � � � � ˵ � � � � � �֮֯��‫ ��֮֯����������������ڲ‬⡣���磬ֻ
�е � � ͻ � Ը � � � � � � Ĺ � � � � � � � � � � � ҵ � IJ � Ʒ � � � � ʱ � � � ͻ � � 㽫�
�ij ɱ � � Լ � � � ҵ � � Ŭ � ‫��ת‬Ϊ � � � � � � � � � � � ˣ � � � ҵ � � Ψ һ � � � � � � � ͻ � � � � � Ҫ �
� � � � ġ � � ͻ � � Ǵ � � � � � ߵ�����������г � � Ĺ � � � � ϵ � � � � � ߵġ � � � � ͻ � � � �
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ͻ � � ‫��ڻ‬ϲ � � � � Ǿ � � ü �ֵ��ǰ � � � � � � � ‫����ڹ‬ϵ � � � �
� � � � һ � � � � � � � о � ߡ�������һ � � � � � � � � ߶�����ҵ�� ⲿ�ģ������ҵ� ‫ڲ‬
����ˡ �
� � � � ҽ Ժ � � � � � Ľ � � � � Ҫ � � � � � ‫������ڲ‬ϣ����������������µġ���
� � � � � ƻ� �� ��һ �˲ ���β Ա � � � � � � � � � � � � � ҽʱ � � ҽԺ � � � � � � " � ˵� � ü�
� � � � � " � ģ � � � � � � � � Լ Ը � � � Ǿ � � � � � � � � � 뿪 ҽԺ���‫�ص‬ԭ�ȵĴ����ȥ��
� � � � � � � � ֯�‫ ͳ � � ˹���ֻ������ڲ‬ɱ � � � � � � � ϲ � � ̸� � � � ̸ҵ� � " � � � � � � � � " �
� � �ֻ������һ�ֳ�����ò � � � ǵ � ί � � � � � � ѡ � � �֯������� ʵ� ֻ ��˹ � � � � ġ � Ϊ
� �ʵ �ּȶ���Ч�������֯���� ò� � � � � � � � Խ � ٣���ĩ � � Ĺ � � � Ч � ʾ � Խ � ߡ����Ҫ � � 1 0
� � � � � � � � � г � � � Ҫ � � � � � � � � � � Ӹ � � � ˵ � Dz ߻� � ϵ � � � � � ʧ � � � � ҵ � � � � �
� Խ � ١���ģԽС���‫��ڲ‬Խ���‫����ޣ‬  �֯��� Խ�ӽ����������֯���� ‫�ڵ‬Ψһ � � � ɾ � � � Ϊ � � Χ �
�� � �ṩ � � õķ � � �
��� � � � һ �� ⲿ�ǽ ����� � � � � ���� � � � ‫���ٵ‬ʵ� � � � � � � � � � ‫�����ڲ‬һ
� � � � � � � � � � Ч � � � � � Ǻ � � � ѵ ģ � � � � � � Ҳ ֻ������������湲ͬ� ͬͬͬͬͬͬͬͬͬͬͬͬͬ
��òŻ � � � � � � � � 磬
ս������������������ǵж�˫���� ȡ � ж��;��Լ�������ҵ����� � ǿ ϣ��ͨ������Լ����� �ֶ��Ӱ��˿͵ļ�ֵ��
�����
� � � �Ʒ�� ѡ ��� 񡣳� ˳ ����ս ʱ����������Ʒ����ƶ���ľ���� ⣬�˿���Ȼӵ�����ľ�Ȩ�Լ�����Ч�ķ��Ȩ����
� ǣ � � Թ � � � � � � ˵ � � � � � � � � � � � � � ǻ � � � ‫���������������ڲ����ڲ‬
Ҫ � � � ǵ ģ � � � � � � ‫��ڲ‬Ĺ � ϵ � � � � � � � � � � � � � ս � � � � � � ʱ � � � � � � � ‫��ڲ‬IJ ͬ ͬ ��
� � � � � � � � �  � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ŭ � � � � � ʹ � Լ � � � � � 籣��ֱ
�ӵ � � ϵ � � � � � � � � ͻ � � � � ‫�������ڲ‬Խ��Խ���������ֻ���
‫ְ�ڲ����������ڻ��ڵ‬λԽ�ߣ���Խ���‫���ױ��ڲ‬һЩ � � � � � � � ս � � � � � � � Խ � � � �
� ‫������׿‬ķ�չ � � �
� � � � � � ֯�Ǵ � � � � � � � �֮ �� � е �һ � � � ˹ �ͬ� �Ʒ� � � � � � � � � л � � � � �ȫ �� � � ͬ� Ȼ � � �
ͬ �� � Ҳ Ҫ � �ܵ �֧�� 䶯��ֲ������������ɵ� � �Լ � � � � � � � 뾶�
�ƽ � � � ɱ � � � � � � � � � � � 뾶������ɱ � � � � � � � � � Խ � � � � � � � � ĵ � � � Դ Ҳ � � Խ � ࡣ
� � � � � � � ‫��ͳװ‬ÿ�����ʱ�����ܸ󻷾������� �ֱ�ӵĽӴ � � � � � ˣ � � � � � Ҫ � κ γ � �
� � � � � ȥ � � � � � Χ � Ļ � � � � � � � � Լ � � ĸ � � � � � � һ � 塣���
�һ � � � � � ӵ Ķ � � ��ˣ � �һ��� � � � � Ҫ � � һ � � � � � � Ĺ Ǽ � � Ӳ � �ܽ����� �֧�����
�������Ҫ � � �ָ�������������������պ � � � � � ɺ � � � � ɢ � � � � � ‫��ܣ‬
������ȫ�����֯���������ֳ� ȵȡ�����Ҫ��������Ҫ������Լ���ิ�� ӵ � � � ϵ ͳ � � � �
� ‫�ͳװ‬Ļ����������ͷ�ֱֳ���йߵ���‫أ‬ȶ���ľ���ֻ��壬�������������
�ʳ � ﹩ Ӧ � � � � � � � Ӧ � Լ � � � � � � �֯������� Ϊ � ˷ � � ṹ � ĸ � � � � Լ � �ֲ������ĸ � �
�� �ġ�
� � � � � � ֯�����‫���������ﲻͬ�����ڲ‬Ŀ � ģ � � � � ʹ �� ʹ෱�ܲ ͬ ���Ҳ � � � � ɹ � � � � � � �
� � � � һ � � � � ٣���Ӧ����ɵ���Ϊ��绷������Լ��Ĺ��
‫�ס‬Ȼ����� �Խ� � Խ �����Ͽ�Խ�Խ 󣬱� Ļ �ɹ � � � � � � ô � � � ‫�����ڲ‬Ҳ � � � ø ࣬ ��� Щ
� � � � � � п � �ܻ�� ռ�‫��߸����ݹ‬ľ � � � � � � Ȥ � Ͳ � � ‫����ܣ‬ջ�ʹ���޷��˼ � � Լ � � � �
� � � � � � � ޷�Ϊ � � � � ṩ � � Ч � ķ � � �
� � � � � � � ‫��ڵ‬Ժ���Ϣ����ij��֣�������� һ � � � � � � � ‫��ڱ‬Խ��������ʰ������
� � ǻ � е � ‫׳‬գ�ֻ�� ����ܴ
� � ɱ � � � � � � � � � ϣ � � � � Ҵ � � � � � � � � � ١���ȷ�����‫����ٷ‬
����ˣ � � � � � � � � � � � ṩ � � � Ϊ ֹ � � δ � � ù � Ĵ � � � � Ϣ � � � � � Ǵ � � � � � � � � � � � � ˵
� � � Ŀǰ �ֻ �����‫�����ڲ‬Ϣ������ɱ���������‫�ݡ‬ҽԺ�й‫�� ֡� � � � � ͳ � ˵��ز‬
��ѵ � � � � ȵ ȡ � � � � � � � � ⲿ�й � � � �ȱ� ‫��ٿ‬õ � � � � � � ʽ � � � � � δ � � � ‫����ڼ‬
�ϼ��Դ�������ʱȴ������Ϊʱ̫ ���ˡ�
��� � �� ⵹ � � �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� � Ƕ � � � � � � Ѽ Ѽ � � � � � � � � � � ‫����ڼ‬ļ�
� Ϣ ��� �
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ļ � � � � ǵ � � � � ˣ � � � � � � �ֻҪ � � ǿ ͳ � ƹ � � � � � � � ˣ � �
��� � � �� ԰�Ч �� � � � � � ‫ � � � ˷ؿ‬һ � � � � � � ԡ� ǣ �� � � � � � � � � � Щ��Ҫ��
� � � й � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ʵ ķ � � 棬�
�ȴ� � � Ա � � � � � � � � � ǻ � � � � � " � � ʵ " . � � Ϊ " � � ʵ " � � � DZ Ͼ � � � � � ij � ˶ � � 岢����
�ġ � � ‫����ر‬ѱ�������ij �ֹ���ԡ � � ‫���������ڶ‬ǰ� � � � � � � � � � Ҫ � � һ � � � � 
� � � � � � Ҫ � � � � � � � � � � � г � � � � ij � � � � 巽�
�ĸ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �ܶ������ м � � 㡣
� � � � ʹ � � � � � � ష����ɵı � � � � � � - � � � � � ӣ � � � � � � � � � � � ̥� � Ļ � � Ρ � � ̥ȵ� ŷ �
޴�½� � ҽ � � � � � � Գ �ֵ�ͳ֭���ֿ�ʼ � � ʶ � � � � � � ̥ � � � � � � � Ѵ � � 󳬹 �� �� �� �� �� � ʱ� �ʱ �� �� �� �� � Dz
ž� � � � � � һ � � � � ʲ ô � � � � � � � ԭ � � 򡣵 �� � ʱ
� �� ���̫�� ʶ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ̫� ԣ
� � ˣ � � � Ϊ � � � Ѿ� � � ɡ � � � � � � � � û � з � � � � � � � � 𺦣
� � � � � � � Ϊ һ λ � � � ҽ Ժ � � ҽ � � � � һ � � � ʵ ı 仯����
�ô � ҩ � � � � � � һ � � � � � ΢�Ƥ С � � �ʹ � ������� �һ������ � � � � � � � � � � ¼
� � ϵ � � � � � � � � � � � � ‫�ڸ‬ҩ � � � 㷺 ʹ�� � ֮ ǰ� � � � � � � � � � � � ˾�ӡ ��ӡ�
� � � � � � � ֹ� ˾ �İ � � � � � � � � һ � � � � � Ƶ � � � � ӡ � � � � Ƴ � � � � ǰ � � � � � Ѽ � � � һ
� � �ܹ��� õ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ϡ � � � Щ � � ‫ � � ˵��ݳ‬ʱ � � � ǽ � � ˳ � � � � � � г � � �
� � � ʱ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ‫������������ڹ‬Ʒʱ�����ǵ��뷨� Ƿ��ѳ������ʵı
仯���Ƿ��Ѵӿ�������‫�ת‬䵽ֻ���ǵ���Ȥ�밮��� ˣ� ͳ � � � � �ֲ�û � ж Դ � � ṩ � � ˵ � � � � �֤ ��
‫��ݡ‬ȵ����˳����‫ � � ˵���ݿ‬ʱ � � ȴ � Ѿ � ̫� � � ˣ � � � � � � � ͳ � � ̫Ѿ � Ͷ � � � г � � � � � � � � �
��� � � �ʧ � � � ˡ �
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ҫ � IJ � � � � � � ䷢չ � � � � 򣬶 �� �е � � һ � � � � � һЩ � 仯
����Ϊ � � Щ � 仯���վ � � � ˻ � � 乤��ijɰ ‫�������ܡ‬ı 仯������Ҫ � � � � � � � ȴ � ޷������㡢�
������ࡣ�����������������Щ � � ‫˾�ݣ������ع‬Ϊ � � � � � � ͳ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
� � � �ʵ � � � � � � Ѳ � � � һ � ¡ �
� � � � � � � � � � � һ � � � ߼� � Ժ � ǿ � Ļ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ‫�����ڣ‬Ҳ � � � �
�� �� ˾ � � � � ԡ� �� �� �� �� �� �Ҫ � Ҫ� �� �� � � ޷��Լ������Խ��ܵ���� ʽ�����ȥ�����˵��߼� � �
� � Ȼ � � � dz ֱ� ǿ � � � � � � � в � � � � ԣ � � � �� �� � � � � � � � ˵ ‫�ڡ‬
� � � � Σ � � � � � ‫���߶����ڹ‬Щ � в � �ܱ�������� ߼���������������ܵ � � � Ϣ��
�ܲ�� ȡ��мһ�˵�̬ �ȡ�������Ҳ���ֻ������ʵ� � � � � � � Щ � � � Բ � � � � � ı 仯
ȴ�Ӷ � � � � � � һ � � � � � � � ļ � � � � � � Ϣ � � � � � ʹ � � � � � � � � ʵ � ʸ � � 뿪���
� � � � � � � � � � � DZ � ‫������ڵ‬õĹ � � � � ߣ��������ʹ� � � � � � � � ʶ � � � � �ָ�
�룬����� Ǵ� �
‫������ڲ‬н � � ѳ � � � � � � � � � � ʱ � � ; � � � � � � � � ⲿ�̬ ķ� չ�ϡ � � � � ǣ � � ‫�ڵ‬ǰ � �
��� � � � � � " � � � " � ֻ ᴦ���‫�����ڲ‬ļ � � � � � Σ � գ � � Լ � � � � һ � � � � � � �֮ ����
�Ҫ � � � � � Ҳ � Ǻ � � ѵ ġ �
� � � � � � � � � ֻ�� ��ܷ ӳ�Ѵ � � � � � � � ǰ � � � � � � � � � �߳������β � � ò � � ‫���ڻ��ڲ‬͹ �
� � � � ˣ � � � ǹ � � � � � � � � � � ȥ � ˽ � � � � � � � � � � � � ‫ � �ʹ��������ڲ‬æ � � � � Ͼ
�˼ � � � ⲿ���ʵ �� ʵ��
� � � � � � � � � � � � ʵ � � � � � ǹ � � � � � � ޷��ı � ġ � � � � � � ǹ � � � � � � � � � � � ı � Ȼ
� � � � Ȼ � � � � � �߱�����ȷ���������Ŭ���ȥ ѧ ϰ������Ч�ʣ�Ҫ����Ĺ������������ �ġ� ͽ
� � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � �ǰ � �
� � � � � � � � � � � Ч � � Ҳ � � � Ǵ � � ȸ � � ƹ � � � � ߹���Ч � � ȡ � ø � � ɼ � � � ʹ � � � �
‫̶��������ﵽ‬ȵ�Ψһ���еİ 취��
�� � � � � � ǵ � Ȼ � � � �ʹ �ø� � � � � � � � ǿ � � � 룬
Ҳ� � � �ʹ � � � ֪ ʶ�� � � � � ˡ � � � � � � ҵ ó � � ϡ � � � � � � � � � � � � û � � ̫ � � �DZ � � � � � � ‫������򣬹ھ‬
ͻ ͻᷢ�֣������������ ͼ��һ�������
Ǿ �ܰ 쵽��
�£ � � � � � � � � � � � һ � � ԭ � � � � � � � � � � � � � ¡ � ͼ � � � Dz � � � � � Ϊ � � ‫����ר‬
���һ � � � µ ij � � � � � � � � � ǻ � � � � � � � � е � � � Щ � � � � � � � � � � ǵ Ļ �
� � � � � � � ‫�����ٹ��ھ‬ѵ � � � 鼮���
�"δ � � ľ � � � " � � � � � � � � � " ȫ � � � � " . � � � DZ � � �֪ ���� ߼��������Ҫ � з Ƿ � � ķ
� � � ; � � � � � � � � � Ӧ � � � � � � � � � ദ��ͨ���֯������ е �Ȩ � � � ϵ � � � � � � ѧ � к �
� � � � � � 裬������
�к � ǿ � Ķ � � � � � � � � � д � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ҫ һ � � ȫ � ţ � � � ȫ � �
� � � Ƿ dz � � � � ١�����ľ� � � � � � � ۱��֤ ������� ʱ�����ҵ����϶�������ȫ� �š ˿���ǣ�
� � � Ǿ �ֻ����һЩ � � ij � � � � � � � � � ǿ � � � � � � � � � � ǵ Ļ � � � Щ � �ֻ��ij � � � � Ļ � ‫�ר‬
������������ȴ�ܿ������ һ � � � �֪ ���
� � � � � � � DZ � � � ѧ � � � � ô һ �ֳィ�
�ķ �ʽ � � � � ij � � � � ij һ � � Ҫ � � � � � � һ � �֮ ������ Ǿ� � � � � �ַ�����һ � � � � � �
� � � � � � � � ½ � � � ϸ � � � � � � һ � � � ⣩ � � Ȼ � � � � � � � � � һ ζ � θ ߹����
‫������ߵ������׼‬û� � � � ߹����
ߵĹ � � � Ч � ġ � � � � � ϣ � � � � � � � ȫ � � � ϣ � � Ǹ � � Dz � � � � � � κ ν � � � � � �ֻ�����ͨ � � Ľ
� � � � ǹ � � � � б � � � ʹ � õ � һ Щ � � � ߵİ 취���ַ���
�˵ � � � � � � � � Ӧ � ð � ϣ � � � � � � � � ˵ � � � � � � � ‫���ͻ�ش‬ϣ���һ��������Ҳ�
��� � � � ֪ ʶ�� � � � � � � � Ƕ Ը � � � � ֪ ʶ�Լ� � и � �� ֪ ʶ�Ĺ � � � � � � Ƕ � ô � � � 裬 Ϊʵ� � �
‫�ش‬Ľ � � � � � � Ŭ � � � � � δ � � ȡ � � Ӧ � е � Ч � �
� � � � 1 5 � �ǰ � � � � " � ˳ � ѧ " � ո տ �ʼ � � � � ʱ � � � � Щ � � � � � � Ϊ � � ҵ � � � � ʿ Ϊδ � � � � ˳
� ѧ � ߿� � � � � һ � ű � � � ‫�����ﵽ‬嵥����������Ҫ � � � ǣ � � � � � � � � һ λ ��һе�ġ λ ͨ �
‫��ڸ‬ � ֪ ʶ�� � � � � � � ɸ ߼� � Ͷ � � � Ե Ĺ � � � Ĺ � � ʶ � ߡ���һ � � � о � � � � � � � Ϊ � � � ˳ � ѧ �߱�
��߱���Լ62���Ƚ����Ȼ��ѧ�����Ŀ�ѧ����� � ֪ ʶ��Ҫ � � � � � ҵ � � � � � һ � � � ˣ � � �
� � � � � � � � � ˮ ƽ � � � � � 滮������о� � � � ҵ � � � � � � � ʵ � � � � � � � � � ˷ ѡ �
��� � � � � � � � � ѵ �ƻ � � � Ȼ � � � � � � � � � � � ˳ � ѧ� � � � � � � � � � IJ � � � � � � �
� � Ҳ Ҫ � � � �߱���ơ����¡�Ӫ��۸��÷ 񡢾� � � � � � � Ϊ � � ѧ � � � � � 繺�����
�ѧ����һ��� � ֪ ʶ�� � ‫���ܣ‬Ҫ � ˽ � � � � � � ѧ � � � � � � ѧ � � � � � � ѧ � � һ ϵ � � � � Ȼ � �
ѧ����� � ֪ ʶ�� � � � ǵ � Ȼ Ҳ � � �
ǻ � � ϣ �ܶ��� õ � � � ļ � � � չ � � ̬� � � ˽ � �ִ���羭
�ú � � � � � ĸ � � � � � ԡ�
� � � � � � ʵ � � � � � � � � � 涼�
�һ � � � � � � � � � Щ � ˰ � � � � DZ � � � ľ � � � � � � � � ij � � � � � � � � Ҳ � � � � þ � � � � � ô
� � һ Щ ѧ � �ֻ�Ҿ����е�ijһ���������ijЩϸС�������‫���ר‬о � � � � � � � � � � Ƕ
��� � � � Դ � �Լ � �Ѿ � � � � � � � �� ��ⷽ �� �
ⷽ� � ˶ � � ֪ ʶ��
��� � � � Ȼ � � � ҵ � � � ˼ � � � � � � ˵ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � һ Щ� � � ֪ ʶ�� � � � � � � ȥ � �
�� �ˡ�
� � � � � � � � һ Щ �ܹ�� ߵȽ������������һ��ͨ����������������ҵ��ģ�����ҽ
� � � ģ � � � � � � � � � � � � � ŵ ģ � � � � � � � � � � ‫�ھ‬ �ͨ� ij � � � � � խ � � ‫ר‬ҵ���������
��� � � � ֪ ʶȴ‫��װ‬һ � � � � м һ � ˵ � � � � ӡ � � � Ϊ һ � � � � ʦ � � � � Ȼ � � � � � � ϸ � �֮ �� ˽ � " � ˼ʹ
�ϵ ѧ" � � � � ľ � � � � � � � � һ � � � ʦ � � Ҳ � � � � ȥ � ˽ � � � δ � � � ij � � � ² � Ʒ � � � � � � �
��� � � � � � � Ҫ �� ˽�Щ � � ʲ ô � � � � � � � Ϊ ʲôҪ � � � � � Щ � � � � � � Щ � � � � � � Ҫ � �
� ʲô � � � � һ � � �ְ�������ҽ��-��Ҫ���������ƣ�������Ӧ��� � ͨ
� � 񲡵� � � � ƣ � � � � � � � Ӧ � � � �ͨ
˽ ˽ ⾫
��ѧ��һ��ʲô���ѧ�ơ� ũ ҵ���Ĺ� Ա��һ��Ҫ���� � ʷ Ϥ����������Ҫ����һ
� � � � � � Σ � � � � � � � � � ƶ � � � ‫����������ط‬ũҵ��ߣ��Թ�ʹ�ϵ����� 𺦡�
� � � � � � � � � � � � ȫ � � ‫�ר‬ҿɲ � � � һ � � � � ȫ � � ‫����ר‬û � еģ � � � � � � � � � Ҫ ѧ � � �
ǡǡ������γ�ַ�����ij� � � � � � ‫������ר‬Ա�Ļ�����͵������� ԣ ��� �Ч�˹ 档�
�Ȼ������ � � �Դ� Ĺ �Ӧ�� � � Ǿ �ֻ���跨�����Դ � IJ � � � � � � � ߹
���Ч� � � � � � � � � � � � � ֪ ʶ�� Դ � � � � � � � � ý � � � һ �ַ�����
� � � � � � � ǵ � � � � � � Ҫ � � � � � � � ‫�ߵ�׿‬г � Ч Ӧ � � �ܵ�߶ ������ ӡ� � � Ҳ � ǹ � � � � �
� � � � � � � ȡ � ó ɼ � � ı � Ҫ �ֶΣ � � � ˣ � � � ߹����ߵ���Ч � � � � Ӧ ռ � и � Ϊ � � Ҫ � � λ � á �
� � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � � � � ѧ � � � �
� � � � � � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � � � � � � �ֻ�滭�츳
һ � � � � � � � � � � е Ļ � � � � � ô � � � � � � � � ˡ � ˭ � �֪ ���� ÿ � � � � � � � � � � � 츳����
���Ǽ � � � � � � � � � � � � Dz � � ò � ȥ � � � � Щ � � Ч � ʷ � � � � к ܴ�ͯ DZ� � � � � � ͯ�������
� � Ǽ � � � � � � � � � � � � dz �ַ����Լ��IJ��‫�ַ����������ܡ‬ʽ���޷��ҵ��㹻���˲
� � � � � � �ִ����Թ����ߵ���Ҫ � � � � � ⣬ � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � ֻ �һ � � � 츳
�Ļ � � � � � ô � � � ǽ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � һ � � � � � � Ļ � � � � � Ҳ һ � � � � � Ƿ
dz � � � � � ġ � � � � � � � � � ȡ � � � � � Ƿ � � д � � � �ܽ���� Ч � 桢���п� �ܳ�� Ϊ � � � � �
ߵ��ˡ�
� � � � � � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � ǿ � � � ѧ � � � ģ � � � � � Ҳ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ⣺ ‫�׿‬г � Ч Ӧ � ð �
� � � Щ � � � 棿���
�Ӧ��ѧЩʲô����ô��ѧ�������Dz���һ�ֱ������������ͨ � � � � � � � � ѧ��� � � ֪ ʶ�� � � � DZ � � � ͨ � �ϵ ͳ ѧ ϰ �
� �ܻ�� õ� � ֪ ʶ�� � � � � Ҫ � � ѧ ͽ � � � � ѧ ϰ � � � � ѧ � � � � һ � � � � Ҫ � � � � � ǵ � ͨ � �ʵ � � � � � �ϰ � ߣ�

��� � �ö � � � � � Ҳ� � �� � � � �� �Щ � ͣ˼ � � � � � Ϊ ��⡣� � Ĺ � � � � ߵ����ʣ � Ϊ � � � � �
ṩ � � ѯ � � � � ˣ � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � � � � � ˵ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 塣��
�ȣ � � � � � � ʹ � � � ˼ � �ֻ�������ң � � � û � � � κ � Ȩ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ҫ � �
Ч� 棬 Ҫ� � � ͻ � һ � � �
޳ɡ���Σ�����Ч��Ĺ���Ҳ�����̻���������������á���ˣ����ʹ���
Ч � � ĸ ߵ;;� � � � � � � � � � Ƿ � � � � � � � � ‫��ף‬Ƿ�� �ܶ Ա������������ֻ��һ � � ⻨
Ǯ � � � � � � � õ Ĺ � ͢С � � � � ѡ �
� � � � � Һ ܿ���˽⵽ � � � � � � ϸ � û � � ʲ ô " � � Ч � � � ߵĹ ͬ ͬ� " . � � � � � � � ��֪� �����ְ� Ĺ �
� � � ߵ�Ƣ�������ҵ��Χ������������ԡ� � ֪ ʶ�Լ� � � Ȥ � � � Ǹ � � � ͬ �ġ � � � � � � �
� м 䣬ֻ��ͬ һ� � � ǹ � �ͬ ģ � � Ǿ � � � � � � � � а ͬѸø ɵ � � � � � ɺ õ � � � � � �
� � � � � � � � � � � � ʶ � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � � � У � � е ļ � � � � � � � � � � ‫��ڽ‬ʣ � � е Ľ � �
� � Ժ á � � � Ȼ � � Ⱥ � � � е � � � � � � ̬� Ƶ ĺ � � � İ � � � ˡ � � � Щ � � � � � 룬��Щ� � � � ѭ � 浸���
ߡ���Щ � � �ֵģ � � � Щ � � � � ‫��ݡ‬е � � � � � � � � � � � � ٣���Щ � � � � Ȼ � Ե á � � е � � Ӿ �
� � � � � е ĵ ξ Ʋ � մ � � � е ij � � � � � � � � � � � � е Ĵ � � � ʮ � � � 䵭�����
�Ҳ � � Щ � ˸ � � � " �ܻ�� ӭ������"�ı�‫����׼‬Щ � �ȴ � Ե ú � � � � � � � � � � � � Щ � � ѧ � ߡ
���Щ ��� 򼸺 û� �ܹ�� ʲô � � � � � � Щ � � Ȥ ʮ �ֹ㷺����Щ� � � � � Լ � � � ‫ר‬ҵ�������� 򣬶� � � � � -
� м � һ � � � �֪ ��ִ Ӳ � � � � ʡ � � � Щ � � � � � 㲻���
�˽ � � � � � � � � � � � � ʱ � � � � � Լ � Ϊ � � � ģ � � � � � Щ � � ȴ � � � � � �  � � Щ � ˽ � � Լ � � Ĺ �
� � ŵ � � � � � - � е � λ � ã � � � Щ � ˵ � � � Ȥ ȴ � ‫ �� ֮���ڹ‬⡪������Թ��湤������
�ѧ� й�ʫ�����ִ����ָ���Ȥ��������֮ �� У � � � Щ � ó � � ߼� � ͷ � � � � � Щ � � � � �
� � Լ � � ĸ о � �ֱ����Щ� � � � � � � � � � ٣‫���׾‬Щ � � � � ÿ � β � ȡ � ж � �֮ ǰ � � Ҫ � � � � һ � � �
�ԥ � � � �
� � � � � � � � � ˵ � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � � � ໥֮ � � �� Ҳ � � � в �ͬ � � ͬ ͬͬҽ� � � � �ѧ � �� ʦ� � � С

� � � � � �֮ ����� � ȫ���
ͬ ��һ��
ĵ ͬ�� ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � � � 벻��ְ
�Ĺ� � � �߲��и� �ֲ �ͬ��������������͡�����ͬ
�ͣ � � � �ͣ� � � � � � � � �͡� � � �
ֲ�ͬ� ԺͲ�����ȥ������Ǻ��Ѱ�
� � � � �ֿ���ġ �
� � � � ‫�׿‬г ͬ�Ч � Ĺ � � � � � � � һ � � � ͬ 㣬
�Ǿ � � � � � � � � � ʵ � � � ж � � � � � � һ � � � ѵ � � � � һ � ʹѵ���ʹ � ǹ� �� �
ǹ � � � �� �� �� �� �� � � Ч � 棬��
� � � � � � � � � � � ‫�������أ‬ҽԺ��������‫�ڴ‬ѧ� ‫ﵱ‬ϵ � � � Ρ �
������������ҵ������������
�� � � � � � � � Ǹ � ʲô�ģ� � � Щѵ� � � � � � � ȴ � � һ � � ġ �
� � � � � ҵ ķ � � � � ǣ � � � � � һ � � � ˵ IJ � � � � ж � ߣ� � ֪ ʶ�ж � 㣬�Ƕ � ô �
‫��ڷ‬Լ������������ֻҪ � � û � � � � � � � Щ ѵ � � � � � ô � � � ‫���ڹ‬Ч� � � � � � � � �
� ȱ � ‫ݵ‬ġ �
�� � � � � � � � � - �� ǶȽ � � � � � � � � � � � Ч � � � � һ � � ϰ �
ߣ���һ � � � ϰ � � � ǿ � � � ѧ � � � ġ � � � - �
‫�����׶‬ȥ�ܸ��� ӣ � � � ʵ ʮ �ּ� 򵥡����
� � �Ƕ � 7 � � � С � � Ҳ � � � � � � � � � � ϵ � � � � ѡ � � � � �
� � Щ � ϰ Ҫ � � ú � Ҳ � � � � ̫� � � ‫�����ף‬Ҫ � � � � � � � � � � ϰ � ߡ��ͺ� � � � � � DZ � � ˷ �
� ‫�ھ‬һ � � � 㷴�����У�ֱ��6 � � 6 � � 3 6 � ѿ ‫���ڶ‬Ϊ-� � � � � � � 䣬��Ϊ� � � Լ � � � һ � � � � �
̵ �ϰ � ߡ���Щѵ � � � � � Ҫ �� �ϰ � � Ҫ ͨ�
‫ٹ‬ ‫ﵽ‬Ŀ � ġ �
� � � � С ʱ � � � ҵ ĸ � � ‫�ٽ‬ʦ����˵���һ����Ҳ���� Ա�Ӧ�õ�����ѵ��������˵
� � � " � 㲻�����
�ɪ��ʩ�ɱ�������Ī��ֵ������������ô� � � � � Ⲣ � � � � � � ˵ � � Ͳ � �ܰ������ ϰ � 취
�����١�" � ҵ Ľ � ʦ � � � � � � һ � 㡪���
�Ҳ � � � � Ϊ � � � Dz � � Զ � � � ġ � � � � � ʹ � � ʩ � ɱ � � � � � � � � � � � г �֮ �� Ժ������ϰ
� � � � ô � � � � � Ҳ � � � � �ܽ�� Ī � �ֵ������������ôƯ�������
� � � � � � Ҳ � � � � ˵ � � û � � � κ ε � � � � � � � ͨ� � � ͨ� �ϰ � � � � ʤ � � ij � � �ͨ ����� �� �� �� � 
��ͨ
� � Ҫ � � ʲ ô � � � � � � � յ � ¯ � � � � ĵ ‫��ز‬Dz� � � � ‫׵‬ģ� � � Ҳ � � � � Ҫ � � � � � � � � 츳����‫׿‬
�г � Ч � � Ҫ � � �ֻ�����ܹ � ʤ�Σ���ֻ��ͨ Ҫ� � � � � � � � � � ͨ����� � � � � � � � � � ϰ��
� � � � � � � � Ҫ � �ָ���������ϰ � � � � � � Ϊ - � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � �
ߣ�������˼� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ϰ � ‫׿‬.1�ߣ�г � Ч � Ĺ � � � �߱��붮������
�Ч � � � � � � � � � ǵ � ʱ � 䡣���ǻ � � � � � � Լ � � � �ܿ��� Ƶĵ � � ε � ʱ � 俪 չ� � � � � ɵ Ĺ � � �
� � � � 2 . ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � � � � � Ӷ � � � � Ĺ � � ‫����ס‬Dz� � � � � � � � � ͷ � � � � Ƚ � ‫�ע‬
����ʹ�Լ� � � Ŭ � � � � � � Ҫ � ij ɹ � � � � � һ � � �ֹ���������һͷ � � � � � � � � � ȥ � �
Ҳ � � � � � � � Ͽ � � ǹ � � � İ 취��
�ֶΣ � � � � � � � � Ȱ � � ʵ � � " � � � � ϣ � � � � � � � ʲ ô � � ij ɹ � � � � " 3.
‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � � � � � � � � � ó � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Լ � � ij � � � � �
� � Ҳ ֪ � � � � � � � � � � � ˾�ͬ ���� ¼� � � � ij � � � � � � � � ǻ � � � � � ‫�����ץס‬ṩ� Ļ � � � �
� � � � � � � � � � ¡ � � � � Dz � � � ѹ � � � � � � � Լ � � Ķ ̴� � � � � � � � � 棬
Ҳ� � � ȥ � � � Լ � � � � ˵ � � � � 顣
� � � � 4 . ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � �֪ ����� ν � � Լ � � ľ � � � � � � � � һ Щ � � Ҫ � � � � � � �  � � � � һ
� � � � ϼ ѵ ı � �ֱ������ܽ� � � ˶�ijɹ����ǻᰴ�չ� � � � � � � ‫������ػ‬ƶ����Ⱥ������Ҫ����������
� Ҫ � � � · � һ � ţ � � � �֮ ��� Ҳû � б � İ 취������ô � � � Ȼ � � һ � � � ޳ɡ�
� � � � 5 . � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ч � ľ � ߡ�����֪ ���� Ҫ � � � � � � �
� � � Ҫ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ⣬ � � � � � � � ΰ � � � ȷ � Ĵ � � � � ȡ � � ȷ � IJ � � 衣���
�Ҳ֪ � � � � � Ч � ľ � � � � � � � ۵ ������ͬ��‫ڲ‬ Ļ� � � � � � � -
� � � ж ϣ � � � � � � � " � � � � � � һ � � " � IJ � � � �� Ϊ� �� � �  ̵̵ܶ �ʱ�������ܶ�� ľ � ߣ�����
‫ں‬
�����ִ���������Ҫ 󡣻� � � � � � � � �ֻ���������ľ� ߣ�������ȴ� � Щ � � � Ե ľ � ߡ���֯��
�����Ҫ � � � � � � ȷ � � ս � � ԣ�- � ��Ǵ � � � � � � � ‫�ס‬
� � � � � � � � � � Щ � � � ǹ � � � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � � Ҫ � ‫�أ‬Ҳ � DZ � � � � � � Ҫ � � � ‫�ݡ‬
��� �2 � � � � �Լ � � �ʱ� �
� � � � � � � ۹����ߵĹ � � � � � � � 񣬾 �� �ģ � � � Ǵ ӹ � � � ƻ � � � ʼ � ��� � � � � �ƺ��� е�
� � � � � � � � � � ˵ � � � � һ � � ë � � � � � � � � � � ʵ � � � в � ̫� � � С � � ƻ � � �ֽ��̸��ֻ��
��õ � � � � � � � ѣ � � � � � �ܹ������ ʵ�֡ ��
� � � � � � � ҿ � � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � �߲���һ � �ʼ � � � � �ֹ�������������ʱ�䰲��
�����֣����� ǴӼƻ����֡ ���������� Ҫ �� ˽�Լ �Լ� � �� ʱ
�ʱ� � 䵽�����
�ôʹ�õģ � Ȼ � � � � � � ͼ � � � � ° � � � � Լ � � � ʱ � 䣬����
�Щ � �ʱ � � � �ֲ������ֵ�Ĺ � � � � � � � � � ǽ � � Լ � � � � �֧��� Ķ϶�� � � � � ʱ � � � ϳɴ � � Ŀ �
� Գ � � � � ʱ � 䵥 Ԫ�����µ�������ǹ�����
‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ļ � * � � ¼ ʱ � � * � � � � ʱ � � * ͳ һ � � � � ʱ � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � ߶��ã �ʱ � � � Ǹ � � �
� � � � � ‫��ء‬κ� � � ̵� � � � � � � � � �ܵ����� ȱ��Դ����Լ���������dz� � ֮ Ϊ" � � ɾ � " � � � �
��� � � � � �һ ��һ � Լ� �
Լ � � � ‫���ؾ‬ʱ�䡣
� � � � ʱ � � Ҳ � � һ �ַ �ͬ ַ�ͬ һ � � � � � Դ � � � � � � � � һ Щ � � Ҫ � � Դ � У � � ʽ �ʵ � � � ϻ � � Ǻ ܳ�ԣ � ġ
� � � � � � � � � ԭ � Ȳ � � �֪ ����� Ծ � � � � � � Լ � � � � û  � � � � � � Լ � IJ � � � � � � ʽ � Ӧ
� � � 㣬���Ƕ � � ʽ � � � � � � � � � � � � ˲ � � ǵ � � � � � � � Լ � � �
‫ܻ�������أ‬ � � ǿ � � Թ͵ � � ˲ ţ � � � � � ˣ � ͵ � � 㹻�������˲Ų� � � � � � ‫�ס‬Ȼ����� ǵ �ȷ�
޷�ͨ������ á � � � � á � � � � � � � � � � � � �ֶ����ø� � � ʱ � 䡣
� � � �ʱ � � Ĺ � Ӧ � � û � � � � � � � Ե ġ � � � � � � � � � � ж � ô ǿ � ң �ʱ � � Ĺ � Ӧ � � � � � � ô � ࡣ
� � û � � � ü ۸�����е� ‫�ڣ‬Ҳû � � Ϊ � � � � � � Ʊ ߼� Ч � � � � � ߡ����⣬ʱ�����‫��ݼ‬ţ � �
� � ޷����棬�����ʱ������һȥ�������ˡ�����ʱ����������ȱ� ԣ�Ķ ��
� � � � ʱ � � ʧ � � � Ժ � � � � � ȫ � ޷������ġ � � � һ � � � ķ � Χ � ‫����ڣ‬ǿ � � � � � һ � � �
� Դ � � � � � � һ � � � � Դ � � � � � 磬��ͭ���������
�ʽ�������������ǿ���ʹ�ø��������Ҳ����ʹ�ø������������û���κζ����������Ѿ�ʧȥ��ʱ�䡣
� � � � � � � κ ι � � � Ҫ � ķ � ʱ � 䣬 ʱ���DZ���߱���һ � � � � � � � � � � κ ι � � � Ҫ � ķ � ʱ � 䡣��
�ǣ � � � � � � � � ˶ � � � � � � һ � ޶��ġ �ʧȥ ֮ � � � ޷������ġ � � � � κ � � � � 鶼����ȱ�
‫���ٵ‬Դ � � � � ̫� � һ � � � ¡ � Ҫ ˵ ‫�׿‬г ͬ �Ч � Ĺ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ͬ Ļ��� � � � � �
� � � � � � � � � � � � Ƕ � � Լ � � � ʱ � � ʮ �ְ�ϧ � �
� � � � � � � � � � � ʹ � � � Լ � � � ʱ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ಻��֮ �����
�� � � � � Ȼ � � � � � � � � � � � � һ � � Ҳ � � " � � � � � � " � � � � � � ˷ɻ � � � � � � � � ʱ � �
� �" �о � � Ϊ � � � ԡ � � � � � � � � � Ȼ ȱ � � � ɿ � � � ʱ � � о � � � һ � � � Ѵ �ʵ � � � � � � õ � �
� ֤ ʵ� � � � � " � � � ˹ � � ‫����ڷ‬���������Ĺ� ��
� ‫ڰ‬ ߻�����ô � �ܿ�� ͻ�ʧȥ��ʱ��ĸ
‫ڰ‬
о � �ʹ � ‫�� ں‬У � � � � 󲿷 � � � � � �ܱ�� �ֶԿռ�ĸо���Ǿ�� 㿪�ŵƣ � � � һ � � � � � � 綨
ȫ���ķ�������ϼ���Сʱ֮ � � 󣬾 � � � � �� � ˶���Ʋ����Լ����‫�˶��ڷ��ڴ‬á�
� � � � � � � ԣ � � � � � � � ǽ � � � � � � Լ � � ļ � � 䣬���¾ � ˵ � � � � ʱ � � � � � � ô � � � � ġ �
� � � � � � � � ʱ � � һ Щ � � � � Ϊ � � � � � � � ǿ � Ĺ � � � � � � Լ � � � ôʹ � � ʱ � � � � � � д � � �
� � Ȼ � � � ҽ � � � Щ д � � � � � � Ĺ � � � � ʱ � � � � � � � � � � � � ʱ� �Щ � � � � � � � � � ��ͬ �
� �߰��Լ�ʱ���ʵ��ʹ��‫ �����ܻ� � ˼ � � � � � � � �¼���ٻ‬º� � ҷ � �֣���� Щ � � ӳʱ � �
�ʵ � �ʹ � � � � � ļ � ¼ � � � � � ǵ � � � Ĺ � � � � ȥ � � Զ � �
�� � � һλ� �� ˾ � Ķ � ³ � ʮ �ֿ϶�� ‫ � � � � � ˵���ض‬ʱ � � � � � � Ͽ � � Է � Ϊ � � �֡ ����� �֮ һ�
�ʱ � 䣬�����ĸо � � ǻ � � ‫ � ˾�ڹ‬ĸ
߼� � � � � � � Ա � � � ϵ ģ � � � � � � � � � ֮ һ � �ʱ � � � ǻ � � � � � Ҫ � ͻ � � � � ϵ ģ � � � � � � � � � ֮ һʱ
� � � � � � � ‫���������ڵ‬ˡ � � � � � � � Ǻ � � � � � � � � � � � ‫�ڵ‬ʱ�䣬����
�ʵ�ʻ�  � ļ� � � � ϸ � � ¼ � � � � ʮ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �  � � � û � л � ʲ ôʱ �
䡣���Լ�Ҳ֪ � � � Ӧ�ð�ʱ�仨���
�Щ � � � � � � ȥ � � � � � � � � � � � Ǻ ܰ�æ � ģ � � � � � � � � � � Ѱ � ʱ � 仨�������
�Щ � � � � � � � ˡ � Ȼ � � ʵ �ʼ � ¼ ȴ � �ʾ � � � � Ѿ � � 󲿷 ʱ��ʱ �䶼
�������ȹ������ˣ���ʱ�˽�������ʶ��һЩ�ͻ��Ķ�������Ϊ���ǵĶ���ϵ‫�ش‬绰�����
�ʵ� � Щ � � � � � е ľ � � �ֶ����еú �˳ � � � � � � � � ĸ � Ԥ � ֻ ���������ʵ�
󶩵� � � � � � Ȼ � � � � � � � �
� � � � � � � ‫ � � � � � ¼�ݼ‬İ 칫 � � ʱ����� Ͳ �������������ļ�¼���
� � � � � � ˣ � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � ߶��ã � Ҫʹ � ú � � � � ʱ � 䣬����
�ȱ���Ҫ֪ � � � Լ���ʱ��ʵ��������ô����ġ�
� � � � � � � � � � � � ʱ � � ʹ � ÷ � � � � � �ܵ���� ѹ �
��� � � � � � � � ߳ ������һЩ ѹ � � � � � ʹ � � � ʱ � 仨��������
�κμ�ֵ����������ȥ� � � κ � һ � � � � � � ߣ��������Ƿ��Ǿ�������ò����
� Щ � � � �֯�������� κκô � � � � � � ϻ � � Ѻ ܶ�ʱ�䡣�ܶ�� ʱ�䲻�ɱ � � �
‫˷��ر‬ѵ� � ˡ � � � � �֯�� е � λ � � Խ � ߣ������ⷽ � � � � е �� � � ѹ � Ҳ � � Խ � �
� � � � һ � Ҵ 󹫵 ĸ � � � � � � д ζ � � � ˵ � � � � � � � � � �ܾ����� ‫ڴ��ڼ‬䣬��ÿ � � � � � ϵ � ʱ � 伸
�����‫����ڷ‬ϡ�ֻ ��ʥ � � �
‫�ں‬Ԫ�������⡣��Щ���ֶ���" � � � � " � � ÿ � ζ � � ú ķ Ѻ ü � � � � � � � � û� � � � �Ҳ ͷ
а 취��ı � � � һ � С � � � � � � � Щ � � � � � Ϊ � � � � � � 5 0 � � � � н � � � �
‫�����ְ���ݵ‬еģ � � � � � Ϊ � � � ˾ � � � � ϵ ҵ � һ Щ � ‫�����ݵ��ݳ‬еġ � �ܾ������� Ƿǵ�
� � С � ɡ � � � � � � � ‫��ڼ‬Ļ � � � � � � � һ � � � � � � � ҵ � � � λ � � � Ѷ � � � �ֽ��ʲ� � � �
� � � � 룬��֪ ������ַ��
ֶԹ�˾�Լ�����˵ķ�չ�����ܴ��� ʲô � ô � � � � � � � � � � � Է � Ҳ � � � � � � � � � Ȥ � 밮
�á � � �ʹ � � ˣ � � � � Ҫ ȥ � μ � � � � � ķ � �֣������ Ҫ � � � ‫�͡�ڴ‬
� � � � � ߵ����‫ڹ‬Ĺ � � � � � � У � � � � � � � � � � ˷ � ʱ � � � � � � � � � ˵ � ȱ Ƚ � � ǡ � � � ˾ �
� һ λ � � ѿ ͻ � � � � 绰������‫�����۾‬Ȼ����˵ " �� � � � ‫�ں‬æ". � � � � æ Ҳ � ý � � � 绰����
�ܿ ͻ���̸��Ҳ��ֻ���ϸ���ĩ��һ�����ƻ��������Ů�����ij���ѧ�Ŀ����ԡ�ҽԺ�������������
� Ӹ μ ˱ ��
� �ίԱ � � Ļ � � 飬
Ҫ � � ҽ � � ʿ � � � � � � � � Ա � Ⱦ ͻ � е � � Լ � û � � �ܵ�� Ӧ�е����ӡ���һλ�����Ա��ã��������ij�����
� � � ʱ � � � � � � � ‫ص‬Ĺ � � � � ߵ�Ȼ����Դ˵��� � � � ģ �� � � � � � λ � �Ա��Ҫ�� � � �
� �ʵ ֻҪ � � � � � � �ַ����绰����������
�ɵõ � � � � � � � � � һ � � � ʱ � � � �
 � ͻ � к ܶ���������顣
� � � � � � � � � � � � � Ҳ � ò � � ˶ � � ١�����ҲͬҲ� � � � � � � � � � Ҫ ռ � � � � � � ʱ � � � �
� � 飬��Щ � � � 鼴 ʹ� � � � � � � � ߹
���Ч � � � � Щ � � � � � � �ְ���Ҳ � � � � ̫� � Ȼ � � � � � � � � û � а 취���
�Щ � � � � � �֮ �����
� � � � � � ÿ һ λ � � � � � ŵ Ĺ � � � � У � � � � к ܴ��һ � � � � ʱ � � � DZ � � ˷ ѵ � ģ � � � Щ � � � 鿴
��ȥ� � Ȼ � � � � ɣ � � � ʵ � � � � ȴ � � � � � � � á �
� � � � Ϊ � ˱ �֤ ��� ͵�Ч � 棬�����ߵľ �� 󲿷 � � � �� �� �� �
Ҫ Ҫ� �� �� � ൱������ʱ�䡣
ÿһ � � � � � ʱ � � � � � � � � � � � � ‫��������ޣ‬ã� � � ʱ � � � � � � � � � � � � ǵ � � � �
� �˷ �ʱ � 䡣
� � � � � � һƪ � � � � Ҳ � � � � Ҫ 6 � � 8 � � С ʱ � � д � � һ � � � � � � Ҫ � � ô � � ʱ � 䡣������ ��‫׼‬
7��Сʱд��‫��ݱ‬棬������ÿ � �ֻд15 � � � � ʱ � 䣬 ÿ � � д � � Ρ � � � � � � � � � � д ꣬ ������� �ְ
취��Ͳ � � � � � д � � � � � � � � � ǣ � � � � � � � � Լ � � � � � � � � � � � õ 绰���
�ţ �Ҳ û � � � � � � ĸ � � ţ � ȫ � � � ĵ � Ͷ � � � ȥ � � Ҳ � � 5 � � 6 � � С ʱ � � � � � � � д � � һ ƪ � � � ҳ
� ֮ Ϊ"� ‫ � � � � � � � � "�ݸ‬γ � ǰ � � � � ʽ � � � � � ı � � � � � �ֻ���‫����������� ֮���ڲݸ‬

�С� � � ʱ � � � � � � � � � ޸ģ� � � � � � � � � � � ‫��ؽ‬б ༭��
� � � � � � ʵ � � � � � � � � ʵ � � Ҳ � � � � � � � � � � Ҫ � � 5 � � 1 2 � � Сʱ � � � � � ʱ � � � � � �
�ʵ � � � 豸�Լ�ȫ������һ�����顣����м 䱻��ϵĻ� � � �ֲ�һ � л � � ô � ͷ � � � �
� � � � Ϊ � � � � ߹���Ч� 棬 ÿ � � � ֪ ʶ�� � � �
‫��ߣ��ر‬ǹ � � � � � � � Ҫ ѧ � � � � β � � � ʡ � � � � ʱ � � � � �ֻ�е � � ε ε �ʱ � � � Dz � � � � ġ � �
� � � � � Щ � � � � ʱ � � � � � һ � � � � � � � � � � � � ١�
� � � � � � Ҫ � � � ˵ Ĺ � � � � � � � � � � � ˡ � � � � � � ߵ���������������˵Ĺ � � �
� � � � � � � ʱ � � ģ � � � � д 󲿷 � ʱ � 䶼���˷ѵ� ġ �
� � � � � � � ֻ‫���������׼‬ӵ � ʱ � � � � � � ˵ Ĺ � � � � Dz � � � � � ʲ ô � � � ġ � � � � � � �
�б � � �˽�Ŀ ��� ����� � � � � � �Ҫ���� � 㹻��ʱ�䡣����
�λ � � � � � � � � 1 5 � � � � ʱ � � � � � � � � � � � ۹���ƻ�����չ�����Լ������ ‫�־‬
Ϳ����ˣ�������������Լ���ƭ�Լ���������Ӱ����ˣ���������û���-
� � С ʱ � � � ϵ � ʱ � 䡣������������˽ � � � � � � õ � � ˼ ʹ � ϵ � � � � ô � ϶ � � � Ҫ � � � � � � ʱ � 䡣
��� �Ҫ � � � ֪ ʶ�� � � � ߽� � � � ϵ � ‫�ر‬ʱ�䡣���ܳ���
�ʲô� � � ɣ � � � � � � � � ֪ ʶ�� � � � � � � � � û � е ȼ � � � Ȩ � � � ң � � � � � � � � ǻ ᲻ � Ὣ � Լ � � � � ù � �
� � Ҫ � � � � � � � � � � � Ҫ � � � ϼ � � Լ � ��ѱ ��ͬ Ͷ�� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� ϻϻ �� �� �ѱ �����������Ͷ � � � ͬ ߸��

�ʱ�䡣���֮ �� ⣬�����������������������ȷ�IJ ⶨ��
‫�����׼‬Ǻ � � � � ü � � 仰����ij � ˵ Ĺ � � � û � � � � � � ǿ � � Զ � � � � � � �� � Ͷ � " ˵ �
‫��׼‬ÿСʱ��50����ֻ����42 � � " � � � Ƕ � � ֪ ʶ�� � � � ߡ�����ֻ�����������һ � � � �
� � ‫ � � � � � ˸ع‬Щ � � � � � Լ � Ϊ ʲ ô � � Ҫ � � � � � � ɣ � Ȼ � � � �ܿ������ Ĺ � � � � � � � � Ρ �
� � � � � � Ȼ � Ǻ ܷ�ʱ��ġ�
� � � � � � Ȼ ֪ʶ�� � � � ߵĹ � � � ƻ � � � � � � � � Լ � � � � ŵ ģ � � � ͱ � � � � � ˽���� � � ��� � � ϣ
� ʲô � � � � � Լ � � � Ϊ ʲ ô Ҫ � � � � � � � Ĺ � � ‫��ס‬Ա���ʹ����� � ֪ ʶ�ɹ�� � � Щ �˵ Ĺ � � � � � � � � Ҳ � �
Ҫ � � � 㹻��
�˽⡣Ϊ � ˣ � � � � � � Ҫ � д � � � � � � Ϣ � � � � Ҫ � � � � � � � ̽ � ̽ ˽� �֣ � Ҳ � � Ҫ � � � � � � � � � ṩ ָ�
���������һ � ж � � � Ҫ ʱ � 䡣�
�һ � � � � � ʶ � � � ෴�������������ʱ��Ҫռ�����ϼ���ʱ� 򲻵�Ҫռ�����ϼ���ʱ�䣬����Χ ҲҪռ � � � � � � Χ �� Χ
µͬʱ�

� � � � � � � ʶ�� ֪ � � � � � � ȡ � � � κ μ � Ч � � � � � � � � 뽫�����
�е � � � � � Ĺ � � � ɹ � ͼ � Ч Ŀ � � � � � � � � � Ҳ � � � � ˵ � � � � � ʡ � � ʱ � � � � � � � Щ � � � 飬�
��뽫 Ŀ � � � � Լ � � Ĺ � � � ‫����ת‬Ч� � � � � Լ � � � ‫ר‬ҵ‫ � � ⲿ���ת‬磬�
�Ϊֻ���ⲿ � � � � � м � Ч � � ̸� �
� � � � � ‫���ڴ‬���� � ֪ ʶ�� � � � ߹������г � Ч � ĵ ‫�����������ط‬Ϊ�
߼� � � � � � � Ա � � � ó � ʱ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ǽ � � н � � � � � һ � � � � � � � �ܹ 㣬�
�ʱ������һЩ���ʽ�dz�� � ֪ ʶ�� � � � ߡ���Щ �߻������߼� �ʵ � � " � � Ϊ � � � � 쵼������
�ǵĹ�������Ӧ���˽�Щʲô�����‫���ڱ‬λ � � � � � � Щ ʲ ô � � � 飿����
�Ƿ��ֻ�����Щ � � � � � � � � � δ � � � � � � ã � � � � � � Ƿ � � û � � � � � Щ � � � � � � δ � �
ʶ�� � � DZ � � Σ � � � � � ⣬ � � � ‫���ڱ‬λ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ˽ � Щ ʲô � " � �ʵ � � � � � � � ‫ء‬
���ҵ��λ���о�ʵ�����Լ���ӻ���Ҳ����Ҫ������  Ҳͬ � � � � Ҫ� � � � � � �ִ��‫��ݲ‬ȵĽ������û��
Ҳ
��� �Ľ � � � � ֪ ʶ�� � � � ߾� � � � � ɥ ʧ � � � � � � � 飬��Ϊ � ù � � ҹ � � � ˣ � � � �
‫�����߾ � � �ֻע‬ѵ � ‫ר‬ҵ���������������Ҫ�ͻ�ᡣ 򣬿� � � � � � � � � � � � Ҫ� ͻ� Ȼ��Ҫ���� � � � � Ľ �� � � Ǻ ܷ�ʱ
� � ģ � � ‫�����ر‬Ϊ � � �ֽ�������‫��ڲ‬Ų � æ � � � � � � � � � ‫ � � ½�����ڵ‬С �ֻ����
���ҲŻ � � � " � � � � � � � 㹻��ʱ�䣬���ԴӴ � � � � ‫"����ݵؽ‬. � �ʵ � � � � � � ζ � � Ҫ � Խ ϸ
‫ߵ��ٶ‬ȸ�������飬����ͬ ʱҲ��ζ�ű����‫��ڳ‬㹻�����ʱ����������м 価���ܲ�� Ҫ � � ̫� � ļ � ϡ �
� � � � Ҫ Э � � � ˼ ʹ � ϵ � 빤���ϵ � Ǻ ܷ�ʱ��ģ�������̫ �ִ��������٣
‫���ײ‬ĥ � � � � � � � Э � � � � � ‫����ڻ‬Dz� � � ȱ � ‫ٵ‬ġ � � � � � � � � Խ � ࣬ Э� � � ໥��ϵ � � � �
Ҫ � �ʱ � � Ҳ � � Խ � � � � � � � � � � ‫�����������ڹ‬Լ��������ʱ��ͻ�Խ�١�
� � � � � � � й ‫�������������ع‬У � � � � � � ˵ � � һ �ֽ�" � � � � � � " � � � � �ۣ���
�ָһ � � � � � � �ֻ����Ч� ‫����ع������ڹ‬ϻ����й�������������һ���ơ�һ�����‫����۾‬һ
� � � � � � � � � ߣ�������ֻ�����ͨ � � Э� � һ � µĹ � � � � � � ʹ � Լ � � Ĺ � � � � � � � � Ч � �
� � Ȼ � � λ � ‫����ͬ�ڲ‬е� � � � 꾭��֮ ��
�ȴ� � � � Ҫ � � � � � � � � Э � � � � � � � � � � һ � � � � � � �ܲ þͿ�� Թ �����������꾭����
�Ҳ � � õ � � Ļ � Υ � � " � � � � � � " � � ԭ � � 򡣲 �� � � � һ� �һ � � � � � � � վ� � վ � � ‫�ס‬š � � � -
� � � Ǻ � � � � ɼ � ģ � � � һ � 鹤�����Խ࣬ ����� Э � � � ϵ � ϵ � ʱ � � Ҳ � � Խ ࣬ ����
‫������������ڹ‬ϵ�ʱ � � ͻ � Խ � ‫����ֻ���ڴ‬١������ĵ � � � � � � � ߵ�ʱ��֮ ��� Ż
�� �ǿ� � � � � � � � �
��� � � � � � ԣ��Խ �Խ� � � � � � � � � ʵ� �ʵ ʿ��ʿ �� � �֧���� ʱ���Խ�١�����������£ � Ū � �
�Լ � � � ʱ � � � � � � ô � � � ģ � � � β � �ܰ��� Լ�����֧�������� ʱ���úã���ͳ������� ˻�����ߵ�
һ� � ʮ � � � � Ҫ � Ĺ � � �
� � � � � � � ‫���ڵ‬Խ� ࣬ Ҫ � � � � � · � � � ľ � ߵ���ҪҲ � � Խ � ࡣ� � � ǣ � � � � Խ ࣬ ��� Խ���ܻ��
��ִ���Ҫ � � һ � � � � ȷ � � � � � ¾ � � � � � � � � Ҫ � д � � � � ʱ � 䣬��Ϊ � � � � � � 漰���
�һЩ � � � �ֻ���‫������� ֮� � � � �˼����ھ‬ � � �ܿ ø� � � � � �
� � � � � � � � � Ҷ � һ Щ ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � � � й � ۲ 죬������Щ � � � ܿߺ죬�
�һЩ � � � � � � ǵ � � � � � Ҫ � � � й � � � � · � � � ľ � � ʱ � � � � � Ƕ � � � � � � � � � � � ൱��
�‫�����������ء‬Ҫ � � ü � � ξ � � � � � � � � � � � � � ¶ � � � � ġ �
�� �� � � ͨ� � � � � ˰
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � ̣� � � ǰ � � � � � � � � £ �� ͨ˾ � P . ˹ ¡ � � � � ˵ -
� � ϰ � ߣ��κ � � � � � � � � � � һ � α � � � � ʱ � � � � � � þ � � �ֻ��һ � γ � � � ж ϣ � � � � � � �
� � Ҳ � � � � Ҫ � � � ϼ � � � С ʱ � � ʱ � 䡣�‫�������ڼ‬ 򼸸� � � �
‫������ں‬һ � � � � � � � � � � � � � һ � � � ⣬ � � � Ҳ � �ܵ�� һ � � � ж ϵ � Ӱ � 졣ֻ
�е � � � ü � � μ � � � � � � � �֮ ����� ſ϶Դ� �˵ � � � � ü � � Կ � � ǡ � ˹ ¡ � � � � � � " ֪ � � � � � � " � �
ʢ� � � � ǵ � � � � ʵ � � � � � � � ѡ � ˲ � � � � � ʲ ô � ‫�ؾ‬ʱ����˵������‫ � � "'�ش‬û � � ʲ ô � ‫ֻ���ؾ‬
��������ĸо � � � � ȼ � � � Ǹ � � � �֣������� Dz �̫� ʺ ϵ � � � ѡ � � � � ˣ � � � � ‫ڲ‬þ� �֮ ǰ
��Ҫ� � � � � � � � � � � á � � � � � � � � á � "Ȼ � � ˹ ¡ � � � � � Ǹ � � � � � � � ĵ � � ˡ �
� � � � � � � � � � � Ҫ � � ࡣ�̫�����˲��ߵȻ��ʹ��� � � ۲���һЩ ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � ߵ���
�����Ƕ � � � ѧ � � � � � � һ � � � � � � � Ҫ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � һ � � � � ȷ � ľ � ߣ���
�����Ҫ � кü � � � С ʱ � � ʱ � � � � в � � � ϵ Ŀ � � ǡ �
��� �һ �Ҳ � � �С � � � � � � о � � � � � � � � � Ҫ � � Ƹ-
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ա ʱ � � Ҳ � � � � ��ͬ� � � � � � �� �5 0 � � � �⡣ � �� ȥ�һ� � ȥͬһ ⣬ֱ
�‫��ڸ‬о � � � � � � к ü � � 깤�
�dz � �ܳ���� ͻȻ�����ˡ���Ҳû�������Ĺ����������� 񲿵� � й ‫ع‬涨����
�Խ�����ˣ������о���û��������� ȻҲ���Խ���ְʹ�ã � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � һ �
� � � Ͼ � � � � � � � � � � ‫ڿ‬ҿҵ‫˺����ع‬ö�� ꣬ Ϊ � � � � � � � � � � � � Ĺ � � ‫���ס‬Ȼ����� �
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � λ � � � ˣ � � � IJ � � �֮ ��� ʵ�‫������ڴ‬ˣ� � � � � � � � � � � �
� � � Ĺ � � � ʮ �ֲ���
� � � � � � � 븱�����кü� � � � � һ � 鿼��������⣬�����Ҳ������취�
�Ȼ������ � � � ϵ � � � � � � ų � һ � и �� š �� � � � � ĸ � С ʱ��� � һ � 飬
DZ �ĵ � � о � � � һ � � � � ʱ � � һ � � " � � � � � Բ � � � " � Ĵ � � � � � ð � ˳ � � � � � � � � һ � � ˳ �
� � � µ İ 취��������е � Ū � � � � Ϊ ʲ ô � � ǰ � � û � � � 뵽�� һ � 㡣���취���ǣ � � � � � � ˵ � �

̫
�ʺͬ� � � � � � һ � � λ � � � � � � ί � � � � ȥ � � � � һ � � û � � � � � � � � � Ч Ҫ � � ġ � � � ȴ ȴ�ͬ� � � Ҫ � Ĺ
��� � � � �
� � � � � ‫�������ڿ‬һЩ � ‫���ش‬ʱ��������д����ֲ���ϵ�ʱ � 䣺���磬
Ӧ��˭�μ��о�ij�����������‫���ر‬С � 飻�������µ � λ � � � Ͼ � � � � �
ߵ�λ � � � ¾ � � � � � � � � Щ � � � � Ҫ � � � Ƿ � � � Ҫ � � ij � � � з ḻ � � � � � � � ֪ ʶ�� � � � � � � ɹ � �
� � � � � � ģ � � � � � ȴ ȱ � ‫����� ټ‬ѵ � � � � � � � � � ȱ � � λ � � � � ȥ � � � � � � Ӧ � � � е �
һ � � � � � 鵫 ȴȱ� � � � � ۱�������������ȥ� � � ȵ ȡ �
� � � � � � � � � ¾ � � � Ǻ ܷ�ʱ��ģ������ɺ򵥣� ܼ��� ϵ ۴����˵ � ʱ � � û � � � 뵽��
�ǽ � � Ҫ � � � � � � � ˣ � Ҫ � � ɹ � � � � � � � � � 񣬲� � � Ǵ � � � � � � � � � ˵��Ǵ��� � � �˵�� ˵
� ˲Ŷ � � Ե ú ܲ������������ֲ����û � � � � ģ � � � � � � � � ˲ š � � � ˲���� � � � �� �� �� �� �� �
Ҳֻ��" � � � � � Ϸ � � Ҫ � � " � � � ѡ � Ҫ � � չ � � � � � � �ܵ����� ˣ � � � � � � κ � � � � � � �
Դ � ޷����ģ � � � � � � � � � � �� �ľ ��ⷽ ʱ � � � � � � Ҫ � ú ܶ��ʱ������п��Dz�����жϡ�
� � � � � � ŷ ˹ � � � � ˵ � ũ � � � о � � � �  " � � � � � � � � � � � ϱ � � ˼ � ȱ � ˵ � ʲô� � � � ô � �
� � � � � � � � � ϱ ȱ � � ˶ � � ʲ ô � � " � � Ҳ � � � � Ա � � � Ϊ � Ƕ � " � � � � ‫غ‬㶨�
ͣ� � һ � � � � Ϊ � � � � Ľ � � �
�" ͣ � � � � ȴ � � � � � � - � � "ʱ � � � ‫غ‬㶨��". � � � � � � �ܴ�����
�Ͷ���ʡ �� � � �ʱ � � � � � � � ô � Ϳ �� � � � � � � �Ͷ��ϻ�� � � �ʱ � 䡣������������ͨ��
�ˡ � � � � � � � � � � Ա � Լ � һ � 㹤����Ա�������˳��Щ����ô֪ʶ�� � � �
߾͵û � � � � Ĺ � � � � � � ǵ Ĺ � � � � � � � � 벻������Ͷ�� ģ ���� 뽫����Ͷ�� Ż
‫�������ص‬ȥ� � � � � ұ � � � � � � � � � Ͷ � ռ � � � ķ � � � �
� � � � � � ֪ʶ�� � � � ߵ�ʱ��Ҫ��Ҳ�����½��������������ÿ��ֻ����40Сʱ�����õĽ��Ҳ��ÿ��ֻ���
�35 � � С ʱ � � � � � ǵ � � � � ӹ � ñ � � � � � ʲ ô � ˶ � � � ã � � � � � � � Щ � ˵ � ʱ � � � ƴ � � ‫���ع‬
�Լ���ε‫��ظ‬У � � � � � � ǻ � � � � � � � � � � � а � � ‫�������ݵ‬ȫ������ � ֪ ʶ�� � � �߳�
ʱ����Ľ������˵���� ҵ ����������Щ�����߲�������ΰ � � � � � � е ‫����ع‬ӡ� � � ʵ � � � � �
ǡǡ�Dz���ʲô�‫��ط‬Ĺ � � � � ߶��‫�ڳ‬ʱ�������ʱ�仹��
�Եò�����������ʱ����ȵ��������� ⲻ� ����һ��� Ӿ Ỻ�ͣ 硣
����һ���Ӿ
� � � � � � � � � � һ � � � � һ � � � � Ҫ � � � � � ǣ � � � � � � ˮ ‫�����׼‬Ծ � � õ ĸ � � � � � 仯
Ϊǰ � � ġ � � � � � � �߲�����޴��ʱ��;����� Ͳ ��� �ܳ������ �ָ�����仯����
�ʱ��̴ ٣��Ǿ�ֻ�� ����ܿ
� � -Щ �Լ � � � Ϥ � � � � � 飬����ֻ����һЩ � � � � � � � � � 顣
� � � � � � � � ս � � Ӣ � � ľ � � � Ϊ ʲ ô � � � � � � ô � � � � � � ⣬ � � � � в � � � � � �ۡ���� Ҿ�
� � � � � һ � � ԭ � � � � ǣ � Ӣ � � � � һ � � � � ҵ � � � � � �� ��Լ��Լ�� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� һ� �һ �� �� �� �� �� � ϣ
а � � ‫���ݵ‬�͹ � � � � � - � � � � ̹� � � ʱ � ʡ � Ϊ ʹ � � � ǵ � Ը � � � � � ʵ �֣�� Ψһ � � � е İ 취����
�ù � ҵ � � � � ҵ � � � Ϲ � � � � � � � ‫������ת‬һ � � � � � � � � � 仯
�ͱ�����Ӣ��Ĺ���֮ ���� ˡ �
� � � � � � � � � dz � � ‫����ڻ‬Ҫ � � � � � � � � � ¿ � � ǵ � � � Ҫ � � � � � DZ 仯���
�µ � � � Ҫ � � � � � � � � ѧ � � � � ι � � � � Լ � � � ʱ � � � Ѿ � � � � Խ � Խ � � Ҫ � ˡ � � � Ҫ � � �
� � � Լ � � � ʱ � 䣬�����ȵ�Ҫ���Լ���ʱ�
˽��Լ���ʱ�仨��ʲô � ‫�ط‬ȥ� ˡ �
�� � � � �ʹ � �ʱ � � � � � � � � �
� � � � � � һ � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ѿ � � � � � һ � � � � Ҫ � � � � � ʱ � �ʹ � õļ� ¼ � � � � � Ų
��� �� ˽ʹ�Լô� � �ʱ� � � � � � � õ ģ � � � � � � п � �ܹ������ Լ���ʱ�䡣
�Ǿ � � � ˵ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ͷ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ƿ
�ʶ � � � � � � Ҫ � � � � � � � � Ϊ 1 9 00 � �ǰ � � � �ֵ�" � � ѧ � � � � " � � � � � � � ǣ � � � � � �
� �ÿ � � � � � � � � � Ҫ � � � � ʱ � � � � � � ϸ � ļ � ¼ � � � � ʱ � � � � գ � � � � � � � � � κ � һ �
� � � � ‫�ڹ‬ҵ�����ϻ����֪ 󵽲 ��� Ҫ � � � � � � Ͷ � � ߵIJ � � � � � ϵ ͳ � � ʱ � � � ¼ � �
� � � � Ȼ � � � � � Ϊ ֹ � � � �ֻ֪ � � � � � � �֪ ʶӦ� � � � � � Щ ʱ � � � � � � � � ̫ � � Ҫ �Ĺ � � � �У � � �
� 仰˵� � � � � �ֻ����
�ú �ʱ � � � � � ˷ � ʱ � � IJ � � � � Ҫ � � ӳ � � Ч � � � � ɱ � � ϵ � � � Щ � � � � � � Ӧ � � � � һ ֪ʶ�� � �
��� �ЩԽ � Խ � � Ҫ �Ĺ � � � � � � �ȴ � � û � � � � � � ȥ � � � � � � � � � � Щ � � � � � �ʱ � �� 򽻵 �
� � � � � Ͷ � � � � � � ‫��ر‬ǹ � � � � � � � � � һ � � � � � �  � ú ʱ � � � � � ˷ �ʱ � � IJ � � � � Ҫ �
� � � � Ҫ ʹ � � � � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � � � � һ � � � � � � Ҫ � � � � ʵ � � ʹ � � ʱ � � � � � � � ¼ � � � � �
� � � � � � � ‫¼�ڼ‬ʱ��ľ���취�����Dz� � ‫������ڴ‬ˡ � � � Щ � � � � �
߿� � � � � � � � � � ¼ � � � � � � � � � 維
�³�֮ ���� Ҳ � �ֻ�ǹ � � � һ � � � ¼ � � � � � � ͳ � � � � � � � � � ˡ � � � ‫����ؼ‬Ҫ � �ʱ � � � ¼
� � � � � � � � ұ � � � � � ʵ � � � � � � Ҫ � � � � � 鷢���ȷ��ʱ���¼���������� 򲻿�º ƾ������� ‫�׷‬ǡ�
� � � � � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � ߶������������ּ�¼ � � ϰ � ߣ�������Щ � � ¼ ÿ � ¶ �
� ‫��ڽ‬м � 顣‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � � � � � � ÿ � � � � Ρ � ÿ � � 3 -
4 � � � � � � Ҫ � � � � � � � � Լ � � Ĺ � � � � ¼ � � ÿ � � � � � � � � � � ¼ ֮ �� 󣬹 � � � � ߾��б �Ҫ � � �
¿ � � Dz � � ޶����ǵ�ʱ�䰲�š � � � � � � � � � � � £ � � � � ǿ ϶ � � � ᷢ �ְ‫�������׼‬ƫ� 룬�����
���һЩ � ‫�޹ؽ‬Ҫ � � � � � � � � � ˷ � ʱ � 䡣���
� � � ϰ� � � � ѧ � � � � Ч � � ʹ � � � Լ � � � ʱ � 䣬
�һ � � � ϰ � �ֻ������ͨ
Ҳֻ�з � � � � � � ϵ � � � � Ŭ � � �ܺ��� Լ���ʱ�䣬���ܱ������������ ƫ� � � � � �
� � � � � ‫�������ڶ‬Ҫ � �ʱ � � � � � � � � � Ĺ � � � Ϊ � ˣ � � � Ҫ � ҳ � � Լ � � � � � Щ � �  � ˷� �
ʱ�䡢������Ч � � ģ � � � � � � � �ܽ���� Щ �� �ʱ
ų� � � � � � �ȥ� �Ҫ� � � �һ � 㣬�����
�Щ � � � � Ե � � � � ⣬ � � � � � � һ � � � Լ � � �
� � � � 1 . � � � ȱ � � 뷢�ֲ�
�ų � � � Щ � � � � Ҫ ȥ � � � � � � � � � � Щ � � � � � ˷ � ʱ � � � �ֲ�����Ч � � � � � � 顣
Ϊ �ˣ � � � Ҫ � Լ � ¼ � ϵ � � � � л  � � � � � � ϸ � � � �
죺" � � � � � � � � � £ � � � � � � � ô � � " � � � � � � � � � � � Ľ � � � � " û � й � ϵ " � Ļ � � � � �
ô � � � ‫��ۺ���ף‬Ժ�Ͳ�Ҫ���������ˣ��������������Ǿ�����ô���æ�
˳� � 첻 ͣ
��æ � � � � Щ � � � Ǿ � � � � � Ը � � � � � £ � � � � � û � � û � ˵ � � � ˵ � � � � � � � � � ǵ ��ǵ��� ᣬ
� � ί Ա �ἰ � � � » � ij � Ա � � � � � � � � һ � ж � � � � � � � Щ � � æ � ˻ � ȥ �ܴ�� һ � � � � ʱ � 䡣�
�Ȼ��� DZ ��� � � � �Ҳ��� � ϲ ��� � Щ ���Ҳ� � � Ҳ �޷�����ȥ� � � � � � Щ ְ�𣬵���
�ǻ � � Dz � � ò � � 긴
һ� � � ȥ � μ � � � Щ � � ���ʵ ��ʵ � �ֻҪ ѧ � � ˵ � � " � � " �֣������ ͽ��� ˡ �� μ ��� �ֻ� � Ա������
‫ڵ‬Ļ � � Ա � � � � Լ � � Ծ ٰ���Щ ��  � �� � �֯�� ˵� � � � � � � � � � ʲ ô � ô � � �
� � � � � � λ ÿ � � � � � ϶ � � � � � � Ĺ � � � � � � � � � � � � � ǣ � � ‫���ڽ‬Щ � � � � � � Щ � �
� �֮ ��������������� �֮ һ� � � � � � � � � Ҫ � � �˾ � ĸ ߼� � � � � � � Ա ǰ ȥ � μ ӡ � � � ʱ �
��� � � � � � е � �Ц � � � ã � � � Ϊ � � �� ˲ � � � � � � � � �ϯ � �� �� �� �� �ϯ �� � � � � Ƿ � � � � � 룬ϣ
� �Ƿ
�Ǵ � � � � dz � � � � � ò � � � � ʵ � � � Ǻ � � � � � � � � л � � � � � 룬�������Ľ� � � � � � � � 룬����
�ʹ� � � Ǹ е � � � � � � ޴롣
� � � � � һ � δ � � � � һ � � � � � � ߣ��������ְ��͵�λ � � Σ � Ը � � � � � � � һ � � � � � �
��� � � � � � � � ġ �
�� � � 2. � �һ � � � � � � � � ǣ � " � � ¼ � ϵ � � � Щ � � � ˴���ɱ�� � Ϊ Ӷ μ� �ֲ�Ӱ��Ч��ģ�"
�DZ � ߳ ����Ҫ � � ϯ � � � Ķ � � ³ � � � � � �֣������ Լ����� � ֮ һ � � � � ʽ � � �ֻҪ � й � �
˾ �ĸ ߼
� � � � � � � Ա � � � � � � � ɣ � � � � � ÿ � ζ � Ҫ � � � � � � ȥ � μӲ � � ɡ � � � Ϊ � � 쵥
λֻ��ϣ��ѹ�˾��������� ‫ � � � � ˵��ڿ‬ϡ �
� � � � � ü � � � � � � � Ƕ � � � � � � � - �ֹ����ϵ � " � � Ȩ ί � � " � � " d elegation"in
managment � � � � � � � � � � � � ҵ � � � � � � � � � � � ‫���ء‬ѧ�ӣ��� 򲿶 �Щ ���� ÿλ���
� � ߶����� � ֪ Ҫ � � һ � � ϸ � � " � � Ȩ ί � � � � " � � d c l egator � � � � � � ʵ � � � � һ Щ � � λ � У �
� � � � � � � � � � � Լ � � � � ‫��ڲ‬ϹĴ � � � һ � � � � Ҳ �֪ �������������� ʲô � ô � � �
� Ĵ � � � � � � � û � � Ҫ � � � � � � � � � �֮ �� еģ � � � � ǰ � � � � ǵ � ˵ � � � � � � � � ί � � � � Ҳ
� Ե ú � � � � � � 塣�������
�ί � е � � � ˼ � DZ � � � Ӧ � � " � � � � " � �ֹ���Ļ � � � � Ǿ Ͳ � � � � � ˡ ͷ� � � � � 칤�����
�Ϊ � � � � � � � � � Լ � � � � Ƿ ‫�������ݹ‬ǵ�˵���������Ĺ����������� 񲻳������� ˣ ѹ����� ۵��
�ǻ � � Ƶ ģ � � � � � � � Υ � � � � µ ġ �
� � � � Ȼ � � � һ � � � δ � � � һ � � � � � � ߿� � � � Լ � � � ʱ � � � ¼ � � ı � � Լ � � � ϰ � ߵġ � � � �
� � Ͼͻ �ѧ � Ὣ � � Щ � � -
� � Ҫ � � � � ʵ � � � � Ƹ � � � � ȥ � �ֻҪһ � �ʱ � � � ¼ � � � � � � � Ȼ � � � � � � Ϊ � � � � Ϊ � � Ҫ �
� � ¡ � � � � � � � � � � � � � Լ � � � � � � Լ � � � � � � η � Χ ֮ � ‫��ڵ‬£ � � � û � � � 㹻�
�ʱ��ȥ������һ�����Ψһ�취�ǰ � � � Щ � � � � � ɱ � � � � � � � � � � � ͳ ͳ � � � � � � � ȥ � �
� � � � � � � � � ߵĹ � � � � � � б � � � һ � � õ � � � � ӡ � ŵ ˼ � � � � * � � � ɭ � � � � � � � � ķ � �
� � Ʒ � �ָ�����һλ � � � � ͷ ʹ � � � � � ˾Ѱ� � � � Ѱ 취�������
�ȥ� �  � ��ִ�ɻ����������ã����ȷ�ǹ�‫�����������ߵع‬á � � � Ȼ �DZ Ҫ� ģ� � � � � � �
��� � � �� 󲿷�Ӧ �е � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ˵ � � � � � � � 棬��
�ù � � � � ҹ � � � Ҳ �ָ��ýϿ 졣��
�ǻ � � � � � � � ; � � ƣ � ��ͣ� � � � ñ Խ � � � � � � � ͣ˿ � � Щ � � � о � � 顢�ܹ���
�ѵ � � � � � ȴ � � � � ƣ � ͵ � � � ˾ � � á �
� � � � � μ ӻ � � � Ҳ � � һ � � � � Ȼ � � � ���� �� �� �� �� � � ᷢ ֲ��˻ � � � � � � � � � ǹ � � � � � � � �
� Ҫ � � � � ǰ ȥ � μ ӻ � � 顣��
�ļ � � ij � � � � � ֮ ǰ � � � � � � � � � � � � Ҫ � � � Ϻ ü � � � С ʱ � � � � � � �ۡ����� о�ʵ � � � � �
 һ λ � � � � � � � � ѧ � � Ҫ � � � � � � ʱ � � � � "�� " ͨ ‫"�����׵‬д ͨ �� � �о � � � � � � ͨ����
� � � � � � � � Χ � � � к ܶ��˾� � � � 㹻
�Ŀ � ѧ ֪ʶ��֪ ����� λ � � � � ѧ � ҵ � � � � � ˵ Щ ʲ ô � � � � � ǿ � � � � � � � ‫�׾ٵ‬д ͨ� ��
ͨ � � ‫��׶‬Ĺ
� �� � � �ͨ � � � � � � � � � � � � � �ֻ֪ ͨѧ�ֻ���� α� � ߵ���ѧ� ĸ ��Ӹ��� �֮ ����������
�ɹ� � � � � � � � Ĺ � � � ʵ � � � � � ɱ � � � � � � � � Ե � ʮ �ַ��㣬�����
�Щ � � � � � Ӧ � � � ɱ � � � � � � Ϊ � á �
� � � � " � � Ȩ ί � � " һ � � � � ʵ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �󵼡 � �Щ � ⣬� ˿ ������� �
� 齻���
�ȥ� � � � � � � � � � � Ҳ � Ͳ � � � � � ȥ " ί � � " � � � ˣ � � Լ � �ֿɼ��о����ø���Ĺ������DZ�ɴ�����
� �Լ � � Ĺ � � � Ч � ʡ �
� � � � 3 . ͨ. � � �˵ � � � ˷ � ʱ � � � � � � � � � ߿����‫��ڹ‬Կ��Ƶķ�֮Χ� ‫����ڣ‬Լ���ȫ�ܹ����
������˷ � � � � � � � � � � ˷ ѵ � ʱ � � � � � � � DZ � � ˵ � ʱ � 䡣
��� � � � � � ë � � � � �֢‫�������״‬ԣ � � � � � � � � � � и � 򵥵 İ 취�����
�ϳ � � � � ë � � � � � Ǿ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � � � � � � ѧ � � � ò � � Ե ġ �
� � ȴ � � � � � � ε � � � � � � ѯ � ʣ � " � ҳ � � � � � Щ � ˷ � � � � � ʱ � � � �ֲ�����Ч� � � � �
� 飿" � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ⣬ � � � � � � ˽ � � � � � � � � ࣬ ������ ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � -�ߵ
� � � � � �ʹ � � � � � � � � һ � � � � � г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ծ ɻ � � ˷ ѱ � � ˵ �ʱ � 䡣
� � � � һ � � � � ĸ ‫��߼ ���������������������ټ‬칫 � һ � � � ʱ � � � ˷ � � ˺ ܶ�ʱ�䡣���ܻ��
���������ʲô � � � � ÿ � ζ � � � ȫ � �ֱϵ � � � � � � � � � ᣬ � � � ÿ � λ � � 鶼
�ϵúܳ���ǰ � � μ ӻ � � � � � ˣ � Ϊ � ˱ � ʾ � Ի � � �ܹ��� ġ � ÿ � ˴ � Ҫ � � � һ � � � � � � � � �� ʵ��ʵ �� �� � ⣬
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ̷� � � ţ � � � ༰����˻ � � 鿪�����û � и � ߡ���λ �
߿������߼�ʼ � � δ � � ʶ � � � � � � � � � ‫����ֱ�ڣ‬һ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ż � Ȼ � �
� � � � � � � � Ҳ � � � � Ϊ � � �ֻ����˷ � � ˴ � ҵ � ʱ � 䡣��һֱ��ô � Ҷ � � ‫������ر‬Լ��
‫���ڻ‬ĵ � λ � � � � � � � � Լ � � Ƿ � � � ˽�ú �� � ‫���أ‬ˣ� � � �ܵ��������� Щ � � û � �
�յ � � � � � � � � 룬���ǿ� �ܻ��������� ĸо�
� � � � Ȼ � � � � � ‫ھ‬ͺ� � ˣ � � ù � � � � � � � ʼ � � -
� � � µ ķ �ʽ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � д � � � һ � ‫�ݴ‬ӡ֪ͨ��
����д � � � " � � � � � � � � ʷ � � ˹ � � � � ˹ � � ³ � � ѷ � � λ � � � � ʮ � � � � � � � � � � 3 ʱǰ �
� � ¥ � � � � � Ҳ μ ӻ � � 飬�����й � � � � � � Ԥ � 㲦��������
�λ � � � � � � �� �μ � � � � Ȥ � � � � � � ��ⷽ � �ۣ���� Ҳ � � ӭ � � ǰ � � μ ӻ � � 顣�����
�Ƿ�μӻ��飬�㲻�þͻ��յ�һ����ϸ�����
‫�ۼ‬Ҫ � � � � � � � �ܻ��������� ͬ �ͬ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Щ � � � � ʲ ô � � � " ԭ �
ľ �� ʱ�
��ʮ� � � � � ˻�о � � �ʱ� � � � � � � � ⣬ � � � � � � � � � � ‫��� ټ‬һ � � � � � � � � ¼ � �
� � � 顣���ϲ � � � һ � � С ʱ � � ʱ � 䣬�Ͱ���������ˣ�����û���˻����Լ��ܵ������� 䡣
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ʶ � � � � � � � ޳�Ч � Ͳ � � � Ҫ � � ʱ � � � � ģ � � � � � � � � � �
� � � ‫�׵‬ɾ� � � � Щ � � � ò �� �ǵ��� � � �ɾ� � û � � � � Ҫ � � � � � � Ҳ � � ɾ � � � ˡ � � �ʵ
� � � Ƿ � � � � � �ִ��������Ͼ ͻ ͻᷢ �ֵġ �Ҫ � � � � Ҳ � � � ѡ �
� � � � ÿ λ � � � � � ͳ � � � � ̨ʱ � � � � �ܻ��������� � � � � � �ܺܶ 롣�������
�ͻͻᷢ �֣����� кܶ���������Ҫ � � � � � ѩ Ƭ � Ƶ ‫ܰ�߹����������������ط�����ڶ‬ � � � � � ߹
���Ч �ʡ � � � � � � � Ϳ � ʼ л � � � � � 룬���������ʹ� � � � � � � ̫ � � � ‫׽‬ӽ�������� 򼸸� � � �
‫����ڶ‬£ 򼸸� � � � �ֽ�͵�̨� 㿪
ʼ����˵��"��ͳ���������ʧȥ�ϵ��"������ͻ���б�Ҫ�ĵ������� ‫˰��ڱ‬
� � Ṥ� � Ч � � � � � � � ù � � � � � � Ͽ � չ � � � �֮ ��� Ѱ��һ�ֽ�Ϊ � � � ʵ � � � � а 취��
� � � � � � ʵ � � � � � � � � � � � ǵ Ļ  � � � � ̫� � � � Ҳ � � � � � � � � ʲ ô � � � ա � � � � � � ͨ����� �� �
� � � � � ‫�׹�ߵع‬ƣ � � � � ǵ ͹ � � � Լ � � � � � Ҫ � ԣ � � � � � Ϊ � � � � � � �ֻ�����Լ���ɲ�
� С � � � � Ƿ dz � � г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � � Ҳ � � � � � � ಻��Ҫ � ġ � � � � � � � � κ � Ч � � � � � � 顣
� � � � � ѻ  � � � � ̫� � � ˾ ͻ � � � � � � յ � � ۵�ϵ � � ˵ � ˵ � � һ � � � � � � ˵ � � � � � � � � ӱ � �
� � � Щ � � � � � ‫ � ˻������ؼ‬м � � � � � � � � � � ȡ � ü � � ߵĹ � � � Ч � ʡ �
��� � � � �  � � � ս ��Ǹ �õ� ˹� � �ӡ�� �ս� ‫ڼ‬䣬�������
�˹ � � � � ͳ � � � ĸ � � Ĺ � � ʡ � � � � X��
�Ǹ � � � � � ˣ � � � � · � � � � � ʮ �ּ��ѣ� � � � � � �ܹ����� Сʱ����ʹ��ò������� ���޶�����‫ٵ‬
ȣ�ֻ����Щ� � � � ‫�����ؼ‬顣��ˣ � � � û � � ɥ ʧ � � � � Ч � ʣ � � � � һ � � � � � 𼪶 ���֮ Ϊ
'� � � � � � � � " � � � � ս ʱ � Ĺ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � û � � � � � � ġ �
��� � �Ȼ ⵱� � � Ǹ �� ӣ � � ��˵� � � � Գ � � � � � � � � � �� �Ŭ � ȥ ˵ � � � � ǵ �ȷ � � �
Թ�����Լ���ʱ�䣻������Ǵ 󵨵‫�����ؿ‬Щ � ˷ �ʱ � � Ļ  � � � � � � Ч � ʾ � Բ � � � � � � � ʧ � �
�� � � � � � � � ˷ �ʱ � � Ļ
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ե � � � � �ּ��˵ � � � � � � � � Լ � �ܿ������ Щ � ķ �ʱ � � �ֲ��
���Ч � � Ļ  � � ÿ λ ֪ʶ�� � � � ߡ�ÿλ� � � � � ߶����������Ӹ � � � � � � � � � һ � � � Լ �
� � � � � ǣ � � � � � Ҳ Ҫ � � � � � � � � � � ƻ � � � � ȱ � ‫�����ݶ‬ʱ����ʧ�������Ʋ������ 󡣹�˷Ѵ �
ҵ�ʱ�䣬�‫˷���ر‬Ѿ����Լ���ʱ�䡣
� � � � 1 . � � � ȱ � � � � ҳ � � � Щ � � ȱ � � � ƶ Ȼ � Զ � � ‫׿‬ʶ�� � � � � � � � ˷ �ʱ � � � � � � � � Щ � � �
�� �һ � ��
ͬ ͬ �֢‫���״‬Ǿ � � ǻ
� Σ � � � ǻᷴ � � � � � " � � � � � � ÿ �
�� �" � 궼�ᷢ��
�Σ � � � � � � Σ � � � � � � � � � � � � ˵ ‫��ڶ‬Σ � � Ǿ ; � � � � � � � � ‫������ٷ‬Ρ �
� � � � ÿ � � � �ֵĿ � � Σ � � � � � � � � Ǹ � � � � ӡ � � � � � � � � � � ˵ � � � �� �Ǿ ��� � � � ԣͿ
� Ա ȹ � ȥ � � � � � � ‫�׵‬ȥ�Ը � � � һ Σ � � � ˣ � � � � Ƿ � � � Ҳ � � � � � � � κ � ʱ � � 򶼸 �� ˣ � � ô �
� � � � � ǻ � � � � � ˵ � Ѿ � ȡ � � � ˺ ܴ�Ľ�
� � � � � � � ַ������ֵ�Σ � � � � � � � � Ӧ � ÿ � � � Ԥ � � � � � ģ � � � ˣ � � ǿ � � Ա � Ԥ � � ģ �
� � � ߿ͨ � � � � � һ � � �� Ա
� �� � � � � � � � � յ ij � � � 취����Դ � � � � � ν " � � � � 취" � � �
�ָһЩȱ � � � ж � � � � � � � � � � Ҳ � � � � õ � � � Щ � � � Ҫ �ܴ������ ˲ � � � � � ɵ Ĺ � � � � � �
‫װ‬취 ʵ� � � Ͼ � � � һ Щ � � � � ǿ � ɵ � � � � ‫�ֵ���������ڴ‬Σ � �ʱ � � � � � � � � ľ � � 飬�����
��Գ � � 洦��취����ʽ�������
� � � � � � � ֻֻᷴ�����ֵ�Σ � � � � � 󲢲 �ֻ������-� � λ � � � ² 㣬���Ӱ�쵽
һ� �λ � � � ÿ һ � � � ˡ �
� � � � � ö � � � � � � һ � � � � � й � ģ � Ĺ � ˾ ÿ � � 1 2 � ³ � Ҫ � � � � һ � � æ � �֮ �� С� � � � ‫˾�ڹ‬ҵ
� �ļ � � � � Ժ � ǿ � � ÿ � � � � � � -
� � � � ҵ � � � � � Dz � ࣬ ��� ˣ � � � � ļ � � ȵ � � � � ۶��ӯ�����Բ ⶨ�����ǹ �� ˾ �Ĺ � � � �
� ÿ � � � һ � � � � ĩ � � � � � � � � ‫����ڱ‬б � � � � ȫ � � � � � � � � � � Ԥ � ⡣ � � � � º 󣬵 � � �
��� �ļ � � �ʱ� � � �� ˾�æ �� � Ҫ � � � � � � ò � � � ȡ � � � ж � � � � � � � � � � � Դ ‫��ﵽ‬
���������Ԥ��Ŀ�ꡣ�����������������û � � � � � κ � � � � � � � � 顣�
�ʵҪ
ֻ � � � һ � ӣ � � � ɽ � � � � һ Σ � � � � � � � � � ߹�����ֻԤ��ij��
‫׶‬εĽ � � � � � � � Ӳ � � Ԥ � � ȫ � � � � � � � � ˡ � � � - � Ľ �ʹ � � � ¡ � � ɶ � � Լ � � � �
‫���ڽ‬ʿʮ�ָ��ˡ � � � � � ǰ �� �ΣҪ � � � � � ǰ ͨ� � � � � � Ѳ � � ‫�ٳ‬Ϊ � � � � � ˡ � � � � ļ � � ȵ �
� � � ۶�ȹ�ȥҲ������ߡ�������Ϊ � � � � � ߵ�ʱ���Ѳ��‫�ٱ��˷��ڸ‬ȫ����ͻ������ ˾� � ͻ� � � � � �
�ˡ �
�� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ǰ � � ÿ � � 6 � � 30�ղ � � � � ȼ � � � � � � � ʱ �
� � � Ǵ � ¥ � � � ¶ � � � � � � � � � һ � � � ӵ � Σ � � С � � � � С С � Ĺ � � � � ߣ������Ǿ � � � ˻�
� Ƿ Ǿ � � ˡ � � � 5 - 6 � � � ‫ڼ‬䣬 ƴ��ͻ��Ǯ���������Ǵ� Ღ�¥ ��� ľ����ò��껹
Ҫ � Ͻɡ � � � � � � � � � � ʱ � � ͻ � � Ǯ � � ë � � Ҳ ���� �� �� �� �� Ҳ ͬ‫ � ˹���ڶ‬ļ ƻ � � � � � � С � � � Ȼ
� � � � � � Σ � � � � � ȫ � Dz � � � Ҫ � ģ � � � � � � � � � һ � � ̨� ͷ � � � � � � � һ � � � ⡣ � � � �
һֱ�������Щ � � Ҫ � � ȴ � � δ � � � � IJ � � � � � � Ա � � �
� � � � � � � ַ������ֵ�Σ� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ɢ � � һ � � �֢‫��״‬
� � � � � ö � � � ǰ � � � � � Ҹ տ � ʼ � � � � ѯ ʱ � � � � � ‫������ڲ‬ � ֪ ʶ�� � Ҳ � � ò � ѧ ϰ � � � � � � � ĸ
� � Ǿ � Ӫ � úõĹ � � � � � � ĸ � � Ǿ � Ӫ � ò � � õ Ĺ � � � � � � � � Dz � � � � Ҿ � ѧ � � � � � � ν � � м
� 𣺾�Ӫ � ú ܺõĹ � � � � � � � � Ǹ � � � � ĵ ĵ
‫���ط‬һ � Ҵ � � � " Ϸ � � ɫ � � " � Ĺ � � � � � һ � ҿ � � � � � � � ‫ � "��߽�����"���׳‬Ĺ � � � � � Ȼ �
Ǿ � Ӫ � ý ϲ � Ĺ � � � � � � � Ӫ � ú ܺõĹ � � � � � � � � � � � Ǻ ܷ�ζ � ģ � û � � � κ � � � � ˼ � � � � � � �
‫����ٻ‬Ϊ � � � � Σ � � � � � � � � � � � ǵ � Ԥ � �֮ �� У � � � � � � � � Ѷ � � � ‫����ת‬һ � � � ‫̶׹‬
��Ĵ � � � � ʽ � ˡ �
�����
ͬ ͬ� ĵ���һ��� � �ú ܺõĻ � � � � � � � Ҳ � � " �ܷ�� ζ � � ". � � � � � � Ļ � � �  � μ" �
� � � ‫ע‬Ŀ" � � � � � � � ž � � � Ϊ δ � � � � ߣ����������ܹ � ȥ� � Ӣ � � � � Ϊ � �
� � � � 2 . � � ӷ � ‫ � � � � � � ˸��ס‬Dz � � � � ˷ � ʱ � � � ԭ � �
� � � � � Ҷ � һ � 꼶 ʱ���������Ž����ʵ��"�������2�����‫ڹ‬
‫�ڳ‬һ � � ˮ � � � � � � � ˹ � � � � ĸ � � � � � ‫���ڣ‬Ҫ � � ò � � � � � � ꣿ " � � - � 꼶�
�ѧ���˵����ȷ��Ȼ�� 𰸵һ " �� ".����ϵ�й����
ߵ������ϣ���ô��ȷ��Ҳ�����"4��"�����������"û��û��".Ҳ�����
� � � Ϊ � � � � � ‫ � � � � �¡�������������������أ‬Ҳ � � � � � � � ɣ � � � � � �
� � � � � � � � ʧ � � � � � � � Ⲣ � � � � һ � � � � ɡ � � � �� �£ � � � � ��ͨ � � � � ˶ � � � һ � 㣬�
��ȱ������Ч�ʡ�������Ҫ��Խ�Խ���ʱ���Э����Ա֮ � � � � � ໥ � � ϵ � � � � � � Щ ʱ � 䱾���Ӧ�û��‫����ڹ‬ϵġ�
� � � � � � һ � � � � � ˸ � � � � µ Ŀ ɿ � � � ߼�����‫�������׼‬Ա���ֱ��Ǿ � � � � � � ò � � �
�� � �ʱ � � � ʮ � � � ֮ һ � � � ‫ �ʹ˼ � "���ڴ‬ϵ" � ϣ � � � � ‫��ڴ����ڲ‬IJ � � � � � ĥ � � � ϣ � � �
� ‫���ڴ����ڲ‬Ȩ � �֮ ���� Լ��໥�����������ʱ����ô��֧����� ϶�� � � ˸ � � � � �
� ˡ � � ˶ � � ˷ � � � ụ � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ϊ ʵ �ּ�Ч � � � ϰ � � � � ‫��ھ‬ɵĻ � � � �Ƕ � �г �ֵ
Ļ � � ‫����ײ‬ᷢ�����‫��ͻ���أ‬Ҳ����Ҫ����ȥ����Ͳ�� �ܰ ѹ � � � � � � � � ȥ � �
� � � � � � ӷ � ‫ � � � � � ˸��ס‬Ҳ � � � н � ‫ � � � " � � � � ˵����������������ڡ‬ǵ İ �
�ӱ � � � Ҫ � � - � � � � � ѧ � ң � � � � ߸�‫����ר‬ʦ������һ���ѧ�ң���"����
‫��ר‬ƽʱ�� Ͳ �̫ �ɵ����ó���������ȫ�ɲ����ó���Ȼ�����ǻ��Ǿ�ã�"���ǵ�Ҫ����ôһ���ˣ�һ����Ҫ������� ������ó Ϳ
��� � �˵ � �Ҳ � � Ҫ � � Ϥ � � � ˽ � � � � ǵ � � � � � � Ҫ � � -
� �ʼ � ͳ � Ϊ � � � � � е � һ Ա � � " � � ʵ � � � � � ƽ ʱ � Ĺ � � �ֻҪ � й ‫�ص‬ � ֪ ʶ�༼��ܾͿ����ˡ�ż������Ҳ
� � � � Ҫ ‫�ר‬ң � � � Ҫ � � ij � � � � � � � � � � � ǽ � � � � � ѯ � � � � � � � Dz � Ӧ � � � ǵ � λ � ‫�ڲ‬
���ˡ� � � � � � � � � � � � � ѯ Ҫ � Ȱ � � � � � � 뵽�� λ �
‫˵�����ڲ‬ö࣬��Ҫ˵ � � һ � � � � С � õ � � � � � � ‫�ڵ‬λ � � � Թ � � � Ч � ʲ � � � ʲ ô � � � Ӱ � 졣��ֻ�
����˺�������á�
�� � � 3. � �һ � � � � � ˷ �ʱ � � � � � ǻ ��ԭ �ܲ���� ȫ������Ҫ֢‫���״‬ǻ� � � � ࡣ
� � � � � Ӷ � � � � � ˵ � � � � � Ͽ � � � � � dz � � ϻ � � � ȱ � ‫���ݡ‬Ϊ � � � � � � Ļ � � � � � � Ǿ Ϳ
� ��԰ ʱ� �
ʱ �仨�‫�����ڹ‬ ϣ�����û���
ͬ ʱ������
¡ ͬ��������� Ľṹ�У��
޳��������‫�������ڽ‬£ � � � � � � � � � ṹ ֻ��һ � � � � � 룩��
�Dz � � � Ҫ � � � � ġ � ÿ � ˶ � � � � � ù � � � � � Ҫ ֪ � � Ķ � � � һ � � � � � � ÿ � ˶ � � �ܵ õ � � � ù � � �
��� � � � � � Դ � � � � � ǿ � � � � � � � Ϊ � � - ���
‫���������ض‬Ҫ � � ��ͬ� λ � � 򺻵 ͬ��
˹
�˵�˹�� �
ͬͬ
�ͬ�� � � � � � � ɣ � � Ҳɣ �� �
Ҳ � � �� �� �
˵ � � �� �� �� �� �� � � � ‫ض‬
������������� � ֪ ʶ�; � � � � � ˲ � � � �߱�����˱��뽫
�ü � � � � ˵ � � ֪ ʶ�; � � � � � � һ � � � � С �
��� �Ȼ � � � � � � � � � ǻ � � 鿪
�ù࣬ ����� Ҫ � � � � ô � � ĺ � � � �ֱʹ� � Ϊ � � ѧ � � � � � �� �" � ϣ � � � " � � � � � � � Ը � � �
Եö��һ�١�����Ҫ � ǻ � Ĺ � � � � � Ҳ � � � ൱���ʱ������ᣬ�ǿɾ��ǻ��ܲ���� ȫ�ı����ˡ�
� � � � ÿ � λ � � � � Ȼ � � � � � һ � � � С � ͵ ĺ � � � � � 顪�������ʽ�ĺͷ���ʽ�ģ�������������飬���
����Ҫ � ü � � � С ʱ � � � � ˣ � � � � � � � � Ҫ � � � � ȷ � � Ŀ � ġ � û � � Ŀ � ĵ Ļ � � 飬�����������
�ᣬ���Һ���Ҳ�ܴ��
� � � � � � � � Ҫ � � � ǣ � � � � �ֻ��ż � � � � � һ � ¿ � � � İ 취�����ܽ����
�һ � � � � � � � � � һ � � � � � � � � һ � 쵽���
‫��ڿ‬ᣬ�Ǿ�û�˸ɹ����ˡ�������ʲô��ֻҪʱ� � � ¼ � � ʾ � � � 鿪
�ù࣬ ���� Ȼ�Ǹ����ʱ�� ġ �� � �ܲ���� ȫ�Ļ�
� � � � � � � � Ҳ � � � � � ⣬ � � Щ � � � � � � �֯����� Ϊ � � � � � � � � ģ � � � � � Ű  ˾ � � � �
��� � � � � � ʯ �� ͹ � ���Ĵ� ˾ �˾�Ķ� » ᣬ� � � � � ǹ �˾� �Ҫ � � � � � � � � � � � � Ͳ þ � � �
� � � � Ǵ Ӳ � � � չ ҵ � � � � � � � � ҹ � ˾ � � � � � � � � ȷ � � � � � » � ij � Ա � � � ɲ � � 빫˾ � � � � �
�Ĺ � � � � � � ⣬ �
ͬ �� � � � �Ŀ ͬ � ǣ � � � � � � � Ҳ � � �ܱ�������� ҵ��ʱ��Ϊ���˵��
绤��ʦ��
��� �� ͨ � � ��
ͨ �ͨ� �� �� �� �� �� � �ܳ ͨ˵��Ϊ � � � � � � � ճ � � ϵ � � � Ҫ � � � ‫������̫�����ݡ‬ķֹ �
Ƿ�ѡ���������ȱ�‫��������ݣ‬һ � � � λ � � һ � � � � � � � � Ĺ � � � � � � � ȴ � ɼ � �ָ
�λ� � � ߼� � � � ŷ � � � � � � � � ˡ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ζ � �ְ���壬˵� � � й
‫���ص‬Ϣ��δ����Ҫ�ߴ��
��� � � � һ � Ҵ �˾ � � � 쿪
�ᣬ�����������Ϊ ԭ�Ҵ���Դ��ҵ� �Ļ ͳ�Ѿ�� ϻ�������1900��ǰ���ѿ�ʼ��‫�ת‬ľ޴��
��ֻ�����˸ù �˾ � � һ � � ͳ � � � ţ � � � ս � ‫ڼ‬䣬�ù � ˾�ֿ�ʼ���·ɻ�������죬������γ � � �
‫�ר‬Ŵ � �
´ � � ; � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � һ � � � ţ � � � � � � � о � ʵ � � � ҵ Ļ �֮ �� ϡ��ֳ����ԭ��
�ܲ����� ò� � ӽ � � � � � � � ʵ � � � һ � � � � ‫�������ٻ‬һ � � � � � ϵ � �
� � � � � � � � ʱ � � � � գ � � � ˾ � � � � � � � � � � � ľ � � � Ǹ � ռ һ Ƭ � г � � � � � � � � � ‫��ص‬
ˡ � � � � � � � � � ֮���������� ໥� � � 䡢�໥���
�ϵԽ�Խ���С���һ�������������Զ����������  á����Խ� ķ����豸�������ǶȽ������Ƕ��Ǿ����
ߡ����������ܽ � � � � е � � � � ҵ � � � � � � � � � � ǿ ϶ � � � � � ȡ � � � κ � һ �ֲ�Ʒ���‫��޷�� ﵽ‬
Ч� �
��� �ʮ � � � � � � ԣ���� ˾���� � Ҫ һ� �Ҫ � һ� �Դ ��� Դ � � ߡ���˾ � � Ҫ һ � � � ߣ����ͬ� ʱ�ƽ�����
�ַ����豸���������໥����
�ǽ � � � � е � ij һ � � � � Ϊ � � Ҫ ҵ � � 񣬶 �� � Ϊ � � � � � � � 񣿻 �� �� � � � ҵ � � � �ֻ‫���ץ‬е� � �  �
���Ӧ � � � � � � � � � � � Ϊ "� � � � � � � � � � Դһ � � Ӽƻ �"� � � � � � � � � п � � � �
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �֮ ����������� ʽ�һ�£�Ҳ��Ҫ��һ���ߡ�Ȼ���� ‫����ؼ‬
��Դ � � ҵ � � Ҫ � � һ � � �ܷ�� ӳ��Դ�г�ʵ������ͳһ��Ϊ��ͬ�Ŀͻ������ͬ�ij�Ʒ��������
�ʵ � � � � � ǡ ǡ � ෴����˾ � � � � � � � � � ţ � ÿ � � � Ŷ � � � � û � � � � " Χ ǽ " � � � � � � Լ � �
��� � � � � � � � � � � � 𺦣 �� �� �� �� � " Χ ǽ " ֮ � ‫����ڸ‬Լ���һ�����·�ʽ�����һ�
‫�׹�غ‬ϰ� ߡ��ͽ���Ǩ�ƶ�Ҳ����ͬ � � ÿ ��� Ų ��� �ֹ����ţ � � � � � Ϊ � ‫��ڽ‬ʮ � � � �
�Լ � � IJ � Ʒ � п � �ܻ��������� Դ � г � � � ռ � � 7 5 � � � ķ ‫ݶ‬
� � � � � � � � һ � � � � � � � � ż � � � � � � � 쿪�ᡣ���‫���ڸ‬Ŷ� � � � � ߹
����IJ ͬ ͬ ��л� Ա � � � 㱨�������������ֻæ � Ųμ ӻ � � 飬�Թ���ǰ����ʵ������������������
˾��ǰ����ʵ���������������˾���
‫�ڲ‬ȡ��ʩ����������������µľ��棬�����Ǻϲ � � � һ � � � ţ � � � � � һ � � � � � ͳ һ � � � � � � Ȼ �
‫����ڲ‬в � � � � � � ‫��������ش‬Ҳ � � � д � � � � ƶ � � � � � � � � � � Ӧ � � � ƶ � � � Щ �
‫˽�����������ش‬⣬ � � ߹���㲻����ȥ� � � ÿ � λ � � 飬 Ҳ � � � � � � ʿ � 䵱���
�IJ � � ж � � � � � � � - � � � � � � � � ʱ � � ȹ � ȥ � � � � � � � � ˡ �
�� � � 4. � � � һ � � � ˷ �ʱ � � � � � � � � � ԭ � � Ϣ �ܲ���� ȫ��
� � � � һ � Ҵ � ҽ Ժ � � Ժ � � � � � � � � � � Ͻ ӵ � ҽ � � � Ǵ � � � ĵ 绰��������ΪһЩ � � Ҫ
‫ס‬Ժ�IJ���� ˽�λ ��� ‫ס‬Ժ��"� ˽ � "���Ѿ�û�д�λ��Ȼ��Ժ������ÿ�ζ����ҵ�һЩ
� � λ � � � � � � � � Ϊ � � � ˳ � Ժ � � � � � � Ϣ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ‫ס‬Ժ��ȥ�������
Ļ �ʿ � � Ȼ ֪ � � � � � � �ֵ � � � � � � ԱҲ֪ � � � � � Ϊ � � � � Ҫ Ϊ � � Ժ � � � � ˽�ˡ ���ǣ� ‫ס‬Ժ����õ
� � � " � � λ ͳ � � � � " � � ÿ � � � � � � 5 � � � � ͳ � Ƶ � � � � ֣����� 󲿷� ‫ס‬Ժ���˶�������
� � ҽ � � 鷿�����
�ˡ �Ҫ � � � � � � � � � � Ϣ � � � �ֻ�Ǿ � � �֮ ֮�͡�ֻ �͡�͡ �ֻҪ � � � � � � � � ʿ � � � �ֵ���ҵ��˵���ӡ
��� � � � � � � � � � ֵ ��һ�ָ�Ϊ� � � ‫��������ص‬Ϣ����·��
��� � � � � 첿
�ų � � � Ϊ һ Щ � � � � � �ֶ�ͷʹ����Щ��������Ҫ����һ��"����"����ܱ������
��Ա��ʹ�á��������Ա�ṩ��������ƽ�������ǻ�Ʋ�������Ҫ�ġ�������Ա������Ҫƽ��������Ҫ��������
ȡ������������������Ʒ����ϡ�����ĸ ͡ߵ���ҵ��ʱ��ȵȡ�Ϊ�˵õ���Щ��‫���������ݡ‬ò
� ÿ � 컨�Ϻü���Сʱ�����о���Щ�������
߾͵ý � � � Լ � � � " � � � � " � � ƻ � � � � � �ܵ õ � � � � � � � Ϣ � � � � � � һ � � � � � � � � � � � � ˵ ‫ר‬
���뵽 Ҫȥ � � � ѻ � � � � � 첿����Ҫʲô � � � � � Ϣ � �
� � � � � � Щ � ‫����ڹ‬Ϻķ�ʱ���ë���������˸����¡����ܲ����� Լ���Ϣ����·�ȣ���ʱ�
� � � � � � � � � � � � ѡ � � � ʱ � � � � � � � � ȴ � � Ҫ ʱ � � � � � � ġ � � � � �ֻҪ � � � � � � Ŭ � �
� � ջ � � � � Ǻ ܴ�ģ � � ‫��ر‬ǿ � � � ԰�� ʡ �ʡ� � �� �� �� �
ʱʱ� � �� �� �� �
� � � � ͳ һ � � � ſ � � � � � � �֧���� ʱ��
� � � � � � � � � � � � ߶��Լ���ʱ��ʹ�����������ϸ�ļ�¼���Լ�¼�����˷��
� � � ‫ � � � ˻ڴ‬Ŭ � � � ȥ � � � � � � Լ � � � ʱ � 䡣�
�ô � � � � Լ � � ж � � � ʱ � � � � � � � � � � � � Ҫ � Ĺ � � � � � � � � � � � � � ġ � Ȼ � � � � � � ж
� � � � Լ � � � � � � �֧��� ġ � � � � � � � � � � � Ҫ � � � � ġ � � � Ϊ � � � � λ � � � � � � � � ‫׵‬
�ʱ�䣿
� � � � � � � ܹ����߷dz � Ŭ � � � � � � � � � � � � ˷ � ʱ � � � � � � ‫���ַ������أ‬ʡ� � � �
�ʱ � � � � � � � � � ޵ġ �
��� � � � � � � � � � � � � � У �ʱ� � � � � � � � Ϊ � � Ч � � � ˾ � � � һ � Ҵ � � � � е � � �ܲ á � � �
� � � � � � � ߲‫�����ڸ‬Ź ͬ ͬ �� � � � � � ꣬ �� ‫ڴ��ڼ‬䣬�
�ÿ � � � � һ � � � � � � � � � Ļ � ᡣ ÿ � λ � � � � �ֻ����һ � � � С ʱ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ó �ֵ
�‫ � �ʹ������׼‬Ҳ ѧ � � � � � � � � � � � ‫����׼‬ÿ � λ � � �̸ֻһ � � � � � ⣬ ̸ ̸� � � � � � 1 С ʱ 20 �
� � �ʱ � � � �ܲ þͻ����˵��"��³�������ҿ�����ð�������̸�����‫���ݹ‬һ � £
� � � � � Ҫ � � ˵һ˵ �
´λ � � � � � � � � � � ʲ ô � � " � Ȼ � � � � � 1 С ʱ 30 � � � � ʱ � � � � ͻ � վ � � � ſ � � � � � � � �ָ��
� � � � � � � � � � � � � һ � � � � � � � � � � ̲� ‫"������ס‬Ϊʲôÿ � λ � � � � �ֻ����һ � � �
Сʱ��"��‫ ���򵥣ܼ� � � � " � �˵�ش‬ҵ�‫������ע‬е �ʱ � ޾���һ � � � С ʱ � � � � � � � ij һ � � � �
� � � ϳ � � � - � � � С ʱ � � � ҵ � ̸� � � ͻ � û � � � � � ˡ � � � � � һ � � � 濴����
�ʱ������һ���Сʱ����ô��Ҫ������޷���͸ ��Ҳû �����Լ��� ˵ � � � � � � ˵ � � � � "ÿ � λ ��
 � � � � İ 칫 � � � � � � У � � � � Ҵ � δ � � � � � � ʲ ô � 绰����ţ�Ҳ � � � � � � � � � � � �
‫����ڻ����ڼ‬ͷ�����˵����λ��Ҫ�������������Ҫ����������һ��
� Ҿ � � � � � � � £ � � � ‫ � � � "���ش‬ѹ � � չ � � � � � � ‫ڻ����ڼ‬䲻���κε 绰���
�Ȼ������ � ͳ � � � �̫ � � ĵ 绰�����⡣������ͳ�����������绰����
�ҵ�̫����Ҿ�� ͸�� � ˡ ˽ ������������� 飬 һ � Ŷ � � � � � � 鵲��
�ˡ�ֱ�����ǵĻ���������˵�����š�� Ҿ �� ð��Сʱ��ʱ������� ‫���ڼ‬绰����һһ � ‫ص‬绰������
�Լ���Ϥÿ���й�����һ���ĩ����ܵ�� 90 � � � ӵ Ľ � � � � � ‫ � � � � ˵ � � � � � "�ء‬λ � �ܲ
�ÿ ͬ�» � � � һ � � � � õ � � ջ � � � � � Ҫ � � � � � � � ͬ� �ܸ ϵĹ � � � � ߿� һ � � � µ Ļ � � � � � õ �

�ջ � � ࡣ
�� � � Ȼ � � � � � � � � � һ λ � � � � � � � � Ĺ � � � � � Ҳ � � � ò � � � � � һ � � � � � ϵ �ʱ � � �
� � � � � Щ � ‫�޹ؽ‬Ҫ � ġ � � � һ � � � � � м �ֵ�ġ� � � ȴ � Ǹ ɲ � � ɵ � � � � � � � � 棬���
�Ӵ � " ˳ � � � � � " � � � � Ҫ � ͻ � � � � � ϯ � � Щ û � � � � μ � � � � � �ܿ��� Ļ � � 飬
ΪһЩ � � � � � � � � � � � � ‫���ܡ‬ȴ� � � � � ͵ � � � � � � � � � � � ճ � � � � � � � � �
� � � � ÿ � � � � � � ij � � ߼� � � � � � � � � � � � � � Կ � � � һ � � � � ʱ � 䣬���ܰ��
�Լ�����Ը�֧����� Щʱ��ʱ���Ҽ�����Կ϶�������Լ���ʱ�䵽�����
�ô � � � � � � � � в � � � � � � � ʵ � � � ϣ � � ߼� � � � � � � � � � � � � ķ � � ֮ һ � �ʱ � � � � � � �
� � Լ � � � � �֧��� Ļ � � � � Ǿ � � � � � ˣ � � � � � � � � � � � ʱ � � � � � � � � Ҫ � Ĺ � � � � � �
� � � � � Щ � � � ‫ � ˼��ס‬Ը � � � � � �֧��� нˮ� � � � � � � � Ϊ � � � � � � Щ � � � ‫��ֻ���ס��ھ‬
X������ôһ � � � � � � � �ֻ���������Ǹ � � � � ⡣ � � � � � � � � �  �߲���Ա���
‫�ڲ‬һ � � � � Ч � � ͼ �ֵ�������ϵ �ʱ � � � � ࡣ
� � � � � � � � � ߵĵ � λ Խ � ߣ���������ܹ � � � � Ƶ � ʱ � � � Խ � ٣���Ĵ󲿷�ʱ � 䶼����ûʲô� � �
‫��������׵‬ˡ � � � Խ � � � � Ҫ � � � � � û � � � ‫�ת‬ϵ�ʱ � � ͻ � Խ ࣬ ������� ʹ� � � � � � �
ò � � � � � Ч � � � ϵ � ʱ � � ͻ � Խ � ١�
� � � � � � ˣ � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � � � � ‫������ף‬ú � � Լ � � � � �֧���� ʱ�䡣��֪ ���
�Լ���Ҫ��������ʱ�䣬��������ʱ�����ɲ����ó��ġ�����ܰ������ ʱ��ϲ��ɴ��ʱ�䣬����ֻ
���ķ�֮ ������ գ�Ҳ�������һ����Ҫ�����飬������Щʱ�䶼
��������õģ � � � � � 1 5 � � � ӡ � � � � � � С ʱ � � � � � � � � � ķ �֮ ������� գ�Ҳ�ɲ���ʲô���顣
� � � � � � � � �� �ΰ � � � ʱ � � � � � � һ � � � ʩ � � � � � � ԡ Ѽ � ¼ � � � ġ� � � � ʾ � ͷ � ͨ� � �
� � � � ‫������ڹ‬Լ�����֧���� ʱ�伯�������
� � � � � � � � � � İ 취�����١�����߲���ͨ Ա�� ÿ �ܿ����� ‫����ڼ‬һ � 칫 � �
�༭�Ա Ϳ�����ͨͨ�����Dz�����
ͨ �ְ취�����ʱ��ġ�
� � � � � � � � Щ � � ÿ � � ‫�ר‬Ų � � � � � � ʱ � 䣨������һ � � � � � � � 壩�����ճ�����������顢��
顢�о � � � � � ȵ ȣ � � � � � � � � ༸������綼����������Ҫ � � � �
��� � � � � � � ᵽ � � � � λ � � � � � �ܲ þ � � � � � � � � � ʱ � � ġ � ÿ � � һ � � � � � � � ‫����ٿ‬л
� � 飬������ ߻������߼㱨�
�ǰ � � � � � � � � � � � Ҫ � ͻ � � ȵ ȡ � �ܶ������������ ĵ� � � � � ‫�ר‬Ŵ � � � � � ʱ � � Ҫ �
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ‫��ٲ‬ˣ � � � � � һ Щ � � � � � ° � � � � � � ⣬ һ Щ � � Ҫ � ͻ � � �
� � � � � � � � д � � � ͻ Ȼ � � ã � ȥ � � ʢ � ‫��ٳ‬ȡ����������������‫�����ר‬Ŵ � � � � � Ҫ � � � �
ʱ�䲿�����ģ � ÿ � � � � � � һ � � � С ʱ � �
� � � � � � һ �ֲ��õý � Ϊ � 㷺�İ 취��ÿ � � � � � � � ‫�ڼ��ﰲ‬ų�һ � � ʱ � � � � �
� � � � � ‫����ڿ‬ɽ� � ‫��ڵ‬о � � � � � � У � � � � ᵽ � � һ λ � � � й � � � Ч � ʵ Ĺ � � � � ߣ���ÿ �
�ȥ � �ǰ � � Ҫ � � � Լ � � � � 鷿�﹤��һ � � � С ʱ � � � ‫ڼ‬䲻���κε 绰�����
‫�ڻ‬Ҫ � �ʱ � ϰ ࣬��һ � � � � ζ � � ÿ � � � � � һ � � � � ͵ � � � � � � � � � � � � � �ִ�����Ҫ � � �
� İ 취��ȻҪ�� " �ѹ��� � ‫�ؼ‬ȥ� � � Թ � � � � � �
‫ٸ‬ɼ�Сʱ"�����ӿ�ȡ����� Ϊ ���� ô �ʱ���������������Ѿ�ƣ�ߣ ��Ҫ � � ɺ � � � � � Ҳ � � � � ѡ � � � ˵ �
��� � � � � � ˻ � � � � � ͽϴ � � � � ˵ � � ÿ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Щ� � � �һ Ϣ
� ϲ � � � ѹ � � � � ‫����ؼ‬ҹ� � � � � � � � ô ࣬ ����� ǡǡ��-
� � � � � � � � � � � Ȼ � � � Կ � ҹ � � � � � � � � α � Ҫ � � � � � � � ô � � � � � ‫����أ‬ǰ � � � �
ʱ������������
͹�ˡ�
� � � � � � � � � � μ � � п � � �֧���� ʱ��ķ�������Ҫ�ģ�����Ϊ��Ҫ����ʱ������÷���������붼��
�ý � � � � � Ҫ � ġ � Ч � � � � � Ե � � ¼ � � � һ � 飬�����ְ취 ʡ� � һ � � ʱ � � � � � � � � � � � �ְ취��
���ܽ��� ʲô � � � ⣬ � � Ϊ � � Щ � � ̫� � Ҫ � � � � ȴ � � � � ɵ � � � � � Ȼ � ߵ����‫ � � � ˼�ڹ‬Ϻ � ʱ �
䰲���
�ռ����Ҫ��λ�á���ˣ�ֻҪʱ� � һ � � � ţ � � � � Ǿ ͻ � � � � � � � � Щ � Լ � � � � �֧���� ʱ�䡢�
��Ӧ��ȥ�����Ҫ�������Ӧ�µ�ʱ����Ҫ���‫�������ڼ‬ 򼸸� � � ��֮ �� ‫��ڣ‬µ � Σ � � � µ ļ � � 账�������
�Լ��µ����¾ͻ�ѹ����߱����������֧���� ʱ��ȫ���ù⡣
� � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � � � � � � Ҫ � � � һ � � � � � ǵ � � � � ж � � � ȷʵ � � � � � Լ �֧���� ʱ�
䣬 Ȼ��� ‫�ٽ‬һ � γ � � ̺� � ʵ � ʱ � � � � �
‫�������������������������ر‬ռ�������ʱ�䣬� ⲿ� � ʱ�
�ô � � � Ǿ � � � Ҫ � � � � � � � � Լ � � � ʱ � � � ¼ � � � � � � � � Щ Ч � � � � � ԡ � � � ʱ �ֶ�Ļ� � �
�ǰ � � � Ѿ � � � п�� ˵� � ͷ��Σ�ա�
� � � � - � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � ߶����ã � � � ʱ � � Ŀ � � � � � � � � � � - � � ˮ �
‫�����ݡ‬Ҫ � � � � ϵ � � � ʱ � � � ¼ � � � � � ‫���ڶ‬Щ � � ¼ � � � з � � � � � � � � � � � Լ � � �
� �֧���� ʱ��Ķ��٣���-Щ � � Ҫ � Ļ  � � � ± � � � � � ɵ � � � � ‫�ޡ‬
��� � � � � � � � ˽�һ λ � � � Ч � ʼ � � ߵ��ˡ� � � � � � �ܴ������ ŵ� � ӡ � � � һ � � � ǹ �
� ‫�����ڽ‬ĵ � � ӡ � � � һ � � � ϼ � ¼ � � � � Ҫ � � ġ � � � ȴ � � � � � ‫���ر‬Ҫ � � � ¡ � ÿ � � � º �
‫�ע‬б � � � � � ɵ � � � � ‫�����������ޡ‬Խ�Խ��ʱ�����֪ ���� Լ�����֧���� ʱ��Խ�Խ���
ˡ�
� � � � ʱ � � � � � � � ȱ � � � � Դ � � � � � ʱ � � � � � ã � Ҫ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �ֻ�
ǿ �̸� � � � � ⣬ � � � � � Լ � � � ʱ � 䰲���ǿ � ȡ � ģ � � � Ҳ � � ϵ ͳ �
‫����ط‬Լ��Ĺ��������Щ��������Ҫ�Ļ��-�ַ�����
� � � � " � � ʶ � � � Լ � " � � � � � � � ǻ ۵ Ĺ �� ѵ � � �ִ�ķ � � � � ˵ ʵ � � � � ̫� � � � � � ˡ � � � � �
� � � � � ϣ � � � Լ � � Ĺ � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � � � � Ϊ � � � � � � � � ‫׵‬Ļ� � � � � � 㻹
�ǿ � � � � � � � " � � � � � Լ � � � ʱ � � " � � һ � � ȥ � � ġ �
��� �3 � � � � � � � � ٠� � � �
� � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � ߺ����ӹ��‫�������ף‬Ҫ � � � Լ � � Ĺ � � � � 볤
Զ��Ŀ�����������������������⣺"Ϊ���ȵ��� ��ȵ���˴ ߻� Ĺ � � � Ч � ʣ � � ҵ � � � � � � � Щ ʲ ô � � � � � ‫"�أ‬
�� �ǿ� � � � ˵ � � � � Ρ �
� � � � � � � ‫ص‬㼯����������ϡ�������߹���Ч �ʵĹ
‫���ֹ����ؼ‬Ч �ʿ � � Ա � � � � � � � � ¶ � � � � 棺
1 � � � � � � � � � � � ѵ Ĺ � � � � ϣ � � � � а � � ������ �� �  ‫�ݡ‬ˮƽ� � � � ‫��׼‬Ӱ�죻
2� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ˵ Ĺ � ϵ � ϣ �
� ͬ � � � � ϼ � �� � �¡ � � � � � 3 � � � � � � � ‫ڶ‬Ի��鼰�
㱨�ȹ����ֶε �ʹ� � � ϡ �
� � � � � � � � � � � � ߶��н� � ‫���׼‬Ͻ � � � � Щ � ¿ � � ù � � ‫��ֻ�������������ص‬
��ͷ��ɣ�ȴ��̫���Ĺ���Ľ�����Ǻܵ��ı � � � λ � � � ϼ � � � � � � � � � " � Կ � " � � �
‫��ر��ں‬Լ�"Ӧ�ú���"��һЩȨ�������һ�������ʹ����Ч������ۡ‫�ۿ‬
�� � �һ � Ҵ � � � � � � ѯ � � ˾ �ĸ � � � � � ÿ � ν � � � � ¿ͻ� � � ί � �ʱ � � � � Ҫ � Ȼ � � � � � � ʱ
�� � �ί �е �λ �ĸ � ߲ �����Ա���̸ ������������ǽ�̸ ���‫����ͻ����ڹ‬Ա����ʷ������
� � � � ʵ � � � � Ȼ ���� �� �� �� �� �� �� Ȼôͨ ֱ���˵� � � � � " � � � � Ϊ � ‫�׼‬Ӧ����Щʲô��� �ܶ Ե���˾
� � � � � � � � � � н ˮ � � " � � � ˶ � � � � ˵ Ļ ‫��ش‬ǣ � " � � � �ܹ�� ˾ � IJ � � � " � � " � Ҹ � � � � ˾�
� � � � � " . � � � � Ҳ � в � � � � ˻ 850��������"���‫ � � � � � �ش‬Ҫ � � � � " ֻ�и � 𼸸
� � � � � � � ‫ � " �ش‬ҵ Ĺ � � � � � � � � � � � � ṩ � � Ϣ � � � Ա � � � � ǽ � � � � � ȷ � �
ߡ�"" � Ҹ � � � � � � ˽ � �� ʲ�ôԲ � Ʒ � � Ҫ � � � � ͻ �µ � � Ҫ � � "" �ҵ �ҪΪ � �ܲ ü� � � � � � ‫�ٵ‬һЩ �
� � � � � � ‫���׼‬й‫��ص‬ʶ�� � " һ � � �˼ � � �ֻ�����ͷ��ɣ�ֻǿ � � � Լ � � � � е � һ Щ Ȩ � � � � �
ô � � � � � � � � Լ � � � ͷ � � � �ְλ � Ƕ � ô � � � ⣬ � � Ҳ � ֻ Ǹ � � � � � � � ѡ � � ෴����������
ӹ��‫ ܶ���ס‬Թ���Ľ������ô������ĵ�λ��ô���£�������Ĺ�����"��߹����" � �ʵ �� ʺ � � 塢��
�Ӧ���Ǹ�"�߲������Ա"����Ϊ���ܶ������ ľ� Ӫ ҵ � � � � � �
� � � � � � � � � ߵij � ŵ
� � � � � � � ӹ � � ‫������ױ���ʹ�����ߵ�ע‬Լ�����IJ��š�‫ר‬ҵ������‫�ת‬Ƶ � � �
� �ľ � Ӫ � ҵ � � � �� �� �� ʹ��ʹ � � � �� �� �� �� �� � ⲿ
� � � 硣ֻ���ⲿ � � � � � Dz � � � Ч � � ĵ
‫���������ط‬Ҳ � � � ò � � � � ¿ � � � � � ļ � � ‫ܡ�ר‬ҵ�����á���IJ����������
� Ŀ � �֮ ��� Ĺ � ϵ � � � � ˣ � � � � � � ߻� � � � 뽫 ί � � � � ˻ � �߲��˵ � � ɰ
‫��׼‬Ŀͻ���Դ���Ϊ��IJ�Ʒ���������м ۲�Ʒ�����������ߣ�����ҽ�Ʒ����� 񣩲�Ϊ�
� � Ƿ � � � ġ � � ‫�����ھ‬ôһ � � � � � � ֮�������� 󣬹� � � � ߶� � Լ�����Щʲô����ô�����Ҳ�
� � � � � � � � � � � ȥ � � ���� �� � ͬ뷨��
� � � � һ � � � � � й � ģ � � � � � � � � � � � л � � � ǰ � � � � � � � � � һ ‫�׮‬£ � � û � � 沿
�ŵ � � � � � � � � � � � � ˣ � � � 3 0 � � � û � � � � � � � � � � Ϳ � ʼ � � � � � ﹤
� � � � Ȳ � � ǿ � ѧ � ң � Ҳ � � � � �ܹ���� 湤��ѵ � � � � � ҡ � � � � � � �ֳ��Ŀ � �
‫����ﳣ‬Ϊȱ�� ѧ ��ˮ ‫ ���ܵ�˳׼‬쵼������������������λ� � ѧ � � � � �
‫���׫‬ˣ � � Ҷ � Ŷ � � ա � � � � dz � � Ŀ � � � � � � � � Ŀ һ � £ � � � � к ܸߵ�ѧ��ˮ ‫��׼‬Ȼ������
� � ϵ � � ǣ � һ � � � � � � Щ � � � � � � � Ҫ � � � ߵ���Щ � � ѧ � � � � ȴ � � � � � � � � � Щ � � �
� � ˡ � � � � � � һ ֱ��ÿ � � л � � � � � Э � � � һ λ � � ѧ � ĵ � � � � � � ‫ص‬Ŀ � ѧ � � � � � Ը û � � � �
� � � � ˵ � � � " � � � ǵ �ǰ � � � � � � " Ϊ" � � � � д � � � £ � � � � � � � � � ȴ � � � � � ǵ � � � �
�д � � � µ � ' � � � � ' . " � � � � � � � � ʱ � � � � � Լ � � � � " � � � � Ϊ � � � � Щ ʲ ô � � � � Ĺ � � ‫ף‬
�" � � õ � � Ĵ � � ǣ � " � ҿ � � � � � � � � Լ � � Ĺ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ѧ � � � � � � � ˽ � �
� � ǵ Ļ �ʹ � � � Ƕ Ի � � � � � Ȥ � � � � � � � � � � � � ˵ � Ϊ � � � ǹ � � � " � � � � � � � ‫ܻ����ڽ‬ � ʱ
� � � � � � ‫��ץ‬Ҫ � � � ⡣ ߣ��‫�����ץ�ؼ‬Ի��‫���ڲ‬һЩ � ‫�����ش‬Ҳ � � � Ź � � � � � Ϊ � �
ˣ � � � � � � � � � � � �ܷ��������� ͻ�������ϼһ�Ӳ��ò�������������˵
� � " � � � � � � � ǵ ij � � � � � Ƿ � ɹ � � � � � ‫��׼‬Ӧ���������Լ��Ƿ�ϲ������Ӧ�ÿ��ж��������ѧ��
� � Ϊ � � � � � � � ǵ Ŀ � � � � � 뵽���ǵ��о����������"���"������ʲô���
‫ � � � � � "�ף‬⣬ ʵ � � � Ͼ � � � Ҫ � ‫�����ؾ‬δ � � � � DZ � � � � ‫ں‬ ܶ ೡ�ϱ � � � � � � Ϊ � ǽ ܳ���ֵ��
�Щ� � � � � � � � �ַ���DZ � � � � � � Ĺ � � � � � Ƚ ϣ � � � � �ֻ�Ǽ � С � � һ � � �֡ ��
��� � � � � һ � � � � � � ҵ � � � еĴ� � � � � Ȼ � � � � � ζ � � � �ȴ �Ǹ �ӯ� � � š� � ò�Ϊ� � ˾
� �� ֤ ȯ � � � � � � е Ǽ ǣ � � 䵱��Ʊ��‫ � � � � � � � ˴�ת‬ȡ � � � � ѡ � � � � 𽫹 ɶ � � � � � � 뵵�������
‫��ڷ‬ź � � � � Լ � � � � � � � � � � � Ƶ � � ճ � � � � � � � Щ � � � � Ҫ � � ߶ȵľ�ȷ��Ч�ʣ���ȴ������Ҫ
��� � � � �
� � � � � � � ‫���־‬һֱ������-� � Ŧ Լ -
� Ҵ � � � � � � � � � � ε � һ λ � � � � � � �ܲ������������� ⣺"������‫׿‬ � �����ʲô � �
� ‫ � � � "�ף‬ţ � � � ͷ � �֣��� ‫����������ڹ‬л � �ֱ�ӽӴ��ͻ���λ�ĸ߲��������ǣ �
��� � � � и � � � � � �
"� � � � � Ȩ " � � � � � � � ǵ � � � � У � � � � � � � � Դ � � � � � չ � � � � � Ǽ � Ϊ � � � õ ġ � � � Ȼ
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ȸ ɺ á � � � � ǣ � � � � � � � λ � ¸ � �ܲ���������
�ò � � � Ϊ � � � и � � � � � � � � � ˿ ͷ � � 滹�м � � � � DZ � � � � Է � � ӡ � � � � � λ � � � �ܲ õ� � 쵼�
£ � ԭ � �ֻ�Ǿ � � ‫�ڸ‬ǼǵĴ������‫�ھ‬Ȼ����ȫ � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ϊ �ɹ �� � һ � � � � � ۲���
�ˡ�
��� � � � � � � � � � ߲ ������������" � ҵ � � ‫�������׿‬Щ� � � ‫ � "�ף‬Ļ � � � � �
ô � � � ‫����ڹ‬оͲ� � � � � Զ � � � Ŀ �꣬ ꣬ ���������
�꣬�ܻ Ὣ Ŀ � � � � � � � ҳ ֱ����‫ " � � � � "�׶‬һ
��� � � � � � � � � ⡣
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ӳ � � ѿ � � � " � � � � " һ � � � ‫ͬ��ͬ�ڲ‬ ij� � � � в ͬ � ĺ � � � 塣
һ � � � Գ � Ч � � Ҫ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �ֱ�ӳɹ�����µļ�ֵ�‫�����ۼ‬Щ � �ֵ�۵�
����ȷ�ϣ������뿪����������Ҫ � � � ˲ š � � � � � ‫�ڳ‬Ч � � ȱ � � � � � � � � � е � � κ � һ � � �
棬��ô � � ͻ � ˥ � � � � � � � ̨� � � � ˣ � � � � � � � � � � � � � 㹱�
‫������������ͱ��ף‬¹������������ 򡣲� � � � � � � � � ��֮ �� У � � ĸ � � � � � Ҫ � � � ĸ � � � Σ � �
Ǿ �Ҫ � � � � � � �߱��˵ � � � � � � � � ĵ � λ � � � � � � � � � Ҫ � ˡ �
� � � � һ � � � ˵ � � � � �ֱ�ӳɹ������Զ��‫�׼‬ġ� � � � � ҵ � � � ԣ �ֱ�ӳɹ���Ǿ��óɹ������
��� � � � � � � 󡣶 Ժ � ���˵ � � Ǿ ҽ Ƕ Բ � � ˵Ļ � � � � � � ơ � � � � � ʹ � � � � ӳɹ �Ҳ � � � � � � ʮ
� � � �ȷ �ģ � � ϶ � � ᵽ � � � � λ � � � д � � � � � � �ܲ õ � � � � Ӿ � � � -
� ��ܺ õ � ˵ � � � � � �ֱ�ӳɹ���ʲô�������߰‫�׼‬Ҳ � � � � � � � Ǿ � û � � ʲ ô � ɹ � � ̸� ˡ �
��� �Ӣ � � � Ӫ � � �չ �� ˾�Ч� 棨����˵ȱ��Ч�棩��
�Ǹ � � � � ӡ � � � � � � � � Щ � � � չ � ˾ � � Ϊ � � ҵ � � ҵ � � � � Թ � � � � � � � Щ � � � չ � ˾ � � � �
Ӣ������ߺ�ά � � Ӣ � � � � Ž � � һ � � �ֶͬ Σ ͬ �ʱ� � � � � ܴ‫�����̶�ں‬һֱ��Ӣ��չ�ҵ�����
� 뷢 չ� � �ʽ � � Դ � � � � Щ � � � չ � ˾ � � � � � � � � � � � �ֱ�ӳɹ�IJ�ͬ�뷨֮
�С� � � � � � һ �ֳɹ� û � еõ � � �
� � � � ֱ�ӳɹ���������Ҫ�ģ���������Ҫ��Щֱ�ӳɹ���ͺñ������‫�ڵ‬Ӫ����Ҫ���һ
� � � � � Ҳ � � Ҫ � � һ Щ � �ֵ�������ŵ ͬ� � � � � � Ҫ � � � � � � � � � Ǽ � � � ȷ � ϣ � �� � � � � ͬ
� � � � � � Ҫ ά � � � � � ǿ � � � � � һ � � � � � � Ҫ � � � Լ � � � � � � ź � � 뷨�
�Ҫ � � � ͻ ᷢ � � � � � � � � � � ̱� � � � � � � � � ͻͻ 塣���
�ҵ���ԣ��Լ�ֵ�۵ ij � ŵ Ҳ � � � � �ָ��ǿ� � � � � 쵼�
�Ҳ � � � �ָΪ � � � � � �� Ҷ � · �Ʒͥ ѰIJ � ͷ ���Ҳ�� � � � �ָ������Щ � � �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �ͥ
ļ ۸
��������õIJ �Ʒ � ͷ � � �
� � � � � Լ �ֵ���ij � ŵ � � � � � � � � ɹ � һ � � Ҳ � � � � � � � � ʮ � � � � ȷ � ġ �
� � � � � � � ũ ҵ � � � � � � � һ ֱ�ܵ���ָ����ļ�ֵ�۵�Ӱ�죺
һͥ� � � � Ҫ � � � ũ ҵ � � � � ʣ � � � һ � � � � Ҫ � � ǿ " � � �
ͥ ũ�ͥ "� � � � Ҫ � � � � �ũҵͥ � � � ɹ � � ũ ��ҵ ҵ
�֧���� ǰ�ּ��ǹ ۵ ij � ŵʹͬ ʹ�ҳ � � �ũ ҵ � � ҵ � � � ķ � � � չ � � ʹ � � � � ũ ҵ � � ߶Ȼ� е ����� � � ģ
� �ҵ � � � � � � � չ � � � � � �ֵ��ּ �‫ڶ‬
۵ij � ŵж � � �ֳ�һ�ֻ��ɸУ�֧���������� µ � ũ ҵ �‫�������޲�׼‬ũҵ���������ֲ �ͬ��ͬ ֲ�ͬ�
ļ�ֵ��ŵ֮ � � ҡ � ߡ��‫����ڲ‬Ϊֹ � ѻ����˴�����ʽ 𣬵�ȴ� � Ч � � � ΢��
��� � � �� 󣬹 �� �� �� � ߵĹ� � ‫ܵ������׻‬� � � Ȼ��Ա��Ӱ� 죬����
ܴ �̶������ǿ˷ � � � һ � � � � � Ե � һ �ְ취����
‫ں‬
�һ � � � �ܳ���� ά � � � � ȥ � � � Ǿ � � � ζ � � ʧ � ‫���ܡ‬ˣ � � � � � � Ҫ Ϊ δ � � ṩ � � � ‫�����ڹ‬
˲ţ � � � � � Ҫ � � ʵ � � Ա � � � ѵ � � 𣬲��ϵ
‫ � � � ˲������ظ‬Դ � � � � � ǵ � � � һ � � Ӧ � � �ܹ���̳���� ǵļ����������Ĺ��‫� ˻ס����ڴ‬
� � Ϊ � � � ǵ � � � һ � � ‫��׼‬һ � � " � � ߡ��� ‫� ߵ "�׼‬
� � � � � � � � � ֻ‫��ע‬ά�ֽ����Ѿ�ȡ�ɾ ɾ õijɾͣ �ֻ�����‫��ڽ‬쿴�����
�۹⣬��ô��ͻ�ɥʧ��Ӧ�»�����������������‫�ڶ‬Ļ � С � Ψ һһ � � � � � Ĺ � � ɾ � �
DZ 仯����ˣ�ֻ�����‫������ڽ‬ҵ���޳���‫�ͻ�������ڱ‬е����������ȥ��
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � ǿ � � � � � ‫˲�����ף‬ſ � � � � � � � һ � � ǿ � � Ķ � � � � � � Ϊ � �
� � � � � ǻ � � 跨 ȥ�‫��ﵽ‬ЩҪ � � ġ � � ‫־‬Ҫ � � � ‫׵‬Ĺ � � � � ߻� � � � � ԰�Щ ��� � � � - � 鹤����˽
� Ŀ � � ŵ ø � Զ � � � � � � Ҳ � � � � � � � � � � ǵ Ĺ � � � ˮ ‫��׼‬
� � � � һ � � ҽ Ժ � � � � � � Ժ � � � � � � � � � � � ‫�״‬Ժ����飬���
�Ϊһ � � � � �ֵ���������õ � � � Բ � � Ľ � � û � 뵽
һλ�� �ͻȻ � µ� � � � һ � � � λͬ� � ⣺ " � � � � ˼ � � ʿ � ‫ڵ‬Ļ � � � � � � Դ � ˽�� 취
�е � � � � � � � " � � � Ǵ � � � � � � � ‫��ۿ‬ˣ�ֱ��һ � � � µ ġ � � � � ‫�ڽ‬ȡ�ԵĽ�����һ�
´ �ɺ � � � � ۲���ƽϢ�������
� � � � Ժ � � � � � � �֪ ����������� λ � � � � � � ҽ Ժ � ﹤
� � Ļ �ʿ � � � � � � һ λ � � � � ͷ � ‫ص‬Ļ �ʿ � � Ҳ � � � û � е � � � � � � � � Ա � � Ȼ � � ÿ � � һ �  � �
� ˵ ľ � � ´ ‫ﵽ�����ڵ‬IJ � � � ʱ � � � � � � � ʿ � � Ҫ � ʵ � � " � � � � �
‫ � � � � ˷���� ڰ‬Ƿ � � Ⱦ � � � � Լ � � � � � � Ŭ � � � " � � � ‫����ڲ‬ʿ� � � � IJ � � � ‫����״‬ã
��� � � � ýϿ 죬
�ö � �֮ ���� ҽԺ����ʼ��������ν��"�����ԭ��"����ѧ�������Լ����
��� � � � � � ⣺� " Ϊ� ᳹� � � Ժ � � � �ּ�������Ƿ����‫��ھ‬Լ������Ŭ�������Լ�
� � � � � � ‫ � � � � � � � � � "�ף‬ʿ � � � � ʮ � � ǰ � � � Ѿ � � � � � � ˣ � � � � � � � Լ � � � � � �
Ĺ � � � Ҫ � � ȴ � � Ȼ � � � � Щ � � ‫ר‬ҵ��ְλ � ϱ � � � ߵ����������á �
� � � � � Թ � � ‫׵‬ij � ŵ � � � Ƕ � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � ij � ŵ � � û � � � � �ֳ�ŵ� � � � � � � ߾͵� � � û � о � � �
�Լ � � � � � � Σ � � � � � � � � � Ū � � � � � � һ � 鹤�����
�ǣ � � � � � ͻ � ʹ � � Ĺ � � � �ܵ���� ʧ� �
��� � � � � � � ߹
���������ʧ � � � �ܾ���� δ�ܻ�� Ը � � ȥ � � Ӧ � �ְλ � � Ҫ � � һ � � � � � � � � � �ֻ������
�Լ�����һ�‫׵‬Ĺ� � � � � � � � � � ϶ � � � Ҫ ʧ � �ܵ ġ � � � � �ܼ򵥣������ ɹ� ı � � � � � ʽ � � �� � ˣͬ
� � � ʾ � � � � � Ч � Ķ � � � � �֮ ������ Թ�ϵ����Ҫ� ԣ �Ҳ�����˱仯�����������
�Ĺ � � � Ҳ Ӧ � ø � � ű 仯��һ � � � � � � � Щ � 仯�Ĺ � � � � ߾ͻ��ȡ����ķ�ʽ����������飬
��Ȼ������ � � � � � � � � ȥ һ ֱ��������飬�����‫�ڹ‬ȥ� � ȡ � � � ˳ ɹ � � �
�� � � � � � � � Ϊʲô � � � � � �ܸ ɵĴ � � � � � ս � ‫��������ڼ‬
����������������ʱ��������ù���ĵ��������Ǹ�"��λ�"����Щ��ȥ������������‫��ص‬
�ͻȻ�����Լ��������"�����"�е�һ��"С����".�ɴ ˸ е �ʮ �ֲ�ϰ� ߡ�����Ҳ
�в � � � � ˣ � � � � � û � � � � ξ � � 飬
Ҳû � � � � � � � � � � � � ϵ � � � ʦ � � � � � � � � ɹ � � � ȴ � � � Լ � � � � ж �֤ ��������� ‫׿‬
�г � Ч � Ļ � � � � � � � � ޲��ߡ��֡ �� B.� � � � � � ǹ � � � 鱨��‫׿‬
�г � Ч � ľ ֳ � � � � � д � � һ � � � � � � � � � � � Ч ʹ � � Ȩ � � � � 顣
ȡ��С���˹������ս�˹��������Ӱ����Զ����������ȴ ��ȴ�ֻ �һλ � � � � ң � � � ԭ � ȵ �
ԭ
"� �"Ҳ � ֻ �һ � � � � � � � һ �ܴ�� �ֻ�
� � � � ս ʱ � ‫�����������ڻ‬Ϊ � � � ˶ � ʮ � � � � � � � � � ‫�����ס‬Ϊ � � � � � Ҫ � � � �
�Dz � � � � � Ӧ � µ Ĺ � � � � � �ܶ Բ���������
ͬ ͬ �ֵ������ʵ� � ĵ � � � � � Щ ʧ � � � � � � � � �
� ú � � ࣬ ������� δ� � � � � Լ � � � � � µ � � � ս � � Ҳ û � о � ÷ � Ҫ � � ȥ � � Ӧ � µ Ĺ � � � Ҫ � ɡ 󲻿 �ɡ �
� � � � һ λ 60 � � ų � Ϊ һ � � ȫ � � � Դ � � � � � � � � � � � ̵� � �ܲ õ � � � � ˿ � ˵ � Ǹ �ܳ�� ijɹ� � � � � �
� � 2 0 � � � � � һ ֱ����Ҵ � � � � � ĵ ‫ �����������������֣����ڶ‬һλ � Ը � � � � � 򡢸 �� �
‫�ڽ‬ȡ����ȴ����С�ö��������� ˾���쵼
�¹ � � � Ӳ � � � � � � � һ � � � Լ � � ᵱ � �ܲ á � � � � ǣ � � � � � � ˾ ͻ Ȼ ȥ � � � ˣ � � � � � � � λ � � � Ĺ
� � � � ĸ � � ‫��������ͱ־‬ �ܲ õ � λ � á �
� � � � � � � ȥ � Ǹ � � � � ģ � � � � � � � � ‫��ر‬ó � � � � � � � ɱ � � ƶ ȣ � � ɹ � � � � � 棬
Ϊ � ¿ � � � � � � � � � � ʽ 𣬿����
�о � � ȵ ȡ � � � � � � Ա � � � ⣬ � � � � � �ֻ��ģģ � � � ij � � � � � � Ȼ � � �� �� �� Ȼ���� � �ͻܲ �֮ ���
������Լ����"�ҿ�������Щ�����޷�����£ � � Ա � � ù � ˾ � � � � Ŀ � � Ȼ һ � £
� " � � ó � � �ۣ������� ‫�ش‬Ĺ� � ‫���׾‬Ϊ � � � ˾� � � δѵ� ľ � � � � � ˾һ� Ϊ
� Լ� ѵ�� �
� � � � Ա � � � � ߶�е � � � � � � " � � � ǣ � " � � λ � � � � � ε � � � � � � � � � � � � " � �߱��
�����-�ֳ�Ч � � � ҵ Ĺ � � ‫���׾‬Ҫ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 䵽
ʵ� � � � " � � � � � Ժ � ÿ � � � � Σ � � Թ � � 緹�‫ذ‬칫 �
�ʱ�����˳��������²���ÿ������ȡ�߰˵ � ʮ � � � � � � � � � � � Ա � ĵ � � � � � � ‫��ص‬칫 � ң � � � 㷭
����һ � ‫��������ݵ‬һ � � � 󣬾͸ � �� � ϼ � ˸ �� �� ϼ���� � � ˸ � 绰��"
˵ �޲
�ѷ�������ǹ�˾��� �ܲ ã � � � Ŧ Լ � � � � � 绰���������
�λ � � � � � ˣ � � � � � ǡ � � � ˹ � � ʮ � � ǰ � � � � � Ƽ � � � ȥ � � Щ � ² � Ʒ � � � � � � � � � Ա � � �
� � � � һ Щ � � � � � ľ � � 飬��Ϊʲô � � � 񻹲 �� ж � � " ˵ � � � � � � � µ 绰��
� � � � � � � ţ � � � � � � ‫�ڶ��ݵ������ٸ‬Ҳ � � - � � � � е � һ λ � � � � � 绰�
�"ʷ � � ˹ � � � � � � � � Ŧ Լ �ܲ����� �ܲ ã � � �֪ ������������ µ �һ � � е Ͽ ˡ � � ޵����
���ȥ� � һ � � � � � ѧ � � � � � � � � � ֪ ʶ�Ĺ � � � � � ‫��ע‬㲻���
⵽�
�ô˵ � ˣ � � � � � Ҳ � � ô � � � ˡ � � � � � � � � � 㣬����������������
�ˣ � � Ҷ Դ˸е �ʮ �ָ��ˡ � " � � � � � �ܲ õ � λ � � � �ֻ���˼ � ꣬ ���� ʹ� � � ‫�������ݳ‬ʮ � � � �
� Ľ � � 죬��Щ � � ȥ � � � � � � � � � � � � � ʶ � Ĺ � � � � ߶���Լ��� � ͬ ‫�ء‬Ҳ � Ƿ dz � � � � �
‫ � � ˾���ؽ‬ʮ � � � � � � ľ ޴�ɹ� � 뷢 չ� 鹦����
� � � � � ‫����ͳ����������޲��ء‬Լ������������⣺"������ʲô���
‫ں‬
‫ںـ‬
ܴ " �̶��Ͻ � � � � � Ϊ ʲ ô � � � � � � � ʱ � � � � � � �ְ��Ч � � � � � � � � � � � ͳ � � l
����‫ף‬
960 � � � ォ��Ӹ � � � � � � ˾�ε � � ‫������ڸ‬һ � � Ϊ � � ѵ �ְ��ʱ����������˼���Ϻ���
‫����׼‬
� � � � � � � � � � � � � ‫˾�����ڸ‬ʱ� � һ ֱ����˾� ‫�������ڲ‬ο 񣬶� � � � ˵ � � -
� ϲ �ͨ� й
ͨ � � βż � �ʱ �� � � � � � � � � � � �
‫������ڣ‬ʶ��Ҫ � � � ù � � � � � � 벻�����������֧֡�֡��֡��� ˡ � � � � ǿ � � � Լ � ȥ � � ԭ � Ⱥ ܲ�ϰ �
ߵ��£ � � � � � � � � � Ĺ � ϵ � � � � � � � ί Ա � � � � һ Щ � � Ӱ � � � � � Ա � � չ � � � � � � ꣬ ���
����չ� � � ‫�������ڲ‬һЩ � � � 鼼
�ɡ��������� 򽻵�У ������ȡ������ȫ� ɹ ij ˵������������϶��Ѿ��ȹ�ȥ
� � ϶� � Ѿ � � ȹ � � ȥ �ⷽ
�κ � һ � �ǰ � � � � ø � á �
� � � � � � � � � � � � � Ĺ � � � � � � � ˵ � � � � � � �ְλԽ�ߣ��������Ƿ���������
� � � � � � � Ҳ � � Խ � � �� � ˵ � � �� ҪĹ� � � � � � � � � � ͨ� ϵ � � � ˹� � � � � � � � ⣬� � � �
û� � � � � � � ˿ � � � � � 𵽸� õ� � � á �
� � � � � ‫�������ڵ‬ѧ У ���У�����ë��Ҳ�����ֻ��‫�����ע����������ڲ‬
�O
�ʽ�������ϡ���һЩ����Ĵ�ѧ������� �У �Ը����ѧ� �ֽӴ � � ģ � � � � � ѧ � � � Ǵ � ѧ � � � " � ͻ � " . ѧ �
� � � � � � � ŵ � � � Զ � � Ȼ � � � � ѧ � � � � � � � � � Ҫ � � � ‫���أ‬ǡǡ������-
� � � � � � 1 9 6 5 � � � � � � � � � � Ƽ � � ‫�ݴ‬ѧ�������У��ѧ��ɧ�ҡ�
� � � � � � � ʹ ‫ר‬ҵ��Ա‫�׿‬г � Ч
� � � � � � ֪ʶ�� � � � � � ˵ � � � � � ‫�ص‬ŵ� � � � � � � � Ե � � ‫���ر‬Ҫ � � � � Ϊ � ֻ ��������
�����������‫�ס‬
� � � � ֪ʶ�� � � �߲������"ʵ� � " � � � � � Ǵ � � � � � � � 뷨���
�Ϣ�����͸� � ˵ � ˵� � � ֪ ʶ�� � � � � ͨ � � � � � � ‫ר‬ҵ��Ա��ʵ���ϣ�ֻ�е� � � ѧ � � � � � � � � � � һ
� � � � ʱ � � � � � � � � � � � � ij � � ‫ �֪��ר‬ʶ�� � � Ĺ � � � � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � � Ȼ � � ‫�����ר‬汾��
�Ǻ � խ � ģ � � � � Ҳ � � �ֱ�Ӳ � � � � � һ � � ‫ר‬ҵ��Ա�Ĺ������ֻ��������‫ר‬ҵ��Ա�Ĺ��
��� � � � � �ʱ � � � � � � � � � � � � �
� � � � � � � ǵ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �֣������ Ҫ � � ‫ר‬ҵ��Ա�Լ����ǵ�‫ר‬ҵ֪ʶ�� � Ӹ � õ
� Ч � 档��Ҳ � � � � ˵ � � ‫ר‬ҵ��Ա���뿼
�ǵ�˭�����ʹ����Ĺ������������û�֪ ����� ˽ � � � Щ � � � � Ա � � � � � �ܸ�� õ �ʹ� � ‫ר‬ҵ��Ա�Ĺ
��� � � �
�� � � � �ǰ � � � � � � һ � � � � Ϊ � � � еĿ � � � � � � � � � ϵ � � ˿ � � Է � Ϊ"� � ѧ � � " � � " � � �ͨ
� � " � � � � ࡣҪ � � � � � �� ͨ �ѧ���ͨ ѧѧ ʶ��
֪ �˽� Щ � � ѧ � � � � � Լ � � � ѧ � � � ߡ���Ҳ � � � � � ѡ � �
� � � � � � ҿ � � � � � � �ַ���Ҳ � �ֻ�ʺ�һ� � � � ǰ � � � � � � ‫���ִ����ڽ‬ÿλ� � � � � � Ա
� � � � � � ‫�ר‬ң � � � � к � � � µ � ‫ר‬ҵ֪ʶ�� � � � �ʹ � ø � � Ե Ŀ � ѧ � � � ߣ����и� � Ը � � � Ȥ � � � �
��򣬶 �� -
� �Լ� � � �� л�� � � �˵� � � � �
‫�ڿ‬ѧ������Ҳ Խ �� Խ ϸ��һ������ѧ������Ҫȥ�����һ������ѧ������
µ� �о � � � � � � � � � � � � ú � � � ѡ �
� � � � � � � � � ‫ﻯ‬ѧ��һ��ɱ����ʦҲ��һ λ"��ѧ�� "���� Ϊ��Ҳ���Լ���‫ר‬ҵ��
�� �Լ � � � � � � 롢
��Լ�����ĵ������Լ��Լ����л��������
ͬ �� ĵ ͬ��� г�����Ա������� ‫ר‬
�ҡ��������Ԥ��Ĺ�Ա�Լ�ҽԺ�ᆱ��ҽ��Ҳ���ǿ�ѧ�ҡ���Щ���������Լ��
� � � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � � � Ǿ ͱ � � � � � � ñ � � � �ܹ��� ˽ � � � � ѡ �
� � � � ʶ��
֪ � � � � � � � � � ñ � � � � ˽ � � Լ � � � � � Щ ‫�ר‬ ҵ��Ա��Ϊ�����
ͨ ��Ӧ�
ò �ҿ�����
�ͨ
� Ŭ � � � � � � � � ǡ � � � � � Щ � � � � � � Ϊ ֻҪ � � � � � � � � � � ‫ר‬ҵ��Ա֮ � �� �̸�̸�� �� �� �� �� �� �ܹ Ϳ
� � � � ˡ � � � Щ � 뷨��ӳ��һ�ֺܲ�ֺ����� İ � � � ϰ � � � � � �
‫�ڴ‬ѧ��� о�ʵ�������������̬ ����� �ȣ��� � � � � � ϧ ൱�ձ 飩���ͻ�ʹ��
‫ר‬ҵ��Ա���Ӳ������ã��ͻ�ʹ��� � ֪ ʶ�� Ϊһ� � � � Ū ѧ �ʵ � �ֶΡ � � � � ij � � � � � Ϊ � � � � � ߵĻ
� � � � � � � ˵ � � � ij � � � � � � � � � � � Ĺ � � ‫����׸‬εĻ � � � � � ô � � � � � Ҫ � � � � � " �
� Ʒ" � � � � � � � � ֪ ʶ�� � � Ϊ � � �˿ � � �ʹ � õĶ � � �
� � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � ߶�������һ � 㣬�
�Ϊ � � � Ƕ � � � � � ѹ � � � ɵ ø � õ � � � � � � � � � � � � � ˽ � � � � � � Ҫ ʲ ô � � � � � � � � ʲ ô �
Լ������Щʲô�����ǻ�����‫���ڲ‬Ա��������ǵ��ϼ����¼����‫��������ر‬ŵ ͬ ͬ� £ � �
� � � � � � � � � � � ⣺ " Ϊ � � � � � � Ϊ � � � � � � ‫�����ף‬Ҫ � � � � Щ ʲ ô � � � ‫���ף‬Ҫ � � � �
ʲôʱ����������ʽ����ʲô��ʽ��ṩ��Щ���‫ � � � "�ף‬ɱ � � � � ʦ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ļ � �
� � � ô � � � Ǿ ͻ ᷢ �֣����� Լ��˵��һĿ��Ȼ��-Щ��‫���ݣ‬һЩ � � Ҫʹ � � � � Щ � �
ͻ
‫ݵ‬ľ � � � � ˵ � � � � � � � � ȫ İ � � Ķ � � � � � � � Ҳ � � � � � Ϸ � �֡ �� һЩ � � � � � � � ˵ � � � � Ҫ
� � � � ‫��������ݣ‬Ա��������ô�������һЩ���‫����� ٹ��������ټ‬ȴ� � ũ � � � � Ա �
� � 켱��ġ �
�� � � � � ҽҩ� �� ˾ � � � � � �� �� � ‫ﻯ‬ѧ�������һ��������⣬�����Ͼ����˽���� ⵽� � � �
� � � � � � � � ‫�ٴ‬ҽ��ʹ������о��ɹ���ô�������ѧ�����‫�ٴ‬ҽ��ö������
� � � � � � Լ � � � � о � � ɹ � � � �ֻʹ� �һ � � � � � � � ‫ﻯ‬ѧ�����˵��� ‫�ٴ‬ҽ��ϲ��ϰ�һ��
� ¸ � � � ҩ � � � õ � � ‫�������ٴ‬ȥ� � Ҳ � � � � � � � ‫ﻯ‬ѧ�ҵ�� о��ɹ���û�л����-
��� �ҩ � �
� � � � � � � � � � � � Ź � � � Ŀ � ѧ � ң � � � � � � dz � � � � ӹ � � ‫ܿ�������ף‬ � ͻ���ʶ���
� � � � � � � � � ߽� � � ij � � � � п � � � � � � � � � Դ � � ʲ ô � � ij ɹ � � � � � � � Լ � � � � ò � ȥ �
� � � Щ һ � � ˵ � � � ѧ � � � Ը ���¡� � � � � � ij � � � ѧ ̽̽� �Ľ � � � � � � ⡣ �Ԥ ⡣
� � � � � � "�� �" " ͨ � g e n eralists � � - � � Ψ һ � � � � � � Ľ � � ���� �� �� � �ָͣ һ � �
‫ܽ������ר‬ � � Լ���С�� � ֪ ʶ�� � � � � � � � � ֪ ʶ�� � � ϵ � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ҳ � � � � Ծ � ͨ � � �ſ � ѧ֪ʶ�
� � � � Ⲣ � � � � ζ � � � � � DZ � � � ���ˣ � ��ͨ � � �ֻ�Ǿ�ͨ � ſ ��ͨѧ �֪ʶ��� ‫�ר‬Ұ��ˡ���ͨ��� ſ �ѧ ֪ʶ�
� ‫��ר‬Ҳ � � � � �ֻ���ͨ� һ � ſ � ѧ ֪ʶ�� ‫��ר‬һ � � � ۹���խ�����‫־‬
‫���׵‬Ĺ � � � � � ȷ � Ὣ � Լ � � � խ � � � � � � � � � � � � � ϵ � � һ � � � � � Լ � Ҳ � � � � �ܽ�����
������ � ֪ ʶ�‫���ڻ‬һ � 𣬵��� �ܿ
�ͻᷢͻ���������������� ˽ ˵���Ҫ�����������Լ�� 򡢾� � � � � � Լ� � �֪ �����������
�Ĺ � � � ɹ � � � � � Ա � � � � � � � � � � á � � � ʹ � � � � � � - � 㣬
Ҳ � � � � � � û � ʹ � � Ϊ ʶ� ֪ ķḻ�� � � �� ��ʹ ȴ
� � մ� �
� �� �� �� � Ͷ
ȴ � � � �ʹ �����մ
ѧ �ʵ � � � � � ѧ �ʵ � � � � � �ְ ȣ ���ϰ�
�� �Ϊ� � � � ϰ � � � � � � � ֪ ʶ��ʹ֪ʶʧȥ�� � � � Ժ � � � Ч � ԡ �
� � � � � � ȷ � � � ˼ʹ � ϵ
� � � � � � һ � � � �֯�� У � � � � � Ϊ � � " � � � � �
츳" � Ĺ � � � � � � � � � û � к ܺõ � � ˼ʹ � ϵ � � � � � � � Լ � � Ĺ � � � � � � Լ � � � � � ˵ Ĺ � ϵ � ϶ � � Ƚ
� � � � � � � � � ‫׵‬Ĺ� � � � � ȴ � � �ܱ�������� õ � � ˼ʹ � ϵ � � � � ˣ � � � � ǵ Ĺ � � � Ҳ � � ͸��
г �Ч � � � � Ҳ � � � � Ƕ � � � õ � � ˼ ʹ � ϵ � � Ψ һ � � ȷ � Ķ � � � � ˡ � � � � � � � Դ ʡ � � � ů � ĸ � � 鲢
û � � ʲ ôʵ�ʵ � � � � 壬����������‫ڸ‬Dz � � Ѻ õ � ̬� ȣ � �
‫������ر‬Թ��������Ϊ��Ļ����£�������δ��ȡ�ý�չʱ���������ˡ�����˵��ֻҪ � й ‫���ظ�����ڹ‬
��ȡ�óɼ������������չ����ôż��˵Щ����Ļ�Ҳ�������‫�ڻ‬Ӱ����õ��˼ʹ�ϵ��
� � � � � � � Ҫ � � � � � � � λ � � � ˼ ʹ � ϵ � � � � � � � � ‫��ر‬ɫ����ѡ�Ļ������Ҿͻ���
� � � � � � � � � ˣ � � � � Ρ � c . � � Ъ � � � r d . � � M a rshal[] � � � � һ � � � � � � ս � ‫����ڼ‬
��½ � � � ı � � � � � � � � ‫ � ¡׵‬P. ˹¡ � � A 1f � � e 4s1.an � � � � 2 0 � � � � 5 0 � � � � � � � � �
ͨ � �ͨ˾� � � ��ܲ ã � � � � � ˹ � � � � � � ˹ � �֣�� NMh01as DTe � � t adt � � � � ˹ ¡ � ĸ
‫��߼����֣����ھ‬ô� � � � � � ‫�����������ڼ‬ʷ � � � � Ϊ � ɹ � ʱ � � � � � � ˺ � � � � �� � ͽ
�� � � � � � � � Ϊ � � ս � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 50 � � � Ҳ � � � �͵ � � � � ��ͨ
��� �� ˾ � � �ܲ��� ˡ�
��� � � � � � � � ˵ �
� ͬ � Ը � � � ȫ �� � �� � � Ъ � � � �ְҵ���ˣ����ࡢ�ҳϡ � � � � � � Դ ǣ �
� � ȴ � � � � � � � � ˿ ɰ � � � ˹ ¡ � � � � � � � ‫��ֳ���ܣ‬ȡ��������ȴ��̫ 񣬵�ȴ��̫ ������‫׽‬ӽ�¼�˹������
� � � � 硢��
�² � � � � � � � � � ȥ � � � е ¹ � " � Ϻ � � ¶ � " � � � ͵ Ĺ � � � � � � ˵ Ĵ � � � � IJ � � ǵ ͳ � ͬ� ‫��ص‬ǣ
� � � � ‫����˶�������ڼ‬ǵĺøУ�Ҳ���‫˶������ڼ‬Թ�����������������˴��˽��� 񡣾�ķ ʽ��ͬ������
� Ƕ � � � � ˼ʹ
ͬ ͬ�ϵ � � � � � � � � ϼ � � � � ͬ ¼��� � �Ĺ�ϵ��� � � � ‫ڶ‬Թ������ҳ��֮ �� ϡ���
� � � ˶ � � � � � � � ˽ � �ܺ����������� Ϊ � � � ˿ � � ǡ � � � � Ǿ � � � � � Ҫ � � � һ Щ � ‫�ؼ‬
�Ե�"���¾��".�������ǴӲ�Ϊ"�˼ʹ�ϵ"���ǣ���Ϊ���Ǿ�����‫��������־‬Ȼ� ġ �
� � � � � � � ӹ � � ‫���Ϳ���ױ‬Ϊ��Ч���˼ʹ�ϵ�ṩ�����Ҫ��*���๵ͨ��* ͬ� �ͬ
Э � �* � � � �
� � ߣ�* � � � � � � � ˡ �
� � � � 1 . � � � ๵ͨ�����ʮ � � � � � � � � � � ͨһֱ�ǹ � � � � � � е � һ � � � � � � � � � � 񡣲 �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �
� ҵ � 磬���������Ż� � � � ‫�ھ���ڡ‬ҽԺ���  �- ���Ҫ� Ļ��
‫�����ڲ‬ν � � л � � ๵ͨ�������������Ϊ � � � ĵ � һ � � � � ⡣
� � � � � � � ‫���ڶ‬ʮ � �ǰ � � � Ǿ � � � ‫ִ����ע‬ ⵽� � � �� � � � � � Ա ֮ � � � Ƕ � ô � � Ҫ � ໥������ͨ
ִ� Ĺ� � � �
�ǡǡ��ȱ����ֵͨ Ĺͨ�ͨ� ˣ � �ͨ �Ĺ� δ �ж � ĸĽ � ʮ � � � ȥ ��Ȼ � ��� � � � �
� � � � � � � � Ϊ ʲ ô � � � � � � ĵ � � ᳫ � �ȴ � �Ч � � ͨ �
΢� � ĵ � �
��� �ԭ � � � � � -
� �ֻ������������ͨ � � � � � � � ϶�� µ � � � � 򴫴  � � � � � � � � � � � � Ա � � � ϼ � � � � ¼ � � � � � ʲ ô � � �
� ȡ � Ҫ ֪ � � � � ѹ � ϵ � � � � � � � � ϶ � � µ Ļ �֮ �� ϡ��Dz������������໥����ͨ � ġ� � �
� � � � һ � 㣬���ǿɴ � � й
‫�����ع�ͨ�����ۼ‬ʵ� � � е õ � � ֤ ʵ� � � ϼ � Խ � � � � � � ¼ � � � � � Щ ʲ ô � � � ϼ � � � Խ � � �ܻ���
�ϼ�����˼������Ϊ�¼�����ֻ�������ε � � � � � � � ȡ � � � � � � � � Ķ � � � � � � ϼ � � � ˵
�Ļ � � � � � � ȫ � � � ȥ � � � ú � � � ĥ � �
� � � � Ȼ � � � ‫־�����׵‬Ĺ� ͨ ��� �� ͨ � Ҳ � � � ‫�����ڹ‬Ҫ � � � � � ǵ � � � � � Ҳ Ҫ Ŭ � � � � �
‫����ס‬dz � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ⣺ " � � � ǵ Ļ � � Լ � � � Ϊ � ϼ � � � � ҿ � �
� � � � � � � Ϊ � � � � � � � � Щ � � � ‫�����ף‬Ӧ�ö��㱧
Щʲô � � � � � � β � � � ʹ � � � � ֪ ʶ�� � � � � õ � � �ֵķ � � ӣ � " � � � � � � � � � �֮ �� £� � � � � �
빵ͨ�Ż � � � � � � ‫�ܡ��Ϳ׺‬
ͨͨͨͨͨͨͨͨͨͨͨͨͨ
� � � � � ½ � һ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ϊ � � � � Ĺ � � �֮ ���� ϼ���Ȼ��Ȩ��������Ҫ�������
� �Ľ � � � � Ƿ � � � � � � � � ж ϡ �
� � � � � � ‫��ݾ‬飬�����
�Լ�����Ŀ���������ϼ���IJ�һ��������Ϊ��������ֿ�����ĽǶ � � � �
��ǵ � � � � ˾�һ ��һ��
��� � Խ � � � �ܸ ɣ���ԽԸ�����ѳе����Σ��Կ���ʵ����ἰ��Ҫ�
͹�Ŀ ������ʶ��� ϼ��IJ��Ҳ��Խ�����ǵĽ�����
� ϼ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ե ‫���ض‬ġ�
� � � � һ � � � ˵ � � � � � � � � �ַ���ʱ��˭��˭���Եò�����Ҫ����Ϊ������֮ ���� ѽ����һ������
�Ч �Ĺ ͨ � � � � �
ͨ
�� � � 2. � �Э
ͬ ͬ ��ǿ� � � � � � � � � ‫���ں‬Ĺ ͨͨ� ˣ �Э �Ϊ � � � � ‫� � � � � � ʹ �ܡ‬

� � � � " ˭ � � Ҫʹ � � � ҵ IJ � Ʒ � � � � ʹ � � � � � Ч � 棿" � � � � � � � �ܰ������
�ǿ � � � � � � � � � � � � � η � Χ � ‫�޹ص‬һЩ � ˵ � � � Ҫ � � ԡ�ǿ � � � � � � � � һ � � � �ʵ� � �
�� � �Ч � � � �ʵ � � � � � � � � һ Ⱥ � ��
ͬ ͬ �
� ֪ ʶ��Ƽ � � � � � � � �˹ � ͬЭ � � � � ɵġ � � �Щ �˲ � �ò � � Ծ
� ‫ش‬յ�һ����������������Ǹ���������Ҫ������˳�����Ʒ�չ����Ҫ�Ծ� ‫ش‬յ���һ����ȫ������ ˹ Ͻ�ṹ�ľ���
��ԡ�
��� � � � � � ҽԺ � �Ϊ � � � � � �ɣ ��ɣ��Ҳ ��
Ҳ � � � � � �ִ ˵ ִ�֪ �֪ʶ�� � � � � Ϊ � � � ӵ � һ � � � �ʽ � ˡ � �
�ʿ � � Ӫ � � ʦ � � � � � � ʦ � � ҽ � Ƽ � x � ⼼ʦ��ҩ��‫�ר‬ҡ�����
‫���ר‬Լ�����������ҽ��‫ר‬ҵ��Ա������Ϊ � һ����Э��������һ���Ծ�
Эͬ Ϊ Э
� � � � � � � � һ� � � Ծ � Ϊͬ Ĵ�
� � � � � � � 沢 û� � � κ � � � � � � � ʶ � � �
‫��ڽ‬п� � ƺ �ָ�ӡ � � � Ȼ � � � � � ǵ ĺ � � � Ҳ � � һ � � �� �Ŀ ��ͬ ġ � � � ұ � � � � � �ܵ��� ж � � ƻ
��� � � � � � ҽ � � Բ � �� � � � Ƽ �ƻƼ�ƻ � � � � � � �֯ ˵�� ṹ � � � ԣ � � � Щ ҽ � � ‫ר‬ҵ��Ա�����
‫ڲ�ͬ��ר‬ҵ���ţ�����ֻ���Լ��Ǹ߶�‫ר‬ҵ���˵� � ֪ ʶ�� � � � � � � в � � � � � ǣ � � � � � �ֱ���
�‫ � � � ˵��ݾ�������ݲ‬Ҫ � � � � � Լ � � IJ � � � � � ʱ � � ֪ͨ������й � � � Ա � � � � � � Ļ �
� � � � � ǵ � Ŭ � �ܿ��� �ֻ���ʵ� � ䷴ � �
��� � � � � � Щ �ѽ � � � � � � � Ϊ � � � � Ҫ � � � � � ҽԺ � Ҫ Ҫ� � �֯�������������� Э
� �-
� �˵ � � � � � � � ʲ ô � � ѡ � � � � � � � һ Щ ҽԺ � Ҫ � � �� �� �� �� � �ֺ���Ĺ
Ҫ ͨͨ�� � Ҫ � � � Է � � � � �
� � � � � � � Ϊ � � � ĵ Ĺ � � � С � � ͱ Ƚ � � � ѣ � � � � � ҽ Ժ ‫ � � ⷢ�ע‬Ӹ � � ί �Ա � � � � � � ã �ʹ � � � ˿ �
ȫ����顢�������桢˵� � � � � � � �ֶΣ � Ŭ � � � � � � ƶ � � � �ֹ �ͨ������ͨ ֹ�ͨ� � � � �
� � � � � � � � Ļ � � и � � �֯���� ⣬��һЩ��ͳ������ȴ���޷����������⡣֪ʶ�� �
��� � �Ҫ �� � �Լ � � � � � � � � � � � � ͨҵ֪ ʶ�� � � � � � � ʹ � Լ � � Ĺ � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � � � � � �֯���� 濴

��������" � � � � " ij � � ‫ר‬ҵ���ŵģ������������‫ﻯ‬ѧ��� Ż���ҽ Ժ �� Ļ����š��
� � � � ¹ � � � � 濴�����ǵ���ѵ������������Լ�����Ҳ����‫ר‬ҵ���������ġ������
‫����ڹ‬ϣ����DZ���Խ�Խ��‫ز‬μ �һ Щ ‫�ר‬Ź � � � С � 飬��ΪС � � � � � -
� � � � � ε ij � Ա � � Χ � � � � ij � � � � � � � � � � 벻ͬ����� ‫ר‬ҵ��Ա�����
ͬͬͬͬͬͬͬͬͬͬͬͬͬ Ա
� ͨ
� � � � ͨ
� � � � � � � Ӷ Թ � � � � ‫�������������ױ‬ � �֯
� � � � � � �֯���� � � �ܽ ⡣�����ǿ�����������
� � � ⣬ Ҳ � � � � � Դ ‫ͨ ��� ֮�����ٽ‬ Ĺ �ͨ� ԰ � � � Ӷ �Щ �� � ��֯�
�����
�һ ȫ�Ļ�ȥ������

� � � � � � � Լ � � � ķ � չ � � � � � � � Ϣ � � � � � � Ҳ ʹ ֪ʶ�� � � � �֮ ����� ͨ�ͨ й �� � � Խ � Խ � � Ҫ
� ˡ � � � � " � � ��ͨ� ͨϢ" � � � � � � � � � һ � � � � � Խ � � � � � � � �� �� �� �� �� � � �⡣
� � � � � � � Ϣ
� � � � � � � ‫ݵ‬ģ� � ‫��ͨ�ڹ‬Ĺ � � � � � � Ϣ � � � � � � Ϊ � � Ť � � � ˣ � � � � � ӽ � � � � ˵ ˸ ļ ӡ � ӡ � ⡢
� � � �ۡ��� жϼ�ƫ��ȡ�Ȼ����Ը���ͻȻ֮ � 佫���Ǵ � � � � һ � � � � � � 硣���
‫����ھ‬
󲿷� � �Ϣ�Ѳ�����Ҫ�������‫���ݡ‬ˣ� 򴫵 � ‫�����ͨ�ڹ‬о� � � � ‫���ٻ‬ϸ��˵ļ�����‫�״‬ ⣬
���Ϣ����˵�Ǵ������Ϣ�ˡ�
� � � � � � � � � � � ǵ � � � � � � � Ҫ � � � һ � � � � � � ޶ȵġ��‫ز����ٵ‬Ĺ�ͨ � ͨ ͽ �� � � � � ȷ � � � �
� �֮ ���������
� � � � � �ܻ ⣬����������Ҫ��
˽�Ŀ� ꡢ��ʶ�Լ� � � � � � � � � � � � Ϣ � � � �
� � �ܰ����� ǽ� � � � � � � � ⡣ ֻ����ֱ��ͨ � �ֱ� ӵĽӴ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ի � � � � � � � �֣��
����ܴ‫���ﵽ‬๵ͨ��Ŀ � ġ �
� � � � � � Ϣ � � � � � Զ � � � � ̶� Խ � ߡ����Ǿ � Խ � � Ҫ ȥ � � � � � � � � � � � Ч � Ĺ � ͨ� � � 3. �
��� � � ‫ں‬
‫ںـ‬
ܴ ‫ߣں‬ �����������ܷ������ ߡ�̶���Ҫ � � � � � Ƿ � � � � � � � � ‫�ס‬
� � � � һ � � � � � � � � Ϊ � � � � � Щ � � Ҫ � � � ‫�������������ף‬Լ����������
� ⣺ " � � � � Ҫ ʲ ô � � � � � � � � � ߣ�Ϊ � � � � � � � Ҫ � � Ĺ � � ‫��ס‬ұ���ѧϰ��Щ֪ʶ�뼼�
‫���������ܣ����ڹ‬Щ � � � ƿ � � Լ � � � � � � ã � � � Ӧ Ϊ � Լ � � � � � � � ƶ � ʲ ô � � ı �
4"��‫׼‬. � � � � � � � ˡ � � Ƚ � ‫ע�����׵‬Ĺ � � � � � Ҳ � � � ƶ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
ߣ�������Щ" ͬ ��� �" � � � � � � � � � � ͬ £��� � � � � � �ϼ�� � � � � �Ĺ�� � � � � �
�ƶ � � � � � � ‫׼‬ʱ�������ǵ������Ǹ��˵��������������Ҫ����Щ�� ‫׼‬һ � � ˵ � Ҫ � � �ܸ ߣ�Ŀ � � � � � IJ �
��� � � � � � � �ɺ �Ӱ � �Ҳ �Ǻ� � � Զ �ġ�
� � � � � � � Ƕ � � � ν � � � � � � � � � � � ˽ � ò � � � ࣬ ������� һ� � � � � � ʮ � � � � � �
� � � Ƕ � � Ǹ � � � Լ � � 趨�
�Ŀ � � � Ҫ � � ɳ � � � � � ģ � � ֪ ʶ�� � � � ߸�����ˡ � � � � � � � � ǰ � � � � Լ � � � � µ � Ŀ � � ͷ � �
򲻶�ǰ� � ġ � � � � � � � Ƕ � � Լ � û ʲ ô Ҫ � � � � � � � Ǿ �ֻ����ԭ��̤�����������κη�չ��
� � � � � � Ƕ � � Լ � � � Ҫ � �� �ܶ�ܸ ߣ���ô ͻ � � � Ǿ ͻ ᷢչ � � Ϊ � � � � � ǿ � � � ˣ � � � � � � � � ʱ � � �
� � � Ҳ � � � � � � ñ ȳɾ Ͳ � � � � Ե � � ˸ � ࡣ
� � � � Ҫ � � � � � � Ч �ʵĻ � � �
� � � � � � � ᡢ�㱨���������ǹ � � � �
߿�չ � � � � ĵ � � ͻ � � � � � Ҳ � � � � ÿ � � � � � ʹ � õ Ĺ � � � �ֶΡ � � � � ǣ � � � ʹ � � � � � � ‫��ڷ‬
�Ϳ����Լ���ʱ�䣬����Щ �� Ͼ
�Ͼ� �� �� �� �� �ռ ռ
ȥȥ� � �ܶ��� ʱ�䡣
� � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � ߶Կ�� ᡢ�㱨���������Ӧ�ô
‫ﵽ‬ʲôĿ � ģ � � � � п � ˵ � � һ � � � � � � � � � ǻ � � � � Լ � � � � " � � � � Ϊ ʲ ô Ҫ � � � � ᣿� Ϊ �˾ � ߣ�
��Ϊ � � Ҫ � � � й � � � Ա � � � � � � � � ṩ � � Ϣ � � � � � � Ϊ � � Ҫ � � � � � � һ � � � � � � ô � ɵ
� ˼ · � � " � � ÿ � ο � � ᡢ�㱨����������
�ǰ � � � � � ǻ � � � � Ȱ ѻ � � � � Ŀ � Ŀ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ҳ � � � �֪ ������� ǻ � �
� � � � û � � � Ϊ � � � � � � Ҫ � � � Ĺ � � ‫���׷‬
� � � � � � ÿ � ο � � � ǰ � � һ � � � Ч � ʵ Ĺ � � � � � � � Ҫ � � ˵ ˵ � � � � � � � Ҫ � ‫��ﵽ‬Ŀ � � � Լ � Ӧ �
� � � � Ĺ � � ‫�ס‬ �ͬ� ʱ����Ҫ�跨�û � � � � � Χ � � � � � � � ⡣ � � � � � � � ṩ � � Ϣ � Ļ � � 鿪
��Ϊһ � � � � � � � ̸� � � � � ˿ � � Ը � ̸� � ۵ Ļ� � 顣�� Ȼ����Ҳ��Ὣ�
ߵ‫׼��ײ‬ĻῪ����ij���˳�ƪ���۷��ԵĻ��顣�෴������������ÿ � � � ˳ � � � � � � � ԡ��
‫��׼��ײߡ��ڻ‬鼴������ʱ����Ὣ���������Ľ������ǰ����Ļ�����ּ�ϵ� � � � �
� � � � � � Ȼ � � � � � � � � һ Щ ʹ � � � 鿪����Ч � İ 취�����
�һ � � ʮ � � � � � � ԡ � � ȴ� �
ȴ� � � � � � Ե � Ե İ 취���ǣ � � � � � � � �ֻ��飬�
�ȡ��Ҫ�ķ�����Ҳ���Բ
ԣ�μ ӻ� 飬�������������㲻�ܼ��� �ֻ��飬�ָ�̸��ۡ���
�Ȼ����� �Ҫ�� һ � 㻹��Ҫ � � һ � � ʼ � Ͱ ѻ � � � � ‫������ע��������ڹ‬档
� � � � � � � ӹ � � ‫��׿‬԰� � � � � � � ‫�߽�����ٵ‬һ � � � � Ҫ � � � ⣺ � � � � � � � � � � һ � � �
� � � � Ƶ � � � � � � � � � � � � � ‫�������ػ‬Թ���Ϊ��ͻ����һ�����������ʹ�������һ��� ��ʹ��� ����һ���ԭ

���� ԡ�
� � � � � � � ӹ � � ‫����߹ � � � � �ʹ�����׻‬е � � � һ � � � � � ȱ � � һ - � ֻ ��Ļ � �
‫����������������ڲ‬ˡ񣬹� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ϊ � � � � Ȫ Դ � � � � � � � � � � һ � � � � � ໥��ϡ
�� �ͬ
ͬ Э � �ļ� � 塣
� � � � � � � � � � ӹ � � ‫����׻‬Է�ֹֻ���Ļ � �
������‫ڲ�����������������ߣ��ر�����߲�����ߣ���ע������ڲ������ڲ‬ �� � � � � � � � � ‫�ܰڲ‬
‫���ڲ‬ϵ� � ‫�ת‬Ƶ � � ⲿ ȥ � � ‫�ת‬Ƶ � � � Ϊ � � � � Ч � ĵ ‫���ط‬ȥ� � � � � � � ʹ � � � � � � Ŭ � � � ȥ � �
� � � � � �ֱ�ӽӴ���������Щ�����ָ�г � � Ϳ ͻ � � � � � � � ij � � � � � � IJ � � ˣ � � � �
� � � � � � ‫ص‬ĸ � � � � � Χ � �֯���
��� � � � ˣ � � � � ӹ � � � Ҳ � � � � � � � � Ч �ʡ �
� � � � 4 � � γ �ַ������������
� � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � ߶�����γ�ַ����˵ � һ � � � � � ơ � � �֪ ������ ‫ץס‬ȱ��Ͷ̴̴ ������
Ǹɲ���� κ ����� ġ � Ϊ �� ʵ�� Ŀ ꣬ ������߱�� 붮���
�γ�ֵ�ʹ� �һ � � � � � е � � � � � � � � � � Χ �� µ Χͬ � � � � �ϼ � � � � � �Լ � �Լ� � � � � � � � �
� ú � � � Щ � � � � � Ը � � � � � � � � � Ļ � ᡣ��ַ������ƾ� � ǻ � � � ‫�ڵ‬ΨһĿ � ġ � � � � � � �
� � � � Ȼ � � �ܰ������� ǿ˷ � ÿ � � � ˶ � � � � ‫�ڵ‬ȱ��Ͷ̴̴ ����������ʹ��Щȱ��Ͷ̴̴ ��Ե��‫�޹ؽ‬Ҫ � � �
� � � � � � Ƶ � � � Ҫ Ŀ � ľ � � � Ҫ � �ֵ�ͬ ÿ� � � ˵ � ͬ��� � � �� ͬ������ �
��� �Ҫ � � � � � �
��� � � � � � � � � � � � ϣ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � һ � � � � ս � � � � � � � � 䱸
�Լ�����Ա��‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � � � � Ƹ � ú � � � � � � й � � � ѡ ʱ � � � � � ǵ � � � � � � � �
�ܸ�� Щʲô � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ¾ � � ʱ � � � � � ǵ � � � � � γ �ַ������ǵij�����������
� ǵĶ̴� � �
� � � � � � � � � ˸ � � � �ֿ���ͳ����������������ȫ�‫����̰�����ؽ‬ë ˾� � � ȫ� � �ʱ �
� �ֿϻ‫"���ش‬Ҫ � � � � � �֪ ������ֽ��� ȵ���ʲôƷ�ƵľƵĻ���� Ҿͻ ��������λ����Ҳ������һ�� ��"Ͱ
�ֿ����‫���������ڿ‬ŵ � � � ߾‫�����ݱ‬ģ� � � � � �ܲ �֪ ��� ȾƵ�Σ����Ȼ����Ҳ֪ � � � � � � �
�е � � � � � � � � � � � � У �ֻ�и� � �ֱ ֱ�֤ �֤�
� � � � � � � � � � ֤� ˳� � ᢡ���ʤǧ��֮ ��� ġ� � � ʵ
����������
Ҳ֤ � � � � � � � � �ֽ � � � Ϊ � � � � � � ˾ � ��ϱ ��� ս��� ۵�‫ת‬㡣���
�һ � ηdz � � ɹ � � � � � � � �ֿϵ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �ܷ���� ‫�������ר‬ǿ� � � � � �
� � � Ǹ � " � � � � " � � � � � � �ֿ�Ҳ � Ǿ � � � -
� � � � � �֮ ���� ѧ��������� �֮ ��� ġ � � � � � � � � � � � � ֮ ǰ� � � � � � � � � � � �
��� � � � λ � � � � � � � � � � ͻ �
ͬ �� Ĺ ͬ � � � � � û �� � ʲô� ‫��ش‬ȱ�㡣����1861 � 굽
1864 � � � � � � � � � � � ʱ � � � � ���� �Ȼ � ӵȻ �
ӵ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ľ ޴����ƣ� � � ս
� � � � ȴ û � � ȡ � � � κ ν � չ � � � � �֮ �� £ � ͳ ˧ �Ϸ � � � � � � � ��ȴ��ȴ������ �� � �֮ ���������
�µ � ÿλ � � � � � � " ʯ � � " � � � �ܿ�� ѷ���������ԵĴ��СС��ȱ�㡣������ �
�ȴ� � Ϊ � � � ǵ � � � Щ � � � �֮ ���� ‫ ����֣�޹ش‬һ � � � � � � Ȼ � dz � � � ȷ � � � � � � � µ � � � Щ
� � � � � � � � � ij � � � 涼����‫�ֻ��������ר‬dz�ֵ
‫���ء‬Ч � �ʹ � � � � � � � ǵ � � � Щ � � � ơ � � � � �ֿ����������Щ" � � � � � � ȱ " � Ľ � �
� һ � � � � һ � ε ‫��������������ذ‬Щֻ � � � � � � � � ��"һ � �֮ ��� "� � � ˵ � � � � 
��� � � � � � � � ˭ � � � � � � � � һ � � � � ˻�� 䱸
һ � � � � � ʱ � � � � �ֻ�����̴�����ô� � � � � 쵼����֯���
�ձ�Ȼ��ƽƽӹӹ�ġ����ҵ�ֻ�г � � � û � � ȱ � 㡢�������ֲ�����ܵ � � ˵� � 뷨
�Dz � � �ʵ �ʵ ģ � � � �ܳ������ Ϊ" � � � � " � � " � � � � � � � " � � � � " � � � � Ӧ � � �ֻ���
����" � � � � �� �� ţ � � � � � � � � � � �
�ͨ 뷨��������绹�������
�ɲ�� �ְ����ʤ�εĻ���������Ҳ�ᵼ�¹���ɼ�ƽƽ���˵����Խǿ��ȱ���Խ࣬ ��� ͺñ � � � ɽ � � Խ � ߣ�Ͽ�Ⱦ�Խ
�� � � �� ������� �‫��ڸ‬涼�
˲
�ͻ������������ � ֪ ʶ�� � � � � � � � � � � Ƚ ϣ � � �ʹ � � � � ΰ � � � � � � Ҳ � � � � ˵ � Ѿ � ȡ � � � ˳
ɹ� � � � � � � ϸ � � û � � " ȫ � � " � � � ˣ � Ҫ " � � " Ҳ ֻ�DZ � � � � � ij � � � 档
� � � � � � � � � � � ߱Ƚ��‫ܸ��������ں‬ � ʲô� � � � ̫� � � � � � � � �ܸ�� ʲô� � � � ˾ ͻ � � � � � ȥ
� ‫�ر‬ȱ�㣬�����
�η � � � � � � ǵ ij � � � � � � � � � � � Ĺ � � � � � � Լ � � � � Ǹ � � � � � � � � � � � ˣ � � � � �
�� Ὣ � � � ˵ij� � � � � � ɶ � � Լ � � � һ � � � в � � � � � Ǵ � � û � � � � һλ� � � � � � � � Ϊ � �
� � � � � � �ְ��Ч� �ʹ �Լ � �ܵ����� ˺������ߵ����‫ڹ‬ij�ְ��Ч� � � � � � � � ҵ � � � � � �
� ‫�����ڻ‬³���‫��ڰ‬Ĺ‫���־‬ϵ�һ � 仰����˵ � � � ‫ٺ‬ò � � � �
‫���ע‬ˣ � " � � � � � � � ŵ � � ˣ � � � � � � � � ʹ � � � � � � Լ � ǿ � � � � � � � � � � � � ³ �ַ��
����á � " � � � � ˵ � � � � ˣ � � � Щ � � � � � ǿ � � Ҳ � � � � Ϊ � � � ‫ܹ�����������ڻ‬ � � � � � � � � ǵij��
� � � � � ʹ � � � � � � � � � �֮ �� ‫���ء‬Щ � � � � ҵ � Ĺ � � � � ߸���
‫�����ֻ�ר���������ܡ���˾��ְ�����ڻ‬ǵ�‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � �߰��ˡ�
� � � � � � � � һ � � � � ¿ � � � ˵ � � � ޲��֡ �� E. � � � � � � � γ �ַ������˵ij � � �
� ġ � � � � � � � � � λ � � � � � � � ‫���������������������ڲ‬ƻ������ λ ������
� � � � Ѿ � � � � ǵ � һ � � � ˡ � � � һ � � � � � � ± Ƚ � � � � ‫����ڿ‬Լ�Ƣ��������δ��‫׻‬
������Ϊƽ � � � � � � � һ λ � � �ֹ�����������" � � Ϊʲô � � � � � � �ְ��" � � Ծ � �
‫�ػع‬ͷ��������������˵���"��ô���Ƶ����⣡�����ˣ���˭ȥ���̣�"‫�׿‬г
� Ч � Ĺ � � � � ߶�����ôһ � � � � � Ա � � � � ȡ � � � � � � � � Ϊ � � � � � � � � � � � � � 񣬶 �� �
� � � Ϊ � � � � �ֵ�����˾ � Ļ � � ġ � � � � ǻ � � � � �ֻҪŮ � � � � � � � � � Ϸ � � � ˣ � � � ô � �
� � ô � � Ƣ � � û � � ϵ � � � � � � � � � Ƣ � � � � � � � � ‫�ݳ‬ɹ� � � � � � ‫ص‬Ļ � � � � � ô � � � Ժ � ľ
� � � �ֻ����������һ � 㣬������ͱ�������ɡ�ֻҪij � � � � λ � � һ � � Ľ � ʦ � � ѧ �
ߣ��������Ƿ�ʱ����ϵ���εĻ��ģ���ϵ�������Ƿ���ֵúͰ����‫����Ⲣ��ף‬Ҫ
� �ϵ � � � � � � н � � � � � Ϊ � �ȷ � � � � һ � � Ľ � ʦ � � ѧ � � � � � � Ч � � � � � � � � ǵ Ĺ � � � Ϊ
� � � Ŀ � ģ � � � � � � � � � Ա � � � � Ҫ � � � � ij �ֲ���ĸо � � � ô � � � � � Ҳ � � � � � Ե � ̫� ߡ�
� � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � ߴ��������������⣺"�����ҵ� Ĺ ϵ��� ô �� " ��� ǻ �ʵ������ǣ�� "�
� � � � Щ ʲ ô � � � � 7 " " � � Щ � � � � � � � � � � � � � ‫��ر‬ɫ��"�����ʣ�"������Щ��
� � � � � � � " � � Ϊ � Լ � � İ � � � � 䱸��Աʱ������Ѱ�������ijһ�����‫��ر‬ɫ���ˣ����Ǹ���
涼���ȥ� � � ˡ �
� � � � Ѱ � � � ˵ ij � � � � � � � � 跨������Щ � � � � � � � � � ˵ � � � ˵ � һ �ֱ��
‫���ܡ‬ʵ� � � � һ � � " � � � � � � � " " � � � � � � � " ˵ � � � ı � � � 󣬶 �� �Ŷ � � �˵ ������
��� � � Ե �һ � � � � � ӣ � � ˱ � � �ܵ ‫ػ‬Ὣ � � һ � � � � Դ � � � � � � ij � � � �ij �� � � � � � � �
ȡ��ij����ijɹ��������"����"��˵����ʵ����Ҳ����������‫׿‬Խ�����㡣��Ϊ � �
‫׿‬Խ������ֻ�� ������ܱ
� � � � ijһ � � � 棬���߳����Ҳ ֻ�� �����ܱ
� � � ‫��ڸ‬ļ � � � � 档
� � � � � � Ȥ � 㷺�����Ǵ � � ‫ڵ‬ģ � � � � ž � � � � � � � � � ˵ � � " ȫ � � " � � � � � � � ‫ں‬ ܶ ෽�涼��� �ܳ
�ijɾ͵� � � � � û � е ġ � � � ʹ � Ǵ  � � � 棬��Ȼ��Ȥ�� �ֶ���������гɾ͵Ļ � � � � ‫ڻ‬滭
�ϡ�����µ�ʫ����ʧ�ˣ����µ�ֻ����Թ� ѧ ���� ѧ �����������Ʒ�Ļ�����ô��� ‫� ٿ‬ ‫ ڰ‬ȫ���
п � � � � � � ‫�ע‬ĵ � λ � � �ֲ�����һЩΰ � � � � � � � � ˣ � � � ο � � � � � � � Щ � � � � � � � �
� ˡ � � � ô ˵ � � � � � ǹ � � � � � �ܿ�� �ⷢ � � � � � � ij ��� � � � � � � �ͼ � ‫����ڹ‬з� � � � �
� ǵ � � � Щ � � � � � � � � � � Ļ � � � � � � � � һ � � " � � � � � � ˣ � � Ǹ � �ֲ����������
ȱ�㣬���겻��������ȱ������Ч��"�ľ��档����ʱ������Ǽ�ֿ͹ � � ϲ � � � � �‫�ﵽ‬ı�
ܴ ‫߹�����׼‬
���ǿ � � � � ˵ IJ � � �֮ ������ ǽ � � � Ȼ � � � � � � � ˲ ơ � � � � ˵ � � � � � � � õ Ļ � � � � � �
�� �Ҳ � Ǵ � � � � � � ˲ � � � Դ � � � � � � һ � � � ˵ij� � � � � Ҳ � � � � Ҫ � � � � Ĺ � � � Ч � � � Ҫ
��󡣹 � � � � �� �� �� �� �� � ��֮ ǰ � � � ȵ � � � -
� � � Լ � � � " � � λ � � � � �ܸ�� Щʲô � � " Ҫ � � � ͻ � � ͹˵�˲� � ʵ˵ �� �
ʵ � � �� �� �� �� �ǵ � ǵ� �� �� �Ƕ �Ա Ƕ� Ա� �� � ˲ �
� �ְ�ı � � � � � � Ⱦ Ͳ � ȡ � � һ � � � � � ̵� ̬� ȡ � � � � � � � � � � � ȡ � � � � ̬� ȶ Դ � � � ˣ � � �
� Ǻ ܲ����‫ܲ������ء‬ � � � ʵ�ģ � Ҳ � Ǵ � � � � ƻ � � Ե ġ � � � � � " Ҫ � � � ϸ � " � � � � ˾ � � һ � � ˵ � � �
� � � � � � ˵ � � � ˾ � � � � Ҫ � � � ϸ � ģ � � � � � һ � � ʼ � � �ܿ���� ij � ˵ ij � � � � � � ˽ � � � ʲ ô
� � � � Ӧ � � � � ú ܺã � � � � ž ͻ � � ϸ � � Ҫ � � � � ȥ � � � � � � � � á �
� � � � � � ࿼���˵Ķ̴ ����Ǿͻ�Ӱ���ʵ���Լ���Ŀ�ꡣ����-
�ִ�����ֶΣ � � � ȿ � � � ʹ � ˵ ij � � � � õ � � � � ӣ � �ֿ���ʹ�˵Ķ̴� � � � � � � Ӱ � � � �
޶�����‫ٵ‬ȡ�����‫�ر‬ǿ� � � ˼ Ȳ � � � Ҫ � � Ҳ � � � � �ܻ�������� Ǿ � � � Լ � һ � � � ˸ � � � á
��� � � � � � � � � � ˣ � � � � � � � � � � ‫־‬
‫�������������ޡ‬ôͻ��ij����������Ҫ������� �ܳ �ַ����Լ���Ч�
¹����‫ � � � � � �ܡ��ڸ‬Ա � � � � � � ô һ � � � ‫ � "���׻‬㲻��ֻ����
�˵ � ' � � ' � � � � Ա Ҫ � � Ļ � � � � � ȫ � � -
� � � � ġ � "�� �ĵ " ͬ � � � ˲ � � �ֻ�г � � � � � � ˵ Ķ ̴� Ҳ � � � Ǹ � � ų � � � һ � � � � ġ �
� � � � � � � � � Ⲣ � � Ҫ � � � � � ǿ � � Զ Ի � � � � � � � � � � � � ã � � Ա � � ø � � ˵ Ķ ̴�ֻ��Ϊ � 빤�
�ͳɼ��‫ � � ˽�޹ص‬С ȱ � 㡣���ǿ � � Խ � � � � � � õ � � � � � �
‫����ַ�ڳ‬ Ա���ij�����һλ�� �ͨ ҵ���˰����ʦ���������˽�˿� ҵ ���������﹤
ͨ
� � � � � �ֲ��������˴򽻵� � � DZ � Ȼ � � Ӱ � � � � ҵ � � Ŀ � չ � � Ҫ � � � ‫Ϳ�������ڻ��ڲ‬
� ��԰�Լ �Լ� � � �� � ‫ ڰ‬칫��������������������� ˽� � �ֱ�ӽӴ�����ˣ��‫﹤��ڻ‬
��ȿ���������ӳ�����Ҳ��ʹ��Ķ̴ ��Ե��‫�޹ؽ‬Ҫ � � һ � � С � � ҵ � � � � �ֻ�ó � � ‫����ڲ‬þ 񣬶� � � � � � �
ô � �ܿ�������
� � � � �ܻ 鷳���������Դ �һ Щ � � � � ҵ � һ һ� � �ֻ�
‫�����ڲ�������ר‬ˣ � � Ϳ � � Գ � Ϊ ʮ � � � � � õ � � ˡ �
� � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � �߲����ǶԶ̴ ��̴
Ӷ������‫���׹‬Լ������˹��Ҫ�䷢��˰���Ƶ�‫�ר‬
��������������ദ������������߱����û � б � ʲô � � � 룬�
�Ϊ � � � � � � � � � � ˹ ȥ � � � � � �
� � � � Ҫ � � � ˴ 򽻵� � � � ȫ � � � � � ұ � � ˣ � � � � һ � � � ˰ � � � � ʦ � � � Dz � � ɶ � õ � � ˲ š � �
� � � � � � � � � � � � � ǻ � � � � � � � Ҫ � ģ � � � � � � � � � � ˵ � � �ֻ������˵ � ij � ‫־‬
����԰ � � ˣ � � Ǹ � � � �ܻ�� Ӱ�쵽���Ч � 档
� � � � � � � � � ˵ � � � � � � � � ‫�ף‬Ϊʲô� � � � � � ͱ Ƚ � � � � � � ‫�أ‬Ϊʲô� � � ‫��ڷ‬ӳ������
‫�����ر������ڷ‬Χ � ˵ ij � � � � Ĺ � � � �߲�̫���Ϊʲô� �ֿ���ͳҲ�����ҵ������ � ֮ ǰ�
��� � � � � � � � ˲ � ʤ � ε � � � ˾ �
� � � � � � Ҫ � � ԭ � � � � � ‫���������ڣ‬Ϊ� 䵱��֮ ������ְ� � 

ְ� �
�ͨ ȱ�����ǰ���һ���ˡ���ˣ ͨ ���������ǣ���� �ְλ � � ȱ � � Ȼ � � � � � � � � � �  � � Щ � � ȱ � � � � �
� � � � � � � � £ � � dz � � � � ‫������������ױ‬Ѱ��"ë�����‫� � · � � � � "���ٵ‬
� Ǿ � � � Ҫ � � � � � � õ � � ˡ � ǡ ǡ � � � � � � һ � � � � � � ɱ � � � ‫ػ‬ᵼ�¹���ƽӹ������һ� 㡣
� � � � � � ˵ � � һ �ְ취���
�" � � � � " � � һ ë � � � � � Ǿ � � � � � � � � � � �ְλ �� ԰ � �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �Ա Ա� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� � "
� � � � " � 취 ʵ� � � � ȴ � Ȳ �֢�������� к � � � � ‫�����ر‬һЩ � � � � � � � � � � ˡ � �
‫���ڴ‬У�ְλ � Ǹ � ‫ݿ‬͹� � � Ҫ � � � 趨
�ģ � � � � � � � � � � � � ģ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �ְλ � ġ �
� � � � � � һ � 취�в ͨ ͨ � - � � � � � � � � � ǣ � � � �‫ְ�����ڲ‬λ � �ȷ � � � � � � � õ � � κ α 䶯��̻��
‫�����ڻ‬һϵ � е � � � � Ӧ � � � � � ‫ְ���ڲ‬λ � � � ໥�ϵ� � � ໥���ģ � � � � � � � Ϊ � � Ҫ � � �
� һ � � � ˶ � � � � � ÿ � � � ˵ Ĺ � � � � � � � ζ � � � һ � � � 䶯���������
�˲ŵ � � � � � � � � �ְλ � � � ǵ � ͷ �ְλ � � Ҫ � � � � � ˵ IJ � � �֮ �� 佫��������ì �
‫������ܡ‬ǣ � Ϊ � ˰ � � � һ � � � ˣ � � � � � ʹ � � � � ʮ � � � � ˲ � � ò � � � � � � ° � � ù � � � � æ
� � � � � � ‫��ת‬
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ‫ � � � � ˾��ػ‬Ĺ � � Ż � �
‫�ڣ���������ڲ‬Ҳ � Ǵ � � ‫ڵ‬ġ � ij � � � ѧ � � Ҫ һ λ � � � � � ‫ﻯ‬ѧ��γ̵ Ľ�ʦ���������һ λ�ý
� ʦ � � - λ‫�ר‬ҡ��γ��Ǹ�ѧ�Ƶ�һ��ԭ��ͻ� � ֪ ʶ��
‫ר‬ҵ�Բ���̫ǿ�����ܽ�� ʦ���˵���Ȥ�మ�ò � � � � � � � � � � 棬���
�ѧ��������ѧ�����Ҫ���ģ�����ÿλ��ʦ��� ò��� �ܵ�� -
�ֿ͹ � � � ʵ � � � � � � � � � � ŵ �ָ��Ҫ � Ҹ � � � � � � � � � � ϯ � � � � � � � � ʱ � � � � � � � � һ
λ˫�ɹܴ��ü � � õ � � � � � � � � � ò � � � ô � � � � � � � � � δ �ְ��������ܴ � � ˴ � ˫ � ɹ ܵ�����Զ�
��� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �ܼ򵥣 �ָ���Ǿ � � Ϊ � ˴ � � ˶ � ȥ � � � ¸ � д � � � ‫׵‬ġ�
� � � � � � λ � ù � � ʵ ĸ � � Ժ � � � � � � Ҫ � � Ů � � Ա � � Ƣ � � � � � ŵ � � � � ӣ � � �ֻҪ � � � յ � �
��� � � � � � � � � ˡ � � � ˹ �
� ͬ � � � � � � � Ŀ� � � �Ҳ � � �� � �� � � � � Ľ � � յ � � � � ‫�ݣ‬
�Ծɻ � Ҫ � � � � � � � � � Ϸ � ġ �
��� � � � � � Կ� ͹��Ҫ �Ҫ � � � � � �ְλ � � � � � Ǹ � � � � � � � � �ְλ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � һ
� � � Ϊ΢ � � � ԭ ԭ � � � � Ϊ ֻ����������������ܻ � � � � � � ĸ� �ָ����˲ţ� � � � � � � � ̡� � � �
�ͬ � � � � � � � Ա � е IJ � ͬ� �
ͬ Ͳ
�� ͬƢ � � Ϊ� ���Ը�� � � ̲� � 죬������˼ʹ � ϵ � � � 뽨��������
�Ϊ � � � ĵ Ļ � � ϣ � � � � � � � � � � � Ը Ϊ� � � ˵ � � � � ϵ �Ļ� � � � � � � �ɼ � �Լ� � � � � �
Ĺ � � ‫���ױ‬Ҫ � п͹ ۵ ı� � ѡ � � � � ǣ �ֻ���‫�����ڲ‬Ϊ � � � � � � � � ù � � � � ǰ � � � £ � � �
� п � � � � ƶ � � � ͹ ۵ ı� ‫��������������׼‬Ľ 򡣾� � � � � � � � � � � � " ˭ � � ˭ � ǣ � " � � � � " � � ‫���׮‬ǶԵģ
�" � � � � � � � � � � չ � � ȥ � � � � Ҫ � � � � ã � � � � � � � � ¾ � ʱ � � � ͳ � � � � ῼ � � " � � ϲ �
� � � � � � � � " � � � � " � � �ܱ��� ҽ�����"�����������⣬����ȥ����"��
� Dz � � Ǻ � � п � �ܻ�� ɵ÷dz � � � ɫ � � " � � � � � � � � � � ˡ �
� � � � � � � � � � � � ְλ � � Ȼ � � � � � ˳ � Ӻ � ƫ � � � � � � � � 򣬻 �� Բë � � � � � Ⱦ � � � � � � �
� � � � � � � � ¾ �߱������ֹ�ƽ � � � � � � � � �ܴ��� и � � � � � � ‫�����أ‬Ļ� � � � ͻ � ʧ ȥ
�ܸ ɵ � �˲ţ � � � � ߴ�����ǵĹ�����ԡ�����Ҫ�������͵��˲ţ�����ͻ�ȱ��Ӧ���������ʧȥ��

‫ﲻﲻﲻ‬
‫ﲻ‬
‫ﲻ�ͬ ﲻ‬ֱ��������������ͬ �������ǡǡ���Ǿ���в���ȱ�‫ � � ½������ٵ����أ‬Դ ˽
� � � ‫����ۣ�����ר‬
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ô һ � � � � � �֮ � ���� �ܳ ィ��
�һ � � � � � � � � Ĺ � � � � � � ͨ � � � � � � � � � Χ� �� ͨ��ͬ
� �� �� �� �� �� ͬ �ֹ�����еĹ � ϵ � � �
ͨ
� �ܸ�� ‫˵��ݸ‬ĺö � � � � ѡ � ˲ ţ � � � Ӧ � � � � � � � � �ܸ�� Щʲô � � � � � � � ǵ Ĺ � � � � �֣� ����� �ܿ
������Ƿ�˳���Լ���Ϊ��ѡ���˲ţ���������Ҫ�����Ϊ���ܵ�ͬ��� ±� � � һ
�� �ľ� � 롣
� � � � � � ˵ �ֿϾ � � � � � � һ Щ � � ϵ � dz � � � � е � � � Ա � � � � � �
½ � � ˹ ̹̹� ٣�������һ � ξ � � 룬��˲ų � Ϊ һ � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � � � � ߹����
ߡ�������֡ �� D. � � ˹ � � � � � � � � ͳ ‫��ڸ‬û � � " � � � � " � � � � ʹ � � � � IJ � � � � � � � �
� � Ħ � � � � Ҳ � � � � � � һ � � � ľ � � 룬�����
‫����������������������ڷ‬ʮ � � � � �ܵ����� ѡ���Ъ��� �����
‫ � ¡׵‬P. ˹ ͬ� գ � � � � � ��ͬ� � � � � ɣ � � � � ǵ Ĺ � ϵ Ҳ � � � � � � һ � � � ľ � � 롣��
�Ƕ � � � һ Щ � � � ij � � ġ � � � � � � � �ܵ��� ˼ʹ � ϵ � ġ � � � � ‫ڽ‬ύ � � � ѵ � � ˣ � � � � � � � � Ƕ �
� ñ � � 뽫���ǵ����걣���
�" � � � � " � ķ � Χ ֮ � ⡣������Ϊ���Ƿ�ϲ��ij������ � ͬ� � � �ͬ �� � � ˻Ĺ ۵��Ⲣû��ʲô��ϵ��ֻҪ � �
�� �ì � �ܺ Ͳ� � ; � � � � ˡ �ֻҪ � � � Dz � � � һ � � � � � ˱ � �ֹ������ܵ Ĺ � ϵ � � � � � � � Ǿ � �ܽ���
��һ֧ǿ � � � � ġ � � и � �ָ����˲ � � � ɵ Ĺ � � � � � 顣
�� � � � � Ȼ � � � � � � � � � � � � � ⣬ � � ijЩ� � � � � � � � � Ҳ � �ȷ� �Ҫ � � � � � � � ¡ � �
�ʹ � � ˹ ¡ � � � � � � � � һ � � � � � � � � � � � � � µ Ĺ � � � � ߣ�������Բ��˹��F.��������
λ � � ŷ � � � � ʱ � � � � � ̲� ‫ס‬Ϊ � � � � � � � � һ � � ̼� � � � ţ � � � � � � � ͨ � � � � �� ͨ�ͨ
�� ͨ ˾ � � ̼�
‫ڵ‬Ĺ
� � � � � ˹ � � Ҳ � � � � ƹ � � ೣ �� 棬�����弫��Ĺ � �  � � � ս � � � � � �� �� �� �� �� � ˹ ޽��еĹ� �
‫�����������������ס‬Ǽ � Ϊ � � � � ģ � � �ֻ��������Щ � г � Ⱥ � IJ � � ‫·����ܡ‬
�ͬ �һ � �Ĺ � � � � ȡ � ý ܳ�ɾ� � ߡ�
� � � � � � ô � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � � Ӧ � � � � � � ѡ � � � ˲ Ŷ � �ֲ������뵽������
�µ � � �̶ � � ȥ � ‫�أ‬
� � � � һ � � � ˵ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ѭ � � 1 . � � � ȣ � � � � �֪ ����ְ λ � � � � � ϵ ‫ۻ‬
���Ȼ��Ȼ���� ģ �� � � � �ɷ dz �� � � ‫�����������׷‬Ƶġ � � � ˣ � � � � � �ְλʱ���
� Ҫ � dz � С � ģ � � � � � �ܸ��� һЩ" � � � � � � � � ɵ � " ͨ ְλ � � � ǧ � � Ҫ � � � ó � � � � ͨ� û��� �õ
�ְλ � � �
� � � � � � � � � � � � ʱ � з � � � � � Щ ְλ � � � � � � � Ͽ � � � � Ǻ � � � � � � ģ � � � ʵ � � � � ȴ �
� � � � ҵ � � � � ʵ � � � ѡ � � һ � � � һ � � � � � в � �ܵ��� ˶����������ְλ � � � � � � û � � �ܹ��
�ɹ� � � һ � � � � �֮ ������ еij � � � � ߶�ʧ � � � ˡ �
��� � � � � � � � ְλ � � � ҿ � � Կ ϶ � � � ˵ � � � � ʼ ʱ � � � � Ϊ ij � � � ͬ �Ѱ� � � � � � � � � � � õģ�
� �ֻ�ʺ �ij � � � ˵ � һ Щ � � � � � � � ʡ � Ҫ � � ʤ � δ �ְλ � � � ͱ � � � Ҫ � и � �ֲ �ͬ������ͬ ֲ�ͬ� � � � � ʣ � � � � �
��� � � � � � �ʵ� � � � � � Ǻ � � � � ҵ � � ġ � � � � ǻ � � � � � Ի � ø � � � � � ֪ ʶ�Լ� � � �ָ߳����
‫���ܣ‬Ҫ � � � Ǹ ı � � Լ � � � � � � � ȴ � � ̸� � � � � ‫���ס‬ˣ � -
� � � � Ҫ �߱��ü� �ֲ �ͬ����ͬ ֲ�ͬ� � � ʲ � � � � � õ �ְλ � � � � � ͱ � � � � һ � � � ޷�ʤ�εĹ���һ����������
‫ص‬Ĺ � � �
� � � � � � ֮ � � � � � һ � � ԭ � � � � ǣ � � � � ij � � ������� � � ʹ � � � � � � � � � ˾ ޷�ʤ�Σ�����
� � Щ � � � ‫�ڹ‬ȥ� � � � � й � � � õ ı � �֣���� ô � � � Ǿ � � � � � � � � � Ϊ � � �  � � � Dz � � �
� � � � ú õ ģ � � � � � �ְλ � ͱ � � 뱻������ơ�
� � � � �  � � ÿ � � � � � � Ӫ � � Ľ ̿� � 鶼�
�ô˵ � � � � � � � � � � ʹ � � � � � � � � һ � � ģ � � � � � � � �  � � � � ͬͬһ� � � � � � �ܸ��� 𡣵
���-Щ֪ � � � � � � Ʒ��� ҵ ľ���˵����һ�������ȫ�渺�
�Ӫ��������в �ͨ �����������Ҫ��ʵ����
ġ  � ͨ � � � � Ҫ� � ʵ� � � �  �ۣ����� ˲ �Ʒ � � � � � � � к ܸߵ�Ч
�ʡ � � � � � � ‫ � � � � � � � � �ʹ��ڹ‬ˣ � � � � � Ҳ Ҫ � к ܸߵ�Ч�ʡ � � � � Ҫ � � � � � �  � � � � �
� и � �ֲ �ͬ����ͬ
ֲ�ͬ� � � Ը � � ‫ص‬㣬����Щ� Ը � � ‫��ص‬Ǻ � � � � � � � � � һ ͬ � � � � �� �ϵ ġ� � ͬ˵ ͬ ͬ
��� �Ҫ � � � � � � � -
� � � ģ �ܴ�� Ĵ � ѧ � � У � � � � Ҳ � � һ � � � � � ʤ � ε Ĺ � � � � � � � � � � � � ǣ � � � � � � � �
� � ‫�ڵ‬У � �ǰ � � � � � � ú � � г ɼ � � � � � � � � � У � �֮ ������� û � � � � Ե �ֻ�Ǽ � � � � �
� � � � � � ε � � � һ � Ҵ � � � Ϳ���ͬ � � ҵ �� � �� �� �ͬ ĸ˾ � �ܲ ã � � � � � Ҳ � � -

� � � � � � � � õ Ĺ � � � � ‫��ر‬ǵ�һЩ�ֹ�˾ � � � ӹ � ˾ � � � � � � � � � � � � � һ � � � ij ̶� ʱ � � � �
� � � � � � � ˾ �ܲ�������� � � ֮ һʱ� � � � � Э � � ĸ � � ˾ � � � ӹ � ˾ ֮ � � Ĺ � ϵ � ͳ � � ˷ dz � � � ѡ �
��� � � � � � � � � � � � � η � � һ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � £ � Ҫô� � �ղ �Ʒ � � � � � ȫ
��� �
� � � � � µ � � � � � � � � � ķ � � � � չ �� � ô

ͬ � � � � � � � Ҫ ˾ͬ � � � ȫ � � � г � � IJͬ � � �ἰ � � �
� � ‫ص‬㣬������֯������������ 磬
�ɽ���������һ��Ϊ��һ����������ң������ô���ŷ���ձ����IJ���ҵ
� � һ � � � � չ � й � ң � � � � � � � � � ҡ � � Ĵ � � � � ǡ � ӡ � ȼ � � � � � � һ � � � � � � � ಻�����ҷ
� � � � ҵ � � � � � к ü � � Ҵ � � �˾ ����˾ � Ϳߵľ � � � � � � � · � �
� � � � � � � Ĵ � ʹ � � � � � � � � � ‫�ٵ‬Ҳ � � � � ô һ � � � � � � � � � � ‫ � � �ʹ�ڵ‬ѱ � � � � � � Ӵ �
� �˽ � Ӳ � � � � � ǵ Ļ  Ҳ � � � � ˷ � ɢ � � � � � � � � � κ � � � һ λ � � ʹ � � � � � � � � û � � ʱ � 䡢
Ҳû � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ҫ � � � � � � ˽ � ‫�פ�ڹ‬Ĺ� � 飻�˽�
ߣ�����������‫� ˽��פ�ڹ‬ù � � � � � � � ʱҲͬ � � � � � � � � Ⲣ� �������Լ �� Լ������������������ � ͬ ˽
� � � � � � � � � � � Ǵ � ¥ � � � � ʱʹ � � � � � � � � � � � ͣ � � � һ � � � Ҫ � �ͣ ��ͣ� �� �� �� �� � ͣ˵ ��ְ
�ְ֮ λ � Ǻ
� � � � � ú õģ � � ҳ � � ϣ � û � й � � � � � � � Ȼ Ҳ � Dz � � еģ � � �
� � � � � � ˣ � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � ߵ�һ � � � � � � � � � Ҫ � � � Լ � � � Ͻ � µ �ְλ � � � � � õ ú � � �
� � � � � � � �֤ ���ְ λ � � � õ ò � � � � � � Ǿ Ͳ � Ӧ � � � � ȥ � � ʲ ô Ѱ � � � � � � � � � �������� � 
� õĹ � � � � ෴��������Ӧ�����������һְλ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Լ � � Ļ � � � � � �߱
��붮��������ֻ��������ͨ � ˶������ƽ���ijɼ��������ǿ����û�֮ �� ‫�ؼ‬
� � � � 2 . � � � �֮ ���� ĵ‫��������ڶ‬ȷ��ÿ��ְλ � � � к ܸߵ�Ҫ � � � � � н Ͽ � � ķ � Χ � � � � Ӧ �
ô� � � � � ս � � ԡ � � ʹ� �
ʹ � � �ַ����Լ������ƺͳ�������Ҳ�������㹻�Ļ � � � � �
‫ ���������ܽ� � �ʹ�أ‬й‫��ص�����ת‬Ϊ� ‫�ش‬ijɹ�
� � � � Ȼ � � � � � � � � � û � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ϲ � � � �ְλ � � � õ � � � � խ � � � � � ‫�ڹ‬
����Աֻ�DZ� Ҫ � � � � � ‫���ض‬ʱ�������‫���������ض‬ˣ � � � � � Ƶ �ְλ � � � � խ Ҳ û � й �
ϵ � � Ȼ � � � � � � ߵĹ� � �ֻ�ǽ � � ˰ � � õ � ij � �ְλ � � ȥ � � � κ θ � � �ְλ � � Ҫ � � Ҳ � � � � � ‫��ڲ‬ϵ‫ر‬
仯�ŵģ � � � ʱ � � �ֱ仯����ú � ͻ Ȼ � � � � � � һ Щ � � � " � � ȫ � � � � Ӧ " � Ĺ � � � � � Ա -
� � � � �ֶ���ò � � � Ӧ � ˡ � � � ˣ �ֻ�а�ְλ � ķ � Χ � � � õ ô � һ Щ � � Ҫ � � � һ Щ ʱ � � � � � � ʹ � � �
� � � Ա � � � � � � � � � 仯 ʱ��ȥ��Ӧ�µ���Ҫ��
��� � � � � � � � � Գ � � � �ְ��֪� ʶ�� � � � � � ‫����ر‬á � � ո ղ μ ӹ � � � � � ֪ ʶ�� � � � ߣ���Ҫ‫�ע‬
��ַ����Լ������ơ���Ϊ��һ��ʼ�������‫���׼‬Ѿ�������ˡ���Щ��‫�׼‬
�����Ҫ � � � � � � � Ժ � Ĺ � � � � ṩ ָ�������ҽ��Ǻ�����ǵ���������‫�״‬С � ij ߶
ȡ�ֻ������ʽ���Ϲ����λ֮ � � � � � Dz � � л �ᷢ � � � � Լ � IJ� � � ‫�����ܣ‬ѧ У ����ֻ��չʾһ� �
�Լ � � IJ Ż � � � Ҫ ʵ � � � Լ � � � � � � � ‫׳־‬
����ֻ��������ʼ����֮������� 󣬱� � � � � ʵ� � � � � � � о � � � � � � � ѧ У � � � � ½ � ѧ � �
��� �ҵ �﹤� � � � � � � � � � � � � � ﹤
�� � � � � Ƕ Ը տ �ʼ � � � � � � ֪ ʶ�� � � �߱��ˣ �� � � � Ƕ Ի � � � � � � � � �
ͬ �» � � ϼ � � � � Լ � � �
� � �ܸ�� Щʲô � � � � � DZ � � � Ҫ � � ˽ � ȴ� ���� һ � � �¡� ͷ
�����
ͬ ͬ���Ҫ��� DZ�� 뾡��
‫ְ������ظ‬λ � � � Լ � � Ƿ � � � ʣ � � � � � � � µ � Ĺ� ˵ � � � � Լ � � Ƿ � � � ʡ � � � � � � � Ͷ �
� ˵ � � Ҫ � � � � һ � � ij � � � Ƿ � � � � � � ij � � � � � � � Ǽ ȷ � � � �ֿɿ � � � � � � � � � ȫ � � � �
�� �Ȳ � � Գ � � ij � � � Ƿ � � ʺϵ�ľ � � � � � ǵ � � � е � � � � � � � � � ֪ ʶ�� � � � � � ˵ � � � � � Ҳ � �
� � � � Ƶ IJ � � Է � � � � � � � � � Ͷ � � � � � Ҫ � IJ � � � � � � � �ֻ���������ļ � � ‫���ܣ‬
��-� � � � � � � � � ʣ � � � � � � � � �ֻ����ʵ� � Ŀ � � � � в � �ܱ��� �ֵ���¶ � � � � �
� � � � � � һ � � ľ � � � � � е ʦ � �ְλ � � � � � Ƕ � � Ǹ � ‫���ݹ‬Ҫ � �ȷ � � � ģ � � � ˣ � � � һ � � 䵽�
�һ � � 䣬��һ � � � � � � � ʲ ô � 仯��Ȼ�� Ϊ ��ȷ� � � ֪ ʶ�� � � � � � ‫���ڻ‬ȷ�������‫���ף‬ļ�ֵ�
‫�ۺ‬Ŀ� � � � � � � 뱾�˵ �
‫ר‬ҵ֪ʶ�� � � � � � Ե � ͬ � � � � � Ҫ � � һ � � � � � � � � � �ij � � � � � � � � � � � � �֮ �� ‫����أ‬ǵ�������
һ � � � Ҳ � � � � � � о � ʹ � � � ϣ � � � �ܶ��� Թ����˵������������ϲ��޶��IJ � � 졣��
�ԣ �һ � � � � � � � � µ ĵ � һ �  � � Ӧ � ü � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Լ � � � Ҳ � � � � � � � � Ի
�� �в� � � ԡ�
��� � � � � � ԭ �� 򲻽 �� �� � � � � ‫͵������ڸ‬Ļ � � � � � � � � � � ‫���ء‬ѧ����ҵ������Ҳ
��� � � �ͬ
ͬ - �� �֮ �� 䡣�һ � � � δ � � � � � � � � � � � � � ҵ � � �ֵ�‫���ۺ‬ǿ � � Ĺ � �
‫���׻‬һ � � ġ � ѧ � � λ � � � � � � 쵼�˶����������������ʮ������-λ��ʦ��ij���ѧ�﹤
� � � ú ܿ��ģ � � � � � Ҳ � � � г � Ч � � � � � ǵ � � � � � � � -
� � � ѧ ֮ � � � � � � � ܾ ͻ����һ��ʧ��У��������Ʋ��֡ �������� � � � �ܹ е� � Ĺ � ί Ա � ᣨc
tvHservMe
commtssion � � � � ͼ � � � � � е � � � � � � � Ŷ � � � � � ��ͬ� Ĺ � � � � ƶ � ͬ � ���ͬ� � ͬ�� � ͬ
ijȣ ߶
�������Щ � � � ţ � Ȼ � �ֻҪ � � Щ � � � � � � ‫�����ת‬ �֮� 󣬾 ͱ�Ȼ����ϸ������Եĸ���
� � � � � � � Ŷ � � � � � � � Ա � � � � Ϊ � � � � � � � ͬ� � Ҫ � � � � ԰�ͬ��� �Щ ‫ר‬ҵ
� � Ա � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � � � � � � � ‫�ס‬
��� � � � � � � � � �ʱ � �Ҫ � � � � � � � ѣ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ȼ � �
ij � � � � � � һ � � � � 10�������‫ � � � � �ڲ‬ʱ � �֮ ����� Ҫ � � � ͻ � � ú � � � ѣ � � ‫��ر‬Ƕ
�� �Щ� � � � ȱ � � � � Ч � � � ˸ � � � � � ˡ � � � ˣ � � � � � � � ֪ ʶ�� � � � � Ӧ � � � � � � � � � � Լ �
� � � � � � � � � � � ⣺ " � � � � � ‫�ڵ‬λ � � � Լ � � � � � � � Ĺ � � � �ܲ��� �ܳ �ַ����ҵ����
ƣ � " Ҫ � � ij � � һ � � ʼ � � � � µ Ĺ � � � Χ ̫խ � � � Ѷ �
̫ ̫С � �ֻ��������ε � � � � 侭�鲻�㡣�������
�η � � � � 䳤���Ļ � � � � � ô � � � � � ޷�����������⣬��Ҫ˵�‫���������ش‬ˡ�
��� �ÿ �ζ� � � � � � � ֪ ʶ�� � � � ߽� � е � 飬
�ó � Ľ � � � � һ � � ģ � � � � � � � � � � Ǿ � � � � � ҽ � � ѧ ʵ � � � � � � � � о � Ա � � � � � � � � Ļ
��ʦ �� 򹤳Ժʦ� � � � � � � Ļ ҽ ʿ � � � � Щ � Թ � � � � � � � � � 顢�����
�ɾ͵� � � ǡ ǡ � � � � � � Щ � � � � � � � �ܵ���� ս�����е�������֮ �� ‫��ص‬ˡ � � � һ Щ � � � � � �
�ܴ��� ۵���������Բ�� ķ�ʽ��Թ���"������
�ͬ ����� ͬ ҵ ޷��õ� � �ֵķ � � ӡ � " � � Щ � � � � � ֪ ʶ�� � � � ߵ
Ĺ � � � Χ ̫� � խ � � û � л � � � � � � � � ս � � � � ˡ � � � � � Ҫ ô � ‫��ﳤ‬ȥ� � Ҫ ô � ‫����ڹ‬Ϻ��޳ɾͿ �
�� ԣ � �ܿ�� ͱ�����������ĩ����˥����������������߷��������ɧ�
� � � � � � ǻ � � � � � � � � � � ˺ ܿ�ͱ�ú��޼����ˡ� � � ʵ � � Ӧ � � �ܵ��� 𱸵
��������Լ�����Ϊ���ǽ���Щ�����˵Ĺ���Χ����̫խ��ʹ�����޷����
��Լ������ơ��Ӷ�ű����������
� � � � 3 . ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � � � � � � � � ʱ � � � � �ֻ����ְλ � � Ҫ � � � � � � � � ȿ � � DZ � �
�֮ �� ˾ � � � � � � � Щ � � � � � � � � � 仰˵ � � �
‫��ھ‬ij � ˰ � � õ � ij � �ְλ � � ȥ ֮ǰ � � � � � � � � � � Ͷ Դ � � ˵ � � � � � � � � ˳ �ֵĿ � � ǣ � � � � � � ‫ڿ‬
���ʱ���ֻ�����‫�ڴ‬һְλ � �
� � � � � � � � � Ϊ ʲ ô � � Ҷ � � 㷺���ý � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ˲ š � � ‫���ر‬ � ֪ ʶ�� � � �
ߵ����ɡ��������Ŀ�ľ���Ҫ�ù�����������Ƿ��ô��˵�����Ҫְ��ľ� �֮ ǰ �
� � ȶ � � � � и � � � ȷ � � � �ۡ��
� � � � � � � ܼ������еĴ � � � � � Լ � � � - � � � � � � � � � ˲ ŵ ij � � � 򣬿� � � Щ ϧ � 취���������
�ù � � � � � ‫ � � � � � � � ˵������߿ڿ‬ÿ � � � � � � Ҫ � � � � � � � � � һ � � � � � � � ˡ � � �
� ǣ � � � � � � �֪ �������� Լ�ȴ��δ�����ǵ��ϼ�������� � �
˵ � ���������
ͨ �ͨ� � � � � � � � � ˹ ˵ı
� � һ ֱ���‫����ڵ‬����Ҫ � � � � � � ¾ � ʱ � � ˭ Ҳ � � � � ‫��ר‬Ϊ � � ȥ � � � ĵ � � � � � � � Ҷ �
� � Ϊ � �ֻ��һ �ѷ �ֽ���ѡ��ֱ����ϼ�������������������е��濼�ˡ� � � ʵ � � � � �ֵ��濼����
������ƶȵĹ‫���ؼ����ڡ‬Ϊһ � � � й ‫����������������ع‬Ĺ � � � У � � � � Ƿ � � � �
� � � � � � � � ‫��ڡ‬ù � � � ォ������ĵ� � 濼�
�˵ � � � � һ � � � � � � � � � ϼ � " � ѿ � � Ĺ � � � " . Ŀ ǰ � � � � � � � � � � � � ‫��ڲ‬õ � � � � � �
� � � � � � � ԭ � �ֻ��Ϊ� ‫�����ٴ‬ѧ�һ��о���̬������ѧ��������õġ��‫�ٴ‬ҽ��
� � � β � � � ‫�ר‬ң � � � � � � � ĵ � � Dz � � ˵ � ë � � � � � � � Dz � � ˽ � � � � ķ � � 档��֪ ������
��������Ϊ � � � � � � ë � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ȼ � ‫ػ‬Ὣ � � � � ߵ�����������ϼ�
� � � � һ � � � ̡�
� � � � � � � � � ‫�ڵ‬һ � � � � � ձ � � � � � � Ӵ �֮ ��� ſ �ʼ � �ʶ � � � � һ � � ġ � � � ʱ � � � � � �
� ‫����ڸ‬ǽ� � � � ‫�������ڹ‬ѵ � � � � Ŀ Σ � � � ʮ � ‫־‬
‫ ������֣�����ط‬ǰ� � � ε Ķ � � Ǵ � � ĸ ߲��쵼
�ˣ � � � � � � � � м � ȴ û � � � κ � һ � � � ˸ � � ʲ ô � � � � � Һ � � � � � � � � � � Ϊ ʲ ô � � � � � � �
� � � һ � � ‫ � � �"���ش‬ǵ � � � �ֻ�����‫¶�ڽ‬ij � ˵ � ë � � � ̴� � ̴���Ȼ �Ȼ ���ǵ �ǵ��ƶ � ȼƶȲȼ�Ȳ � � � Ͷ ̴
� � � � � � � � � ˣ � �ֲ����������ܰ
� � � � � � � ߺͽ��� Ļ �ᣬ�� ô ���Ǹ� ʲô ��Ҫ����� � � � � �
‫�أ‬ǡǡ�෴�����ǶԹ�Ա�Ķ̴ ��˽��Խ�٣����Ҳ � � � Խ � á � � � � � � � Ҫ � ˽ � � � � һ � � � ˵ ij � � �
�Լ � � � �ܸ�� Щʲô � � � � � � � ǵ � � � � Դ � ȴ � � � � � � � � Ȥ � � " � � � � � � ѧ � � Ҳ � � � � �� � ͬ
� � � �ַ�����ǵ�ȷ����ÿ������ߣ����������ձ��ˣ�����������ǵ ˻�¹ �ˣ ��������Ĵ�ͳ���
���
� � � � � ܵ��˵ � � � ձ � � � � � ȡ � õ ij ɾ � Ҳ � �ֵ����������ȥ� � ˼ӡ � � ζ � � � � Ҷ �֪ ����
�ձ���ʵ�е���"������õľ�ҵ�ƶ�".һ��ij������ij����������Ը�������� ������� Ϳ �������ͷ‫�����ޣ‬Ĺ� � �
Χ � ‫��ڲ‬ϵõ� � � Ǩ � � � � � 磬��ʼʱ�����ˣ������‫������ٵ‬Ա��‫ר‬ҵ��Ա��Ȼ���
‫����������ٵ‬Ա�������нˮÿ��15�����Է�һ������� �ܴ �ְ��Ҳ � � �ܱ���� Ƹ����һ��������45
꣬ ��� 45 � � � � � � � Ա ֮ � � � � � � � � � Щ � � 𡪡��������ˣ � � � � ܳ‫������ڽ‬͹� �
‫�������ף‬ѡȥ�����߼� � � �ְ�������һ � � � ƶ � � � ô � � � � � ձ � � Ѿ � ȡ � õ ľ ޴󾭼óɾ� �
� һ � � � ‫��򵥣ܼ𰸺��ܼأ‬ձ��������ƶ���ʹ��������ʶ��ȥ���ӱ��˵�ȱ�㡣�
�Ϊ � � � Dz � �ܴ��� ˹� Ա � � � � � � � ձ � � Ĺ � � � � � � � � � � 跨
Ѱ�������ij���������ѡ�������˵�����ǿ������������˱��˵ij�
��� �
�� � � � Ҳ � � � � � � Ƽ � � ձ � � � � � � � � ƶ ȣ � � �ʵ � � � � � ƶ � Զ � � � � � � � � ȱ � � � � �
��� �ƶ� �£� � � � � � С � � -
� � � � � Ѿ �֤ ���� Լ�����������������Ÿ��ָ������Ҫ � � � � � � � � � � �
��� �˶ � � � �ɻ � � � � š � � � � � � � �ȷ� � � �Լ � � �� � � ø � � � � � � ȡ � ͳ � � Ч � 棬�
�ô �ձ � � ˵ � � � � � " � � � �֮ ����������� � � �֮ " � � � � � � �ֵ�����ǽ � � ġ �
� � � � � � � � ϼ � � � � � � � IJ � � �֮ ����� � �ܵ һ� � � £ � � ͱ � � � � � � ǵ � � � � � � � � �
Ҫ � � � � � � � � � ô � � � � � ɽ � � � ‫ � � � ¼����ٵ‬ϵ � н � Ϊ � � ϵ � � Dz � �ָо � � � � � � � � � ʵ
� � � � ǿ � Ӹ � � � � ǵ � � � � � � � � � � � ȡ � � � � � Υ � � ̬� ȣ � � �ֻ���Լ���ֱ������¡
��� � � � � � � � � £ � � � �ǰ� � � � � � � Ѱ � � � � �ë ˵ � � Ͳ � � �֮ �������������
����һ � � � � � � � � � � � � £ � � � � � � � ȫ � � � � � � � ġ � � � ǰ � Ѱ � � � � � � � � � � �
� � � � ë � � � � � � � � ҽ � � � � � � Ρ � � � � � ˭ � �֪ ���������� ҽ��֮ ��� Ĺ � ϵ � � һ �
�ְҵ�Ե������ϵ���������¼�֮ ���� Ȩ � � Թ � ϵ � � ȫ � � � � � � ¡ � � � � � � � � ۱�
�˵ � ë � � � � � � � ʹ � � һ � 鹤��
�ú � � � ѡ � � � ˣ � � � � � � � Ĺ � � � �߲���������ֹŰ � � � � � � � � � Dz � � � Ϊ � � ġ � �
�ֻ���‫���ڴ‬ij � � � � £ � Ϊ � � � � � Ŀ � � � � � ȡ � � һ �ִ���Ĺ � � � � � �
� � � � � � � � � 䱳���ָ�
�˼ � � Ҳ � й � � ǿ � � " DZ � " ֮ � � � ɡ��о�����˶�֪ ������������ ǰȥ� � � ij � ˵ � DZ � �
� Ҳ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ȥ � � � � � һ � � � � ȫ � � ���DZ� ͬ� � " DZ � " ֻ
��" � � ϣ � � " � � һ � � � � � ʰ � � ˡ � � � ʹ ϣ � � � � � � � ‫���ڣ‬Ҳ � � � � � ޷�ʵ�֣������ һ
٠��
˾ ��ܴ�� δ � �ʾ � � � ʲ ô ϣ � � � � � � � � � � � Ϊ � � � � � � � � �ֻ�ᣩ��������ʵ����ȴ����˳ɼ��
��� � � � � � � � � � � � ĵ � � ǹ � � � � Ч � � � � � � Ӧ � �ȥ � � � � � Ҳ �ǹ � � � � Ч� � � � Ҳ �
DZ � � 뽫ְ
λ � � � õ � � � Ͽ � � � � � � ս � Ե � � � һ � � � � � ɣ � � � � ⣬ � � Ҳ � � Ϊ ʲ ô � � � ˱ � � � � � � 濼��
�Լ��Ի��Ч�����ʲô���‫����׵‬ɣ���Ϊ� ֻ ��‫�ڻ‬ϣ������Ա������ɼ��ı��� �֮
�£ � � � � � ǡ � � � � ȥ � � � ij � � � ˵ Ĺ � � � ɼ � � �
� � � � � � � ܻ�����Ҫij � � � � ʽ � � � � � 취�����
�һ � �ְ����Ҫij � � � � е � ʱ � � � � û � � � � ij � � � � � � � ȷ � � � �ۡ���� ˣ� ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � �
�� � � � � � � � Ҫ �Լ � � � ⶩ� һ� � � � ȫ � � � �ı�񡣱��һ �
ͬ˵ � ʼ � � � Ǵ � � � һ � � μ �¼� ‫�ڵ‬ǰ �
͹ �ȥ � � �� � ͬ‫׶‬Σ � � � ϣ � � � � � � � � � � � Ĺ � � � � Լ � � � � ‫��ڸ�׶‬е �ʵ �ʹ � � � ɼ � � � � � � ţ
� � � � � � � � � � � � � ĸ � � � � ⣺ � � 1 � � " � ķ � � � Ĺ � � � � � � � � ȷʵ � � ñ Ƚ Ϻ ã � " � � 2 � � "
� � ˣ � � ķ � � � Ĺ � � � � � � п � � � � � ɵ ý Ϻ ã � " � � 3 � � " � � � � �ַ�����ij � � � � � � � �
� Ҫ ѧ ϰ � � � � � � Щ ֪ʶ��
� � � � � � 4 � � � � � � � � и � � � ӻ � Ů � ӣ � � � Ը � � Ը � � � � � � ¹������‫ � � " � � �ڴ‬a
� � " � � � Ը � ⣬ � � � � � � ʲ ô � � " � � b � � " � � � Ը � ⣬ ԭ � � � � ʲ ô 7 "ʵ � � � ϣ � � � � � � � � Ҫ
� � � � � � � � � � � ϸ � ö ࣬���������‫����ص‬Ƿ����˵ij����ϡ�������ij��� �ܸ
�ʲô � �ʼ � ģ � � � � � Ķ ̴�ֻ����Ϊ� � � � � � � ͳ �ַ����䳤����ij�‫����־‬Ե���Ŀ���ֵġ �
� � � � � � � 䳤���‫��ֻ�����޹ص‬һ � � � Ǿ � � ǣ � b � � � � � � � � �
‫�����ر‬Щ � � � � � � � ᡢ�н � ȡ � ĵ � � � � � � � � ǻ � � � ij � � ǿ � � � � � � ϼ � � � Ϊ � � � � �
Լ��İ������ԣ��������ij������ߺ��������Ҳʮ �ָ���ܵ Ļ � � � � � ô � � � �
� � � �ܴ���� ƻ��ԡ�������������Լ����ɣ��������гɼ������ǵ������� �ֻ
ɣ Ҫ � � � � � � � κ �֧���
��˵ � Ȩ � � � � � � � Ҳ � � � � � Ի � � � � ȥ � � � � � � � � Ȩ � � �֣������ ͻ����ƻ��ԡ�
� � � � ǹ � � � � ߵ�ȱ��������ҪӰ���Ψһһ���档
� � � � � � ֱ��Ʒ�������ܴ���� �ֵ�������ȱ����ֱ�ͳϿ��Ǿ��п��ܻ��������� һ �
� � � � 顣��������������£ �ȱ � � Ͳ � � � � Ƿ � � ӳ � � � � � � � � ɼ � � ġ � � � � ‫־‬
‫�������ޣ‬ȫ���Գ�Ϊij��ʧȥ�ʸ��һ��ԭ��
� � � � 4 . � � � �֮ ���� ĵ� � � � � � � � � ǣ � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � �߱��붮
�ã � � � � � � � � � ij � ˵ ij � � � � � � � � � Ҳ � � � � � � � � Ķ ̴� � �
� � � � � � ʷ � Ͼ � � � � � ΰ � � ľ � � � ͳ˧ � � � � � � � � Ϊ � ǡ � � � � � � � � ͺ � � � " � � "Ϊ � �
� ĵġ � � � Ȼ � � � � � � 仰�����˵ � Dz � � � � � ģ � � � � � ʵ � � � � � Ҳ ȷ ʵ � в � �
‫�������ٽ‬Ϊ � dz � � � ˲ � � 𣬵����
�ȴ� � δ � � � � Ϊ ΰ � ˶ � � � � � ʷ � ᡣ����������Ҳ � � һ � � � � � һ � � � � μ � � � �
‫ ػـ�ـ�ـ�ـ־���־‬Ҫ � � � � � � � � � ͳ � Ļ � � � � � � �ܿ�� ͻ ᱻ����������䲻����
�Ҳֻ���Ǹ � � � � õ ġ � � � � ߷dz � � � � � � � � μ Ҷ � � ѡ � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ҫ � � � � � �
� С � � � � � � � �ֻ��� һ � � � � � � ͨͨ� � � � μ ͨͨҵġ � � � � � � � � Σ � � � � � � Ҫ ˧ � ŵ Ļ � � � � � ô
� � � ǿ ϶ � � � � � � � � � � � ˹ � � � � � � � � �֡ �� D.� � ˹ � � � � � � � � 쵼�ˣ� � � � �
‫����ں‬ǵ�̬ ���Ƿ�ǫ�����������ʹӵ����д����û��ΰ�˿��Եġ�����������ֿ���������ȴ� � � �
�ʹӵ � � � � ϡ � � � Ϊ � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ը � � ‫�ص‬ʵ� � � ϶ � � � һ Щ � ‫���޹ص����أ‬Щ� � �
� � � � � � � � � � � ʷ � � ̨� � ��Ҫ � �ɵľ� � � � � � � � Ǻ � � � � ɵ ġ �
� � � � � � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � �߳������ʵ� � " � � � � � Ƿ � � � ij � � � � Ҫ � � � � � � � �
� ‫�������س������س‬Ҫ � � ɵ � � � � � � � û � й � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � һ � � � � ȡ
� ý ܳ�ijɾͣɾ� �ǻ ᲻ � � � � � � � ‫�ش‬ı 仯��" � � � � � � ǿ ϶ � � ģ � � � ô � � ͻ � � ô � � ˡ �
� � � � � � һ �ִ���ƺ� � � Ϊ � � � ƽ ӹ ֮ � � � � � � һ � � Ϳ � � Դ ‫ﵽ‬һ � � � � � ˵ Ĺ � � � Ч � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч
� Ĺ � � � � ‫ � � � ˴ ܴ���ߺ��ٻ‬Ӱ � 졣����֪������������ � � � � � � �ͨ ˵ � � � � � ƽ ӹ ֮ � � � � � � һ � 鹤�
���Ч � � � �ܲ���� һ � � ƽ ӹ ֮ � � � � úã � � � Ϊ � � � � � � ˾ ͻ � � � � � ‫ں‬ġ � � � � Ǿ � ã � Ҫ ˵ � ˵ � � �
� � � � ͱ � � � � � 嵽�ܲ�������������
�Dz � ϲ � � � � ͳ � � ˵ ij � � � Ǹ � " � � � � " � � � �ֻ��˵ij � � � � � � � ij � � � � � � � � � Ǹ � " �
� � � " . � � Щ � � � � � � � � � ǽ � Ͼ � � � � � � � � Ѱ � ұ � � ˵ ij � � � � � � Դ � � � � �֮ �����
Ŀ �ġ �
��� � � � Ҳ � �ζ � � � � Щ � � � � � � � � � � � �ʱ � � � � � � � ӻ �� � � � ᣬ �ֻ‫����ץ���ڵ‬⡣
� � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � ߶�������Щ� ۵����䲻
�ҹ�ͬ� �" � Ҳ ��ܷ������ ˣ � û � � � � � ұ � � � � � 鷳��" � � � �֪�������
�" � � � � ˲�"�ȱ�� �� ۵��������ֽ������ͣ � � � һ � � � � � � ʵ � � � Ϻ � � � � ‫����ֻ�ܣ‬
�ܵ���� ϸ�չ˵�����²�����������������ij����������֧��� һ � � � Լ � � � � � վ � � ‫�ס‬ŵ � � � ˾
��� � � � � � � � � � � ij � � � � � � � � � � � ӻ � ij � � � � Ҫ � � � � Ľ � � � � � � � � � � � Ҫ
� ‫���ڸ‬һ � � � � � � � � Ĵ � � ‫ڵ‬Ļ� � �
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � λ " � � � � ȱ � ‫"���ٵ‬Ӧ��������߲źã� � � � � � � � � � � �
ñ � � ˳ � � � � � � � � � � ‫ ���ܾ� �˿���ٵ‬е � � κ γ � � � � �
� � � � � ‫������ڵ‬�������ᵽ � � һ λ � � � ÷ dz � � � �ֶ���Ч � � � � � � һ � Ҵ � � � � � Ļ
� � � � � � � Ա � � �ܾ�������� ǡǡ���������һ���ˡ�ֻҪ � � � � � � � ˵ � � � � � �
� и � � ȱ � ‫��ٵ‬ˣ � � � ͻ Ὣ � � � � � ԭ �� �� ĸ˵�λ� " � Ϊ � � � �ζ �ţ�"� � � � � �� Ҫ �"�Ҫ ˵ ô
� � �- � �� ˾ � � � ‫�ܣ‬Ҫô � � λ � � � � � У � Ҳ � � � � � � � � � � � С � � � �
‫�������ڵ‬һ�ֿ����ԣ � � � Ȼ Խ � � Ū � � Խ � á � " � �ܵ Ŀ � � � �ֻ�����ͨ
� � Թ���ɼ��ļ��飬���
�ѡ�γ����ʺ���ij�����˲ţ�Ӧ�ð���һ����Ϊ�ᶨ���Ƶ��ƶȡ �����һ�з����۵�����" � � � Dz � � � ȱ � ‫ٵ‬ġ
�� �"� � � � � � � ˲�ġ �Ҫ�� ��
' � � ̫� � � ᡭ��" � � � � � � " � � � Ǵ � � � � � � û � � ʵ � ʾ � � � � � ˵ � � Ƕ � ȥ " � ȵ ȣ � � 㶼���Բ��
‫�����ؼ‬ᡣ��������Ҫ � � � � � ˣ � � � � � � г ɼ � � � Ҳ � � � Լ � � � � ж � Ӯ � � � � ˻ � ᡣ��ˣ
� � � � � Ҫ � � � � � ‫�ڻ‬ᣬ��Ҫȥ���Ǵ��‫����ڵ‬⣬�����������‫���ڴ‬һ � � � � Ч � Ļ
��� �ҿ � �Լ � � � � � � � � � Ա � � � � � � � � � � � � �
� � � � � � � � � ˵ � � � � � � � � � � � � � ν � һ � � � 겻��������ˣ� �
‫��ر‬Ǿ � � � � � � � � � � λ � � � � � � � � � � � Ʊ ‫ػ‬ḯʴ�����ˣ����Ҷ������˵Ҳ��̫��ƽ������������
� � � � Ҳ � � ̫� � ƽ � � � � Ϊ � � Щ � � � � � � � � � � � � � �ܶ�� ʧȥ� � � � � � � � ȡ � ó ɾ͵ Ļ � ᡣ��
��Ҫ � � � ǣ � � � � � � � � ԭ � � � λ � � �Ҳ �� � ǹ � �� �� ��̵ ϣ� ģ ˵ �� Ϊ�� � � � � � � �
� � � � � � Լ � Ҳ ֪���޷��������������ѹ � � � � � ͼ � ŵ Ƚ � � � �֮ ���������
���һ � � � � � ˣ � ˵ � � � � � � � Լ � � � � ‫��ڲ‬ϵ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 뿪�
�һ � � λ � � � � � � � � � ձ � � ˵ � " � � � � � �ְ��" � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ͵ � � Ĺ � � ƶ ȣ � �
�� Ƕ � � � � � � ų � � � � ѱ � � ֤ ʵ�IJ � ʤ � � � ߣ����ȷ�Ǹ����‫����ص‬⣬����û�б�Ҫ��ȥ�
��� � �Ĵ � � �
� � � � � ‫�������ڶ‬ս�‫ڼ‬䣬�
�Ъ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � û � н ܳ���ֵĽ � � � � ǡ � � � � � Ϊ � � � � � � � � � Щ � � �ָ�
ӣ � � � � � � � � Ӻ ͹ � Ҹ � � � � � ˵ � � �ְ�����۵ ġ � � � Ъ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ۵�"� �
� � � Ҳ � � � � � � � � � � � � " � �ָ��" � � ‫�������ؼ‬Ǵ� � � � ޷�ʤ�ι����������ȥ� ҿ��Խ�
� � � � � � ˣ � � � � � � � һ � � � � � ⡣ " � � Ъ � � � � Ϊ � � Ҫ � � � � ij � ˵ �ָ��Ȩ � � � � � � � �
˵ � Ƿ � ӳ � ˶ � ij � ˵ Ŀ � � � � � � � � � � � ˵ � Ƕ � � � � � � � � � ˵ � һ �ֿ�����"� � � �ֻֻ֪����ְ�
��ʺ � � � " � � Ъ � � � � ͵ � � " � � � Ⲣ � � � � ζ � � � � ɱ � � � � Ҳ � � � С � � � � � � � � δ �ְ����
�ҵĹ�����‫���������������ڻ‬Ҹ���ʵ Ĺ ���"� �֮ ����� Ъ � � � � � � � β � �
� � � � �֮ ������� Ϊ� � � � � ṩ � � һ � � � � 塣����30� � � � � �
‫ � �½���ڵ‬Ҫ ʱ�� ְ ½���и�û����������‫���۽��ٵ‬Ҫְ������Ъ� � � Լ � � � � � � � ʱ � � � � � � �
��� �Ҳ � ֻ ��ĸ � � � � ˡ � 1 9 39 � � 1 2 � � 3 1 � � � � � � � � � � 6 0 � � � � � գ � � � � � ʱ � Ͳ � �
� � � � ‫������ٱ‬ˡ ͬ� � Һ � � � � � � � � ͬ � 9� �1 �ձ� � � � � Ϊ½� � �ı � � � ġ � � � � �ʱ � �
� � Щ δ � � � ս � е Ľ � � � � ǻ � � � � � Щ � � � é ® � � � � � � � ٣����벻��
�Լ����е������һ�졣���
�Ъ � � � � � � � � ѡ � � � � � � � � � � ǽ � � � � � � � � � � ѵ � � � � � ɭ � � � � � � � � � Щ � �
� � � � � � � Դ � � һ � � � � � 3 0 � � � � � � ‫�ֻ���ڣ‬Ǹ � � � У � � � � � ǵ � 1 9 42 ꣬ ��� Ъ� � �
Ѿ���ѵ������������ʷ����Ϊ� �ܸ ɵĽ � � � Ⱥ � � � � � � � � � � � У � û � � һ � � � Dz � � ɹ �
�ģ � � � � � � � � Ƕ � � ǵ � һ � � ġ �
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � ʷ � � � � ΰ � � Ľ � � � � 漣֮һ � � � � � � � � � � 漣�
�ǡǡ������ôһλ�����ȱ��"�쵼���
�" � � � ˣ � � � û � � � ɸ � � � � � � � �ֻ���˰�ɪ��������ţ�Ҳ�������������‫��ڲ‬ɿ
� �ܵ��������� Ъ � � � е � ȴ � � ԭ � � " � � � � ˿ � � Ը � ʲ ô � � " � � � � � � � � � � � � ߵ�һ �
��� �⡣ � � � � ij � � � �ܸ ɳ � Щʲô � � � � ô � � IJ � � �֮ ���� ͳ�Ϊ��Ҫ���ˡ�
� � � � � � � 磬���Σ� � Ͷ ‫�����ٽ‬-λ� � � � �ܴ�������� ߡ�ǿӲ� � � ս � �ָ�ӹ ����١
‫�ں‬ƽʱ�‫�����ڣ‬ȱ��ְҵ���˺Ͳ�ı��Ա����߱��ijɹ� � � � ʣ � � � � Ƶ Ƶ � � � 鷳�������
�Ъ � � � � ˲ � � � ϲ � � � Ͷ � � � � � � � Ϊ � � � � � � � ҫ � � 磬������һ � � � � һ � ε ‫���ذ‬Ͷ
‫������ٽ‬о� � �
� � � � ֻ�е � ij � ˵ � ȱ � � � ̴� � � � � � � � �ַ������ŵ � ͳ � � � ʱ � � � � Ъ � � Ż � � � � � � �
� Щ ȱ � � Ͷ ̴ ̴� � � � � � � � ��ͨ � �� �ij � ��ͨ Ժ � � ʵ Ĺ� � � �ְҵ�����������ǿ˷���Щȱ��
Ͷ̴� ��
� � � � 3 0 � � � � � � ‫�����ڣ‬İ �ɭ� � � � � � � Ǹ � � � У � � � � � � � � Ъ � � ȴ � � � ⽫
��������ս�ƻ����Ź����������� ԰�ϵ ͳ�ս� � �֪ ʶ�� � � � � �֪ ʶ��һλ � ߼� � � � � � 쵼���˵ � Dz � � � ȱ �
‫ٵ‬ġ � � � ɭ � � � � � � � Ȼ û � г � Ϊ һ λ ս � Լ ҡ � � � � � ȴ � � ˶ � � � � � ս � Ե � � � Ҫ � ԣ � � � � � ս � Լ ƻ
� � � � � � � � � � ij � ‫��־‬⡣��һ����ʹ��˷���ij�����
‫ص‬ľ � � � � � ԣ ʹ� �ʹ � � � � � � � �֯�� Ͳ߻� � � � � ʱ � �ܳ �ַ����Լ��ij�����
� � � � � � Ъ � � ϲ � � � � � � � � в Ÿɵ � � ˣ � � � � � ԭ � � λҲʮ � � � � Ҫ � � Щ � ˡ � � � ԭ � � λ � �
�ˡ � � � �
ͨ ͨ � � � � Ǹ ߼� � 쵼�
�һ � � � � � � Ҫ � � � � � � � ǣ � � � Ϊ � � � � � � � � � � � � " � � � � ȱ � � " � � � � ˲ ʱ� �ʱ � � � �
Ъ � � � � � � � � � � ‫ � � �"�ش‬ǹ � � �֮ ��� Ҫ � � � � � Ǵ � � ˷ � չ ֮ � � Ҫ � � � � Ҳ � Ǿ � ӽ � � �֮ ��
�Ҫ � � " � � � � � һ � � � У �ֻ�й �һ � � � � � ⣬ � Ǿ � � ǵ � � � � � � � ʵ �˹ �� �� � ʵ � � � ͳ 벻���
�Ъ � � � � � � � � � � � � Լ � � � � � � ʱ � � � � � � Ȼ � � � ŷ � � � � � ͳ ˧ � �ְλ � ø � � ˰ �ɭ � � � �
� � Լ � ȴ � � � � � � � � ˹ � � � � � � ߣ��Ӷ � � � � � � ʵ �ֱ�����ΰ � � � � � � � � һ � λ � ᡣ
� � � � � � � � � � � Ъ � � � � � � � � ʶ � � � � � � � � Ҳ � ɴ � � � ľ � � � � � ѧ � � � � һ � 㣩�
�ÿ � � һ � � � � � ¾ � � � ͺ ñ � � � � � һ � ζ � ‫��ע‬Ȼ� �ֻҪ � � ‫ץס‬ij � � � � ʲ ô � � � � � � -
� � � � ô � � � ‫ � � � �˵���ٿ‬Ķ � ‫�ע‬µ � � � Щ � � � �
��� � � � � � � ¼ � � Ĺ � � � � � � ϼ � � � Ӧ � � һ � � � � � θУ� � � Ϊ� � � � � � � � � � � � �
� �ǰ � ̡�ȷ � � � � � � ij � � � �ܵ��� Գ �ֵ‫��ط‬ӣ � � � � � � � Ϊ � ˰ ѹ � � � � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � � � � Ҳ �
ǵ����ϵ�һ����Ҫ���ǹ����߱���е � � � � � � Ρ � � � � � � � � � �ֻ‫�������ע‬ȱ��Ͷ̴̴ ����Dz���
� � � ޴�ģ �Ҳ � � һ �ֲ������ε �̬� ȡ � � � � � � � � � � � � ij � � � � � � � ⲻ��ǹ ��ǹ � � � �߱��
�Ի�е���������Ҫ���ǣ���Ҳ�ǹ���
񣬸���Ҫ���ǣ���Ҳ�ǹ����߱�����������е � � � һ � � � � � � 񡣻�Ҳ ӦΪ� � ��Ӹ�
� ˵ ij � � � � ṩ � � � 㣬���ܸ����������������� � � � � � � � � � � � � �ܻ Ķ̴��;����ԡ�
� � � � � � ַ����˵ij � � � � Ե � Խ � Խ � � Ҫ � ˣ � � � � � ѳ � � ˻ � ɰ �֮ �� ‫�����ؼ‬Ͷ�� ķ ֹ��‫�ڶ‬
��ʮ � �ǰ � � � Ǻ � � � � ޵ġ� � ¹‫ � �ڵ‬ŷ � � � � Ҫ Ҫ� � 뵱 һ� � � � � � �
‫���ع‬Ա���ͱ���Ҫ��һ�Ŷ���ɵ���ƾ���������ѧ�ң���Ͳ��ᱻ Ƹ�á���ʱ�������� ˣ ����������Ͷ��� ı ���
� ѡ � � ķ � Χ ʮ � � � � � ‫��������ֻ����ޣ‬ѡ������������� 񡣶������������‫����ۻ‬ҵĸ�ʽ�����ְλ �� ͹�
� � �֪ ʶ�� � � � � � � � � � ˳ � � � � ѡ � � � � 1900���‫� �ء‬ǰ � � � � � � Ͷ � � � Ҫ � � � Ǿ � � � � � һ Щ
� � ͳ � � � � � � � � � 編�ɡ�ҽѧ���������ѧ�������
‫����ڼ‬кü� � � �ֲ �ͬ���ͬ ֲ�ͬ� � ѧ �ơ����⣬���� �֪ ʶ�� � � Ҳ � � � õ � � � � ʵ � � � � ȥ � � � ‫�����ر‬
ҵ��������ţ���������ˡ�
.� �ˣ � � � � � � � � Ǿ � � п � � � � ҵ � � � � ʺ � � Լ � � � � � Ĺ � � � � � � � 򣬶 �� �� �� �� Ҫ� �Ҫ �� �� ȥ��ȥ �
�� � � � � � � � � ġ � � � � � � һ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ҫ ѡ � � � ʺ � �Լ � � Ĺ � � � � λҲ �
Ե�Խ�Խ����ˣ���Ϊ��һ��� �ܵ õ � � й � � Լ � � � � й ‫�����ع‬ĸ� � � � � Ϣ � �
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � £ � � � ζ Ը � � ˼ � ǿ � � � � � � � � Ƿ � � � � 䳤����
�Ե�Խ����Ҫ�ˡ�ͬ �ʱ�����ʹ��������������Լ���������Ա�
Ĺ ij�����Ŭ���ȥ������Щ����Ҳ�Ե�� ‫���ر‬Ҫ �

��� � � � � � ԣ � � � � �֮ ����� ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � � � � � � �߱���һ � � � � � ʣ � � � Ҳ � �
һ � � λ � � � � � Ƿ � � � Ч � Ĺ ‫��������ؼ‬ʶ� �֪ ʶ�� � � ĸ � �˺ � � � � � ˵ � � Ҳ ͬ � � �Dz � � � ȱ �‫ٵ‬ġ�
��� � � � ε � � �� ˾�Ļ� �
� � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � ‫ � ˾�������ַ���߻�����ע‬ij � � � � � � � Ҳ � Ƿ dz � � � Ҫ � ġ �
� � � � � � � � � � Ĺ � � � � ߣ���������ҵ��ġ�������ŵģ������������ģ
� � � � � � � ô ˵ � � " � ‫�������ڹ‬ʱ���Ҳ�û����̫ ����鷳����
�ǣ � � � � � � � � �ܴ��������� ˾ � Ĺ � ϵ � � " � � ʵ � � � � � � � � � � � � ˾ �Ĺ�ϵ�Ǽ� � �
‫׵‬ģ � � � � �ֻ��‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � �߲Ŷ � � � � � � е İ � � ‫�����ء‬Ͼ � � � � � � � � Ƕ � � � � � �
ȥ� � � � � � ˾ � � � ŵ � ͳ � � � � �
� � � � � ‫������ھ‬ϵ �Ȼ Ӧ � ý � � � С � IJ � � ǡ � ʵ � � � 봫� ˵ � Dz � ��ģ � � � ͬʵ � � � � � � � � һ �
̫����ܴ �ְλ � � � � � � � ϳ � � � � 䲻��ְ���
�˾ � � � � � � � � ˾ û � е õ � � � � � � � ô � � � � � � � � � � Ҳ ֻ�����ܱ � � � û � � � � � � � � 档����
�λ � � � 򲻳 ��ɲ��ù ����� �ְ����ô �̳
˾ � �ְ и �ְ���Ҳ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ᡢ����ĸ � � �֡
�����˾ͨ� � � � � Ǵ � � �ⲿ � � ģ�� � � �һ� � � � � � � �Լ� � � Ϥ� � � � � � � �Ϊ�ĸ�
�֡����������
෴ ˾� � � � �ܳ ɹ� � � � � Ѹ � ‫ٵ‬õ � � � � � Ļ � � � � � ô � � � � � � Ҳ � ͱ Ƚ � � � �
� ȡ � óɹ � � �
� � � � � � � Ҳ � ̸� � � � С � ģ � � � � ʹ � � � ˾ � ij � � � õ � � �ַ��ӣ � � � Ҳ � � � � � � � � ‫�׿‬г �
Ч � Ĺ ‫���������ؼ‬һ � 㣬
�Ǿͷ·����õ���һ� �� � �֤
ͨ ��������������������������� Ĺ � � � � ϣ �
� � � ɰ � � � � Լ � � � � � � ȥ � � Ĺ � � � ȡ � � ϣ � � ȡ � õ ij ɾ͡�
� � � � � � ȡ � � � ϼ � � � ƨ � � � � � � � � � � � ‫ � ˾�����ڷ‬ij � � � � ġ � � 뷢���
�˾ � ij � � � � � � ͵ ô � � � ȷ � � � � � � � � �֣�������� ˾�ܹ�������� � � � �ܵ ʽ��������顣
� � � � ‫�׿‬г ͨ �Ч � Ĺ � � � � � � � � ţ � � � ˾ Ҳ ͨ� �� ͨ���� ģ����� � ᾫ � � � � � � � � � � �
� ��᲻ � � �� �
һһ � � 㡣��Ȼ�� ˾ � � � � � �ͨ ͨ � �� ˣ ��� ô ��Ҳ���� � 䳤�����
�Ȼ����ͬ ʱҲ��� о ��� � ԡ � � � � � � � � � ij � � � � � � ¹ � � � Э �� � � � � � � � � � Ĺ � �
��� � � � � � ߹
���Ч � ʣ � � � ô � � � � ʵ � � � � Ҳ � � � � � � � � Լ � � Ĺ � � � Ч � ʡ � � � � ѹ � � � � � � � � �
˾ �Ķ̴� � ϣ � � � ô � � � � ͻ � � � � � е � � � ɥ � � � � ˣ � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � ߻� � � � � � � � � �
� � ⣺" �ҵ � � � � ˾ � ʲ ô � ó � 7 " � Щ � � � � � � � � � � ó ֱ�ã � "Ϊ � � � � � � �ַ����Լ��ij��
� � � � � � � Ҫ � ˽ � � � Щ � � � " � ҿ � � � Ϊ � � ˾ � � � Щ ʲ ô � � � ‫� � � � � � � "�ף‬ ˾�Щ �� ��
�ɲ � � ˣ � � � � � � Ҫ � � � ġ �
��� � � � � � � �ʱ � � � � " �ı �"� � �ǵ � � �� ˾� Ĺ����� � � � ��Ա��� 뽫
�Լ������Ǹձ�����Ϊ�û�����쵼
�˵ĵ � ʦ � � � � � � � � � � � � ˾ � � � � � � � � � � а � � ѳ � � � � � � � � � � Լ � � � � � � � � �
� � � ⣺" � � � � � ˾ � ʲ ô � ó � � " � � � � � � " � � � ó � � � � ᡢ�‫��׹‬͹ � � ‫�ڸ‬ù � ϵ" � Ļ � � � �
� ô � � ͻ � � 跨��������
�˾ � � � � � �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� ҪҪ � ֪�ⷽ �����û � к ܺõ � � � μ � � � � � � � � � Լ � � � � 뷨����ô�
‫ٺ‬õĹ � � � ; � � Ҳ � � � � � 㡣 һ � � � � λ � � � � 쵼��֪���������������� � � � � � � �֧ ͻ��
‫ � � � ;���ڹ‬ϸ � Ը � � � � ȡ � � � ǵ � � � �
� � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � � Ҳ � � � ã � � � Ȼ � � � � � ˾ Ҳ � � � ˣ � � � ô � ͻ � � � � Լ � � � Ч � ķ �
� 档��ͻ��跨 ȥ� � � � � � Щ � � Ч � ķ � � 档��Щ� � � � Ҳ � �ֻ��Щ � � � µ � ϰ �
ߺͷ�ʽ��������ȴ�ǿ͹۴����ŵġ�
� � � � � � � � Ϊ � �ֻҪ ۲��‫ע‬죬
�Ͳ� � ѷ � �֣��� ˴ � � � � Ͽ � � Է � Ϊ " � � � � " � � " � � � � " . � ֻ м� � � � � � � � � � � � ⡢ � � � � � ͨ
� � � � � � � ̸� � � � � ȡ � � Ҫ � � � � Ϣ �
ͨ �� �� �е � Լ � � � � � ͨ� � � � � Ӧ � � ۲�̸������ķ�
Ӧ��������֡���� ˹ � � � � ͳ � � � � � � � � һ � � � ˣ � � � 𼪶 � Ҳ � � Ե � � д � � ‫ص‬㡣�
�Щ�� ˼ ͥ
�ϲ � � � � ȡ � � � � � ϲ � � � Ķ � � � ϡ � � � ʱ � � � � Ҫ � � � ��ͥ ��ʦ�� �ò��� ߼� � � �
�֮
һһ- � � � � � � � Ҳ � � � Ǹ � � � � ⡣ - � � � ˵ � � � � ϲ � � � � � � �
‫�ߵ���˾����̸���ٶ‬Ҳֻ���˷ � ʱ � 䡣��ֻ���
‫�������֮ �����ڶ‬ 󣬲� � � � � ȡ�����������ͬ ���������ϲ����ȡ��� ͷͬ ⡣
�㱨����˾
ͬ �ύһ �
‫�ݳ‬ƪ� � � � Ļ � � � � � Ҳ ֻ�����˷ � ʱ � 䣬��Ϊ� �ֻ������ȡ��ͷ�㱨 ʱ����‫ץס‬Ҫ � 㡣
� � � � � � Щ � � ˾ ϰ � � � � � � � 㽫�������Ҫ � � � � ժ Ҫ � � һ ҳ ֽ�ϣ���ɭ�������ͳ���
‫�ر‬ϰ � � � � � � �ַ�ʽ����Щ��˾�������¼������ʱ‫ � � � � � � � ·˼����׷‬Ҫ � ¼ � � � � � � ϸ � Ľ �
� ‫�����ܣ‬Ч � � Ͳ � � � � � � 롣 Ҳ � � һ Щ � � Ը ˾ � Ķ� � � � ı � � 漰�����֡����
�е� � � Ը � � � � һ � � ʼ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ҫ � � � ʱ � Ͳ � � � � Ե � ̫ͻ Ȼ � �
� � � е � � � ˾ � � Ը � � ȡ � � � ˵ Ľ � � 飬����¼ � � � � ó � � Ϊ " � � � � � " � 뷨��
��� � �о � � �� ˾�Щ�� � � � �Լ�� � η�� � � �Щ�� � � � � � � �ã� � � � �Ҫ� �һ��
� ̡� � � � � � 漰��
�ģ � � � � � ˵ � � " � � ʲ ô � � � � " � � � � � � � � � � � ⡣ � " ˵ � � � � � � � һ � � � � " � � �
� �⡣ � � � � � � ˾ ����� � ��˾ � � � �� ʱ
� �� �
ʱҪ � � Ҫ � ‫��ر�ע‬IJ
˵ � � � � � � � � ‫�����ݡ‬Ҫ � ĵ �
�dz � � � һ � � � � й � � � � � ʱ � � � � õ � � Ⱥ � � � � 򡣼 �� � � � �η ˾�� � � � � �ƣ� � �
� Ҵ � � � � � ǡ ǡ � � � � � � ���й � � � � � ô � � � � � � � � � � � ʱ � � � Ⱦ � Ӧ � � � � η � � �
� � �֡��������������� ‫�����ץס‬Ҫ � � � � � � � � � ƶ � � � � � � ʱ � � � � Ч � ‫�ط‬
��������ơ�
� � � � � ۲���ˣ � � � � Ƕ � � � " � � � � " � � � � ν � � � Թ � � � � 塣�
�ˣ �Ҫ � � � � ˾ � � � � � � Ч � � � � � � � � ʵ � � � � � ѡ � � ‫���ؼ‬Ҫ ‫ � ˾��ץס‬ij � � � � � � � ˽��
� � ǿ � � � � � ʲ ô � � � á � � � Ҫ � � � � � ǰ � ‫����ע‬ŵ � � � � �� �� �� �� �ƺ � ˾� � ϣͲ
������ ϣ � � � � � Ͳ � ͳ
��� � � � � � � ˾�Щ� 빤���‫�޹ص‬ȱ��Ͷ̴̴ ���-��������뵱 һ � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � �
ߣ���ôû � � ʲô � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ե ø � Ϊ � � Ҫ � ˡ �
� � � � � � ַ����Լ��ij���
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � ѹ � � � � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � � � ͱ � � � � � Լ � � � � � � ƺ ͳ � � � � � � ‫�ע‬
��ַ�����Щ� � � ƺ ͳ � � � � �
� � � � � � � � � � ʶ � ľ � � �ֹ����ߣ�������������ŵģ � � � � � ҽ Ժ � � ģ � � � � � � � ҵ
� �ģ � � � � Ƕ � � Լ � � ɲ � � ˵ � � � � 鶼
ʮ� � � � � � � � � � Щ � � � ˾ɡ �ø� ��˾ �� �߲�������Լ������ֹ�ɵ� � � � 飬�����
�ʱ�����С���ˣ���������ɧ�����Լ���ʱ��Ͳ��ܶ��� ˷ � � ‫�ڱ‬Թ�����ˡ�
� � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � ߵ�ȻҲ������Լ���� � � ‫ٵ‬ľ � � � � � ԣ � � � � � � � � � � � �ܷ��
�֣�������� ¡�ֵ��ȥ� � � � » � � DZ � � � � � � е � Ҫ � � ö ‫ � � ˲��ࡣ���ڱ‬ϱ � Թ � ⲻ� �ܸ ɡ��Dz�
� � � � � �ʱ ͬ
ͬ � � � � � � ȴ � � � � ȥ � � � д 󵨵 �ʵ � � � � � ǣ � � � Щ � � � � � � " �ֵ���" ѹ � ô � �
�� � � � � � � � � ν � � � ƣ � � � � � � � � �ǰ � � Ȼӭ�ж� � � ˡ �
��� �һ � � � � � � � · � � � 乫
˾� � � � � � � � � � � � Թ � ˾ � � � � � � � � � ƣ � � � ˾ � � � � � � ƺ � � � ʲ ô � ¶ � � ɲ � � ˡ � �
��� �� ˾�λ � �� � � � һ �ܲ���� ĸ� � �ܲ ã � � � � � � Щ " � � � " һ � � � �֪����� ˣ� � � �ܵ��
��ʢ� ‫������"�ݼ‬٣���ҵίԱ��"��Ҫ��������‫���׼‬ȡ������Ϊ����ĸĸ��ʩ��"���ʩ�е
ľ ��󲿷 � � � � ‫"�ݣ‬ίԱ��������Ƕ�������˵��"��û��Υ�����ǵ��й‫ع‬涨�����‫���ڻ‬һЩ � � �
‫����ݣ‬ǵ�Ҫ������һ�£����Ч����ԵĻ���������Ҳ������֧����������� ġ � "
"ij ��˲� � � � κҸ� � � 顣" � � � � ˵ � � � � ȷ ֵ�û � � ɣ � � � Ϊ � � � � � � �
‫��ڸ‬Լ������ԡ������������������Ƶĵ‫�����ط‬ʵ� � � Ƕ � � � � � � ൱�ϸ�
� � � � � � ¹ � � � � � � � ģ � � � �ܻ����� в � � � � � Ҫ � ġ � � � � � � � ġ � � �
‫�ص���������׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � ߾ͻ���ȥѰ������������������һ��ʼ��
� � � Լ � � � � " � � � � � � Щ ʲ ô � � " � � � � � � � � ⣬ � � ô � � � � � Կ ϶ � � ‫ ��֣��ط‬ʵ� � � ϻ � �
кܶ�����������ʱ�����Դ���‫�ޡ‬
�� � � � � �ʹ �Լ � �ij � � � � � � � Ч Ӧ � � � � � � � � � � ˵ Ĺ � � � � � � � � ϰ � � Ҳ � Ǽ � Ϊ� � Ҫ
�ġ �
� � � � � � � ˽ � � � ι � � � � � � ȡ � � Ч � � � ѡ � � ˻  � � ꣬ �� Ե��������繤��Ч � � û � � � ҹ � ﹤
� � Ч � � ã � � � � е � Ȼ � � һ � � � � � ġ � � � � Ҫ ‫׫‬дһƪ� ĸ 壬���ȿ������һ�޸�����‫ݸ‬ĺ� �
‫���ֱ������䷴�����������أ‬ɸ�Ϊ�ã��������Ҳ��ʮ����‫׵‬ġ� � � Ҫ � � �
‫���ڷ� � � � � ˵� � � � � � � � ׼‬ã � � � � � ‫��׼‬һ � � � � � Ϊ � ã � � � � Ǽ � � � � ‫�ݽ‬Ϊ
‫ڷ�����˵�������������ݽ‬
� ã � � � � � � е � Ȼ Ҳ � � � � � � ġ � � � Ҳ ֪����Լ������Dzμ�ίԱ�Ṥ����‫������أ‬Լ�
� � ǹƥ � � ɸ � á �
� � � � � � Щ � �ֻҪ � � ͷ � з � � � ϸ � � � � ١���Ҳ � � � � ˵ � � � Ⱦ � � � � � �ܵ�� ˼� � � � � �
� � � � � � � � ‫���ر‬Ч � � � � һ Щ � � ȴ ֻ��Ҫ � � � � � � Ե � � � ʾ � ���ˡ� � Ϳ � е � � � � � ѹ � �
¹ � � � � � ‫��������ر‬һЩ � � � �ֻ����ʱ���Ϊ���������²�����Ч�‫� � � � � � � � ˵���ع‬
� �ǰ � � � � � � � � � Щ ƫ � � " � Ķ � � � � " � � � � һ Щ � � ϲ � � " � � " � � ͷ � 㱨���Լ���Щʲô�‫ص‬㣬
�Լ���������ͺñ���Ҫ�˽��Լ�����Ʋ�ӻ��ǹ�������һ����� ‫�ס‬
��� � � � � ˻ �˵ � � � � Щ � � � DZ � � � � � � � 󣬲 � � � � һ� �� � � ��ȷ������һ�������� ȷ � � � � � � � ˵
‫��ص‬ϰ � ߿� � Է � ӳ � � һ � � � ˸ � � Ե Ļ �ֵ㣬���������硢��
�Լ��Ŀ�����������Щ�����DZ����Եģ�����Щ����ϰ��Ҳ����߹
���Ч�ʵ �һ � � � � � ‫��������ء‬ϰ � ߶���������ֹ�������Ӧ�ġ�‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � �
� ߶�����һ � 㣬��˾ͻᰴ����Ҫ � � ȡ � ж � � �
� � � � � � ֮ �� ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � ߻� Ŭ � � � ȥ � � � � � Լ � � ĸ � � � � ‫ص‬㣬�������
‫׵ظ‬ı � � Լ � � � � � � � � � � ϸ � ĵ ۲‫��ع‬Լ��ı��ּ�����Ч � � � � ͼ � � � з � � � һ Щ � � � й � �
� � Ե Ķ � � � " � � Щ � � � � � � � � � � � � Ҫ � � � � ţ � � � �֮������������� ȴ� � � �
Ӧ�֣�� " � � � � � � � � � � Լ � � � � � � � һ � ‫������ݱ‬Щ� � � ˵ ֻ�Ǿ� � �֮ͣ�ͣ��ͣ������ һЩ
� � � � � ȴ � � � � � � � ϼ � � ѡ � � � Щ � ˾ � � � � ‫������ݱ������ף������������ݣ‬
������ȴʮ� � � � ѡ � � � � 仰˵ � � � � Ƚ � � ó � � � һ � � � ı � � � � Ϊ � � ı ֻҪ � Ѳ � � � �
‫���������������ۺ‬г � � � � � � � ó � � � һ � � � � � ߣ���Ϊ � � � Ҫ � �ָ�ӵ � � � � Ρ

� � � � � � � � ֪���Լ����‫���������ڶ‬Ŀ � �ʼ ֱ�����ϲ � � һ � � � � � Լ � � ɣ � � � � һ
� � ɵ ú ܺá �Ҳ � � � �֪���� Լ�����̸�У��‫��ر‬ǽ � � � � � � � � ҵ � ̸� У � � � � 繤�������֮���
�̸�С � � � Ȼ � � � � ÿ � � ̸� � ǰ � � � Թ � � Ὣ � � � � � � Ҫ � � � � � Ԥ � � �� �Щ � � ⣬ Ԥ � � ‫�׼‬벻
‫���������׼‬Ҳ � � � � � � ġ �
��� � � � � � � � � � � � � � һ � � � ˵̴ ij � � � � ̴� ʱ� �Ǻ � � � � Ͷ � ̴ ‫ٻ‬ῼ�ǵ�������Щ��������뵽�
�ֻ��ij� � ѧ � � �֪ ʶ�� ij � � � � � � � 츳�������˵ � Ƣ � � Ҳ � � Ӱ � � � � ҵ � ɹ � � � һ � � � � Ҫ � � �
‫ͨ������������ء‬ � � � � ʮ� � � � ˽�Լ ����
�Լ ƢƢ � �� �� �� �� �� �� �� � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � � � � ô � � ͱ � � � Ҫ � � �
� � � � � � � Լ � � � � � ɵ � � � � ϣ � � � � � � Լ � � � � � Ч � ķ �ʽ � � � � � � Щ � � � 顣
� � � � � � ζ Դ � � � � �֮�������� и �̬� � � � � ⣬ � � � � Ҳ � и � Ҳ � � � ȥʵ � � � � � � ⡣ ֻҪ � �
� Ǹ � � � ȥʵ � � � � � �֮������� Խ��Խ�á�������������Լ���ͬ� ¡ �������˾��ѧ����ʼ��� " ������
ʲô � ó � � � " � � � ʼ � � � " � � � � � � Щ � � � � � ‫��ڲ‬ˣ � " � Ļ � � � � � ô � � � Ǻ ܿ�Ϳ�������
� � � ȷ � � ̬� ȣ � � � �ܷ�� �ֱ��˵ij � � � � � � � � �ܺܺ õ � � � � ñ � � ˵ ij � � � � �ֻҪ � � � � � ȥ � � � �
��һ � � � � � � Ҳ � � � � � Լ � � � � � ���⡣
� �� �� �� �� ͬ
ͬ ⡣
� � � � � � � � � û � � � � � Ч � � � � � Ǿ � Ӧ � ò � ȡ " � � � � � ᣬ � � � � � � � � " � � ̬� ȡ � � � �
� � � ̬� � � � � ȱ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ϡ � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � � � � � ǽ � � ˣ � � � �
� � � Լ � � � � � � � � ǿ � � Կ � � � � ġ � � � �ֻ��‫ܲ�������������ץס‬ � � � Ч � � � ‫���̴�ץס‬
�ţ� � �ֻ��������ͷʹ�����⡣��Ϊ���û�ж̴�������һ��Ҳ���������ˡ�
� � � � � � ˵ � � � � Ҳ ֪���������ǰ� � 쵼�˵� � � � ± � ‫�׼‬
�Ϊ �Լ � � � � � � � � Դ � ġ � � � ˣ � � � ͻ Ὣ � Լ � � ı � � � � � � ý � � � ‫��ַ�ڳ‬ӳ������档
� � � � � � � Ƕ �֪������������� һ � � � � � � � һ � � � ¼ � ¼ � � ȫ � � � � � ˶ � Ա � � �
� � � һ � � � µ ķ ܶ�Ŀ� ꡣ�кó �һ � � ʱ � 䣬 һӢ � � �ܵ��� ‫�ٶ‬һֱδ � � ͻ � � 4 � � � ӡ � � � � ǣ � ͻ Ȼ � � �
߼��������4 �����‫ � � � � � ¼ �޽ܡ�����˹�ش‬ã � � � � � � ÿ � � � ᄊ���ֲ����һ �
� � � � � ˶ � Ա � ijɼ � � � � ӽ � � � 4 � � � � � Ǹ � � ¼ � � � � � µ � � � � � � DZ �ͷ ‫�׷׿‬ʼͻ��4��
�ӵ Ľ � � ‫�ޡ‬
� � � � � � � � � � Ļ  � У � � 쵼����һ � � � �֮��������� � � � � � �ܴ
� һ � � � ࡣ� � � � 쵼
�˵ı � � � ʮ � � ͻ � � � � ô һ � � � ˵ ı � � � Ҳ � � Խ � Խ � á � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � ߶���������һ
� � � � � � � � һ λ � 쵼�˵ļ � Ч Ҫ � � � � � ȫ � � Ա � � � ļ � Ч � � � ‫׵‬öࡣ� � � � ԣ � � � � � � � 跨�����
�����‫������׺‬ͷ���õ��˰��õ��쵼��λ � � ȥ � � � � � õ � � ƶ � � �
‫ܴ�������׼‬ � � � ɼ���λ����ȥ�����Ҫ������ ��� ‫������ע‬е � � ˵ ij � � � � � ȥ � � � � � � � �
�ܽ
� � � � � ȡ � � � � � � � � ̬� ȣ � � � � � � Щ � � � Ӱ � � � � � � � � � г � � � � ij �ַ��ӡ �
� � � � � � � � � ߵ�������ȥ� ı � � ˡ � � � � 硶
ʥ�����е�"����Ԣ��"��˵����������ߵ��������Ҫ � ø � � ˵ Ĵ � � � � � ǡ � � � �
��� � � �Լ �ҵ� � � � � � �ܵ õ� � �ֵķ � � ӣ � � Ӷ � ʹ � � � � � � � Ч � � � �ܵ õ� � ɱ � � � � � �
��� �5 � �Ҫ � � � � � � � � � �
� � � � � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � � � � ʲ ô " � � � � " � Ļ � � � � Ǿ � � � � � � ‫��ڼ‬о� � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � �
� � � � � � ǰ � � � Ҫ � � � � � � � � � ǰ � � � � � � һ � � � � � һ ‫���׮‬顣
��� � � � � ¼ � �о � � � � � � ⲻ�dz � � ‫������߹����ڹ‬ʵ� � � Ҫ � � Ҳ � � � � � ˵ � �
‫����ص‬ġ � � � � � � � � ǣ � Ҫ � � � � � Ҫ � � � ‫׷‬dz� ࣬ ������� ‫�׵‬ʱ��ȴʮ�����‫����ޡ‬Թ��
� � ߵĹͻ�� � � � һ � � � � � � ͻ ᷢ � � � � Ҫ � � � � � � û � � û � ˡ � � � � � ‫�ٿ‬һ � ¹ � � � � ߵ�ʱ�䣬
Ҳ� �� �Щ Ҫ � � � � � �ᷢ� Ҫ � � � � � ʱ � � ʵ � � � ‫ٵ‬ÿ � � � � � � �ܹ�����߰�� Լ���ʱ�����ö
�ô �ã � � � ľ � �󲿷 ʱ��ʱ �䶼���������Լ��������DZ�ʱ�䲻�������������š�
� � � � � � � � � � Խ � � � � � � � ‫�ش‬Ĺ � � ‫���ף‬ô � � � Խ � � Ҫ � � һ � � ε � ʱ � 䡣��Խ�����ææµµ
‫��ת‬Ϊ � � � � Ч � 棬�
�ô � � � � Ҫ � � � � � � ӳ � � � ϵ � Ŭ � � � � � � � � � Ŭ � � � � û � д � � � ʱ � � � �֤ �� Ǻ � � Ѳ � �
� � � ġ � Ȼ � � ʹ � � Ҫ � � ȡ � � � � � � � � � � ʱ � � � � � � » � � � � Ч � � Ĺ � � � � � Ҳ � � Ҫ � к ܴ�
����ҿ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ˵ " � � " �ֵļ � ǿ � � � ġ �
� � � � � � � � ��ͬ� ĵ � � � � � � � � � Խ � � Ŭ � � � ȥ � � � � � ͬ˵ij � � � � � � � � Խ � � � � � �
Ҫ ‫��ץס‬Ҫ � � ᣬ � � � � Ҫ � � � � � � � � � � � Ա � ij � � � � � � � � � � � � 档�
�Ϊ � � � � ȡ � � Ч � � � Ψ һ � 취��
��� � � � � � � о � � Ҳ �dz� � � � � � � һ � � � � Ҫ � � � � � � � � � � � � һ � �ʱ � � � � Ҫ � �
� һ � � � � � Ѿ � � ൱��ѣ����Ҫͬʱ����������Ȼ������� ͸�ˡ ��� ൱ Ȼ����� �Խ� �
� � Ķ � �ֶ������飬����˵ � � һ � � " � ๦�ܹ���". � � � � � � � � � � Ч � � ʹ � � � ˵ IJ � �
‫�������ܣ‬İ 취��
�ǽ � � � � ˵ IJ � �ܶ�������� ijһ � � � � � � � ϡ �ֻ�������˵IJ � � �ܲ Ż � Ϊ � � � � � � � ɹ � �

� � � � � � � � Ҳ � � � � � � � � Ϸ � � � � Ա � � � � � � � � � � � ‫����������ؼ����ݣ‬
ü� � � � � ʱ
ͬ ͬ� ‫��ڿ‬е � � � һ � � � � � ‫ � � � �ʹ�����أ‬ˣ � � Ա � � Ҳ ֻ������ʮ � � � � � �
� ҵ �ʱ � 䡣����������ȥ� � � � ô � �ܿ�� ͻ����ϡ�
� � � � � � � � � � ֮����Ȼ������ � � � ġ � � е ���ͬ ʱ ��� � � � � Ч �� � � ѣ � � � Ϊ � � �
� �֮������� 𵽻
���������á �Ҫʱ ��
µ � � � � � � Ҫͬ� и � � Ⱦ � � � � � � � � � � ÿ � � � � � � � 㹻
�ľ � � � � ʱ � 䣬���������������úá � � � � � � Ҿ � Ҫ� Ҫʱ � �µ � � � � � Ҫ ͬ� � � ˴Ų � � ̫� ࡣ
� � � � � � ˵ Ī � � � ‫�������ؾ‬ı ͬ� �¡ � � � � ƺ � � � � ʱ ͬ� � � � ü � � � � � � ӣ � � � � � д �
��� � �ǽ � � � � � � Ī � � � � � Ψһ � �һ � � � � � ⡣ � � � � � һ � � � � � � � � ң � � � � � ͺգ�
B8ch � � � � � � � ¶ � H s n del � � � � � � � ٣�H8ydn � � � � � � � � [ v e rdy � � � � � � � � һ � δ �
� �һ � � � � � ӣ � � � � � � � � � � � д � � � � һ � � � � � Ӻ � ſ �ʼд� �һ � � � � � ӣ � Ҫ � � Ҳ � �
� � ij � � � � � ‫�����ڴ‬һ � 뱻�
�ʱ���������Ż�ȥд��һ�����ӡ���Թ������˵�����ΪĪ���ʽ�Ĺ����˲š�Ҫʱ�� �ü Ҫͬ ������� Dz�̫ �� ��ܵ ġ�
� � � � � � � о � � � � � һ � � � � � �֮���� Ա�Ҫ������Ϊ������������๤��Ҫ � � һ � � � � � һ �
� � � � � ǡ ǡ � � � Ǽ ӿ 칤��� ‫ٶ‬ȵ���Ѱ 취��������Խ�����‫���ڼ‬ʱ�䡢���
�͸������ � � �Դ���� ô �� �Խ� � � �ɺ ø � �ָ��������
� � � � � � � � � � � � ʶ � Ĺ � � � � � � У � û � � ˭ �ܱ����� ո����������ij��ҽҩ��˾���ܾ�����
��Ĺ � � ‫���׸‬ˡ � � � � � � � � ʱ � � � � � ˾ � ģ � С � �ֻ��һ � � � ҿ � չ ҵ � � 1 1 � � � � � � � �
�ʱ � � � � ˾ � ѷ � չ � � Ϊ � � � � Ե Ĵ � ҽ ҩ � � ˾ � � � � � � � ε � � � � ꣬ ͷ ��� ȫ�����������
� � � о � � � � � � ϣ � � � � Ƿ � չ � � � � � ƶ � � о � � ƻ � � � � � � � � о � � ˲ š � � � ҹ � �ȴ ԭ� ȴ�� � ˾
� � � � � � � о � � � � � ռ � й � � � � ƣ � � � � Ǹ � � ‫���˺��ڱ‬Ҳ�����е��dz�����������ε���λ� �ܾ
�����Ȼ����һ λ ��ѧ � ң � � � � � � �ȷ�� � �ʶ � � � �˾�� � � � 5�‫ � �ٻ‬ʱ � � ȥ � � � �
� 5 � �ǰ � � � Ѿ � � � � � � � � � ˡ � � � � � ķ � � Ҫ � � �Լ � � ˾� � Ҫ � � � � � � � ѵIJ�Ʒ� � �
� � � � � � � � � 5 � � ʱ � 䣬�����������Ҫ � � � � ʹ � � � ˾� ĵ ������ � �ȵ �λ�
� � � � � � � ţ � � � λ � � � � � � �ֽ������ҵ��չ��Ϊ����ԵĴ�����������һ� ˾� � � � � � � � � � һ�
ж� � � � � � � � � � � � � ļ � � � � � � � ҽ ҩ � � � ˾���� �ȫ �ȫ���վ � վ ‫�ס‬Ÿ � � � � � � � � ȵ � λ �
� � � �֮��� Ű �ɵ � � £ � � � � � Ե ø � � � ⲻ � � � ‫�����ס‬ϸ������ҩƷ��ѵ�����֮����� ó � � � �ۣ
�ҽ�Ʊ��պ�������е�ҽ�Ʊ����ƶȽ�����‫�ٽ‬ҩƷ��������dz�����ѡ��ʱ
� � � � � � ‫ץס‬ij � � ‫���������׼‬ҽ�Ʊ����ƶȵĹ‫�ؼ‬ʱ�̣ ������Ʒ����ù���г������������ʹ�
� � � � � Щ � � ҵ � ҩ Ʒ � г � � ϶ � ռ � ͷ � � � � � � �ֲ���ð � ż � � � � � � � ҽ ҩ � � � � ķ ˾�ա �
� � � � � � � � � � ְ�����5 � � � У � � � � о � � � ƶ � � � һ � � � ʺ � �ִ�ҽ���ƶȵ�ս�ԡ���
� � � ƶ � � � � ‫ںـ�ذ‬
ܿ ‫ں‬ �
ܿ ҽ�Ʊ��Ϊһ��"������ҵ".�������ƶ��£��������Ӫ���
Ե�ҽԺ�Լ������‫����������ٷ‬ʮ�ֻᣩ��Ϊ���� �֧ ����� ã � � � ҽ � �ֻ����ҩ�������ս
¸�ܷ�� ɹ� � � Ҫ � � � � � � � � � � ж � Ϊ ʱ � � � 磬�
�Ϊ � � ս � � � � � � � � � � � � ʱ � � � � ɵ ġ � Ȼ � � � � � � �֪����� Ĺ � ˾ � � Ψ - ' � � � ǵ � ս � ԡ
� � ۸����‫�ۺ‬ȫ������ҵ��ϵ�Ĵ�ҽҩ������ ˾� � � � Ϊ �ܾ���� Ҫ � � � � � � � � � � �
� � � � � � � һ ‫�׮‬Ѷȼ���Ĺ����ѷ����¡���������˾�Ȼ�������‫ � � � ¡�׮‬Ϊ � � ˾ � ƶ �
� �ȫ � � ս �ԣ � � � � � � � ǿ � � � � ˾ �ʵ� � �ȫ � � � � � � ҵ � � Ϊ � � � � � � � һ �һ ˾ ֧ ǿ� � � �
ʵ�
‫ר‬ҵ���顣����ȡ����Щ�ɼ���һ����Ҫ�������ÿ�μ��о���ɺ�һ���¡�
� � � � � � � � � � � Щ � � � � � � � � � ô � ࿴��ȥ� � � � � � � � � � " � ‫�����ؾ�"���ڡ‬ÿ
� �ֻ��һ � � � £ � � � � � � � � � � � � Ǹ � ÿ � � � � � � � � Ҫ � � ʱ � � �ܱ��������� ܶ‫ٺ‬
��� � � � � ʲô� � � � � �˿� � �ȥ � � � � � ˭ � � � � æ � � � � � � � � � ǵ� � ͹� ÿ �� ȣ� �
� � � � � � Ҫ � � ʱ � 䡣������ϣ������˳�������߶�������ľ � � 飺����������˳� �
�ܻ������� 벻��������Ҫ � � � � � � ҷ � � � � � � � � һ Щ � � � � ˲̫�� ̫� � � � � � � 顣��ˣ�
‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � � � ‫��� ڰ‬ʱ������Ҫ������‫���ء‬Σ �һ Щ � ɲ � � � � µ Ĺ � � � � � � � ϲ � � � Ͻ
�ȣ � � � � � � � � � � � � 򲻴 � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ӳ � � Ҵ � æ æ � � � � � � ϲ � �
� � � � � ȴ � һ � � һ � � � ӡ � � � � � ǰ � � � ᵽ � � � � �ֹ���������һ � � � � � � ‫���׮‬顣��
���ǵļƻ��С���û����ÿ������������Ҫ����ʱ����һ��һ���ƻ�����-
� � � � � ë � � � � � � ô � � � ƻ � � �ֻ����ʧ�ܶ���� ա�
� � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � ߶��ã � � � � DZ � � � Ҫ � � � � � ๤�����ÿ� � � � � � Ҫ � ‫ﵽ‬һ � � �
� Ч � � � � ˣ � � � � Ǿ ͻ Ἧ � л � � һ � � � � Դ � Լ � � � � � � Լ � � � ʱ � � ; � � � � � �ְ���Ҫ � � �
�� � � � �ǰ � � � � � � ÿ � � � � � � һ � � � � � 顣
��� � � � � � � � � �
� � � � ѧ � Ἧ � о � � � ĵ � һ � � 취�������‫���� ڰ‬Ѿ������м�ֵ�Ĺ �ȥ � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � �
߽� �ᶨ � ‫ͬ��ڵض‬ Լ���ƻ
� ���ǵ
ļ ͬ���� л��úͺͬ ˲ 飬�����������������
�⣺"����������� δ �������� Ļ ���������Ǹ� ò ������������
飿" � � Ǵ � � Ǿ � � " � ϶ � � � " � � Ҫ � � � � � � � Ǿ ͻ � � � � � � � � � 飬���
߻Ὣ � � � � � � � � � � � � � ‫���ٲ����ٽ‬ԴͶ � 뵽�Ѳ � � ‫ � � "��ֵ����ٲ‬ȥ " � � ȥ � � � � �
‫ � � � � � � � " � � � � "�����ڱ‬Щ һ � � � � Դ � � � ‫��ر‬Ƿdz��ѷ��������Դ������
� 뱻��̳����������Ͷ�뵽 Ѱ��δ�����ս����ȥ��
��� � � � � � � � � � � Ƿ � Ը �⣬ � � � � � � � � ⲻ�Ҫ Ϊ � ȥ � � � � � � � � ʰ � о ֣����Dz� � ɱ �
� � ġ � � � � � � � � ‫��������������ڷ‬ж � � ; � ߵ�һ � � � � � � ij � ˵ � � � κ ͷͼ � � � ж
� ߣ�������û � � Ԥ � � � � � һ Щ � ж � � ; � ߣ������ܵ � ʱ����ȥʮ�����Ǻ��¸ң����п��ܳ�� Ϊ� �
��� � � � � � Σ � � Ҳ �п � � �ܱ �֤ ������ ޴���ж � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � š � � � ҵ �
绹��������������ߵ�һ � � � � � � � � � � � � Ҫ � ѽ � � � � � � Դ Ͷ � 뵽���
�δ � � � ȥ � � � � � � � ˵ � � ÿ λ � � � � � ߶����벻 ͣ‫���ػ‬ʱ�䡢�����
ͣͣͣͣͣͣͣͣͣͣͣͣͣ

�ǻ � � Ϊ � Ѿ � � � ȥ � � һ Щ � ж � � ; � � � � � � ޲����������Щ � � ߺ��ж � � � � � � � � Լ �
� � ȡ � ģ � � � � � � � � ǵ � ǰ � β � ȡ � ġ � ʵ � � � ϣ � � � � � � ߵĴ��ֹ���ʱ�������‫��������ڴ‬
������顣
��� � � � � � ԣ�Щ �� � �ȥ � � � � � � � � ġ � � � � � � � � Ѳ � � � � � ʲô� � � � � � Ļ�
� � � � � � � � � � � � ‫��ٿ‬Բ�����Ͷ�����ʱ��;����
��� � � � � ѳ � � � ʧ � �ܵ ľ� � 棬
Ҳ � � � Ǻ � � � ѵ � � £ � � � Ϊ � � � Խ � �ܽ�� ѵ � � Ȼ � � � � � � ij ɹ � � � � � ʹ � � � � � � � � � 仯��
���ǻ�֮��� ȥ� � � � Ҫ � � � � � � � � � Ӱ � 졣�
�Σ �յ � � ǣ � � � Щ � �
�Ӧ ò� � � � � õ � Ч � � � � ij � � � � Ч ԭ � � � � ԡ � � � � ‫�ڱ‬ĵ‫���ط‬
��͹ � � � Щ � � ȥ � ij ɹ � � ͻ  � � � � � � � " � � Ӫ � � � � � ϵ � � � � � � � � � � һ � � � ʲ � " � � �
� � � � Ϊ � � ʥ � � � � �ַ��Ķ � � � � � ǣ � � � � DZ � � � � ˽ ⣬ � � Щ � � ȥ � � � � ͻ  � � � � � � �
޸��‫׵‬ģ � � � � ɽ � � � ľ � � � � � � � � � � Ѫ � � � � Ϊ � � � � " � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ʲ
� " � �ֵ����е � ͽ � � Ŭ � � У � һ � � � � � � � � � � ˲ Ž � � ᱻ�‫������װ׵‬
��� � � � � л � � � � � � � Ⱦ � � � � � � � ë � � � � � � Щë� � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ϊ � � � С
� � � � � � � ŵ ļƻ � � � � � ƻ �ļ� � � � � � � � һ � � �� �
һ � � ʱ� �����Ʊ � � � Ʊ ͻ
仯���
�Ҫ � � Ȼ � � � � � � � � � � � �  � Щ ƻ � � ͻ � � � � � � Ϊ � � � � � � � � � �Ѿ
򣬶 �� �� � � � � � � ԭ
Ѿ ����
� ‫�ڻ‬Ľṹ � �  � ‫���������ڻ‬ƶ�֮�� У � � � Ϊ һ � � � � � � Ա � ļ ȵ � � � � 棬��
�һ � �ܵ������������� й� � � Ա � �֧֡�֡��֡��������������� 1914� �ǰ � � � � ʱ
� � � � Ĺ � ģ � � С � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ҳ � � � � ̫� � � ǵ � Ҳ ˵ � � � � � ж � �
� Σ � � � � Ȼ � � � � � � � � � � � � � ȫ � � �� ˣ ��ͬ � � � � � � � � � �ܽ��� 侫����
�Դ � � � � ɢ � � � � � � � � � � � � � ȥ � � � ‫�ݹ‬ƣ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � һ � � � � � ϵ
Ļ � � ‫�����ڹ‬Щ � � � � � � Ҫ � � � � Ļ � � � � 磬�‫���ݼ‬ҵίԱ�����
‫�����ڽ‬Ҫ � � � � ŵ � � � � � � � � � � � � 治����· � � � �
¢ �ϼ � � ŵ � �ַ���������˽ � ˹ � ˾ � � � � · � �
¢� � � � � � 3 0 � �ǰ � � � Ѿ � � � � � � � � ˡ � � � � ⣬ � � Щ � � � � � 󲿷� ũҵ ƻ � � � � � � � � ˣ �
� � � � � ‫�����ڽ‬ŵ � � � � � � � � � ǵ � � � � � � � � ϣ � � ŵ � � � Щ � � � � Ӧ � � � � Ч � � ȴ
� �δ � � � � � κ ν � � � � � � ϡ �
� � � � � � ˣ � � � Ч � Ļ � � � Ҫ һ � � � µ �ָ��ԭ��‫�ݸ‬ 򡣸� ԭ������������ŵļƻ������е��
� � �ֻ�� ����ܱ
� � Ϊ� � � � � � � ޵ģ � � � � � һ � � � � � � � �֮��� 󡪡� Ҳ � � � � ʮ � ꡪ�����DZ� �
뱻�µļƻ���������ȡ��Ȼ�����������Ա��ϸ������϶���Ȼ���� Ч ġ �Կ�������
‫���׵‬Щ �ƻ � � � � � � � � � � � � ⣬ � � � ǵ � � � Ч � ‫����ڿ‬ӳ���
� � � � Լ � � ѷ � � ͳ � � 1 9 65-
1966 � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ƶ � � ļ ƻ � � � � � һ � � � 顣�����
‫���ڵ‬в � � � � ˹ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � " � ƻ � � � 鷨"� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
� � � � - . � � � � � � � � � � ‫�ؿ‬ȥ�˹ � � � � � � � Щ � � � � � ѷ � � Ĺ � ʱ � � � � Ч � Ĺ � � � � � �
Ǹ � dz � � � Ҫ � � � � õ Ŀ � � ˡ � Ҫ � � � Ļ � � � � � � ǻ � � � � � � � � � � Ĵ � ͳ � � � � �������� � ѱ  ��֤
�������õ�֮�� ⣬һ�мƻ�����Զ��Ч������������£�ʹ���‫ٺ‬õİ 취
Ҳ � � � � � � � � � Ч � � � � � � Ӧ � � � � � һ � � ȫ � µ Ĺ � �  һ � м ƻ � � �ܿ��� ʱ����ʱ�˾�Ӧ�ñ��ϳ�
� � � ѱ �֤ ����� Ȼ� DZ ‫ز����ٵ‬ĺ � � � Ч � ġ � � � Ȼ � Ļ � � � �ִ�������ᱻԽ�Խ��Ĺ��¡��ƶ ȡ ���
� � ѹ � ô � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ҳ � ᱻ�Լ���ӷ������Ϣ��
� � � � � � � � � � � � ܻ�ӷ�� �֮ Σ � � � � �
󣬵 �� � � � � Ҳ � � � � � � � � � � � � Щ ѡ����Թ
��� � � � � � � Ĺ � � � � � � � Ĵ � � � ҵ � � � � Ҳ � � � � � � Լ � � Ĺ�� ˾� " ��� � �ƻ�� �
" � � � � � � � � Щ � � ʵ � � � Ͽ � � Ʋ � � � � κ � � � � 顣�����ᳫ���ָ���ĵ� 飬
ʵ� � � � � � � � � � � � Щ � � � � � ‫��ڸ‬Լ�ȱ����Ͼ�ߵ�ë� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ա �
� � Դ � � ¸ � �ָ�����о � � � � � չ � � � � Ĺ � ϵ � � � � � ǻ Ὣ � Լ � � Լ � � � � � � � Ҫ � � Ա � � ʱ
� 䶼�˷ � � � � � � � � � � Щ � � � ѹ � ʱ � IJ � Ʒ � � � 棬��Խ�����гɹ����IJϣƷȴ û�о��ȥ�˼���һЩѧ�
߻� � � � Ǵ � � � � � ҵ � ᆰ�˵ � � ˷ � � � � � 󣬵 �� �ϵ � Լ � �Ļ �� � �ϣ� � �Ҳ� � �Ϊ�Ѿ�� �ʱ�
� ѧ � � � н � � � ޿ζ � � � � � � �
� � � � � � Ҫ ʹ � Լ � � ͻ � � � Ϊ ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � �߱����һ � м ƻ � � � � � �ж ����� � � ‫� ټ‬
顣���
�ʵ� � " � � �  � � � Ƿ �ֵ��ȥ� � " � � � � � Ƿ 񶨵 Ļ � � � � � ͻ � � � � � ԥ � � ɾ � � � � � � �� �� �� � 
� � һ � � � � � Ϳ � � Խ � � � Ҫ � � � � � � � � ‫�����ڼ‬Ҫ � � � � � ϣ �ֻҪ � � � � � � � � � � Ϳ � �
�ʹ �Լ � � Լ � � � Ĺ � � � Ч � ʵ õ � �ܴ����� ߡ�
� � � � � � � � Ҫ � � � ǣ � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � � � ‫�ڿ‬ʼ��һ���¹���ǰ��� �ܻ Ὣ һ Щ � ϵĻ � � � �
ɾ� � � � � Կ � � ƻ � � " � � � � " � DZ � Ҫ � ġ � û � � � � �ֿ��ƣ � � � � � � ë � � � � � � � û � ɢ � �
� � � Թ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ļ � � 壬��Ҫ � � � � � ‫��̬����ٶ‬
� � � � ÿ λ � � � � � ߶����ã � � � � ¿ � ͷ � ѡ � Ҫ � � � � � � � 飬��������
�ѡ�������������ʱ��������һ�‫�������װ‬İ 취������Ļ � �͵ � � � � � һ � � ʼ � � � � � ʧ � �ʹ�‫ܡ‬
¹� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ч � 취�����
�ͷҪ��һЩ�ѱ�ʵ��֤ � �������� �ܸ ɵ � �˲š � � � � � � � ˲ ſ϶ � � � � � æ � ô � � � � � � � � � ˣ � � � �
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ¹ � � � � � � � � � � ȵ � Ҫ � � � � � � � ǽ � � Ŀǰ � Ĺ �
��� � �
� � � � � � � � һ �ֽ������İ 취���Ǿ � � � " � � � � " � � � � � � � � � � µ Ĺ � � � � � � � � �ְ
취����̫�� һ � � � ˵ � �ֻ�е � � � Ҫ � � � � Ѿ � � � � � · � � � � � �
‫��ת‬õ � ҵ � � ʱ � � � Ż � ȥ � � � � � � � ˡ � � � � � � Ҫ � � � � һ � � � � � � � � 񣬹 ��
��ͨ � �� �� �
ͨ��� ��ʹ��ʹ �
� һ Щ � � � � � 顢��ʵ� �֤ �������
‫֡�������������ר‬ � � � � � һ � � � � � � � � ͵ � � � � � � � һ � ζ � ‫������ע‬ijЩ � � � ‫�ڹ‬ȥ� Ѿ �
� � � � � ɹ � � � � � � � � � һ λ � о � � 顢��ʵЧ �Ĺ � � � � � � � � а 취
�; � � � � � һ � � � � � � ߸�����£ � � � Ϊ � � � � � � � � � � � � � ԭ � � � � յ Ļ � � � � � � �
� � � � µ ķ � � ա � � � � � � � � Ѵ � ʵ � � � е õ � � � � � � � Ľ � ѵ � � � в � � � � � � � � � � � ‫�ط‬
����ʱ��ֱ������ţ � � � � � һ � � � � � ﹤ � � � � � � � � � ¾ � � � ⵽ ˳� �
˳ � � ‫�׵‬ʧ � ‫�ܡ‬
� � � � � � � � � � Ҫ � � � � � � � ˣ � � � � � � � � µ Ĺ ۵ 㡣����ֻ���
‫�������ڲ‬Ա�Ļ�����ͺñ��ǽ��‫��׽‬䣬���ջ�ʹ����ȫ����Ȼ��ֻҪ � п � � ‫���ܣ‬һЩ � � � ռ � �
ߵ������������߹
����ְλ � � � ߸����µ� � � Ҫ � � � � �ְλ � � һ � � � Dz � � � � � � � � ˵ ġ � � � � � � � � � �
� �ֻ�θ߲��쵼�ĸ�ְ��������Щ � � � ѻ � � � � � � ߺ�Ŀ � � � � ȷ � Ĺ � � � � � ��
� � � � ֻ���мƻ�������� ϵ ɾ���ϵĹ������� 񣬲��
;�ʱ�� �ȥ����� µľ�� 档������֪������� � � � �ܶ

�ȱ���µ��뷨��" � � � � � � " � � � � � � � ⡣ � � � ǣ � � � � � û � � � κ λ � Ը � � � � � � Щ � � � 뷨
���¹ � � � � � Ϊ ÿ � � � ˶ � � � Ϊ " � � � � " � � � � � � æ � û � ͷ �� � � � � � �‫ת‬Լƻ����ֻ
‫ת����������ڵض‬ ܶ� ͸�
������飬����Щ � � � � � � Ч � � IJ � �ּ���ɾ� � � � ô � � ʹ � � � � ̲� � � � Ĺ � � Ż � Ҳ � � �
޴��������������‫�ڼ‬ijɼ����
� � � � � ‫�ھ‬Ӫ�����棬�Ű ˾ һ � � � � � � � � � � � � ѧ � � ˾ � � � Ҫ � á � һ � � ij �ֲ�Ʒ�����
‫�ۻ‬ij � � � � � � � ̿� ʼ � � � � � ½ � � � � � � ƣ � � Ű  ˾ � ͻ � � � � � ԥ � ‫ � � ˾�������ؽ‬Ὣ � �
�ȱ � � � ˲ š � �ʽ � � � � Դ � � Ͷ 뵽�����������һ �
‫¾׳‬ɶ�����ȥ��Ȼ������������ҵ�������Ļ��Ƿǻ����ģ��ľ�Ӫ���� �Ű ԭ���ȫ������� �ǻ ���� ��
�ͬ ˵ "ֻҪ � � �
� � ǵ ij � � � � � �߳���Ӫ�ã��г��ܻ��� еġ � "" � � � ǵ Ĺ � ˾ � � � ǿ � � ˲ � Ʒ � � ҵ ģ � � � � � �
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � һ � � Ʒ � � � � � г � � � ά � � � � ȥ � � " � � � � � � Щ � � ˾Ҳ �ɹ �
� � � � ȥ � μ ӹ � � ²��‫ �ڴ‬Ʒ � � � � �ֻᣬ�������������‫�ڱ‬Թ�㲻��
�² �Ʒ � � � � � � � � ͬʱ � Ű ͬ˾ȴ� � Ϊ � � � � � � � � � ² � Ʒ � � � � æ � ò � � � �ֺ�
� � � � � � � � � " � Ƴ ³ � � � " � ĵ � � � û � � " � Ƴ � " � Ͳ � � � � � � � " � � � � " ' � � � Ƿ �֮�� ĺ
� � � � ‫�������������������׼‬ţ � � � � � 1 8 2 5 � �ǰ � � � � � � Ѿ � � � � � � � �ͨ
�ͨ� ˽ͨ
� Ļ � � � � � ô Ū � � � ý � � � Ľ � � ϻ � � � � й � Ӫ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ‫��ڷ‬Ų� � � � � � ƶ �
� �" � � � � ƥ � � � � � � � � ѵ � " � � ǿ � � � � � � о � � ƻ � � �
��� �Ҫ � � � Ⱥ � � � �
� � � � � ߵ����‫���ڹ‬ǰ � � � � � � � � �ֵ��ȥ� � Ĺ � � � � � ǹ � � � � ߵ�ʱ��ȴ�dz����‫�ޡ‬δ�
� Ļ � � Ҳ �ܶ࣬ ������� ‫��������ץ��ס‬ȴ̫ � ١����ң � � � � � � ߻� � � � � � � � � � � � �
�� �� �
��� � � � � � � � � � � � £ � � � � � Щ � � � � � � Ҫ � � �ȴ � � � � � Щ � � � � � � Ի �һ � � � �
� � � � �߱��������ȷ��ϡ���ô�������Ǹ��ʲô�����һ����‫����أ‬ɹ� � � � ߸���Լ����ж
� � � � � � ‫����أ‬Ǹ � ‫���ݻ‬ѹ � � � � � � ϣ � � �֮��������� ô � � � � � � ԰����ǰ ��ǰ �Ĺ
� � � � � е � � � ʹ � � � � � � � � � ޵�ʱ���‫���ڱ‬ɣ�������Щ� �ܸ ɵ � � � � п � � � ȥ ‫��ץס‬Щ� � ᡣ
� � � � � � � � � � ɹ � � � � � � � � ϣ � � � � Ǹ � ‫���ݻ‬ѹ � � � � � � � � � Ⱥ � ˳ � � Ļ � � � � �
� ǿ � � � � � ô Ԥ � ԣ � � � Ҫ � Ĺ � � � ϶ � � ᱻ����һ � � � ˵ � � � � � � � ‫��ת‬Ϊ � ж � � � � � � �
� � � � � Ϊ � � ʱ � Ļ � � ‫��������ڣ‬û� � � 㹻��ʱ���ʵ����һ
‫����̡����ת‬ij � � � � � � � ѳ � Ϊ � � � � Ϊ � � һ � � �֣������������ ޷���ɡ���Ҳ
� � � � ˵ � �ֻ�е� � � � � � � ˶ � � � � ‫��������ش‬ 񵱳� �Լ���������ѧ����� 񣬲� � � ѧ � � � � �
°취����������飬��
�˾ � � � б � Ҫ � � � � � � � � 񣬲 � � � ���Ŀ� � � � � ƶ � � � � � ѽ� � � � � � Լ � � � � ճ � � �
� � ʱ � � � � � � � � п � �ܱ�� ˳� � � � ɡ � � � � � � Ϊ ȱ � � ʱ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � һ ‫���ת‬
�̣���ôһ' � � � � � Ŭ � � � � ữ Ϊ � � � С � � � � � Ҳ � � � ǹ � � � � � δ �ܼ������ Ҫ � � � � � δ
� � ‫��ץס‬Ҫ � � � � ı � Ȼ � � �
� � � � � � � � û � � � ѹ � �֧��������� Ⱥ � � � � Ļ � � � � � ô � � һ � � � � � Ԥ � � Ľ � � �
� � � � ߹���㽫�޷���չ�Լ � � Ĺ � � � � � ߹
����Ĺ � � � � � � DZ Ƚ ϻ � ģ � � � Ϊ � � � � ͼ ȥ � � � � � � � � Σ � � �ֻ�뿪��������¾� � 档���
�ѹ � � � � � � � ʹ � � � � � ‫������߽�ע‬е� � � � � � � � � � � � ȥ � � � ‫߲�������ر‬㣬
һ� � � � � � � � ѹ � � � � � � ң � � � Ȼ �Щ������� ͱ���� ޷�����ȡ��Ĺ������ǶԻ�����
��Խ � Խû� �Ȥ � � � � � � ⲿ�ϵ � ʧȥ � � � � � ⲿ� � � � � � � � ǡǻǡ � � � �Ч� Ĺ ‫�ؼ����ڡ‬
��Щѹ � � � � � ƫ � � � � � ‫�������ڲ‬ƫ���Ѿ��������������δ�������ϲ
� � Σ � � � � � ӻ � � � � � � � � � � � � ‫����������������ڼ‬ʵ� � � ȴ � Ӷ � � � � � ǿ
� � ‫������ؽ‬Թ�ϵ�‫������ش‬ȴ� � Ӧ ľ Ȼ � �
� � � � � � � � Ҫ � � IJ � � �ֻ��Ū � � � � Щ � � � � � � � � � � � ȥ � � � � � Ǻ � � � � � � � ģ � ÿ
� � � ˶ � � � � � � � õ � � � �ܶ������߲������� о � � � � ij �  � � � � � � Ҫ � � � �� �� � Ѿ
� � � � � �ȷ � � � � � � � � Щ � � � � � � Ի � һ � � � � � � � � � ˵ Ҫ � �ȷ � � � � Щ � � � � � � ʱ �
�ȥ � � � � � �ܰ���� һ � � �ֵ��‫�ס‬
� � � � � � � � � � � � � ߶����������һ ᣺� � � � � � � � � � � � � � £ � ʵ � � � Ͼ͵ � � � �
DZ � � � � � � ˡ � � � � � � � � ߾� ã � û � � ʲ ô � ± � � � � ¼ � � 𱻸
� �õ � � � Ŀ � � � � � � ͷʹ � � � ˡ � � � � � � � ʱ � � � � � � � ± � � � � � � � ʱ � � Ҳ � � � � ͷ � �
ʱ�������κ�Ŭ��ܷ�� ȡ�óɹ��Ĺ ��- �‫ؼ����ء‬
5� �ǰ � � � � � Ҳ � � � � � � � � � £ � � ȵ � � � � � � � � � � Ļ � � � � ǿ ϶ � � � � � ɴ � � ‫�ۺ‬ʧ� ‫ܡ‬

� � � � һ � � � � � � � 2 I � � ʱ �ֱ�����˽ � � ˻ 飬�
�38 � �ʱ �ֶ�ɥ � � ż � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � һ � � � � � ‫�ڽ‬Ϊ � ‫ ��֮�ؽ‬á� � � � � � � � � � �
飬����ֻ������ά� � � � � � ʱ �
‫�ڵ‬С˵� � д ֮�С � � � � � ʵ � � � � У � � � � � һ � � 3 8 � � � � � ½ � � � � һ � � � � � ‫�ٳ‬Dz� � � � �
Ҹ����Եġ�������21��ʱ�ͽ� 飬
Ҳ � � � й � ͬ � ͬҸ � ȹ � � �Ļ �� � � 1
� 7� ᣬ � � � � � � � ���˺ � � ˺� ܴ�ı 仯���������ͬ ˲ͬ��
ͬ �
� �ʽ˺ � � �� �Ը Ը� �Ҳ Ҳ� �� �� �� �� � 
ʽ ˺ ܴ�IJ � � 죬������������‫���ٴ‬һ � � Ҳ � Ե � � � Ϊ � � � � � ˡ �
� � � � ij � � � � � � ʱ � ‫�־‬뵱 һ � � ҽ � � � � � � � � � � � � � ̽ 磬�
�ȡ���˺ܴ�ijɹ� � � � � 5 0 � � ʱ � � � � � � � � һ λ � � � � � � � � � � � � ˣ � � � ȴ � � � ͷ � � � ѧ ҽ �
� � � � � ʼ � � ҽ � ƴ � ѧ � � � � � � � � � �� �� �� � � ˿ �� ҽ�˵ ɣ
� � � � Ҫ� ���ɣһ�����ɹ Ҫ� ˵�����һ � � ɹ � � � ҽ � ѧ ҵ
� � ˡ � � � Ȼ � � � � � � � � � � ‫�ر‬ǿ � ҵ Ķ � � � � � � � � ij � � � ‫�������ڽ‬Ϊ � � � � � � � �
� � � п � �ܳ�� Ϊ-
�� � � � � � ҽ � � � � ҵ � Ĵ � � �ʿ � � � � � � һ � � � � � � £ � � � � � � � � ѧѧ � � � Լ � � � � Ӳ
� � � � һ � ‫ � � ˵������׶‬Ե ü ȵ � � � �ַ�ζ� �ʵ � � � � � � � � � ‫�ܡ‬
� � � � � � � � ҹ � ˾ � � � � � � � � ǰ � � � к ܺõĺϲ �ǰ� � � � � � � � � � � � � һ � ҹ � ˾ � � � �ܲ ò � Ը �
��� � �һ
� ҹ �˾ �
�ܲ õ � � � � ¹ � � � � � � Ǻ ϲ � � � � ˾ ͱ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � λ � � Ը � ‫����ڱ‬
��湤����ܲ��������� ‫�������ݣ‬ҹ�˾� Ľ � � Ҳ � � � � ʱ � � Ǩ � � � � � Ӳ Ҫ � � � � һ � 𡣶��
�һ � � � ˵ � � � ¶ � � � � � � � һ � � � � � ¡ �
� � � � � � � ‫�����ڱ‬ʵ� � � ϵ � � ‫�ڱ‬ȡ����ˣ������߶��������‫��׵‬ӻ � � κ ι � � � � � �
� � � ‫����ף‬ӻ � � Ĺ � � � � 䲻������������Ҫ � � � � � � 飬���
�һ � � � � � ӻ � � � Ҳ � � � з � � յ ģ � � � Ϊ � � � � � Ϊ � � Ҫ � � λ � � � � � � Ҳ � � �ܻ��� Ϊ� � � �
� �ֳɹ� � ķ � � � � � ˭ Ҳ � � � ұ �֤ ��� ijλ � � � � � � � � ij � � � � � � 쵼�˾ � Ҫɾȥ � � ij � � � �
߻᲻ � � � � � � һ � � � �  � ҡ � � Σ � յ � � � � � � �ۡ��
� � � � � � � 磬�
�ɭ�������ͳ�� Ϳ �����ͳ����Ը����Ȩ���� �����Ҫ����������Դ���Լ��ѷ�
⵱������Ҫ����������Դ���Լ�� �ͳ�
ѷ�� ���ʱ��
ͳ���� ��ȷ��ʾ���
ʱ� ��� �Խս�
ȷ�� ʾ� ���Խս ��
���
� � Լ � � � � � ⽻��ߵ�����Ϊ � � Ҫ � � � � � � � � � � Դ � � � � � �
ܴ �̶��Ͻ � � � � � Ϊ ʲ ô � � Լ � � ѷ � � � � � � � � � � β � � ò � � ı � � � � � � � � � Ĵ � � � � � � Щ
‫ں‬
һ � �ʼ � � �֧����� " � � ƶ � � � ս " � � � � � � � � � � ʿ � � Ȼ � � � � � � � � � ǿ � ҵ IJ � � �
� � � � Ҫ � � � ӻ � һ � � �������ⲻһ����һ�� �� �� ˳����˳�� �� �� �� �� � � 顣� 
�Ϊ � � Ҫ Ų � � � � Ǽ � � � � �ܿ������ � � � �ܾ ij � � � � Ҫ � � � � � ȿ � � ǵ � � � � 顣
�ⶩ һ � � � � Ҫ � � � � ȥ � � Ĺ � � � � ӣ � � � ȡ " � � �  � � � � һ Щ " � İ 취����������Ȼ�����
‫�ף‬Ҳ � �ʹ � � � � Ƚ � � � � ⣬ � � � �ֻ��һ � � ȱ � 㣬�Ǿ� � � һ � � � ޳ɡ�
��� �Ҫ � �" � � � � " � � � � � � -
��� � � � Ļ � � � � � ˵ � � � � � � � � ˡ ͳ� � � � � � � � ЩӦ � � � � � ȡ � � � Щ � � � � � ӻ �
��� � � � � � ϣ � � � � � � � Ҫ � IJ � � � � � � � � � ķ � � � � � DZ � � � � ó � Ӧ � е� � � � � �
��
� � � � � � � � � м � � � ɰ � � � ȷ � � � � � ȴ � � � � � � Ҫ ԭ � � ÿ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ‫*�أ‬Ҫ
� � � � � � � � � � �ֻ����ȥ� � * Ҫ � � � ӻ � ᣬ � � � �ֻ�������‫����ڵ‬⣬*Ҫѡ���Լ��ķ
� ��򣬲 � � �ֻ����ͷ���������ƣ�*Ŀ��Ҫ�ߣ�Ҫ � � � � � ⣬ � � � �ֻ��" � � ȫ " � ͷ � � 㡣
� � � � � � � � � � Դ � � � � о � � � � � Ŀ � ѧ � � � � � � ε � 飬����֤ ������
�˵ � Ǵ � � � � о � � � � � � � � � � � о � � ij ɹ � � � � � ˵ � � Ѱ � � � � � � � � � � � � � о � � � �
ɹ�Ȼ � � � � � � ˹ ̹ ̹� � � � � ˹ * � � � � � � � � � � ˹ � � � � � ʿ � � � � � � � � ſ � ѧ � � � � � � �
⡣��ѧ������ѡ���о�����ʱ�����ֻ������������ȡ�óɹ���������ȥӭ����ս 򣬶���ȥӭ����ս
� Ļ � � � � � ô � � � � � Dz � ̫� � �ܻ��� ‫׿‬Խ�ɾ͵ġ�����Ҳ����Ϊ����鼮 д� � � �
‫�ͻ�ע‬ 򲹳�˵� �֮��� Ķ � � � � ȴ � � � � � � � κ � һ � � � � � � � ɻ � � ¸ � � � � � � � � � � ǵ � � � �
� � � � � � ġ � � ɾ �ֻ������Щ� � � � ‫����ץס‬ѡ���о�����Ŀ�ѧ�ң�������Щ�ѱ���ȷ���‫�ֻ��׼‬
�����Լ���‫��ض���������ص‬ˡ�
� � � � � � � � ҵ � 磬���Ҳ � � � � ˡ � � � � � ɹ � � Ĺ � � ˾�Щ � Ϊ� � � � � ���� е���� �
����߿� Ʒ � Ĺ � ˾ � � � � � � � � Щ
² ּ�‫ � � � � � � � � � � � ¼����ڴ‬ҵ � Ĺ � � ˾�һ �һ��
� �˵ � � � � С � Ĵ � � � � � � � Ĵ � � ¶ � � � � � � � � ͬ� ķ��գ��� � � �� ͬ��ͬ
� ͬ
��߶� � � � � � � � � � �˾ � � � � � �߶ � � �‫��ؼ � ޣ‬Ϊ
‫ؼ�ޣ���������˾�����������������ת‬ ܽ� �ɹ � � � ô � � � � � � � � � ļ �ֵҪ Զ
Զ����ֻ‫�����ע���ڽ‬⣬��Ϊ�������ֻ�ָ� � �ָܻ " � � � � " � � ƽ � ⡣
��� � � � � � � � � ӻ � � � � � � � ⲻ�һ ģ�ɲ� � � Ӧ � � � ʵ � � � � � ı 仯�������
�Ҫ � � � � � � � Ⱥ � � � � � � � � � � ¿ � � Ǻ � � � � � � � � 磬�
�λ � � � � � ͳ � � � � � � � � һ � ɲ � � � � � � � ȴ � � � ij Щ � � � � ļ ƻ � � � � � ʵ � � � � � � ɱ � �
� � � � ȴ � � � � � � � � Ĺ � � � У � � � Щ Ӧ � � � � � ȣ � � � Щ � � � � Ų � � Ҳ � � � Dz � � ϵ � � ‫ڱ‬仯
�ġ �
� � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � ߻� � � � Ҫ � � � � � � � � ‫�ڵ‬ǰ � � � ‫��ڽ‬еĹ � � � � ϣ � � � � � � ȥ �
� � � � � � � � � 顣���
�һ � � � � � �֮������ֻ���� µ � � � � ѡ � � � � һ � � � � Ҫ � � ȫ � � Ը � � Ĺ � � �
� � � � Ҫ � 뼯� о� � � � ȫ � � � ‫��ע‬һ �  � � � Ǿ � � � � � Ҫ � � � 㹻������Ҫ � � �
‫���ڸ‬Լ��ķ������ʶ����Ź�����Ⱥ����ֻ����������߲�����ϣ���Ϊʱ�
� � � � � � � � � � ‫�����ֻ�����ף‬ǵ�ū���
� � � � 6 � � ߵ�Ҫ � �
� � � � � � � � � � � к ܶ๤����ֻ�����е �һ � �  � � �� �� �� �� � ‫��ھ‬ʱͨ ʱ�ճ�������Ҫ���ܶ�� ʱ�䣬��
���ȴ�ǹ � � � � ߵ�һ � � � ‫����������ض‬Ƕȿ 񡣴� � � � ������Ӧ���‫�����ڱ‬ռ��һϯ֮�‫�ء‬
� � � � ֻ�е� � � � ˹ � � � �߲���Ҫ � � ߡ���������ĵ � λ � � � � � � ӵ � е � �֪ ʶ�� � � � � � �
Ȼ������ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �Ի� ļ � Ч ���ɹ � � � � �ԶӰ�� ľ � ߡ�����ǹ � �
� � ߹�����������‫�ڡ‬
� � � � � � ˣ � � � � � � � � Ǹ � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � ߣ����Ȼ������ � � � Ч � ľ � ߡ�
� � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � ߻Ὣ � � ߵ���һ � � � � � � � � Ĵ � � � � ̣� һ � � � � � � � � � ԭ � � �
� � � ȷ � � ˳ � � Ĵ � � � � ̡� � � � � � � � � � � ˵ � � � � һ � � � � � � � � � � � � 鱾��̸��� ľ� ߹
�̺�������֮�����
� � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � � � � � � Ҫ � �ܶ�� ľ� ߣ�����ֻ����Ҫ � � � � � � � � � ߡ����
�˵ � � � � � � Ҫ " � � � � � � � " � � � � � � � � ˵ � � � � � � ͼ ͨ� � ˼ � � � � � � � � � Щ � Ǵ � � �
ս���Ե����⣬��Щ��һ���Ե����⡣���Ǿ���Ҫ����߲�ε � � � � � � � ʶ � � � � � � � � � � � ġ � � � ȴ � Ǽ
� Ϊ � � Ҫ � ľ � ߡ�������Ҫ �ҳ � � ‫� � �� � �� � � ¶�������ڸ‬ᷢ 仯
�Ķ � � � � � � � � � � ǵ ľ � � � � � � � � Ҫ � п � � ɵ � ʱ � 䣬���ܹ��� ‫ͬ��ڼ‬ ȡ����ǽ ͬ � Ū ʱ����
಻�ϱ 仯
�ŵ � � � � � ļ � � ɿ � � � � � ˼ � � ȱ � � � � � � � ı � �֡����������� � � � �֪ Լ��ľ�߶Ը � � 潫��
���ʲôӰ�죬��һ � �߱�������ЩDZ� ‫�ڵ‬ʵ� � � � � � � � ǿ � � ߵ�‫ؾ‬Ľ � � � �
ߵ��‫ں‬ļ � � ɣ � � � � � ϣ � � � ߺϺ������� ߵ���‫������׷‬ԡ �
� � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � ߶��ã � ʲôʱ� � Ӧ � � � � ԭ � � � � � � о � ߣ�ʲôʱ��Ҫ���ʵ���������о�ߡ
�������ѧ���������ȷ�����֪ 󣬲 ����� Ϊ΢ � � ľ � ߾� � � Ҫ � � � � ȷ � � � � �֮����
��ij � � � � � � � Ե � ѡ � � � � � � Ҳ � � ‫���ף‬ķ �ʱ � � Ļ � � ‫����ڲ‬Ǿ�߱���������ΰѾ
� ߸���ʵʩ� � � � � �߲����ܱ � Ϊ � ж � � � � � � � ͳ Ʋ � � � � Ǹ � � ߣ������Ҳֻ�Ǹ� � � õ � Ը �
� � � � Ҳ � � � � ˵ � � � � � � � Ч � ľ � � � � � Ը ߲�ε � � � � � � � ʶ Ϊ � � ‫ݵ‬Ļ � � � � � ô � ᳹� � � ʵ � � һ
� � ߵ��ж� � ͱ � � 뾡��� �ܵ ‫ؽ‬ӽ�ʵ�ʡ����‫���ڲ‬
�� � � � � � � � � ͵ľ � � � � � �
� � � � � � ¶ ࡣά � � � 仹�㲻����λ֪��Ⱥܸ
ߵ������ҵ�ҡ�����ȴ�������ҵʷ�����г�Ч�ľ������20����1910���ߡ
‫������ڣ‬һֱ�DZ � � � 绰��˾ � � BellTelcphone system � � � � �ܾ����� ‫ڴ��ڼ‬䣬����˾� �
� � � � ȫ � � � � � ġ � Ҳ � Ƿ �չ � � � � һ � ҹ �� � � ˾
� � � � � 绰��˾ � � ˽ � ˾ � Ӫ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ȼ � ġ � � � � � ˾ �
‫����ڱ‬ҵ����Ҫ���������ͼ��ô������˿‫ڱ‬Ƚϼ��е�ʡ�‫�����ݣ‬ల���ԡ � � �
� � � � � � �֮�� ; ⣬������ҵij�; �Ŷ ���������Ӫ� ġ�������
;ͨ һ Ψ ˾һ�� �ܹ����
��‫��ַ���ס‬տ�� 鲢����ȡ�÷ɿ 췢 չ� Ĺ � � � � � ҵ � � � ˾�¢ ����� � � � ���� �һ�
‫��������ؼ‬г 򣬶� � � � �Ҳ � Ѵ ̬‫��ﵽ�˱���״‬
� � � � � � � � ˾ � � � � � � � � ij ɾ ͣɾ � � � � � � � � �Ϊ � � � � ã � Ҳ � � � � " � � � � � � � " � �
��� � � � � á � �ɹ� � � � � Ҫԭ� � � � � � ά � � � � � � 20� � � � � � � ȡ � � � � � � ս � Ծ � ߡ
�ά� � � � ͷ � �֣����� 뱣�
�˽ Ӫ � � ҵ � � � � � � � Լ � � � � � Ӫ Ȩ � � � � � � � � Щ � � � ȡһ ˾� � ‫��ͬ�ڲ‬Ĵ � ʩ � � � � � ŷ � ޵
ĵ
绰ͨ�
ͨͨͨͨͨͨͨͨͨͨͨͨͨ
Ŷ � � � � � � � � � � � � � ŵ � � � � У � � � � Ǽ Ȳ � � � � � � � � ⣬ Ҳ � � � � � з � � ա � � � � � ˾ ֻ�
�-� � ķ �ֹ�Լ���������ӹ
‫��ܣ‬dz � � � � Ҳ � ֻ �һ � � � � � � ս � � � � � � � � � ⻹��Ҫ � � � � � � � ӹ ‫�ܡ���˵�����ڳ‬һ
� � � � � � � � � � ̬� � � � ͷ � Ҳ � � � � ʧ � ‫���ܣ‬Ϊ � � � � � � � ľ � � � � � � � � � Ѫ � � � � �
� ˾ � � Ҫ � ƶ � һ � � � � ߣ��Ա����Լ��Ĺ�˾�ܱ������� ‫�ظ‬õ � �չ ˹ � � ‫����ڵ‬档��
�dz � � � � � � � Ŀ � � ǣ � � � ŵ � � � ά � � � � � � � � � � µ � � � � ߣ�‫�����ھ‬绰�
�˾ � � � � Ԥ � � �� �� � Ⲣ
㹫�‫��������ڶ‬ϣ���Ҫ��
� � � � " Ϊ � � � � ṩ � � � � � � � � � ǹ � ˾ � ĸ � Ŀ � ꡣ"ά � � һ � � � ξ � � � � � � � � � � Ŀ ‫ں‬š� � ‫ڱ‬
���ͳ��������Ŀ‫ں‬ţ � � Ǿ ͻ ᱻ������һ � � � � � а ˵ � � � � � ǣ � ά � � � � � � � � � � �
� � һ � ۵ 㣺��˾ � � � � � ṩ � � � � 񣬹 �� �� �
� � � � � � � � � Ҫ� ʹҪ�ʹ �� � �ַ����Ϊ� � �
‫���ܣ‬Ҫ � � � л � � � � � � 󡣶 � �е � � � � � � � � �ƶ� � � � � � Ժ � � � � � � � � Ա � � � � Ӫˮ
ƽ � � ͳ һ � ߶ȡ�������һ�߶��������Ƿ�������ĺû�����ȴ�����ǿ��������ɵ
� � � � � � �ֻ��Է������ĺû����𡣶�Թ�˾�Ĺ����ʽ�ij O��������߹����������
�ΰѹ � ˾ � � � � ѷ � � � ‫��ת‬Ϊ � � ѵ ľ � � � � � � 棬������߹��������顣
� � � � � � � �ʱ ͬ� � ά � � Ҳ � � ʶ � � � � � � � �ͬ ��ͨ
� �ͨ
¢ � � � � ҵ � � Ӧ � � � Ǵ � ͳ � � � � � ϵ � � � � � � � ҵ � � Ҳ � � � � � � һ � ҿ � � Բ � �ܾ����� ˽
Ӫ��ҵ������Ϊ"���‫ � � "���ڹ‬Ψ һ � � � � ȡ � � � � � � ӹ ܵİ 취���
�Ч � � � � � � � � ԭ � � Ĺ � � ‫���ڹ‬Ա���ϵͳ�������� ˾�ģ ����������Ҳ� Dz���ȱ�‫ٵ‬ġ�
� � � � " � � � ‫ � � "���ڹ‬һ � � � � � � � � � � � Ȼ � � � � İ � � � � ά � � ó � � � � � � � � ʱ � �
Ҫ � �ʵ � � � � � � � � ൱��ѵġ� � � � � � � ҵ � � � � ԣ � � ‫�� ټ‬Ϸ� ԺҲ � �֧�֣������� ʹ� � � й
‫���ع��ڹ‬ķ � � � � � � � � ޷�ʵʩ� � � � � ‫���ڹ‬ίԱ����ʽ�����ֶ����㣬�
�ίԱְλҲ � � � � � ɿ � � ý � Ǯ � � � � � � � � � � � � � ʹ � � � � � ռ � ‫ܿ������ݣ‬ � � � �ֻ�ø � н � � � � ʵ
� µ � � �ְ��
� � � � ά � � � ʵ �ֹ��‫��˾���˱������ڹ‬Ŀ꣬ ��� Ҫ� � � � � � � � ˾�� � � �ܽͷ����
ͷ Ŀ � 굱��
�Լ�����Ҫ����ά��Ҫ�����ǽ��ָ����¹�������‫ ͵ � � � � � �ڹ‬ȼ � � � 󶨸 �� � � � �
Ϊ � � � Σ � � Ա � � � � ƽ � � � � � � Ҳ � � � � � � � �� � ʱ �� �ҵ
� �ͬ
��չ
� ������
չ �� �� ˵
ҵ � �� ͬʱ� � � � � � � � ˾ ‫ע‬
�Ᵽ�����‫����ڵ‬档���‫ � ˾���ڸ‬ľ � � � � DZ � � � � ˾�� ߹
����ij � Ա � � � � ˣ � � � � ˾Թ �¶���� � �� ‫ܲ������ڹ‬ � ȡ�൱���̬�ȡ�
� � � � ά � � ĵ � � � � � � ‫����߾����ڹ�˾�ڲ‬ȫ��ҵ����Ϊ�ɹ��Ŀ�ѧʵ�鱦�������
�ʵ� � � ҡ � � þ � ߵĻ� � 㻹��Ҫʹ� � � � � � һ Ӫ ˽Ӫ
¢� � � � ҵ � � � � � � � � � ȥ � � � � � � � � � � � ȴ � � � ʵ � � " � � β � � � ʹ � � � � � � � � �
¢ � � � � ҵ � � � � � � � ľ � � � � � � � � " � � � � � ԣ � � � � ‫�����ڱ‬
¢ � � � � ҵ � � � � û � � � � ľ � � � � � û � о � � � � �֡������������ £� � � ҵ � ͺ � � � �
‫�ױ‬ÿ̰�ͽ�������������޷���Ӧ�仯���޷�ı � � � � � � ķ � չ � �
�� � �ά � � � � � � Ϊ � � � �ʹ
¢ � � � � ҵ û � о � � � � �֣���������� Ȼ���� ԰ � " �� " �� � ɶ � �֣��� ý� � � � � � � ‫ڽ‬
��о � � � � � � � � � Զ � � � � � �� � � � � ļ � � � � � � � �  δ � � � � � ��ȫ�
��
ȫ � � � ͨϣ ‫�����ڿ‬Ϊ
�Ƚ � IJ �ͬ � � � � � � � � ʵ � � Ҿ � ������� � �ָ��˼� � � ³ ィ���
�ģ � � � � � � � � � ϵ � һ � ҹ � ҵ ʵ � � � ң � � � � � � � � � � Ҳ � 㲻��
�ǵ�һ�ҡ����ǣ�����ʵ���ҰѸ������еIJ�Ʒ��Ϊ���Σ�������Щ��Ʒ��ʱ���滹�������
�Ϊ � � Ӯ � � � � � Ӵ 󡣴 �Ʒ �󵨸
� �� в� � ˾ � һ � � � � � � � ��ȷ��ʵ������� ��ȷ���� ��˵ ��˵Ͼ ˵���� � �Ͼ ҵ
� � ޽��еĵ �һ � ҡ �
� � � � � � � � ʵ � � � ҳ � � � ‫�ڵ‬һ � � � � � � ս � ‫ڼ‬䣬�‫�ڵ‬ʱ�����ǹ�ҵ���һ�󴴾١�Ϊ �� ˻ �ø �õ � Ч � 棬
ʵ� � � ҵ Ŀ � ѧ � �о � � � � � Ҫ � � � � � �� �δ ��ͬ � � � � � Ҫ �
䵱" � � � � � � � ƻ � � � " � � " � � � � " � ķ � � ߡ�����ʱ����գ�����ҵ���������������һ����
� Ҳ � � � � � � ̫� ‫�ࡣ�ڵ‬ʱ��������Ĺ�ҵʵ���Ҷ���ά��"����"��Ϊ���Σ����Ǵ��µ���һ��"�����Ե��о�"
�� � � � DZ � � �ʵ� � � Ҵ � һ � �ʼ� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ե � � о � � � � ⡣
� � � � � � � 1 0 � � 1 5 � � ķ � չ � � � � �֤ ��� ά � � Ĺ � � � � Ƕ � ô � � � � ȷ � � � � � ȣ � � � � ‫ڱ‬
���ʵ� � � ҿ � � � � ˵ 绰ͨ� ż � � � � � � � ʹ � � � � � � ½ � � � Զ � � 绰����
ͨͨͨͨͨͨͨͨͨͨͨͨͨ
�һƬ � � � � � ţ � � � ʵ � � � � �ֽ���绰����ϵͳ���쵽 ά� � � � � � ˸ � �
޷�������������� 򣬱� � � � �ӽ�Ŀ��‫ת�����������ݵ‬Ĵ� � 䡣�Լ�� �����ǵȡ�ʹ��
Щ� ͨ� ͨ
´ � � 似���Ϊ � � �ܵ���� Щ � � ѧ � � � � � � չ � � � � � � Դ �
‫���ڱ‬ʵ� � � ң � � � � � � � ѧ � � � �� � Ϣ�������� �ۡ ² �Ʒ � � � � � � � � Դ ӵ � � � � ߼� � �
��Ƶȡ �
� � � � � � � � 20����‫ � � � � � � �ڱ‬ά � � � � � � ‫��������ڼ‬ʱ��ά�����������ĵ�����
� ߣ��‫ � � � � ˴������ش‬ʱ � � г � � � m a s s capital market � � � � � � � � � ߵij � 㻹�
�Ϊ � � Ҫ � ñ � � � � ˾Ӫ� Ϊ ˽ � � ҵ ҵ �ܹ����������� ȥ� �
� � � � � � ҵ � � � � � � ӹ ‫���������ܣ‬Ϊ � ò � � � � � � � � � ʽ 𣬶�
�dz � � � � � � � � � � Ŀ � � ǡ � � � 1 8 6 0 � 굽 1920 � � � � � ʱ � � �  ŷ � ޵���· � � � 乫
˾ �Ⱥ�󶼱 � � � �� �� � ӹ ӹ ‫�����ܣ‬Ҫԭ � � � � � � � Ϊ � O��������Ҫ � � � ʽ � � � � � ޷������豸�
�Ӣ���ú��ҵ�͵����ҵ�Ⱥ��
󿪲� 󱻹�л �� dz��������һ�ֿ��ǡ���һ������ս�
� � � �� �� �� �� ���ͨ͡
�ͨ
� �ͨ
� � � � ͡� � ‫�ڴ��ڼ‬ŷ� ޴�½ � ĵ � � � � � ˾ � ‫����׷ױ‬л � � � � � Ҫ Ҳ � dz � � �
� � һ ԭ � � � � Щ � � � � � ˾ � � � ߵ�����‫�������ڲ‬Ե����ұ�ֵ��������ʧ � � � � �
DZ � � ޷��O����չ�� ͸ � �� �� � 豸�������ʽ�
� � � � ά � � � � � � � � � � � � ʱ � � � Ƿ � � ȿ � � � � � � � � � � � ⣬ � � � Ǵ ӵ � � � � ‫�ﻹ‬Ҳ � � �
� � ‫�ݣ‬Ȼ�����ȷʮ���� ‫���ٵ‬ʶ�� � � � � ˾ � � � � � ‫����ٵ‬
´� � � � � � � � � Ҫ � � � �� ʽ� �� Ӧ��ȶ�� �� � �˾ � � � � � ʽ � Ӧ � � � � � � �ֹ ͳ �Ӧ�ӵ�ʱ���‫��ڵ‬ʱ��г������
޷���õġ � � � � � һ Щ � � � � � � ҵ � � λ � � � ‫��ر‬ǵ����˾������ͼ�Է��۹�Ʊ����ʽ �����ʱ ��20���
Ψһ � Ĺ � � � Ͷ � � � ߡ����뾭 Ӫ������ҵ��Ͷ���̡������齨�‫ع‬ɹ�� ˾ � �� � 跨�
�ĸ � � �� Ĺ˾ Ʊ � � � � һ � � � � Ͷ � � � Ժ � � � � � � � � � � � �ճ ճ� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� � ʽ ʽ� �� �� �� � ˾
�Ҫ � � � � � 籣
�չ�� � Ĵ� � ˾ � Դ � л ͳ � á � ά � � � Ϊ � � � � ҵ � � � ʽ � � Դ � � � � � � � � � Ļ �֮�� ϣ����
� � � Ǻ ܴ�ġ�
� � � � � � � 绰�籨�
� � � � ��ͨɣ � � � � � ά � � � � 2 0 � � � � � � � � Ƶ � һ
�˾ ͨ �ֹ�Ʊ����� Ŀ ľ���� Ϊ �Ҫ����������⡣��ֹ �
�Ʊ�ȺϷ�����޷ ���գ���‫��ר‬Ϊ� ͨ �� ͨ � � ‫��ڷ‬еĹ � Ʊ � � � в � ‫���׼‬ʱ��������"�������"����ͷ��
� � Щ � � Ǯ � � � � � Ǽ � � � Ͷ � ʣ � � � � � ð � � � � � � ա � ά � � � � � � Ƶ � � � � 绰�籨�
�˾ � Ĺ � Ʊ � � � � � � � ǵ � � » � � � � � �ֹ�Ʊ��Ϣ�б �֤ ��� ʮ � � ӭ � � � � Щ � ¶ � Ѹ � � Ƕ Թ ̶� � � Ϣ
�ͨ � � � � � �ʱ ͬ
ͬ � � � � � � � � ��ɻʲ� � � � � � � � ��ͨ �ֵ�����ĺô � � � � � ʹ Ͷ � � � � � ‫ڷ‬
����������ͨ
� � � � � � ʱ������ʧ��
� � � � � � ά � � � �֭����� һ � � � ‫�ڴ‬ʩʱ��"�������"�͵�Ͷ���߶�����ʵ� � δ � γ ɡ � � � � 㹻
���Ǯ � � � � � � � Ʊ � � � в � ‫�����ֱ�׼‬Ÿոճ��֡������������ Ծ ɰ � � � � � ϰ � ߽� Ǯ �
� � � � � � У � � � � ջ � � � � � � 빺����Ѻ � � � � һ����� � ð ð �յ Ļ � � � � � Щ � ˾ͻ � � � 뵽
20 � � � � Ͷ � � � Թ � Ʊ � г � � � � � ʵ � � � � � � � Dz � � � ȥ � ĵ ‫�����ط‬Ȼ����� � � � �Ͷ�
� �߲�����ά � � � � � � � ģ � � �ֻ�ǰ � � � � � � dz � Ϊ � � Ͷ � � � ߣ���Ա���ǰѻ���Ͷ�뵽��
�Լ����Ա���˾�������ô�����ҵ��ȥ����һ���ʹ�ñ���˾� 50�‫ � � �ڽ‬ʱ � � �
� O���˺ü�ǧ���� Ԫ ���ʽ�������������绰�籨��ͨ �ͬ� � � �
˾ͬͨ ͨ � � ѳ � Ϊ � � � �ô � � � ͬ � в �
‫�׼‬Ͷ�ʼƻ���� �Ҫȥ�� � �
� � � � ά � � � � һ � ‫׶��ص‬İ 취��� �᳹� Լ����뷨�����
�˾ � � � ʽ � � � � � � � � � � � � Ӧ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � һ ֱ��ͨ���Լ���O
�ʽ����Լ���е����� � ֤ ȯ� Ĺ � � � ά � � � � � Ҫ � � � � �ֶ���* � � � � � ¸ � � � � � � � ƣ � � � � �ֳ
�Ϊ � � � � � ˾��� � ҪҪ � � 쵼�ˣ � � � � ջ � � � � � ά � � Ľ Ӱ � � ˡ �
� � � � ά � � ľ � ߶���������Եģ�����Ϊ�������ʱ����� ˽��˾����ʱ�����‫�����ٵ‬ġ � Ȼ � � � � � � Щ � � ߵı
� � � ά � � � � � � һ Щ � � � 뷨��ǡǡ������Щ�뷨���������ʲô � � � � � � � � ġ � � � Ч � ľ � ߡ�
� � � � � � � � � ‫ � ¡׵‬P. ˹¡ Ҳ � � -
� � � � � Ե � � � � ӡ � ˹ ¡ �� � �� � � � �ҵ
���� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ҵ � � � � � � ͨ˾ ߺͽ���� ߡ
�����ά� � � Ҫ � � � ‫�ݵ‬ʱ��˹¡��l 922�굱�����
�Ҵ � � � ҵ � ĵ � һ � � �֡����� � Ǹ � � � ά � � � � ȫ � � � �ˣ � �� � � � � � ͬҲ � � ȫ � � һ � � � � �
� � � � � � � � � Щ � � � � � � � � � � ľ � ߡ����������ͨ � � � � ˾� � � Ȩ � � Ӫ � � � � � � ά � � �
� Щʱ � � � ‫���ڱ‬绰 ϵͳ������� ˾�ľ� ߶��������������ͬ � � � � � � ʡ�
��� � � � � � � � � � � � � DZ � � � � � � � � ͨ � � � � �ͨ ��ͨ
� �� � ͨM˾y Years Wnh
GeneralMotors � � � � � � � У � ˹ ¡ � � � � � � � ǣ � � � � � � � 1 9 2 2 � � ӹ � ��ͨ� � � ʱ ˾ � �� �� �� � ˾� �
ʱ ʱ � ʱ ͨ˾
� � � � � � � ɺ ܶ��������ɵ �һ � � � � ɢ � � � � �  � Щ � � � � � � ͷ ͷ � Ǹ � � Ծ � � � � ż � � � ǰԭ � � � �
� � � � � � � Լ � � � � Ǹ � � � ҵ � � � � � Ǹ � � � � � � ǣ � � � � � �ܹ�� ˾ � � � � � � � 
� � � � � � � � � � � � � ⣬ � � � �ִ�ͳ�İ 취�
�һ � � � � � � � � � ҵ � � � � ̾Ͱ � � �� �� � � ԭ �� �ͷ �
ͷ � �� ĸǵ ҵ� λ Լ � � " D*� � ˷ � � � �
齨" � � � � ʯ � � ͹ ʱ ˾ " � õľ � � � � � �ְ취��J*P*Ħ � � � � � ˹ ¡ � � � ˼ � ꣬ ������� ィ"� � � �
� � ˾ " ʱҲ � � � � � � � � �ְ취����һ�ְ취�ǽ � ԭ � � � ҵ � � � � � � � 쵼�
�λ � ϣ � �ܹ�� ˾ � � � � � � � � Ը � Ԥ � � � � � � - �ֲ�������Ȩ � � � ‫���������׵‬壬���
���ô � � � � � � Ϊ � � � � � � Ϊ � � Щ ͷ ͷ Ϊ � � � � � � ľ � � � � � � 棬����߾�
�Լ���Ŭ��ȷ�������������档ͨ�� ˾� � � � � � � � � ͨͨͨͨͨͨͨͨͨͨͨͨͨ
��˾ � Ĵ �ʼ � ˶ � � � � � Լ � ˹ � � � � ǰ � � Ƥ � � � � * � Ű � � ȡ � Ķ � � � � � �ֲ��ԡ � � � � � ˹ ¡ � ӹ
ͨ � ͨ˾ � �Щ �
ǿ� � � � � Ӳ � � �ִ
�� � Ķ � � � � � � ͷ ͷ � Ǿ ܾ����ܹ�˾ � � � � � � λ �˾ � �� �� ���˾ � λߵ��˻ ͨ
�� �ı�Ե � �
� � � � ˹ ¡ ֪����������Ⲣ������Ϊ�ϲ��ų��ֵģ � � � � Ǵ � � � ҵ � г � � � � � � � � �� � �֣ ⡣��
����ҵ��Ҫ��һ�µķ����ͳһ���쵼����ˣ � � � ҵ � � � � ߹
�������Ҫ � � Ȩ � � � � � � ʱ �� � � � � � ����� � ͬ ҵ ‫ת‬Ҳ � � Ҫ � л � � � � � � λ � � � � � ҵ � � � �
Ӧ����ѡ���Լ���Ӫ��ʽ�����ɡ����Dz���Ӧ�������Σ�Ҳ����Ҫ����Ӧ��Ȩ���Ӧ�ø�����������֮�� ‫���أ‬
����˳ɾ�ҲӦ � õõ � � � Ӧ � Ĺ � � � ˹ ¡ � � � � � ʶ � � � � � � � Ź � ˾ � � � � � ϻ � � � � � � � � �
� � Ե � Խ � Խ � � Ҫ � � � � Ϊ � � ҵ � � � � � � � � � Щ ǿ � � � � ľ � Ӫ � � � � �߳�ַ������ǵIJ��‫ܣ‬
���˾� � �ܸ��õ� � � � � � � �
� � � � ˹ ¡ � �ǰ � � � Ƕ � � � � � � � � � ⿴
�����������⣬��Ϊ� ֻ ����ͨ
� � Ȩ � � � � � � �ܽ��������� ⡣��˹¡ȴ��Ϊ��������ƶ��
ϣ�ֻ������ͨ� � � һ � � ȫ � µ Ľ ṹ � � � � � � � �ܵ��� Խ���˹¡�������ķ�Ȩ��Ӫ�ȿ��Ա�֤ ��ֹ� ˾ � ľ � Ӫ � �
� � Ȩ � � �ֿ����������ܹ � ˾ � ķ � � � � � �ָ����
��� �Ҫ � � �� ˽��һ ��� � � � � Ч Ƿ � � � õ İ 취�����
�һ � � � Ƚ ϡ � � � � � � � � � � � � һ � � �˾��� �� ���˾� ����һ � һ � ֱûͨ � � ȡ � ú ܺ�Ч� � � һ � � � � � � ɡ �

� � 30 � � � � � � � � � � � � � �� � � � ����� Ԥ ���ж ͨ˾� � � � � � � � � � � � ̬� � � � � � �
� � ķ � � � � � � � � һ ֱ��ú� � � �ǡǡ���ǹ�˾�����"��Ȩ��"��Ψһ-
ܲ����
� � � � � � � � 1 9 35 � � � � � � � � ͨ�� �� ͨ �ͨĸ˾ ߼� � � � � � � � � � ˼ � � ƫ � � � ‫ص‬Ĺ � �͵ � � ˣ �
��� � �һ � � Ͳ � � � � ˡ �� � � � � � � � � ѿ
�� � �ά � � � ˹ͬ ¡ �ľ � � � � Ȼ � � � � Ų �ͬ � ⣬ � � � � � � � �ķ �� �
ʽ Ҳ� ��� һ � � � � � � � �֮��
�ȴ� � � � � � Ҫ � Ĺ � ֮ͬ�������磬���Ƕ � � � ͼ � � � �
ߵ�����ˮƽ � � � � � � � � � � ⡣ � � � � � � � � � � ͼ � � � � � � � � Ū � � � � ߵ���Ҫ � � � ʲ ô
� � � ⣬ � � � Ų � � ƶ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �� � 򡣻 � � 仰ԭ
˵ � � � � � ǵ ľ � ߶���ս���ԵĿ��ǣ�����Ϊ��Ҫ��Ӧ��ʱ����ʱ��Ҫ����Щ��߳��������⣬��ˣ��
� � � � Ǻ � � � � � � � ġ � � � � � � � � � � � ߶����뵱 ʱ���ǵĴ�ͳ������ ���۵ ġ�
�� � � � � ά � �յ � �ϱ � � � � ˾ � � �ܲ�� ʱ���������»��Ƹ��һ�Ρ���"����"��Ϊ������Ҫ ˾��������������ҵ
� � �ʹ � � Щ � � � � � Ǿ � � � � � � � � � ë � � � � � � � � � � ˵ � � � � � ҵ � � Ψ -
�յľ � � � ӯ � � ά � � � � Ŵ � � ‫����ڹ‬Ƿ�Ϲ���������� ˾�ģ ˾� � � � �ǹ������������
� � � � � � �
� ġ � � � � » � ȴ � � Ϊ � � � � � � 뷨����Ǿ � � IJ � � � Ļ � � � � � � � Ҳ � � ̫� � � � � � һ � 㣬�
�Ϊ � � � � " � � � � " � � � ‫ " � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � "������ڹ‬. � � � � � � ˵ � � �
� � � DZ � � � ߾� ȫ � � � � � � �ֹ�Ķ � � � � � � � Ժ � 󣬴 Լ��Լ � ‫��������»���ͳ���ڱ‬ǵĹ��л
� � 糱�е � �ֻ��������Ȼ������ � � � � � � �ɸ е � �ֻŵģ � � � Ϊ � � ʱ � Ե 绰 ͨͨͨͨͨͨͨͨͨͨͨͨͨͨ
��ҵ���л��ĺ���Խ�Խ�ߣ����Ƕ � � » � � �ٰ�ά � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ά � � � Ҫ �
� Ǯ � � � � µ � ʱ � � � � Ϊ � � ˾ ‫��׬‬Ǯ � Ĺ � � պ ͼ � � � � ィ һ � � � � о � ʵ � � � � � ʵ � � � Լ � � � � 뷨�
��������Լ��ij��ʻ���‫������׼‬ʱ���еİ 취��O
�ʽ�ά���������߶���������ܵ � � � � » � ĵ � � ƣ � � � � � � � Ϊ ά � � � � � Щ � 뷨���Ƨ������ȡ��
� � � � � � � � � ‫ � ¡ ˹ � ¡׵‬ķ � Ȩ � � � � ‫�ڵ‬ʱҲ��Ҳͬ �� �ܱ���������� ‫���ܣ‬Ϊ� � � 뵱 ʱ
� � � ǵ � һ � 㿴����ȥ̫Զ � �
� � � � � � � � � � � ҵ � � � У � � � � � � ‫�ص‬ʱ��λ���ϵļ����쵼�ˡ� � � ʹ �
‫�������ں‬У � ά � � � ˹ ¡ � ľ � � Ҳ � � � � ̫" Ұ " � � һ � 㡣�������ţ � � � �
‫ � � � � ˾�ع‬Ƴ � � � � T � � С � � � � ˮ Զ �ܵ��� û � � � � � � � ά � � � � � � Ҫ � � � Լ � � � � ˾���
� � � � � � � � � ʱ � � Ŭ � � �ֱʹ� � � 󲻽 ⡣ͬ ʱ� � � � Ҳȷ � ţ �ֻ�����̶ȵļ���ͳ-
��� �� ˾ � � �ܳ�� Ч � 档��ˣ � � � � � � � � ˹ ¡ � ķ � Ȩ � �ֻ�� �������ܵ
� � � � � һ� � �
� � � � � � ߵ�Ҫ � �
�� � �ά � � � ˹¡�ľ� � � � � � � � � � Ҫ � � � � � � Ȳ � � � � � � 棬
Ҳ � � � � � � Ϊ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �ۣ���������������� Ϊ � � Ҫ � Ĵ � � � 1 . ˼
� � � � ȷ � � � � � � � � � � � һ � � � Ե ģ � � � ô � �ֻ�����ͨ � � һ � �ȷ � � � � � � ԭ � � ľ � � � � �
� Խ � � 2 . � � � � � � � ‫������ޡ������ڽ‬ʱ����Ҫ����Ľ��‫��������ޡ‬ν � � " � � � �
� � " � � 3 . � � � � � � � á � � � � 뷴�����
�ʲô � � " � Ե � " � � � � � � � � � ķ � � � � � � � � � � � � � Щ � � � �ֻ�н � � � Щ � � � ⿼����֮�� 󣬲
ſ � � Կ � � Dz � ȡ � ʵ � � � � � Э � � � ò � � Լ � � ʶ ȱ 䶯�
�һϵ � � � � � � � ʩ � � � � ȡ � � Щ � � ʩ � � Ŀ � ģ � � � � � Ϊ � � ʹ � � � �ܱ��������� 4�‫ܣ‬.�
�ʵ � � ʩ � � � þ �߱�ɿ� � Ա � � � ᳹� �ж � � � 5 . � � � � " � � � " � � � � � �֤ ��� ߵ���ȷ�Ժ���Ч�
ԡ�
� � � � � � � ϱ � � ǽ � � � � � Ч � � ߵ����Ҫ � 1�£��������ֱ‫أ����ڷ‬. � � Ϊ һ � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч
� ľ � � � ߣ�������Ҫ � � � Լ � � � � " � � � � � � � � � � � ‫� ""���������ڳ����أ‬
� � � � Ƿ � � � � � � - ϵ � е � � � � � � ¼ � � � � � � � � � � �ֻ��һ
‫ � � � � � ¼��������ͬ�׮���ڲ‬Ҫ � � ȡ � � � � Ĵ � ʩ � � � � Դ � � � " � � � � dz � � � Ļ � � �
� Ǿ � Ҫ � � һ � � Ĺ � � � � һ � � � ԭ � � � � � � Խ � � � � � � � � � � � � Ǿ �ֻ��������ķ � �
��� � � Խ � �
� � � � � ϸ � � ˵ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ࣬ �� �ֻ�dz � � � � � � � � � � ô � � ࡣ�
� һ � � � � � � � ‫��������������ڳ‬Щ� � � � � �ֻ��һ � � � � � ‫��׶‬ѡ�
� � � � � � � � � � � � � ճ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �ֶ�������һ � ࡣ� � � 磬�
�ҵ��Ŀ����ʵ���ϲ�������������ľ�ߣ���Ϊ� �ֻ��Щ � � � � Ե Ĵ � ʩ � � � ѣ � �
��� � �- ���Ե � � � � ⡣ � � � � � �  � � � 棬�������͸ �Ϊ �ձ�� ˡ �
��� �һ � �˵ � � �- ���Ʒ� � � �� ͹�С � � ÿ � � � ´ �ԼҪ � � � � ü � �
‫������������ ټ‬顣
Ȼ� �ֻҪ � � � � � � � Ͳ � � � � о ���� ѷ��� �ֻ��һЩ � � � � � � � � һ Щ � � ӳ � � � � � ı � �
��� �� 󡣶 �� � ‫���ڹ‬ij � � � Ź � � � � � � ̹� � � � � ʦ � � � ߸����Ʒ���Ĺ���ʦȴ��������һ�㡣
ÿ � � � � � � � � � � � � Ļ � � � � � Ǽ � � � � � � �ܻ���� ˮ� ܵ� Ľӿ‫�ڳ‬ë� � � � � ѡ �ֻ�н � � � � �
� � � � � � � С � � � � � � � � � � � � ‫�������ۺ‬з � � � � � � �ܿ����� ĸ � � � Ǵ � � й �
� Ե � � � � ⡣ ֻ������������������֮
� � � � � � � � � � � 豸��
�¶Ⱥ � ѹ � ̫� � � � ̫һЩ � � � � Ӹ �ܵ�� Ľӿ � � � Ҫ � � � � � � ƣ � � Ա � � � � ø � � � � � � ˳ � � ���� �� � ͨǣ
��� � � � � � �ַ���֮� ǰ� � � � � û � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ‫�ֻ�����ڣ‬û� � Ѵ � �
� � ʱ � � � � � � � ӿ ‫����ڣ‬ȴ� � � � � Ͷ � � ޹���
� � � � � ‫������ڶ‬⣬�Ը��λ�˵Ҳ���Ǹ����������⣬��ʵ����ȴ�Ǹ���й��Ե
��� �⡣
� � � � � � � һ � � � � ˾� �� �j � � � � Ѿ� Ĵ � � ҵ � ϲ � � � � � ô � � Ͳ � � � ý � � � � � � � � �
ҵ�ĺϲ������ˡ�����ҹ�˾�˵�����䶭
�»ἰ�������������ֽ���ֻ����һ � � � Ե ġ � � � -
� � � � � � � Ե � � � � ⡣ � � � ǣ � � ͺ ϲ � � � � ± � � � � � ԡ � � �ֻ��һ � � � � � � ҵ � 練�����
�ġ � � � � й � � Ե � � � � ⡣ � � ˣ � � ‫����ڿ‬Ƿ�Ҫ��� �ܺ ϲ � � � � � ʱ � � � � Ҫ � � � � ij Щ һ � � � Ե Ĺ
� � � � Ǿ � � � Ҫ � � � ձ � � ˵ � � � � �ֳɾ � � 顣
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ȷʵ � � � � � � � ¼ � � �

� � � � 1 9 65 � � 1 1 � · � � � � � � � � � � � � �
ͣ �� � ¼ � � � ʱ � � ʡ �ͳ� ��һ� ¹ ������ ��ͱ
�ʹ � � ʥ � � � � ˹ � � � � ʢ � � � � � � � � һ Ƭ � � 60�‫ � � � � �ڡ‬и � � � � � � � � � ష������
�Ӥ����Ρ�����-���磬���
�Ҳ˵ � � һ � � � � � � � ¼ � � � � � ˵ � � � � � � � � � � � ¼ � � ĸ � � � Ϊ ǧ � � � �֮ һ � � � � � � � �֮ һ �
� � � � � � � � �ֻҪ � � � � � һ � Σ � � Ͳ � ̫� � � � � ‫��ٷ���ڶ‬Ρ �
��� � � � � ǣ � � � � � � � � � � � ¼ � � Dz � � � � � � � ġ � � � � � � � � � � һ � � � � � � �
� � �͵ � � � � � � Լ � � � " � � ⵽�¼ �Ǹ��� � � � � ‫���������أ‬һ � � � � � � � � ij � α �
�֣�� " � � � � � � � µ � һ � � � � � � � � ij � α � � � ǡ ǡ � � � Ǿ �߳������Ҫ � � � � ĵ � � � � � �
� �˵ � � � һ � � � � � ⡣
� � � � � � � � � � � � � Ѿ � � � ã � � � � � � � � � �¹ � ���ʺ� � �

ͣ ష ҩ�����ı��磬��ֻ�
����ִ���������ִ�ҽҩѧ���ºܿ�ܻ������� ��
�ᷴ ᷴ� � � � � ᷴ� Ĺ� �ϵĵ � һ � α
� �ְ��ˡ � � � � � � � � ¹ ʣ �ֻ���Щ ҳ�ijЩͨ Щ� õĽ��취��������Ч� ‫ط�ֹ�����ٴ‬η � � �
� � � � � � � � ȷʵ � � � � � � � ¼ � � ⣬ �
ͨ �� � � � � � � � � ¼ � � � � � Ҫ � � һ � � � õĽ ͨ �����
�� �һ � � � � � һ � � � ʩ � � � � һ � � � � һ ԭ � � � ƶ � � � � � � � � һ � � � � ȷ� � � ô � ԭ �һ �
һ �ͬ
ֲ�ͬ� ı � � � � � ʽ � � � � � Ƕ � � � � � һ � � � � Ч � Ĵ � � � ԭ � �
� �͵ � � � � � ĸ � �ֲ �ͬ��ͬ 򡣻 �� � 仰˵ �
�ֻҪ � � ԭ � � � � � õ � � � � ‫־‬
�����¼ � � � ȥ � � � � � ˡ � � � � ǣ � � � � � � � � � � � � � ¼ � � � � ͱ � � � � � � � � � � Ĵ
��� � � � � � � � ¼ � � � � � � � � � ԭ � � � Dz � � � � õġ�
� � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � ľ � � � � � � � � Ứ � Ѳ � � � ʱ � � � � ϶ � � Լ � Ҫ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
��� � � � � � � � � � е � � � -
�֡�������������������
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �֪ жϴ � � ˣ � � � ô � � ľ � � Ҳ � ϶ � � Բ � � ˡ �
��� � � � һ � ࣨ Ҳ� � � �
 � ģ � жϴ � 󣬱 � � �� ǽ һ � � � Ե � � ¼ � � � � � һ ϵ � е � � � � � � � � � �
� � � � � � � � Ҳ � � � � ˵ � � � � � � � � � � ⻹ȱ��һ���Ե��� ⡢˼���ϻ�û��һ�����������ʱ�����Ȼ ��ʱ�����Ȼԭ
� ͻ � � ȡ һ � � ʵ � � � � � � � ̬� ȣ � � � � � � � � � � � ɱ � � � ‫ػ‬ᵼ�´�� ‫�ۺ‬ʧ � ‫�ܡ‬
��� � � � � � һ � � � � � � ˵ � � � � ǿ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ͳ ߡ���Ȼ������ � � �
� � к ܶ�ܳ��˲ţ � � � � � � � � � ľ � � � � � � ‫���߶�����ڡ‬ ⵽�˴ � ‫�ܡ‬Ψһ �ɹ � � ľ � � Ǵ � � � Ű ͵ � �
� � ¼ � � � � � � � � � � � � ⣬ � � � � � � � � � � � � û � � ȡ � � � κ α � ij ɾ͡� � � � � � � � � ‫��״‬
���Ҫԭ � � � � DZ � � � � dz � �֮ ν"ʵ� � � � � � " � Ĺ ۵�����֡�����ֹ ۵�ʹ� � � Ƿ � � � � о � � �
��� �ԭ �� 򣬶 �� � �ֻ����¼ � � � � Ƿ � � �ֱ�����ÿ� � � � � 顣��Ҷ���
‫�������������ף‬ij � Ա � � � � � � � � Ҳ � � � � � � � � � � � � ƶ � � � ߵ���Щ� � � �
� 룬���Ƕ �ս � � � � Ƶ Ļ � �֭���������� ‫�������ڹ‬ϻ����
‫�������ڹ‬ϣ����ѱ��Խ�Խ����ʵ������ˡ�
� � � � � ‫����������ڶ‬
ྭ ྭ жϴ� � � � � ǰ � һ � � � � � � � 鵱��������������
�ͼ���Ϲ������������⡣
� � � � � � � � � Ϊ ʲ ô Ŧ Լ � � � � ¸ � ߾� � � һ � ξ �ֲͣ�ͣ���¹ʻ � Ѹ � � � չ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ԭ
� � ‫�ڡ‬ŦԼ�ĵ������ʦ�Dz���� ˴ ���һ� 㳬�
‫���ص‬ȷԭ��Ȼ�����ǵ��DZ�������ʾ������ֻ����ˡ � � � � DZ � Ӧ � ò � ȡ � � � � ġ � � � � dz � �
� Ķ Բ ߷��������ܽ
� � � � � ⡣
� � � � � � � ֮�£� � � � � � � � ͳ � ‫���ڴ‬Ű͵� � � Σ � � ʱ � � � � � � ˾ ޴�ijɹ� � � � � � � � � Ϊ �
� � � � � ˺ � ³ � � � � � � ս � � � � �ܽ����� µ � � � � � � � � ¼ � � � � � � � � � � Ŀ � � ǡ �
һ� � � � � � � ˾ � ߡ�������ð � � � � � ǻ ‫ۺ��������ڵ‬ľ޴���Դ � �ֵ‫��������ط‬á�
� � � � � � � � � ֳ � � � Ĵ � � � � � Ƕ � ij Щ � � � Ե � � � � � � � � � � Ƕ � ǵ Ľ � � ͡� � 뿴������
�ӣ � � � � δ � ս � � � � � � � � � � � � һ ֱδ � � � � ‫ס‬ѵ � � � � ‫�ص‬ҽ����Ա�������-
� � � � � � � � � � ε � � � о � � � Ҳ � � � � � � �ֽ��취����ϧ � � � ǣ � � � � � � � Щ � о � � � -
� �ʼ �ʹ � � � � � ϶ � � � � � � � Ĺ ‫�����ؼ‬н � ꡣ�����������ȴ� � � ‫��ͳ�ھ‬ҽ�ƽṹ�ϡ��
� � ‫�ڵ‬ҽ���ƶ�һ��ֻ����ʲô� � � � �ܿ������ �ͨ ҽ�����뵱������Խ�Խ����
‫��ר‬ҽ��ķ�չ���� 򱳵��ۡ����� ӵ � � � ҽ � � � �ְ������;� � � Ǵ Ӹ � ҽ � � ‫ר‬ҵ���ҽ���
� � � � � � � � ʵ � � � �ʹҽ � � � � � � Ա � � � � � � ҽ ѧ � о � � � ҽ � �ʵ � � � � ˣ � � � � � һ Щ � �
�� � �Ϊ � �ҽ � � � õ � � � � � � ȥ � � � � � � ˷ � �Լ � � �ʱ � � ͼ� � � � � Ϊ � � � � Ҫ ô� � � ò �ȥ
�� �� �
� ͨҽ � � Ҫ ô �ֻ õ� � � 칫
�ҵ������Ա����������ϣ���ȴ���ܹ���� չ� � � ǵ � ҽ ѧ � � � ‫�������ܣ‬ѧ ֪ʶ�
� � г � Ϊ ‫��ר‬ҽ��Ļ�ᡣ
� � � � � � � Ϊ ֹ������δ� � � � � � � � � � � Ե � � � � ⡣ � � � � Ƿ � Ը � � � � � Լ � � � ҽ � ƻ �
� � Ϊ � � � � � ӹ ҽ � Ķ � � � � Ҫ � � � � � � � � � Ƿ � � Ѵ � � � Ծ � ӵ � ҽ � ƽ ṹ � � � г � � ‫׵‬ĸĸֻ �е�
� � � � � � � � � һ � µ ġ � � � � � ľ � ‫�����ߣ����ڵ‬ҽ�������������
� � � � � � � һ �ִ�����Ƕ � � � � � � � � µ Ķ � � 岻��ȫ�档
� � � � � � � ܴ‫��̶�ں‬Ͻ � � � � � Ϊ ʲ ô � � � � � � � � � ҵ � � 1 9 6 6 � � ͻ Ȼ �ܵ��� ˼ � � � Ĺ � � � Ϊ ʲ ô
� � � ǿ � ʼ ָ�����������������ȫ���������Լ��Դ�ȴ����˼��‫�����׼‬
Ե���Щ��֪��� 롣
Ҫ˵ � � � � � � ҵ � � � � � Ӱ � ȫ � � � � �� � Щȷ � � ⣬Թ � � � ʵ � � � � � � � � � � � � ҵ � � � � �
�� � � �İ �ȫ � � � � � һ � Ϊ � �· � � � � � � Լ � � �ʻԱ� � � � ѵ � � � � � � Ĺ � ˴� ‫��ͳ���ס‬
˵ � г � � ¹ � � � � ɵ � · � � � � ȫ � � ‫˵��ݳ‬Ĵ � � � � � � � ɵ ģ � � � Ҳ � � � � � � ʧ � � � ʡ � � � ʵ � �
� � � � � � � г � � � ȫ � й ‫ص‬ĵ � λ � � � ӹ � · Ѳ � � � � � � ʻ � � ѵ ѧ У � � � � � � � � ȫ � � � � � � � ǿ
�չ � �� Ŀ� �� Ҫ ꡣ��Щ ��  � � յ��Ч� � Ѿ� � � � � Щ � � � � ý � Ϊ � � ȫ � Ĺ � · � ϣ � � ¹ ʲ � ̫ࣻ ��
���ȫ��ѵ�ļ¹��˳��‫ݳ‬ʵ�Ҳ � � � У � ١�Ȼ���� ÿ ǧ �� � � � � ÿ � �ʻ -
� � Ӣ � � � � ¹ � � � һ ֱ���½ � � � � � � ¹ ʵ � � � � � Լ � � � � � � ̶‫�س‬ȴ� � � ‫��ڲ‬ϵ � � � � �
� � � � һ � � � � � � � ʮ � � � � � � � � � � ǣ � � � Լ � � 5 � � � ļ ‫˾��ݳ‬ƺ� ‫� "���������ݳ‬
� � � � � � � " � � � г � � ¹ � � � Լ � � � ķ �֮��������������� ɵġ � � � � � Щ � � � ˵ � � �
� ȫѵ � � Ǹ � � � � � � � � � ģ � � � � Ǿ � � � � � � ȫ  � ĵ � · � � � ʻ � � Ҳ � � � � ¹ʡ � � � � � �
� � Ӧ � � � � ‫������ס‬ȡ��ʩ�������� ⲿ�� �г˵��ȫ��� ⡣��Ҳ����˵����ά����·��ȫ�ͼ‫ � � � ˵��ݳ‬ѵ ֮
�⣬��Ҫ�跨 ȷ���й�ʧ�ļ‫���ݳ‬Ա�İ�ȫ������������ҵ�統 ǰ � � û � � � � � � � � � һ � 㡣
��� � � � � ϵ � � � � ӳ � � ˵ � � � � � ȡ � � Ľ � � � � � � � Ҫ � � � � ȫ � � � � Ľ � � � � и � � � Σ
���� ԡ � � 밲 ȫ�г��й‫ص‬ĸ � � � � � � � � � � � � ̡� �
‫ � � � � ·�ݹ‬ί Ա � ᡢ��ʻԱ Э � ᡢ���չ�˾ � ȣ � � � � � Ը � � � � � � ¹ ʵ IJ � � ɱ � � � � � ó ⣬� � � � һ �
� � � � � � � � � ̣� � � � ˵ � ǹ � � � Ļ � � � � ҿ � � � � ӵ IJ � � � ȫ � � Ϊ � � � � ͺ ñ � � � � � � � ĸ �
� һ � � � ˣ � � � � � � � Ϊ ҽ � � � � � � � Բ � � � � � � ‫����ڽ‬µ � � � Ϊ � � � � � ‫ڿ‬͹ � � ϴ � � �
� � � � � ‫"�׽‬ò � � � � � � Ĵ � � � " � � " � � ¹ � � � " � � � � � � � � � � ʹ � � һ Щ � � � � ȡ � � � ˵
�� � � ÷dz �Σ �գ �Ҳ � � � Ѿ � � �
� � � � � � � ԣ � � � � � Ч � ʵ ľ � � � � һ � � ʼ � � � � � Ƚ � � � � 鵱�
�һ � � � Ե � � � � � � � � � Կ � � ǡ �
� � � � � � � ܾ�ã�һ � � ʼ � � � � � � ‫������ֻ��ע���ס‬ı � � � � � � � 󣬶 �� ��ǡ�ǡ�� Ҫ� � � �
ҵҵ� �� ǡ ǡ � � � � � 󱳺 � �
ʵ� � � � � ⡣ � �ֻ�����‫�����������������ڽ‬⡣
� � � � � � � � ¼ � ȷʵ � � � ‫�����ͬ�ڲ‬ô � о � � � ľ � � � ߾ͻỳ�������Ƿ�Ԥʾ��ij���µ�DZ
� ‫����ڵ‬⣬������ȥ���‫� ¼����ͬ�ڲ‬ʵ � � � � � Ƿ �ֻ��ij � � � µ � һ � � � � � � � � � �
‫��֡��״����ڱ‬
� � � � � � Ҳ � � � � � � Ϊ ʲ ô ‫�׿‬г � Ч � ľ � � � � � � � � � � ͼ � � � � � � � � � ˮ ƽ � � ȥ Ѱ � � � �
취������ȡ��� ��ⷢ � � ֤ ȯ � İ 취�����

�ǰ � � � ʽ � � � � ⣬ � � � � � � � � �֤ ȯ � � δ � � ļ � � � � � � � ó � � � õ ļ � Ǯ � � � � � � � � � � � Ҫ
�ʽ � � г � � � � � ͻ � � 跨
ȥ� �ֲ��һ � � � µ � Ͷ � � � � � � � � � ͻ � � � Ƴ � һ � � � ʺ ϴ � � � � ʱ � � г � � � �֤ ȯ � � � � � � � �
� � г � ǡ ϧ � � Ŀ ǰ � � � � ‫ڵ‬ġ � � � � � � � � Ҫ ʹ һ Ⱥ � �ܸ ɵ �ȴ � � � � ʹ � � � IJ � � Ź � � � � ߾ͷ��������
ȡ����Щ�������Ĺ�����Ū�ߡ�Ȼ������ͨ � � � � � � � � ߵİ 취�������
�һ �ִ����� � � �֯ ĸ � � �� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 뱻ҵ���
¢ �ϼ � � ţ � � � ô � � � � � ȡ � � � � Ǵ � � � � � � � � � İ 취�һ � � Ϊ � 졣���
�Ȼ������ ˽ Ӫ � � ҵ � � � � � � � εľ ���� � � � ʧ ȥ � � �Ƶ � � � � ¢ �� � � ҵ ֮�丹��
�ܵ У� � � � � � � ‫��׼‬Ҫ � � � � ɱ � � һ � � � ‫� � �·����ڹ‬

� � � � һ Щ � � ʱ � Ե ľ � � � � � � Ƚϳ � � � � � � ѳ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � е � һ � � � � � � � � �
󡣱� � 磬����Ӣ��С�ƹ�Ӫҵʱ��Ĺ 涨�����‫���ڷ‬ķ� � � � � � Ȩ � � � � � ‫�ڻ‬ʢ� � � � � � � ʱ � 칫
¥ � Ĺ 涨��������ԭ�ȶ����‫�ڵ‬һ � � � � � � ս � ‫�������ڼ‬ʱ�Թ 涨��ԭ��ֻ
‫�����׼‬м � � � � £ � ȴ � 벻����ʮ � � � Ľ � � � � � Щ � 涨�
�Ȼ�� Ч ����� � Ч �� ľ �� � ߶�����������������Ҳ � � � � � һ Щ � � ʱ � Ե ľ � ߣ��
���ÿ � � � � � � � � � � ľ � � ʱ � � � � � � � � Ҫ � � һ � � � Լ � � � " � � � � � һ � � ᱻ����ִ�
���ȥ� � � � � Ƿ � � � � � � ⣿ " � � � � ‫ � � � � " � � "���ش‬ô � � ͻ � � � � Ŭ � � � ȥ Ѱ � � һ � �
� Ӵ � � � � ձ � � Ե ġ � � � � � � � Ի � � ġ � � � Ӱ � � � � � � � Ľ � � � � �ֻ������ķ � � � � Ű �
�˽ � � � � � � � � � ȷ ԭ � �
� � � � � � ô ˵ � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � � һ � 㲻��
�кܶ�ľ � � Ҫ � � � � ⵹�Ϊ ���� � � � ľ � � ̫� � ʱ � 䣬��ʵ� � � � � ‫־‬
�����������ͨ
� � � � � � � � ñȰ��ձ����������ʱ��Ҫ���߸��ʱ�䡣˵ � � � � �߲���Ҫ � �ܶ�� ľ�
ߣ�����Ϊ � � � Ѿ � � � � � ˽�һĹ� � � � � � � � ����� ߣ���Ϊ � � � � � � � � � � й ‫ص‬Ĺ
��� � � � � � � � � � � � � � ⡣ � � һ � � � ɷ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � " ˵ � � � Խ � Ǹ � � ӣ �
� � ʦ Խ � � � � � ‫ � ͼ � � � � � � "�ܡ‬Ѹ � � � � � � ⶼ�����������������ԶԴ��ⲻ֪���
�ֻ��һ � 㷨�ͬ ɹ� � � � µ � һ � � � � � � � � � � Ӱ � � ˡ ͬ � ĵ � - � � � � � � � � � � � 쵽� �� �һ�
�æ � � � � � ߣ���ǡǡ˵�����Ǹ������ֵ���ܵ Ĺ � � � � ߡ�
� � � � � � � � � Ҳ � � � � � � � ⣬ � Ƿ � � � � 쳣���������ܻ������������
�⣺"�ҵĽ����� �ܷ ˵ � � � ѱ � � ۲ 쵽��
�¼ � � � �ܷ����� һ � � � � � � � ¼ � � � " � � Ὣ � � � � Ӧ � � � � 𵽵 � �д � � ����� � � 磬�
�����г � � ¹ ʣ � � � � � � ž Ͷ � � � � � � Ĺ ۲�ʵ� � Ч � � � � � Ρ � � � � � � � 쳣���������
�Щ � � � � � � Ľ � � � ˵ � � � � � � � � � �¼ � ⣬ � ķ � չƫ � � � � � � � ȵ ��û�ԭ 룬�
�ô � � ͻ � � � � ¿ � � � � � � � � � ⡣ ʵ � � � ϣ � � � Щ � � � � � � � � � ǧ � � � � ǰ � � � ɹ � ϣ � ҽ � �
ϣ������‫�ף‬HippocrateG � � � � Ϊ ҽ ѧ � � Ϲ � � � � � � � � ˡ � � � � � � � � � � � � ʿ � � � ϵ ͳ
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � ѧ � � ٤������300� �ǰ � � һ � � � ֤ ʵ� � � � Щ � � � � � � � ‫�ڳ‬Ϊ � �ǰ
� � � п � ѧ � ۲��һЩ � � � ɡ � � � � 仰
˵ � � � � Щ � � � � � ǹ � � ϵ ġ � � � � ˽ �֪�� ġ� � � � � � � ʱ � 俼�
�ġ � � � � ˶ � � � ѧ � � ģ � Ҳ � � � � � ˶ � � � � � ϵ ͳ � ‫���ؼ‬Ӧ�õĹ��ɡ�
� � � � 2 . � � ߵĵ‫���ڶ‬Ҫ � � � DZ � � � Ծ � � � � Ҫ � ‫��ﵽ‬Ŀ� � � � ʮ � � � � ȷ � � ˵ � � � � Ҫ � ‫ﵽ‬ʲô
Ŀ � ģ � Ŀ � � � � � � � ޶���ʲô � �ʵ � � Ŀ � � � � �߱���Щ � � � � � � Щ � � � � � ‫�ڿ‬ѧ� ϱ ��� �֮ Ϊ
" � � � � � � " . һ � � � � Ч � ľ �߱���Ҫ � � � � � � � � Щ � � � � � � � � �ܹ�� ʵ� � � � Ԥ � � � � Ŀ
� ꡣ
��� � � � � � � � Խ � � � � � � � �ȷ � � � � � � � Ч � Ŀ� � � � Ծ � Խ � �ʵ� � � � Ԥ � � Ŀ� � Ļ�
� � Խ � ࡣ� ෴�����δ� �ܶ Խ��������ֵIJ � � � � � ô � � �ܾ�� ߿���ȥ� ж � � � � � � � � ͷ �� Ч ϶ �
ѡ�
� � � � " � � � � � � � � � ⣬ � � � � Ӧ � � � � � � Щ � � � � " � � �� ��� �� �� �� ��̽̽
�� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� һһ � ͨ
�ְ취��" � � � ȡ � � � Ÿ � � � � ˵ � � � � � Ȩ � � " � � � � �
‫ � ¡׵‬P. ˹¡ � � Ż � � � � � � � � Լ � � � " �ܷ��������� ǵ���Ҫ��"�����ԣ����Ƿ񶨵ġ��������‫�ٵ‬
����Ľ � � � � � � � Ҫ � � ҵ � � � ŵ ĸ � � � � � � � � 쵼 Ȩ � � � � � θ С � � � � � � 쵼
Ȩ � � � � � θ м � � � � � �ܲ���� � ͳһ�ж���ͳһ�����
ͬ ����Ҫ��������Ҫ�
Ľ ͬ����
� Ǵ ӻ � Ľ ṹ � Ͻ � � � � � � �� � � � � ⣬ ‫�����������ڻ‬Ͻ � � е � � � � � dz � � � � � � � Ŀ � � ǣ
� ˹ ¡ � �ʹ � � Ľ � � � վ ‫˽�ס‬š �
� � � � Ҫ � ҳ � � � Ӧ � Ľ � � � � � � � � � � � � � һ � � � � � ‫ � ʹ � � �¡��׵‬Ǵ � � � � ˶ Դ � Ҳ � � һ
�� � � � � һ � µĿ � � � � �
��� � � � � � � � � � � � � �
ͣ ͣ � ĵ ‫������ڶ‬ϣ���ŦԼʱ���������ճ�ӡ�˳������
Ϊ� � � ǽ � ӡˢ � � � � Ǩ � � � ˹ � � � ѷ � Ӷ �԰� Ŧ�� ߿˵ � � � ȥ ִ�У � Ŧ �‫����߿����������ݣ‬
�ķ� � 糧���‫��ڷ‬磬���‫�ص‬ӡˢ � � � � ӡ ˢ � � � ‫ص‬ġ � Ŧ �
߿� � � � � � ⣬ � � � к ܴ��DZ � � � � � Ŧ Լʱ � � � � � Ĺ � � � � � Ԥ � � Ҫ ӡ 1 00 � � ‫����ݣ‬ȴֻӡ � � � ˲
� � � һ � 롣��Ϊ� � � ‫ֽ�ڱ‬У � � � � ȥ � � ӡǰ � � � � �
‫�ٵ‬ʱ������Ĵ�˵����ִ�б ༭����Ķ � λ � � �ֶ�һ � � � �ֵ���ַ��Ӧ����ôʹ�÷�������ִ����˵� �
� �ִ������48 � � � ӣ � � ȵ � � � � ‫���۽‬һ � � � ӡ ˢ ʱ � � � Ѿ � � � ȥ � ˡ � � � λ � ༭�����Ϊ
� � � � Ŧ Լʱ � � � � Ӧ � � � � � � � � � � � Ӣ � � � � � 壬�
�N � ˡ � � Ǿ � Բ � �ܷ���� ʲô� �����ġ �
� � � � � ‫���ٶ‬һ˵ � � � � � � ʵ � ģ � � � ȷʵ � � � ҿ ϶ � � � � � � � � � Ҳ � � � � � ʱ � � � Ĺ � � � � Ŷ
� � � һ � � ߻� � � ʲ ô � 뷨����
�ǵ�ִ�б ༭�Ըñ � � �ּ������Լ��ñ�ֽ����Ϊ �ǵ � ̬� ȣ � � � � � � � � ʸ ñ � � � � � � � � ľ � �
� � һ � � Ҳ � � � �ֵġ � � � Ϊ � � � ǵ Ľ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ÿ � � � � � ϱ � � � Ҫ � � � � � �
� ű �ֽ�����DZ� � 뱣�ָñ � � � Ϊ Ӣ � � � � � Ե � Ȩ � � � � �
� � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � � � � � � � � ‫��ף‬κβ � � � � ǽ � � � � � � ľ � ߣ���������Ч � ģ
� � � � � Ҳ � Dz � � � ʱ � ˵ ġ � � � � � � � Ҫ � ȷ � ϴ � � � Ľ � � � � � � ľ � ߸�Ϊ � к � � � � � Ȼ � � � �
� � ߶��Ǵ � � � ģ � � � � Ժ � � � � � � � � � � � � � Խ � � � � � � � � � ǰ � � � � �ֲ����Ǿ � � � � � �
ľ � � � �ֻ�����ܴ
� � � 鷳�����֮���������� Ǵ � � � κκô � � �
��� � � Խ � � � � � � � � � � � � ѵ � � �ʶ � � � � � �ʵ� � � � � Ǽ � Ϊ� �Ҫ �ģ� � � Ϊ� � � � �
� � � � � � � ʲ ô ʱ � � � � � Ҫ � � � � ij � � � � � � � ǿ � � Ծ ‫�������ٳ‬ӣ � һ � � � ǽ � � � � � �
� � � � � ľ � ߣ���һ � � Ľ � � � � � ʮ � � � � � � � � ˣ � � � � � � ߾Ϳ������µľ���ȡ��ԭ�
� � � û � л � � � Ҫ � � � ľ � ߡ�
��� � � � -
� � � � � � ս � � � � ǰ Ϧ � � � ¾ � �ܲ�� ı � � � � � ƶ � � ġ � ʩ � � Ҽ ƻ � � � � � � � һ � � � � � ӡ � �
�֭�������ּ��� õ¹ � �ܹ��� ‫ �ͬ��������ڶ‬ʱ��ս���ֲ��· �ɢ � � � � � Ϊ � � � Ŀ � ģ � � � ʩ
� � Ҽ ƻ � � � � � � Ŷ Զ � � ߽� � � Ķ � �ֻ�ɳ������ԵIJ��ӽ��жԿ���������Ҫ�����
��� � � � � � � � � � 򷨹� � � � � � � · Ϯ� �֮���� ‫�ٻع‬ͷ��Ը����Ȼ��ִ�����
�ļƻ������ ζ ���ս��һ��ʼ������Ҫ���� ö ����� 뵽�¹�
� ��� � �˼� �
‫�������׼‬ǣ � � � ս � � � 󲻾 ã � 1 914 � � 8 � £ � � � � ¹ � � � ö � � � � � � ¹ � � � � � � � ‫ٶ‬ȳ� �
� � � ԭ � ȵ � Ԥ � � �� � ³ ϣ���϶��‫ټ‬ʿ� Ĺ � � � � � � � ǿ � � � � Լ � � � � � Ϯ � � � ̱� � � � � � �
� � � � � �  � � � � � � � � ƽ � � � � � � � Ǿʹ � � � � Ҫ � ¾ � � � � � � � Ǽ � � Ա � � � � �
� � � � ʩ � � ұ � � ˶ � � � ƻ � � е Ľ � � � � � � � ʮ � � � � ȷ � ġ � � � � � � � � � � Щ � ̳� � ˶ � � � һ
Щ � � � � � � Ա � � � � � Ǽ Ȳ � � � ս � Լ ң � Ҳ � � � Ǿ � � � ߡ��������������ˡ� ʩ � � Ҽ ƻ
��� � � � � � Ķ � � � һ- ��� 뼯
�е¾ � � � � Ҫ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � £ � � � � � ԭ � � Ӧ � ÷ � � � � � һ � ƻ � � � � � � � � �
� � ȴ � � � �ִ����һ �ƻ � � � � � � � � � Ȼ � � � � � Դ ‫ﵽ‬Ŀ � ġ � � � � Ƿ � ɢ � � � � � ߵı � � � � ʹ �
� �߳��‫�ڵ‬ʤ��δ�ܽ�� һ � � � � � � � � � � � ߵı� � � � � � � � ӣ � � � Ҳ � � � � � � � Խ � � � � ϳ
� ¹ � � � � � � � � � � � � ‫�����ڵ‬һ�ֽ��‫��־‬棬�����ֽ��‫��־‬
�ǡǡ���ǡ�ʩ��Ҽƻ�����Ҫ�������ġ���ʹս�����һ�����ս�������‫־‬
����£ � � � ս � � ʤ � � � � � Ѳ � � � � � ս � � � � � ƣ � � � � � � � � � � � ơ � � � � � � Ժ � ʵ
� � � � � � û � � ʲ ô ս � Կ � � ԣ � ȡ � � �֮���ֻ� Ǽ � � � � Ĵ � ǡ � ǰ � � ì �ܵ���� ʱ�Ծ���Լ������漣
�ķ � � �
� � � � � ‫��������������ڶ‬෴���Ǿ � � Ǹ � � � � � � * D . � � ˹ � � � � 1 9 3 3 � 굱���
�ͳ�����ȡ���ж������‫�ھ‬ѡ��ͳ�‫ڼ‬䣬�
�˹ � � � � � � � � � һ � � " � � � ø � � �֭��� ".ִ������ļƻ�������Ҫ�Խ�‫ڱ‬ ���������Ԥ�
�ƽ � � Ϊ ǰ � ᡣ���ǣ � � � � � � � ˹ � � � � � ľ �ְǰ � � � � � ľ � � ÿ � � ˡ � � � � � � � � � � � £ �
� �ʹ � � ˹ � � � ľ � � � � � ߻� � � � � � � � � õ Ļ � � � � � ô � � � � � � � Ҳ � � � ǹ � � ˹ ‫ص‬ġ �
��� � � � � ǣ � � � ˹ � � � � � � � � � � � µ � � � � Ŀ � � � � ȡ � � � � � ȵ � ľ ԭ � � Ŀ � ꡣ���"
� � � ø � � � " ‫ � � "����ת‬θĸ � " . � ¼ ƻ � Ҫ � � � � � � � � ϵ Ķ � � � � � � ˣ � � � Ȼ Ҫ � � ԭ � Ƚ � Ϊ �
� � ‫ص‬ľ � � � � � � � � ȫ � ij ɼ � � � ġ � � � � � � ͵ � � � ߡ�����һ � � � � � � � � � � � � ˣ � �
� ˹ � � � � � Ϊ һ λ ΰ � � ľ � � � ߣ��������ʶ�� � � � � � � � ȡ � � Ч � 棬������
�ȫ����ԭ�ȵ�֭�����
� � � � Ҫ � � � � � � � � � ʶ � � � � Щ � � ߵķ � � � � � � 󣬹 �� �� � � ߾ͱ���Խ������������ѵ
� � �ʶ � � � � � � 򣬾 �� �Щ � � ʶ � � � � �� �ֻ��������˳� � � � � � ² � � �ܴ ‫ﵽ‬Ŀ � ĵľ � ߡ���Щ
� � ߿� � � ȥ Ҳ � � � � һ � � � ĵ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ϸ � � � ǹ � � � Щ � �߱���Ҫ � � � � �
Ҫ � �֮����� ͻᷢͻ����ЩҪ��ӱ�����˵�ǻ������ ‫ݵ‬ġ �Ҫ � � � � � � ľ � ߻� óɹ � � � � � �
� ˵ � � � ‫�ֻ�޿��ܣ‬ǿ � � � � Բ � � � � � ѡ � � Ͼ � � 漣���Ǿ� � � �ܹ������ ģ � � � ϣ � � � � � �
‫����ڷ‬漣�����в ͨ ͨ� ġ � �
� � � � һ � � � �ܵ����� ӱ��ǿ������ͳ��1961��"�����¼�"�ϵľ�ߡ�������
���У ͬ� � � һ � � Ҫ � � � � Ҫ � � ˹ � ͬ � � � � � ̨� � ʱͬ � � � � Ҳ � � � � � � һ � � Ҫ � � � Ǿ � � Dz � Ҫʹ
��˾ � �� �� �� �� �� �� � ‫�����װ�����ڸ‬һ � � � � � ޹�ҵ��������‫���ڶ‬Ҫ � � � Ե � ʮ �ֻ��
ƣ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ҳ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ȫ � ǹ Ű � � ‫������ڲ‬һ �
� � � � � � � � ľ � ߸�������Щ � � � � � � � � ˵ � � � � � � � � � � � � � · � � � һ � � � � �
ġ� � � Ҫ � � � � � � Ȼ � � � � � � � � � � Ҫ � � � � Ҫ � � Э � � � � � � � � dz � � � ǹ Ű � �
޵ � � �˹ � � � � � ‫�ʹ������ڲ‬Ű; � Ӵ � � � ̱� � � � ̬‫���������״‬Ȼ����˵ � � ȫ � � �
‫ڲ�����˹������װ‬
� � ‫����ܣ‬Ǵӵ �ʱ � �ʵ � � � � � � � � � � Ŀ � � � � � � � Ȼ � � � ΢� � �� ΢�ġ� ˣ � � � � � � � � � ‫�ٵ‬ѡ
� � � ǣ � Ҫ ô � � � � � � � ƻ � � � Ҫ ô � � Ӧ ȫ �֧����� һ � � � � � ж � � � � Ա �֤ ����ֵ ijɹ� � �
��� � � � � � � � ˵ � � � � � Ƕ Կ � � � � � � � � � Ĵ � � � � � ͳ� � � � � � � � � � � � ˵� �
� � � � " � � � � � ‫�ר‬Һ͹��ʵ����"���������Ĵ�����δ����ϸ�‫�������ؿ‬ľ�߱���Ҫ � � � � �
�Щ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � -
�� �� ˲ � � � �� �� ʵ ��ʵ�һ �һ� � � � �� �
ҪҪ� � �� �� �� � �ִӱ�����˵����Э��Ľ������ľ�ߣ�ʵ� �
� � � 㲻����ʲô� � ߣ������ֻ��һ � � ϣ � � � � � � 漣�����ΰ � � ˡ �
� � � � � � � � � � � Ҫ � ľ � ߶��ԣ � Ҫȷ � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ҫ � 󣬹 ⿿" � �ʵ " � Dz � � е ģ � � � Ҫ
� � � � � � ô � � � � � � � ⣬ � � � � һ �ֳ�����յ��жϡ�
� � � � ÿ � � � ˶ � � � �ܻ�������� ľ � ߣ�ʵ� � � � ˭ � � � � ⲻ � ˻���ij ʱ��� � � � � � ľ
� ߡ����ǣ � ˭ � � � � Ӧ � � ȥ � � � � ߡ�‫�޷�����������������־‬
� � � � 3 . � � � ‫��ڿ‬ǵ�����������Ҫ��Щ��Э���������‫��ھ‬ʱ�����ȴ��ǷDZ�‫���׼‬ǧ � � � � һ � �
ʼ��պϣ�������������Ƿǡ���������߸㲻�
͸� պ ϣ � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ƿǡ� � � � � � � � �
�ʲô � � � � ȷ � Ľ � � � � � � � Ҫ � � � � ô � � � � Ȼ Ҳ Ū � � � � ʲ ô � � � � ȷ � � � � Э � � ʲ ô � Ǵ � � �
� � � Э � � � � ͷ � �ܿ�������������
� � � � � � � � � � �ܻ Э� �
� � � � � � � � l 944 � 꿪 ʼ���‫״‬δ � � � � � ѯ � � Ŀ ʱ � � ѧ � � � � � � һ � 㡣���
Ҫ� ��
�ͨ ͨ� � �� �ͨ Ĺ˾ � � ṹ � � � � � � � � � � һ � ε � � � о � � � � � � � � ‫ � ¡׵‬P. ˹¡ �ǵ � ʱ�� ù ʱͨ� ˾ �
Ķ � � ³ � � � �ܾ������� տ�ʼ����Ͱ��ҽе�����칫� İ ң � � � � � ˵ � � � " � Ҳ � � � � � 涨�
�Ҫ � о � ʲô � � д ʲ ô � � Ӧ � õ ó � Щ ʲô � � �ۣ��� Ƕ � � � � � � � � � 顣
�ҵ�Ψһָʾ � ǣ � � � � � � � Ϊ � � ȷ � Ķ � � � д � � � � � � � Ҫ � � � � � � � ǻ � � � ʲ ô � � Ӧ � � Ҳ � � �
‫ � � � ˼ع‬Ŀ � � � � Ƿ � � � � � ǵ � θ � ‫���ֻ���ڡ‬Ὠ�飬���
�Ϊ � � � DZ � � � � ȡ � � � � Э � � ʩ � � � � ġ � � � � � ˾ � Ĺ � � � � � � � � ˲ � � � � � Ҫ � � ȡ � �
Э � � ʩ � � � � � � � � � Ƕ � � �֪����� β � ȡ ' � �ȷ � � ' � � Э � � ʩ � � � � � � � � ȸ � � � � �
� � ʲ ô � � � � " � � ȷ � � ' . "ÿλ � � � ‫��ڿ‬Ǿ� ߵĹ� � � � ߶�Ӧ�ð�˹¡�������λ�����������
��� � � � � � � � � ͳ � � " � � � � � ¼ �" �ij� � �ʧ � � � � � � ȡ � � ˽��� ˣ � ѵ� � � � � �
� " � Ű͵ � � � Σ � � " � ¼ � � � ȡ � � � � ʤ � � � � � Ǵ � � ¼ � � ϣ � � � ᶨ � � � Ƶ
‫�ذ���ס��߱���ﵽ‬Ľ � � � � � � � � � ˿ � � � � � ʲ ô � � � � � Э � ǿ � � Խ � � �ܵ ģ� � � � 磬��
�Ŀ � � � � � � � � ʾʵ � ‫�غ˲����ޱ‬Ҫ � � � � � � � � � � � � � ‫�����ط‬ʵ�‫ � � ˲غ‬Ҫ � � 󣩣� ʲô � �
� � � � � DZ � � � �ֵ��‫׵‬ģ� � � � 磬����ĵ� � � � � � � � � � ˻ � � � � ȥ � � � �
� � � � � � Э � � � �ֲ �ͬ������ͬ
ֲ�ͬ� � � � � ʡ� � � һ � � � � Э � ͺ ñ ȹ � � � � � � � ˵ � � � � � � " � � � � �
� �ܱ�� û � � � � � � � ú á � " � � һ � � � � Э � � � � � � � � � � � � � а � � � � � � � � � ˵ � � � �
� � � ӵ � ĸ � � � � � ѵ � � � ʶ � � � � " � � � � Ҫ � ‫������ذ‬ӣ � � � � � � 罫����
�͸�Է� Ϊ � á � " ��ǰһ���� Э � � � �õ� � � � � � � � � � 㣬����������
�ṩʳ � �� Ȼ� Ҳ� � � � �ʳ �  Ҳ � � � � �� �á � � � � ��ͬ ͬȻ � � � � Ӿ Ͳ � -
� � � ˣ � � �ֻ�ǰ� � � � ʬ � � � ѡ �
� � � � � � � � ‫��ھ‬ʱ��һζ�����˼��Ƿ� �ܽ��� ‫�������ܣ‬Щ � � � � � Ƿ � � � � � � � � ˵ ķ � �
ԣ � � � � � � �ֻ���˷ � ʱ � 䣬
�Ǻ � � � � � � � ģ � � � Ϊ � � � � � � � ѹ � � � � � � � �ܷ Ͳ ������� Щ� 벻�����
�Ѽ � � � � � � � � ͻ Ȼ � � �֣���� Ϊ � � � � � � Խ � � � ϰ � � � � � һ � � ˵ � � � � � � � � � � � һ
� �ʼ � � � � � Լ � � � � � � � � � � � � ⣺ " � � Щ � � � � � Ҳ Ҳ � � �ܽ
˼ ��� ‫ � � "�ܣ‬ô � � � � � � � ľ �
߿϶�� � � � � к ý � � ԭ � �ܼ򵥣�������� ‫���ڻش‬һ � � � � Ĺ � � � У � � � � ‫��ں‬± � � ˷ � � � ԣ���
� � ɾȥ � � � � � � Ҫ � � � � � ‫��ݣ‬Ӷ � ʹ � Լ � � ľ � � ʧ ȥ � � Ч � 棬 ʧȥ� � � � ȷ � � ԡ�
� � � � 4 . � � � 뽫���‫��ת‬Ϊ � ж � � � � Ǿ � ߵĵ � � ĸ � Ҫ � ‫ � � �˵����ء‬ǽ � � � � � � Ǿ � ߹
��������ѵĻ � � ‫ڵ‬Ļ � � � � � ô Ҫ � � � � � ‫��ת‬Ϊ ͨ� �Ч � � � ж ͨ� Ļ ��� � � � � � �ʱ
‫���ڡ‬Ǵ � һ � �ʼ � 㽫��ŵ � � � � � � 񶼰 �� �� � ‫���ھ‬У� Ҫ � � � � � �߱�������塣
� � � � � � ʵ � ϣ �ֻ�е � � � ᳹� ��ʵʵ�� �� ߵľ � � � � ʩ � � � � � ij � � � ˵ ľ � � 幤������
�ʱ�����߲��Ե�����������塣��������������ô � � � ̸� � � � � � ʲ ô � �
ߡ����ֻ�Ǹ � � � õ � Ը � � � � ˡ �
� � � � � � � � � � � ˵ � � � � � � � �� ��� � � � � � � � ��ᷳ λ ҵ � � � � � � ˡ � � � � � � � � ˵
� � � � � � ж � � ϵ ij � ŵ � � � � ˶ � � � � � � ʵ � � � � � � û � � ‫ � � � � ˸�ר‬ѹ ֻ���Ĺ� � � � � Ա �
Ὣ � � � � � � � ˵ � � � � Ц � ƣ � � � � � � � ‫����ڽ‬ǵ���߲�����‫��׼‬ȥִ�еĹ � � � � � � µ Ļ �
��
� � � � � � Ҫ � � � � � ‫��ת‬Ϊ � ж � � � � � � � � � � � ȷ � � � � ‫��������ػش‬⣻��߱���Ҫ
� � ˭ ֪��������� ȡʲô�ж�����ʵ��Ӧ�����ȡ��һ�
��˭ �ж ����һ� ж�Ӧ�ð���Щ��� ‫��ݣ‬Ա���ִ�о � ߵ��˿
� � � � � � � ѭ � � � � � � Щ � � � � � У � � � һ � � � � � � � � � � һ � � � � � � � � � � � � � ‫�ױ‬
��������ԣ � � Ӷ � � � � � � � � � Ե Ľ � �
��� � � � �˳ � ѧ � � � У � � � � � � � � � -
� � � � £ � � � � � � ˵ � � " � �߱���Ҫ � � ˭ ֪���" � � � � Ҫ � � ԡһ��һ � � � � � 칤 ҵ�豸
ͣ � � ̼� � � ǰ � � � � �
�Ĵ ͣ � � � ij � � � ͺ ŵ � � 豸���ö � � � � � � � � � � � 豸 һֱ�ǻ � � � � Ʒ � е ı �
‫��׼‬Ʒ�����в��‫�ٲ‬Ʒ������‫�ʹ���ڼ‬á � � � ˣ � � � ˾ ͬ ʱҲ � � � � δ � � Ķ � � � � м � � � � � � � 豸���
��û � � ṩ � � � ͺ ŵ Ļ � � � � � � � � � � � � Ǹ � � � � Ҫ � � � � � �֮��� 󣬹� ˾ � Ͳ � � � � � � � � � � ۴
����ͺŵĻ � � � � ˡ � � � � � � � � ͺ Ż � � � Ķ � � � � � � � � һ ֱ���½ � � � � � � ơ � � ǵ � � Ͽ ͻ �
� �֪����ֱ� ŵIJ �Ʒ � � � ý � � � � ‫�ٹ‬Ӧʱ����������ͻȻ������ǣ�û�������"�����ͣ�� ߸�֪��� Щ �
ľ �
�" � � � � � � ˭ Ҳ û � 뵽
Ҫȥͨ�
֪ͨ ɹ� � � � � � � ɹ � � ò � � � � � � � Ա � � � ɹ � Ա � � õ � � �ָ��ǰ� � � � ǰ � � � ۵ ı � � � � � � ͺ Ż
� � � IJ � � � � � û � ˶ � � � ˵ � � � � Ҫ � ޸���һ� ָ �����
� � � � �ȥ�� 󣬵�� �˾˾‫�ֹ��׼‬ � ���ͣ
� � ֹ ò�Ʒʱ � � ȴ � �
�֣���ֳ��� Ŀ � � ‫���װ‬ൽ���㹻����ʹ� � 8- 10꣬ ����� Ҳֻ�ð‫ � �˷��װ‬ˡ �
� � � � � � � � ж � Ҳ � � � � � �ִ�о� � � ߵ��������Ӧ��
� � � � һ � һ � � � � � ҵ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ൱����ʽ𱻶
� � � � � � � � � � ǹ � � �  Ϊ � ����� �� �� �ʧ �� � � � �˱ ʽ � �� �� � � � � � � � ʽ � � ˾‫���ڵ��ذ‬ҵ����
˾ � � ԭ � � � ǣ � � � � � � ҵ � Ե � � ‫ص‬ľ � � � Ӧ � � � � � ‫���ף‬ҵ���‫ش‬ӹ�����ԭ�����Ӫ�ɹ��  ϣ
����Ӫ�ɹ��Ļ
� � � � � ߽�����‫ ⶳڵ��ؽ‬ʱ����‫�ص‬۸�‫�ת‬Ͷ��� ‫�ߣ��ٽ‬Ǯ � � � � � � Ϊ � ˣ � � � � ˾����� �
һ�ֱ����ȴ�ˮ � � ļ 򵥻 � ѧ � Ҷ��ա�� � � � � �� Ҷ ʢ� �
ʢ � ˮ� �ˮ � � � ‫�ڹ‬ȥ� � � � � � ȱ � � � ӹ � � � � �
� �ֶΣ � � � � � ˮ � � � � � � � � � � � � � ۵�; � о � � � � � � ‫���ص‬ġ �
� � � � � � � � � ҵ � � � � � � � ޹�Ҷ�ȡ���˳ɹ�������-���ҵĵ��‫������ؾ‬ҵ�ı�
ߣ��̫���‫�����׼‬Ҫ �ɼ � � �߳��ġ � �ܹ������� ѵ � � Ĺ � � � � � � � � � � � й � � � � � �
��� � �� ˲ � � ‫����ڵ‬Ǻ � � � � ҵ � � ġ � � � � � һ � � � ҵ � � � λ � � ҵ � � � � � � � ‫��ڿ‬ǵ�����
� ս � Ҫ � � � � � � � � � ҵ � � � ˵ � ʵ � � � � � � � � � � Ծ � � � ‫���ؼ‬ҵ��̣�����һ��ʼ��
��� �ҵ � � � � � � � � � ¹ � � õ � � � � ˲š�
�� � � � � � � � Ժ � � � � � � � � � �ʼ � � � � �ʽ � � � � � � ˡ �Ȼ � � � ǼҸ � ߱ ‫����׼‬ҵ����
ʮ� � � � � � � Ҳ � ȴô � � �Ҳ� � � � � � ‫�������ص‬Ϊ � � � � � ˸ � � � Ͳ�� ߱ �������ҵ�
ļ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ҵ ֻ�ñ� � � � ̴� � � � � � � � � ʧ � � � � � � � ⡣ � � � � � � һ
� � � ҵ � � Ǽ � � � ҵ � � ȴ � � � � � � � � ൱�‫���ص‬ҵ�ң���ˣ���˾�����ջ���ԭ��Ͷ
� � � � ʽ 𣬶��������൱�ɹۡ�
� � � � � � � � � � � ҵ � IJ � Ʒ � � � � � � � ̻� � � � � � � �
ͬ ͬ� ģ � � � � � � ǰ һ � � � � � � �  ûҵ�
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ⣺ " � �ִ�о� ߵ����е � � � � ˲ ŵ � � ߱‫׾‬ ߱ ���Щ � � � � � � � ǵ � � ‫׿‬
���ʤ����Щ����"����߾� � 跨��˳� � ‫��ع‬
��� � � � � -
� � � � Ҫ � � Ϊ � � Ч � � � ж � � � � � ô � й � � � Ա � ͱ � � � Ҫ � ı � � Լ � � � � � Ϊ � � ϰ � ߺ�̬�ȡ����
��� � � � � £ � � � �ʹ� � � � ж � �Ͼ ʺϾ � � �ִ���˵ � ʵ � � � � � � � � Ե � � ‫����ر‬Ҫ � � � � � �
� � Ӧ � � � 跨��ʵ� � � � � � � � ж � � � � � � � Ҫ � 䵽��ͷ��������ʵ���˱���Ҫ���㹻�
�����������߶�������Ŀ � � ˷ �ʽ � � � � � ˱ � ‫������׼‬취�
�Ӧ�������Ӧ�ĵ���Ҫ���Ļ����й���Ա�������뵽�‫ ��֮������ͻ������ڲ‬ж � � � � ԰ Ρ �
� � � � � � ¶ ࡣά � � � � � û � � � � Ƴ � � � � � � � ‫������ں‬Ч � ķ � � � � ‫�׼‬Ļ � � ô � � Ĺ � �
‫�����ڷ‬DZ � � � � ˾ � � �� �� � �ּ�ľ� ߿� � ¾ ͻ � � � ա � � � � � � � ľ ˾�� � �һ�� ϰ�� � � �õ�λ
ӯ����߳ɱ � � � Ϊ � � � � � � � ɼ � � ı � ‫��׼‬ά � � � � ± � ‫ � � �ʹ��׼‬Ǻ ܿ����Ӧ����Ŀ�ꡣ
� � � � � � � � � Ǹ � � � ȫ � ෴�����ӡ�
-� � � � ʷ � ƾ á � � � ģ � Ĵ � һ � � � � � � Ϊ � � � � � � � ˾ʮ �һ λ �� �ܸ ɵĶ � � ³ � � � �ܾ���� Ϊ � ˹ �

˾� � � � � ͷ � չ � � � � ȡ � � � ¹ ˸ � ṹ � ˾ �� � � � �� � � Ŀ˾ȴ�ʩ�� � � ϧ�� �ʧ�� �ˡ��
�˾ � � � � ˶ � � � Ϊ � � � ´ � ʩ � DZ � Ҫ � ġ � �
ܳ �һ � �ʱ � � � �
‫ں‬  � ù һ � ��ҵ� Ǵ � � � � � ���ͷ� � � ȴ 򣬿 � ǽ ˾ � � � � � � � � Ե � � ϻ � � � � ơ
� � � � � � ‫����ڸ‬Ҫ � � � � 򣬹 �� �
˾ � ��ܵ������ Щ � � � ¡ � � � С � � ȴ � и � � � ȡ � ĵ ľ � � � � �ֵ�
��ս��Ϊʹ��ĸ��´�ʩ� �ܵ õ� � � 㷺��֧�֣����� λ � � � ³ � � � һ Щ � � � � � �
‫ע‬Ŀ � � � � � ɴ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ҫ � � н � � � � ߵ�ְλ � � ȥ � � � ‫��ر‬ǽ � � � � ж � λ � � � �
Ϊִ�и� � �ܲ á � � � һ � � � ˾ � � Ĺ � � � � � Ա � � � � � � һ � � ӡ � � ' � � � Dz � � � � � � � ĸ  " � � �
� Υ � � � � � � � � � Ϊ � � � � � � ߵĽ � � � � � ô � � � ˶ � � � ó � � �ۣ���������� ± � � � �
۵���Ϊ � � � Ǹ � ߲ �����Ա������ĺ���Ҫ�ν��ġ�
� � � � � � � � � � ÿ � � � ˶ � � � � � ά � � � � � � � б � � ½ � � � ߵ�ִ�����߱�����Ϊһ � 塣��
�ǣ � ij � � � � � � � � � Ҫ � � Щ � ж � � � ŵ � � � � ŵ ֮������Щ � � � � Ҫ � � � � ˭ �ִ�и � � � �߱Ƚ�
� ‫�����׵‬Щ � � � � � ˶ � � � � Կ � � ǵ � � � � ⡣
� � � � 5 . � � � һ � � � DZ � � 뽫����
�Ϣ��ֿ��ǽ� � � � � ȥ � � � Ա � �ܸ��� ʵ� � � � � ϵ � � �֤ ��� ߵ�Ԥ��Ŀ���Ƿ���ʡ�
��� � � � � � � � � � � � � � ģ � � � � � � � � ᷸� � � � � ��� ˲�ľ Ҳ������ � � � �
Զ��ȷ�ġ�������Ӣ��ľ��Ҳ�ܿ������ � � � �ܻ ë � � � � � � � � Ч � ľ � � � � � � һ � � Ҳ � ǻ ᱻ��̭�ġ�
� � � � � � � � � Ҫ � ���� �� �� � �֤ ⷽ �� Ļ � � � � � ô ά � � � ˹ ¡ � ľ �߱�����õ� � � � ӡ � � � � � �
� � � � к ܴ���������������������‫�ڶ‬ľ � � � У �ֻ��-
� � � � ʱ � � � � � � � Ȼ � � � á � � Ǿ � � � ά � � � � � " � � � � � DZ � � � 绰��˾ � � � �ּ" � � һ � �
ߡ��������绰�籨��˾ � Ĺ � �
‫ڹ‬ɵ� Ͷ � � � � � � � � � � � � 5 0 � � � � � � � � � � � � ij � �ֶ�ò � � � � ˺ ܴ�ĸĶ � � � � � ʱ � � � � � � һ �ֻ
�Ͷ��� ˣ ���� � � � �ϻ� �ͻ�� � � � � � Щ � � � � � �˵ �ʱ� в � ‫�׼‬Ͷ�ʵ����� � � � �Ȼ
� � � � ʵ � � � һ � � ‫��������ڷ‬Ҫ � � � ã � � � � � � � � ¼ � � � ķ � չ � � � ‫��ر‬Ǽ� � � Ϳ ռ 似�
�ķ �չ � �ʹ � � � κ � һ � � � ͨ Ź �� ͨ �ͨ �� ͨ ޷˾�ͨ������������������� м � � � Ϳ � � � ϵ ѧ�
��� � � �ʱ
ͬ ͬ�� � � � ‫���ڼ‬ķ �չ � � 7 5 � � � � � һ � γ � � � � � � � � � � � � � 绰��������
�µij �;�� �� ;ͨ�ֶε � � Ͼ � � � ս � � � � � � Ϣ � � � � ‫ͨ�������ͨ�ݵ‬ û� � � κ � һ � ��
ͨ� ý�� � �Ա
��� � �ͳ �ε�λ� � � � Ҫ�� ¢ � � ˵ �ϵ�λ�ˡ� � �
‫�ڹ‬ȥ�ܳ�� һ � �ʱ � � � �  � � �� � �� � ⷽ � - ˾ � Ǵ � � � ¢�ϵ�λ�ġ� � � �ܹ���
‫�����ڹ‬Ȼ�� ˽Ӫ� � ; ͨ � Ź � ˾ � � � � � �Ҫ � � �ֶΣ � � � � � ά � � � � � � Ƴ � � � � �ֹ��‫��ڹ‬
��ɸ�����Լ�����Ĺ��‫����ڹ‬뵱
ǰ � � ȫ � � � � � � � � � ǹ � � � Ե � �� �
� Źͨ� � һ ô ͨ˾� � � � ʵ Խ � Խ � � � � � � ˡ � � � � � � � � � �
� � � � � � � � � Ĺ � � ‫���ڹ‬ij� �ֲ����DZ � Ҫ � ģ � � � � � Ҳ � Dz � � ɱ � � � ġ � � � �ֹ���ɲ
� �DZ � � � � ˾�ġ ��� � ෴������˾ � � � � ͼ ͨ� � ij � � � � � � ս � � � � � � � � � � � � �
� � � � � � � � � � Ĺ � � ‫����ڹ‬ʩ������ά���˺ܲ�Ը � � � � � � � һ � ж � � �
��� � � � � � ˹¡� ��
ͨ ͨ ù �� � е � ķ� � ͨ˾ Ȩ � � ߣ���������ʵ�С �ֻ�����м� � � � � �
� � һ � �߲��ý� � ᱻ���¼ � � Կ � � ǡ � ˹ ¡ � � � � � һ Щ � � � � � � ԭ� � � � � � ѱ ޸ģ � Ŀǰ� � � � � � �
� � � Ŀ ȫ � � � ˡ � � � � 磬 ԭ�����������Ȩ�������첿�ţ� � � �
‫�����ڶ������װ�������ڽ‬ʧȥ� � � � Ȩ � � � � � � Ҳ � � � � � Զ � � � � Ľ � � ȫ � � �
� �Ρ � � � � � � ͺ ŵ � � � � � ѩ � � � � � � � � � � � ˣ � Ҳ � Ѳ � � � � � ˹ ¡һ � �ʼ � � � � Ƶ � � � �
� � � Դ � � ij � � � � ‫���ݡ‬Ϊ� � � � ‫ע‬Ŀ � � � ǣ � ˹ ¡ � � � � � һ � � � � � ˾ � � � � Ȼ � � � � � �
� ‫ ��֯� � � � � � � � ˾ � ˹��������ڹ‬͹ � � � ṹ � � � � � � � � � � � Ȼ � ֻ �һ � � � � � �˾���
� � ǣ � � � � � � � � � � � ȫ � � � ͬͨ ˣ � � � � � ���
��ͬ � � Ե� Ե ͬ ‫���س‬һ � ҹ � � � Ե Ŀ � � ˾ � � � � ˾
˾
ͨ
� ‫���ڹ‬IJ� �֡����� ‫�����ر‬ŷ� ޵��Dz � �֡������ ȡ���˾޴�ķ �չ � � � � � � � � � Ҫ � Ļ
� ᡣ����ҿ � � ˾ � ˵ � � � � � û � � � � ȷ � � ԭ � � � � � ȷ � � � �֯��� Ļ � � � � � � � � � � ͷ � չ � ͻ
� � Ϊ � � � ⡣ ˹ ¡ � � 1 9 22 � � � � ̨ʱ � � � � � е ķ � Ȩ � ƹ � � � � � � � � � � � � � õ ‫�����س‬ȥ� � �
� � õ Ľ � � Ҳ � � � � � � � � � � � ¿ � � ǡ � � � � � � � ô Ԥ � ԣ � һ � � � � ҵ � � � ‫������پ‬ʱ�
‫��ڣ‬Ըĸ‫ﵱ‬ǰ � � � Ҫ � � 󽫻 �� ø � � � � С � � � � � � ‫׵‬ĸĶ � � � ˹ ¡ � ķ � � �
�ܿ������ � �ܻ Ϊ � � � � ��ͨ� � � � � ϵ � � � ͨ˾ һ � � � � ʯ � � � � Խ � Խ � � Ϊ � � ˾ � ɹ � � İ � � ʯ � �

� � � � � � � � ɭ � � � � � ѡ � � ͳ ʱ � � � � � ǰ � ι � �  s. � � ³ � � � � ˵ � � � " � � � � İ � � ˣ � � �
� ‫�����ڵ‬ʱ��һ��������ȥ�� ����������� �᳹� ��������� 衣������������Ǽ � � 칫�����ˣ � � � � � �
‫������ٷ‬�߳�������¾Ͳ� � � � � � � � ‫������ھ‬ô˳� � � ˡ � " � � � � � � � � � � � 󣬲
��� � �˵ � � � � � Ȩ �Ҫ � � � � � �ͳ Ĵ� � � � � � Ϊ � � ӻ� � � � � � ˽⣺� � �ȥ�˲� � � � � �
�ʵ � � � � � � � ô � � � � � � � � � �ġ � �յ ������ �֪���������� ȥ� � һ � � � � �
� � � ȡ � ÷ � � � � Ϣ Ψ - �ɿ � � İ 취���㱨�İ 취����������ͳ��Ҫ������ ˽һ Ψһ �ֶ�һ-�
‫���̫��ﲻ‬æ � � � � ӵ �ָ�ӹ‫������ٶ���ף‬
´�֮�����������
󣬱� � � � � � � � � ȥ� � � � � � � � Ƿ � � ѱ �ִ�С � � � � � � � Ҳ Ӧ � � � � Dz � � � � � � �
�ȥ � ˽ � � � � � � � � � �ֻ����ִ������������һ � �֮�� ʡ� � � ⵹� Dz� �� � � �Լ�
� � � � � � � � Ϊ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ʽ � Ļ 㱨��ͨ��
� � � � � � � � � Ϊ ʲ ô � � Ӫ � � � � � � � � Ҫ � � � Ե � ʳ � � � � ȥ � � � ‫�׿ڳ‬һ � · � � ˵ � � � ζ � ĵ �
� � � � Ȼ � � � � Ҳ � � � Բ � � � ȥ � � � � � Կ � � � � � � ߽����‫ף‬б� � ˰ Ѳ � � � � � � � � 飬����
��û � � � � � � � � � � � � � ǻ � � ߽�ʿ � � � ò ͵ � ʳ � á � � � � � ȥ � � һ � � � � � � dz Ե Ķ � � � � ζ �
��� � � � ô � �
��� � � � � ŵ � � �ʱ� �ĵ� � � � � � ˽ ʵ� �ø � � � � � � � � � Ҫ � � � � Ϊ � � � � � � � � �ִ��
�����֮
� � ľ � � � � �ܻ��� һ � � � � � 󡣳 �� � � � � � �ܽ�������� Ĺ ۵ 㣻���Ҫ � � � � ȥ �ֳ���-
�� � � � � � � Ļ � � � � � � � � ɻ � Խ � Խ � � � �ʵ �ʡ � � � � Դ � � � Ķ � � � һ Щ� � � � ĸ � �  �
� � � Щ � � � �ֻ�о � � � � � � ʵ � � ļ � � �֮����� ǿɿ � � ģ � Ҫ � � � Ļ � � � � � �ֳ������϶�
��� � � � � � � � � � � ; � �
��� � � � � � � � ˽ � � � � � � � � ߵ�ǰ� � � Ƿ � � � Ȼ � � Ч � � � � � � � Ѿ � � � ʱ � � � � ô � � � �
� �ȥ � � һ � � � � � � � � � ⲻһ�Ψ��� � �ķ ����Ļ��� � � � � � �Ҳ�� � � � � Ѱ 취
�ˡ � � � � � ǰ � � � � � � � Ҫ � � ʱ � ģ � � � Ϊ � � ʵ � � � һ � ɲ � � 䡣
� � � � � � Ը � � ȥ � ˽ � ʵ � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ǽ �ּ����‫��ٺ������ٺ‬ʵ� � ж � � � һ � �
� � � ɡ � � � � � � � � � � � � ҵ � � � � д � � ‫���������ڣ‬ŵ� � � ߾� � � � Ҳ �� �� �� �� Ҳ ͬ
‫ں‬
ܴ����
‫ڡںـ‬ �̶���Ҳ � � � � ˵ � � Ϊ ʲ ô ˹ � � �ֵ�ŷ � � � � � ʧ � � � ˣ � Ϊ ʲ ô � � � � � Դ � � � � Ϊ � ‫�׵‬ŷ
� ޶���˶���δ����ʱ������ŷ����ߣ�ΪʲôӢ��‫ܽ������ٳٲ‬ � � � "ŷ � ޹�ͬ�� г � " � � � � � ʵ � �
� � � � � � Ϣ � � � Ӧ � � � Ǿ � � � ӹ � � ģ � Ӧ � � � � � � �ֺͱ��档�������
�δ�ܽ���� Ϣ����������ʵ�Ļ�֮�� ϣ������ǿ���Լ�����ȥ���Կ�һ�����
�ô � � ϶ � � �
᷸�ë ������ � � � � ʲô� � �Ҳ � Ͳ � � � � кõ�Ч� �
� � � � � � � � � � Щ � � � Ǿ � ߵ�Ҫ � ‫���߲��ʹ������������ء‬Ч � 棬��
�ǽ � � � � � һ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ⡣
��� �7 � �Ч �ľ� �
� � � � � � ߾� � � � ж ϡ � � � � � � � һ Щ � � � Ŀ ͬ � з � � � � � � � � һ � � ���ѡ
��ͬ�
˵������ �� ���˵�� ͬ� �
ѡ����һ������£�������ָ" � � " � � " � � " ֮���ѡ��������Ҳ� ֻ �" � � � � Ƕ Ե � " � � " Ҳ � � � Ǵ � � " ֮
���ѡ�����������
񡣶�ͨ�ͨ ȴ �� �ֻ����ֲ����ͬ � � Ϊ� � � �֮���� ѡ���������֮�� 䣬���
�˵ � ĸ � � � ĸ � � � � ȷ � �
� � � � � � � � � � � � ߵ�‫��ھ‬鶼��ô˵ � � " � � � � Ҫ Ū � � � � �
‫�ࡣ"����׿‬г � Ч � ľ � � � ߶�֪������ ߵĹ � � � � � � � Ǵ � � � � ࿪ʼ�ģ����Ǵ��뷨�
�ʼ�ġ���Щ�뷨����û � о � � � ʵ �ʵ ļ � � 飬����ֻ��һЩ � � � 裬�
�ˣ � � � ̸� � � � � � ʲ ô � �ֵ��Ҫ � � � ж � ʲ ô � � � � ࣬ �� Ǿ� � � � � Ҫ ȷ � � � � ‫ص‬ı�‫���׼���ر‬Ҫȷ
� � � � � ʵ ĺ � � � � ‫ � � � �˵�������׼‬Ч � � ߵĸ٣�Ҳ ͨ� �� ͨ��� � � � � � � � � � � � ۵ ĵ‫��ط‬

� � � � � � � � � Ч � ľ �߲��������̿�������˵ � � � � � � � � � � ‫������ڶ‬-
� µĿ � � � � � ǡ ǡ � ෴����ȷ��ߵ���ʶ�� � � � ‫����ͬ�ڲ‬ij � ͻ � � ì � �֮�� в � � � ģ � � � � � �
濼�Ƕ � � � � � ж � � � � � � � һ � � � �
� � � � � � Ҫ Ū � � � � � � � Ǻ � � � � � ġ � � � Ϊ û � � � � ‫ص‬ı� ‫ � � � � � �Ͳ���׼‬ҵ � ʲ ô � � � ࡣ� ¼
��� � � � Ǿ � � � � � � ࡣ
� � � � � � � � � � ѧ � У �֪������ ʵ� � � ζ � � � � � � � � � � ˽ � � � � � � � � � � � ֱࡣ ֱ ����
�֪���ij � � � � � � � ɫ � � Ҳ � � � � � ͵ � � � � � ˽ � � � � ࡣ� � � � � � � � ԣ�ζ � Ǹ�����Ҫ�
� � � ࣻ ��� ˵ � � � 滭����ɫ����ͷ����Ҫ�����ࡣ� � � � ѧ � � " � � � ͻ 滭��
�Ӹ � � Ե � � � Ҫ � � � � � � й ‫����ص‬飬�
�˾ͻ Ὣ �� � �
� �ͬ
� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� ͬ
". ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � ߻� � � � ã � � � � Ǹ
� � � � 鲢���Ǵ � Ѱ � � � � � � � � � ࿪ʼ�ģ������ȴ��뷨�
�ʼ�ģ�������û��ʲô���ԡ����Ǿ����ij���¼����ͱ�Ȼ����Щ�뷨������
�ij � � � � � � � � � � � � � ˺ ó � һ � � ʱ � � � � � � � � � � � 뷨
�Ļ � � � � � ˵ � � � � � û � � � � � � Ĺ ۲����ͷ�Գۡ‫�ٶ‬
��� � � � � � ԣ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 뷨��Ȼ��� ‫�ٲ‬ȡ�ж��ġ�ӲҪ������ Ѱ ���� � ࣬ Ȼ���
‫�ٲ‬ȡ�ж��Dz���ȡ�ġ��ǻ�ʹ������������һ��Ѱ����ν��������պ��Լ����еĽ� �ۡ���� Ȼ����� ˽ �� �ۣ
�Ҫ � � Щ � � ν � � � � ʵ � � � � � ˵ � � � � � ʲ ô � � ѡ � � ó � � Ƶ� � Ƶ� �Ա ��Ա � �֪ͳ �����������
ˣ � � � � Ƕ � ͳ � � � � � � � � � � ̫� � � Ρ �
�� � � Ψһ � � � �ܵ ķ � � � � � Ψ һ � � � � � � � � � � � � ʵ � � � � � � � � 뷨�İ 취������"� � � � �
뷨�������ж � " � � � � Ҳ � � � � � ǿ � � Ǿ � � ʱ � � Ӧ � ò � ȡ � İ 취��ֻ��������˲ � �ܿ������
�ǵľ���Ǵ�û�о�����Եļ��迪 ʼ�ģ�����ǡǡ���Ǿ�߻� � ѧ � о � � � Ψ - � � 㡣����֪��
�Ӧ����ζԴ���裬���Dz � � � Ϊ � � � � � � � � ۲��
‫ͨ�����ݣ‬ Ҫ � � ľ � � Ƕ � � � � ǽ � � в � � �� ͨ � � � � �ԣ �� �Щ Է � � � � � �����Գ���
� � � �ֵ����������‫��ؼ‬Կ��ǣ���� Щ ���վ�� ‫�ס‬ţ � � � � 뱻���á �
� � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � ߹��������ó ͬ ͬ �� � � 뷨�������
�Ҳ � � � � Ҫ � � � � � � � � � � � � 뷨��ͬ ʱ���������濼�������ʵ� � � � � � � � Щ � 뷨�����ԣ �
‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � ߻� � � � � � � � � � � � ⣬ " Ϊ � � ˲�Լ ��
Լ�� � � �ܺ ϳ � � � � � � � DZ � � � � ˽ � � � Щ
� � � " " � � � � � � Щ � � ʵ � � � � � � ʹ � 뷨 վ‫�ס‬ţ � " � � � � 跨��
�Լ�����Χ���˶������ô-��ϰ�ߣ���ĥ � � � � � � � Щ � � � � � � Ҫ � � � ۲ 졢��
�о � � ͱ � � � � ԡ � � � � � � � Ϊ � � � � � � 뷨���
�Ҳ � � � � � � ˵ � � � � � � � ǿ � � Բ � � � Ӧ � � � ‫��ڴ‬Ѱ��ʲô�����ʵ���ࡣ
� � � � Ҳ � � � � ‫�������ؼ‬ǣ � " � � ‫ص‬ı� ‫��׼‬ʲô � � " � ‫�������ش‬⣬���ǻ���Ҫ�
۵��������‫������ص‬Ҫ � � � ľ � � � � ‫ص‬IJ � � ԰취����
�ֻҪ � � � � � � � һ � � � � ȷ � � Ч � ľ �߲���Ĺ �̣� � � � Dz � � ѷ � �ִ���Ĺ � � � � ˼ ά � � � � � �
Ѱ����Ӧ�IJ��취�� ԰ ȥ� ˡ �
� � � � � � Ҳ � � � � � � ¶ ࡣά� � � � � ‫����ڷ‬DZ � � � � ˾�Ҫ �Ҫ� � �ּ�ľ � � � ‫���ޱ‬ȷ��ԭ��
� � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � ľ � � � ߻� � ã � � � ͳ � IJ � � Ա � ‫������׼‬ȷ�IJ��԰취������ͨ��� Ͳ� � � Ҫ �
‫���پ‬ˣ� � � �ֻ����Щ � � � � Ϳ � � � � ˡ � � � ͳ � IJ � � ԰ 취��ӳ��"����"�ľ�
ߡ�����б �Ҫ � � � µ ľ � ߣ���ǡǡ˵���ȵ �IJ ԭ� ԰ 취�Ѿ���ʱ�ˡ�
� � � � � � � ľ � � � Ʒ � ɹ � � � � � � � � � � � � � ϶ ࣬�����Գ � � � ս � � � � � � � � ˽ �֪����
�ʵ� � � � � � Ϊ � � � � � � � � � ε � � � о � � � � � � � � � û � и � � ƣ � � � � � Խ � Խ � � �
޲ � �‫������������ء‬Ϲ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ծ � � � � � Ĵ � ͳ � 취�������
‫ء����ء‬
�ս����ͳ�IJ��Է������Բɹ������� Ԫ
�����Ԫ Ϳ �ܽ����
� � Ŀ � � � � � � Ϊ � � ‫ݵ‬ġ � � � � � � � � � � � ȴ � ı � � �
� � һ � � ͳ � � � � � �ֻռ��Ŀ����4���ļ�����Ŀ�ֳ������Щ � � Ŀ � � � � 䲻࣬ �����
�ǵĽ������ȴռ�ܽ���� 90 � � � � k . � � ȡ �� �� ȡ İͬ 취�����ֽ
�ֻռ��Ŀ����4����ȴռս���������90�����Ǽ�����Ŀ���˳���������
� � � � � Щ � � Ŀ � � � � ‫��ݵ��������ظ‬ģ � � � � ó � Ĺ ‫�����ؼ‬Ŀ� � � � � � � ǰ � � � � �
� � � � ǰ � � � Ŀ � � � � � � � � ǣ � � �ֻռ��Ŀ�����5��һ6��������������Ϊ��
� � Щ � � Ŀ � е � ÿ һ �  � � � � � �ֱ���Ծ � � ĵ Ĵ � � � � � � � � � � Լ ռ 9 5 � � � � � � Ŀ � � � � Ȼ �
� � � � � ռ � õ � � ʽ � ࣬�� ֲ ��Ӱ�첿�ӵ �ս � � � � � � � � � � ȡ � � һ �ֽ���" � � � � � � � " � İ 취�
��Ǿ � � � ͨ� � � � � ƽ ��ƽ�� � �ͨ İʺ 취�����Щ � � Ŀ � � � й � � � � � һ � µ IJ � � ԰ 취���
‫���������������� ڰ‬һ � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � ľ � ߣ�ʹ� � � IJ ɹ � � Ϳ � � � � � � � � ‫������ڹ‬
ò� � Ȼһ � ¡ �
� � � � Ѱ � � � � Ӧ � IJ � � ԰ 취����
�; � � � � � � � � � � ǰ � � � ᵽ � � �߳�ȥ� � � � � Կ � һ � � � � Щ ʲ ô ' � � � " . � � Ȼ � � � � � � � �
˵ � � " � � � " � �ָ���⣬ ǰ� � " � � � " . � � � � � ˵ �
ͨ � � � � � � � � � � � � � ⣬ ͨ� � � � � � � � ƽ
��� � � � � � � ġ � � � � 磬
ÿ � � λ � � Ա � � � � � ��ͣ� � ¹ ʵ � ƽ � � � � ȱ � � � ʡ � � � � � � � ȡ � � � � � � ȥ � � һ � � � � � � �
ͣ
� � ܿߺ�����ܷ � �֣���������� Ҫ � IJ � � � � � �ֲ��Է���������ƽ������Է���ֻ�ʺϱ � �չ �� ˾� �
� � Ҫ � � � � � � � � � � ¾ � � � ˵ � � � � �ַ��������Եú��޼�ֵ��������ʱ�����‫��׽‬
�������;� �
� � � � � � � � � � ¹ � � � � �ֻ�����‫�����ڹ‬ijһ � � � � � ţ � ȱ � � � � Ҳ � � һ � � � � � �
� � � Ҳ � ޷���ƽ � � � � � � � ʾ � � � � Ϊ � � � � � � �ֻ������ְ��������ij � � � С � IJ �
�֡���������� δ � � Ů � � � С � � � � � � � � � � ƽ � � � � Ļ � � ϲ � ȡ � � � � � ж � � � � �
� � � ȫ � � � İ � ȫ � � Ա � � � DZ � Ȼ � � � � � � � Ԥ � ‫�ڵ‬Ч � � � � � � � � � � �ܻ Ὣ � � � � � ø � � 㡣
� � � � ��ͬ� ĵ � � � δ � � � � � � ȥ � � һ � � Ҳ � � � � � � � � � � ͬҵ �ܼ�� ʱ�����İ�ȫ�����Ҫ�Ե���Ҫԭ
��� �� � ô � � � ˾ � ͳ � ķ ʽ � � � � � Լ � � � � ӵ İ � ȫ � � � ‫�����ܣ‬ÿ � � � � � ÿ Ӣ � � � � ¹ �
ƽ � � � � � � � � � � � � � �߳�ռ��һ������ô���ͻͻᷢ Ǿ �ֻ���Ҫ � � � � � � ¹ ʶ � �ܵ��� ˺���
� � � ̶‫س‬ȡ�ֻ���������DzŻ�֪��� Ҫ � � ȡ � � һ � � � İ � ȫ � � ʩ � � � Լ � � � � ¹ ʿ � �ܻ����
ɵ � �˺ � �̶̶ȡ � � � � � � Ҫ � Ľ � � � İ � ȫ � � ơ �
� � � � � � ˡ � Ѱ � � � � Ӧ � IJ � � ԰ 취������������ѧ������������һ�ֳ�����յ��жϹ�̡�
� � � � � ‫�������ڹ‬Ҫ � � � � ж � ʱ � � � � � � � Ҫ � п ɹ � ѡ � � ĸ � �ַ��������ֻ����˵"
� � " � � " � � � � " � � � Ǿ ͳ Ʋ � � � � � ʲ ô � ж ϡ �ֻ�����г � � ѡ � � � ǰ � � � £ � � � � � � � � �
� � �ʵ
˽ ��ʷ ����� ‫�ڡ‬
��� � � � � � ԣ � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � ߻� � � Ҫ � � � и � �ֲ �ͬ��ͬ ֲ�ͬ� IJ � � ԰취���
�ѡ���Ա����ܴ����� ҳ���Ӧ��-�ַ�����
� � � � � � � � һ � � � ʱ � Ͷ � ʵ ķ � � � � ˵ � � һ � � � � � к ü � �ֲ �ͬ��ͬ ֲ�ͬ� IJ � � ԰취��-� � � � � � � � �
� Ͷ �ʻ � �յ � � � � ‫���ޣ‬һ�ֹ��ĵ � � � Ͷ � ʵ Ļ ‫��ر‬ʣ � � ‫�����ڶ‬ǿ � � Ͷ � � �ܸ�� ǰ � � � � � �
� � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � ߴβ � � � � � � � � � � κ � һ �ִ�ͳ�IJ��Է��������ܲ����� Ż � ǿ
� ҵ � � � � � � Ƽ � ij һ �ֱ�‫ � � "��׼‬ѧ " . � � � � Լ � � ľ � � � � е �֪��� ÿ�ֲ �ͬ��ͬ ֲ�ͬ� ķ � � � ; � � � � ʹ
� � � � һ Ͷ � ʾ � ߵ�-�� ��ͬ ����� 档ֻ�е � � � � Ͷ � ʾ � ߵĸ � � � 沿��
�ǵ�֮����� Ż�֪���� ļ� �ַ���Ͳ � � Է � � � � � � � � � ѧ � � � � � Ϊ � � Ҫ � � � � � � � � � � � � � ʹ
� � � ʦ � � ʮ �ֲ��죬��‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � ߻� � ǻ � � � � � � � � � �ֲ �ͬ��ͬ ֲ�ͬ� İ 취�����
�Լ���Ͷ�ʾ�ߡ����������֮����� Ż � � а � � յ � ˵ � � � " � � �ֲ��Ա�‫����׼‬Ͷ�ʾ� ߵ�
��Ӧ��‫ � � � � � � � "��׼‬ռ � � � Ǹ � �ֿɹ� ѡ � � IJ � � Ա � ‫����׼‬ô � � � ˼ · һ � � � � dz � � � �

� � � � � � � � � � ˼ � � � ǣ � ‫�׿‬г ͬ�Ч � ľ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � һ � £ � ȴ ʮ � � ϲ � � � � ȡ � � ͬ
� � � 뷨���������һ � � Ľ̿� � � � й � � ߵ�‫�ھ‬ԭ�� 򱳵��ۡ��
� � � � � � � � ľ � ߾� � � � � � һ Ƭ � � � � � � � � � � � � ó � � � ġ �ֻ��������ͨ � � � � � ۵��ý� � 棬
��ͬ����� ĶԻ����Լ��Ӹ��ֲ �ͬ����ͬ ֲ�ͬ� � � ж � � � � � � һ � � ѡ � �֮������߲
󣬹� � � � ߲�����������
� � � � � � � � � ľ� � �
� � � � ˣ � � � ߵĵ ͬ �һ � � � � � � � ǣ � � � � � � � ȡ � � � ͬ������ � � � � � ߸�� ߡ���޷�
� � � � � � ˵ � � � � � � � ‫ � � ¡ ˹ � ¡׵‬һ � θ ߼� � � � � ί Ա � � Ļ � � � � � ˵ � � " � � λ � � � � � � �
� �֪��� Ҷ������ߵ��뷨��ȫһ�¡�"����߷
‫�׷׵‬ʾ ͷ��ʾ � �⡣ ��ǣ� "˹¡���������"�ҽ���ѶԴ���� ߵĽ�һ � � � � � � � Ƴ ‫���ٵ‬
" ʾͬ
һ � λ � � � � ‫��ٽ‬С� � ‫ڴ��ڼ‬䣬��
�ǿ � � Գ �ֿ���ͬ һ � ² ͬ ��Ϊ� � � � � � �
ֻ ��������������ܰ� � � � � � Ǽ� � � Դ � ˾ � ߵ���⡣"˹¡��
� ߴ������"ֱ��" � � � � � � � � ǿ � � � � � � � � � ʵ � � � � 鿴
�������һ � �ʼ � � � � � ½ � �ۣ�� Ȼ����ȥѰ����ʵ �֧������� �ۡ������� ȷ�ľ�߱��뽨�
�۵ ���������ֲ ͬ���‫ڸ‬Ļ�֮�� ϡ�
� � � � � � � � � ʷ � ϵ � ÿ һ λ ‫�׿‬г � Ч � � � � ͳ � � � и � � � һ � ‫ͬ���������׼‬ � � � İ 취��
�԰ � � � � Լ � � � � � � � � Ч � ľ � ߡ��ֿϡ���¶ࡣ� � ˹ � � � � � � � � � �֡�� D. � � ˹ � � � � � �
� � � ³ � � � � � Ǹ � � � � � � Լ �� Լ��һ ��һ� ˶ ‫װ‬취�����˶��ܼ�����������
�ͬ Ҫ � IJ � ͬ� ԰ � � � � � � �Ǽ �� �� �� Ծ � ߵ���⡣����֪������ ʢ� � � � ͳ � Գ � ͻ � � � � �
‫ ���֮�ۺ‬ǣ � � � ϣ � � � ‫����ڸ‬Ž �һ � ¡ � Ȼ � � � � � � Ҫ � � � � � ϡ � � � ȷʵ � � ʱȥ� � � � �ͬ � �ܶ
�‫��ͽٺ‬ѷ���� � � � ʹ � Լ � � � � � �Ҫ� IJ�ͬ� ��
� � � � � � � � � � ֡�D. � � ˹ � � � � Ҳ � Ҳ � � � �� � ȡȡ � � �� � �֯ ͳ�� ͬ IJ ͬ� Ϊ �ÿ � � � � � � � � � ̡� �
� Ҫ � � ij Щ � � Ҫ � � � � � � � � � ʱ � � � � � � � � һ λ � � �֣������ ˵ � � � " � � � � � � � � �
� ҿ � � � һ � � � � � � � � � �� �� � ⣬ 벻 Ҫȥ � � � š � " � � � � ʵ � � � � ˹ � � � � � � � � � � ʹ ˵ � � � �
仰������ϢҲ����̴��黪 ʢ� ١������ţ � � � � � � � � � � λ � � -
� �ʼ � Ͷ Դ � � � � �ֲ ֣� �ͬ�������������
ֲ�ͬ�
� � � � � � �֣ � � � � � � �ͬ Dz � � � � � ͬ� � � � � � � 񣬲�Ҳ �" �� � � � � ͬ
�Ա � � � ". � � � � һ � � � � � � � � Կ ϶ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ĸ � � � � Ҫ � � � 涼
�ᱻ���ǵ������Ҷ��ᱻ����������Կ϶�������һ���Ͳ�� ᱻ ij � � � ˵ � � � � � Ϊ � � � � 뷨����
�ҡ�
� � � � � � ˹ � � � � � � һ � � � � �ܵ����� ‫��ڸ‬е � " ‫ר‬ҵ����"����������޵�* � �
� ˹ � ľ � � � � � � � � � ޵��‫ڹ‬µ � � ռ � � � ȱ �" �� � � ϸ � µ � � � � " � � " � � � � ³ ç"� � " � �
� � � � � � " � �ָ����ͳ���Դʵ����ɼ�����˹��������‫����ͳ������ף‬Ҫ�
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ƶ � � � ߣ��ǽ � � б �ȷ � ľ � ߡ���Ҫ � � � � � � � � � Ѱ 취��
�Dz � ȡ � � Ժ � � � � õ � " � � �ֽ���" ����� �ͥ
�ͨ��ͥ� � � � � �� � ˽� �� �
�ͥ˽ ʵ � ʵ � �ͨ
� �࣬ ʹ� � � � � � � � � � � й � � � � � �ܰ ‫����������ڵ‬
��� � � � � � � � � � ȡ �� �
ͬ ��ͬ � � �Ҫ � � � � � � � � � ��� һ һ򣺵 � �Ψ � � � � ԭ� � Ա � � �
� � � �߲�����Ŀ � � � � � � � � ҵ � һ � � � ʩ � � ÿ � � � � � � � � � Լ ��Լ� �˶ Ĺ ۵��Ӱ�����ߣ�ÿ �
� �� ˲�� � һһλ ‫�ר‬ŵ �� ˵ � � ͣϣ ���� � ߷���Լ����뷨����
� �ܳ�����������
�ʵ�⣩ � � � � �ܾ������������ ͳ����һλ�����޸�ij � � � � Ƶ ij � � é ® � Ĺ � � � ʦ �
��� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
� � � � Ψ һ � � ʹ � � � � ˰ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Լ � � � � �֮��� İ 취�������
‫��ھ‬ �֮ ǰҪ�ȶԸ � �ֲ �ͬ������ͬ
ֲ�ͬ� � � � � б � �ۣ��� ͬ ò ͬ � Ŀ � � � � � � � � � Ե � � ‫�߲����������ֻ�۾ݣ‬
�ܳ��ֿ������ֲ���� � � � �ͬ
� � � � � ‫ͬ������������ڶ‬ � � � � � � Ϊ � � � � ṩ � � �ֲ �ͬ���ͬ ֲ�ͬ� � ѡ����‫����ء‬û � г �ֵ�ѡ����‫���أ‬ô �
� � � � � � � � � ⿼�ǵö�ô��ϸ����߾ͳ��˹�‫ע‬һ � �ʽ � � ð � ա � � � � � � ʱ � ᱻ֤ʵ�Ǵ � � ˣ � � � �ֿ��
�����ʱ�����У���������Ϊ���һ��ʼ�ͳ���ë����Ҳ��������Ϊ���������˱仯������������
ߵ�‫ھ‬Ĺ� � � � � Ѿ � � � � ǹ � � �ֿɹ� ѡ � � ķ � � � � � � � ô � � � � � � � 仯
ʱ����������Ϊ��һЩ����˼���ġ�����о��ġ��Լ�������ķ����ɹ� ѡ ��������б�� ޻������û � � � �
� � ĺ � � � � � ‫�أ‬һ � � � � � ‫�ִ������־‬У � � � ͻ � е � � � � � � ޲��ˡ�
��� � � � � � һ � � � � �ᵽ �� � � ˵¾ � ı � � � ġ � ʩ � � Ҽ ƻ � � � � Լ � � � � � � � � * D. � �˹�
�� �ͳ � ִ о � � ø � � ˼ ƻ � � � � � � � � � � � ƻ � � � � �ִ�еĹ‫�ؼ‬ʱ�̳ ���ë�����¹��������Ժ��һֱû � л ָ
�Ԫ��ԭ���ǵ¾���û���������ս� Ը����� ��� ��ֻ �-
� � � � һ � ε � � � Щ � � ʱ � Ե � � � � ľ � ߡ���ʵ� � � � Ҳ � DZ � Ȼ � ģ � 2 5 � � � � � � ¾ � � ı � � �
� � ˡ � ʩ � � Ҽ ƻ � � � � ⡣ ѹ � � � � û � � � ‫��ٿ‬ǹ � Ҫ � ƶ � ʲ ô � � � � ƻ � � � � � � ǽ � � Լ � � � һ �
о � � ² � � � ͳ ͳ ‫����������ע‬ļƻ���ȥ�ˡ����üƻ��������� ������
�֮ 󣬾� � � Ҳû � пɹ � ѡ � � � � � ·
�ˡ �
� � � � � � � � � � Щ � � � � � Ƕ � �ܹ��� ϸ��ս�Լƻ�ѵ�������ȴֻ����Щ � �ʱ � � � � Ӧ � � � � ߣ
���Ҳ � � � � ˵ � � � �ֻ��һ � � � � � � � һ � � � � � � � ȴ ˵ � � � � Ϊ ʲ ô � � Ҫ � � � � � � � � �
� �ĵ � � �
� � � � 1 9 14 � � � � � � � � � - � � � � Ҳ � � � � ˵ � � û � � ѡ � � � � � � � Ƕ � ô Σ � ա � �
‫ � � � � � ˷���ڶ‬ս � � Ա � � ɳ � � ͻ Ȼ � � � � ı � � � � ⡣ � � � � � � ˶ � � �ܲ�� ı� � � � Ҫ � � � �
��� �Ա �� �λ ���� ��� ‫ � � � "���ش‬£ � � � ⲻ�ˡ ��� � � Ա � � � Ѿ � � �ʼ � ִ У� �
��� � � � � � � �
ͣ ͣ � � � Ļ � � �Ҳû� �-
� � � � ʵ � � � е ļ ƻ � � � " � ҵ � � � � � � � Ϊ � � � � � � � � � � � � һ � � � � � ֹͣ�����ǵ�ս����
��һ � � � � � � ս � Ϳ � � Ա � � � � ˡ � � � � � � DZ Ͼ � � � � � � һ � � � � ȡ � � � � � ǵ � � ж � � �
��� �ս � �Ļ � ᡣ
� � � � � � � ֮�£ � � � ˹ � � � � � �Ͳ �Ͳ �ͳ -
�� �ˡ� � � � � � � � �ǰ � � � � � � � � ��� � � � � � � � � � �ͳ ͬ �� �ʱ
õ Ŀ ‫ں‬š� ͬ� � � � � � һ � � � �
��� � �֮ ν" � � � � � � " � Ĺ � � ʣ � ‫��ר‬Ϊ � � � ƶ � һ � � � � һ � Ժ 󾭼 øĸ � � � в � � � ȥ ʱ �ɹ � ѡ � � � �
� ߡ�����һ ��  � �� �� �� � ‫�ߣ������ھ‬ʱ"����"��ijЩ�뷨�Ļ�֮�������� ġ� � � һ � �ּ�
‫��ڽ‬д � � ģ � � � ; � � ø � � � ļ � � � � � ߡ��������������ϵ� � � � � ˱ � � � � � � ˹ �
� � � � � ͳ � � � ø ĸ � ƻ � � ‫�����޷��ٽ‬ȥ� � � � � � � � � �� �� � � ̲ � Ϳ � � ȡ -
� � ѡ � � � � Ϊ � � � Ѿ � � � � � һ � � � � ߡ�
� � � � � � � � û � � � � һ � � � � ‫���׼‬õ � � � · � � � � ô � � ˹ � � Ҳ � � � � ¾ � �ܲ�� ı� � � �
� � ɳ � � һ � � � ʱ � Ե ò �֪��� 롣�
‫ͳ�����ھ‬ʱ����˹��Ҫʵ��19��ʹ�ͳ�Ĺ�ʾ������ۡ����� ǣ � � � � � � � 1 9 3 2 � � 1 1
� µ � ѡ � � � 3�‫ � � � � �ڶ‬ľ �ְ���ʱ���‫����ڣ‬ľ � � � Ҳ � � � ʾ � � � һ � � � � � � ˱ � � � � �
�� �˹� � � Դ � � � Ȼ �ǿ � � � � � � � �dz � � � ȱ � � � ɹ � ѡ � � Ķ Բ ߣ���Ҳ ֻ�� ��ܲ ȡͷʹҽͷ����
ʹ�νŵİ 취��������˹� � � � � � � �
�ܸ ɵ � � � ͳ � � ͻ Ȼ � � � � � � � Ѵ � � � � � � Ũ � �֮�� У�Ҳ �
� ֻ ��������ǰ � ߣ�Ҳֻ�ô �һ � � ˵ � � � һ
� � � ҡ � ‫����ֻ���������ڲ‬ƾ� � Щ � � � � � � � � ʽ � ľ � � � ˵ � � � � ‫���ڲ‬һ � � � Ҫ �
� � ȡ � � Ԫ � �ֵ�Ĵ � ʩ � � һ � � � � � Ҫ � � � � � � ʵ � � � � λ � ƣ � � � ʵ � � Щ � � ʩ � � � � � ű ߼ʣ
� � � � ޷����ʱ�����⡣
� � � � � � � � һ � � � � � ˵ � � � � � � � � � � ӣ � � � ˹ � � � � 1 9 3 6 � � ‫ͳ�����ڶ‬ѡ����
󣬱� � � � � � � " � � ߷�Ժ�������һ�ƻ��‫�����ڹ‬ǿ
� � ȫ ʤ ֮����" ⵽� � � ҵ ķ � � ԡ � � � � � Ϊ ԭ Լ �
� � � � � � ȫ � � � ƹ � � � ˣ ᣬ � � � - � ƻ� �� �ò � � �ͨȡ ʲ ô � ɹ � � �� ķ �ѡ ��� � û��
‫����������׼‬ĸ � � � ߷�Ժ�Ĵ������˿գ��Լ�����������̨�ϵ�Ӱ��Ҳ�ܵ���
���ʧ� � � � �ܵ�� ʱ�������֧������� Ȼ� ൱�ߡ�
� � � � � � �� �ͬ � � � � � �
ͬ ‫ � � � � � � � � � � ˵����ڼ‬Ҫ Ѱ � ҽ � � � � � � İ 취��������
�Ȼ� ‫��ﲻ‬ʲô � � æ � � � � � � � ǽ � � � ѧ � � �� � � � � � � � ⣬ м �ֵ�ˡ �Ȼ � � � � � � � � � Ҫ � � � �
� � � һ Щȷʵ� � � � Ԥ � ϵ � � � � 飬�������
�η � � � ģ � � � � Ǿ � � á � � � � � � � · � � � ģ � � � � � Ҫ � � " � � � � � Ե � " � � � � � � � � �
� � � � � Կ � � � � ¾ � � 档����
�ǶȽ�����������Ҫ�����������Ϊȱ��������Ĺ����߲��������ܴ � � � ͬ һ �� �
� �ġ � ȫ
� µĽ Ƕ � ȥ � ۲��������⡣
� � � � � ҵ ó � � ϣ � � зḻ � � � � � � � � � ˲����̫ � ̫࣬ ������� Ҳ� � � � � � � � � � � � Ϊ � � �
� ô ϡ � ١��������Ҫ � � � � � � � � � � �ܳ �ֵ‫��ط‬ӳ����������ֻ����һ � � DZ � ‫ڵ‬ġ � � �
δ� � � � � � � � � � � � � �
ͬ ͬ� �ֱ�����Щ � � � � � � � � � ƶ Ϻ � � � � ͷ � ġ ˼ � IJ ͬ �� �
‫ֵͬ�۾ݳ‬
� � � Ǽ � � � � � � � � � � � � Ϊ � � Ч � � � � � ‫�ء‬
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � յ ١����յ���� ‫��ڳ‬緹
ǰ� � � � � � � � � ô � � ϡ � � Ź � ֵ ����������������Ĵ � � � � ߣ�������˿�� � �
澳�ǡ�����������˹*���
޶�����������û �˿ ɱ � � ˡ � Ȼ � � ʹ � Ǻ � С � ĺ � � � Ҳ � � � � � 㹻����������
�Ͱ���˿�Ĺ��¡��������ķ��5.��³�� ��Jerrome
S.Bruner � � � �ָ����������һλ� ֻ �8 ͯ � � ĺ �ͯ � Ҳ � � һ � � � � Ȼ ��ָ����Ȼ4�� 6 ���� 6
� � 4 � � � � � � " � � � ˹ ä � � " � � a blind
Venetian � � � � � � � " � � � Ҷ � � � " � � V e netian blind � � � � � � Ǹ
߼� � � � � 񶴲 �� �
Dz� � � � � ‫���������ٳ‬ʱ��������˼ά�����"����˹ä��"һ������"���Ҷ��
� " � � � � IJ ² �֮�� ϡ�
�� � � �и � � � ϵĴ�˵� � � � � � � � ά � � � � � �ʱ � � � � ˹ � � � ϵ �һ � � � ˡ � � �ȥ � � һ � �
� � � � � �֮���� � Ե�����˵�����˵ļ���û��ˮ�������ǵĵ�� ϣͨ �ˮ�� ���� ‫�ݵ‬ľƬ� � � � � � � � ģ � � � ˿
�� �һ � � � � Ȼ � � � � � � � � � � � � ˮ �ˮ� �ͨ �� ͨ
��ˮ��ˮ�� �� �� �� �� �� � ģ �ֻ�е � ij � ˰ ѿ � �
‫ ���֮�ش‬ˮ � Ż � ӹ � � � � � � � � � � � � � ϧ � � � Dz � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ͹���� � � �
ˮ�ܵ��� ¡�
� � � � ÿ � ε � � � � � � � � � � £ � � ͻ � ʹ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ⡣ ֻ�н � � � � � � � � " �
�� �" �� 򿪣 �� �
ϵ� � � � � � � � � � � �ˮһ� � ������� � � � � � � � � "����"
�� �DZ�ģ� � � � Dz ͬ�� � � � � � � � � �
ͬ �ۣ���� ˣ � � � � � Ч � � ľ � � � ߶�����ι� � �
��
� �˷ � ͬͬ� � ��ͬ� � Ӳ � �� � � � � � � ȡ Ӫ � � � � � � �԰ �� �Щʶ � � � � ��ͬǶ � ǵ � Ƭ � � � Կ � � � �
�ʹ � � � � � � � � ʱ � и � ӹ 㷺�Ŀ � � Ǻ � ѡ � � � � �
‫���ء‬һ � � � � �ִ�еĹ � � � г � � � � � � � � � � � � � ˴ � � � � � ô � � Ҳ � � � � � � � � � � � ޴
롣��ͬ����� Լ�������
߼ͬ� � � ��ͬ� � ǵ � � � � � � � � � � � Խ � � � Щ � � � � ȥ � ƺ � � � � � � � � � ‫��ת‬Ϊ � �ȷ � � � �
� Ȼ � � � ‫���ٽ‬ȷ�����‫��ת‬Ϊ � õľ � ߡ�
� � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � ľ � � �߲���һ � �ʼ � � � � � � � � Ϊ � � � � 뷨��
�ƺ�ֻ��һ�ֽ����ǶԵģ����������еĽ��鶼
һ � � � Ǵ � � � ġ � � � Ҳ � � � � һ � � ʼ � ͱ � � � � � � � � � 뷨�
�" � � � Ƕ Ե ģ � � � � Ǵ � ġ � " � � � �߱����� һ � �ʼ � � � ¾ � � � Ҫ � � � � Ϊ ʲ ô � � � ǻ � � в ͬ � � � �
ͬ

� � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � ߵ�ȻҲ֪������˺Ͱ�Ū�Ƿ������Ǵ��‫ڵ‬ġ � � � � � � � � Ǿ � � � � Ϊ �ֲ �ͬ����ͬ


ֲ�ͬ� � �
�߲��Ǵ � � ˱ � � ǽ �թ ͽ�����
֮ ǻ �� � � ã ��� � � �ȷ � �֤ ���
� ��
� �֤ ij � ˱ � � � � � � ģ � � � � �
� Ӧ � ð ѳ � � � � � � ߶�������ͷ����ĺ�û��ƫ��ġ�������ó���һ�����Դ��
� Ľ � �ۣ���� Ҳ � � � � Ϊ � � � � � � ĵ ĺ Ϳ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � һ � � � � 档‫׿‬
�г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � ߻� � � � ʵ � � " � � � � Ӧ � � � � � � � � � � Щ ˵ � � � � � ʹ � � Ĺ ۵�վ � � ‫�ס‬ţ � " ‫׿‬
�г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � � � � � � ĵ ģ � � � � � � � � � ⣬ Ȼ � � � ȥ � � � � ˭ � � ˭ � ǵ � � � � ⡣
�� � � � � һ � Һõ� � � ʦ � � � � � � � � մ Ժ ӷ� �� � ���ҵ� � �� �� �� �� � � � � ȱ� �� �� �� �� �ȱ � � � � � ѧ Ϊ�
Է���ʦ��ί������‫����ݰ‬ѶȽϴ�ı 绤�ʵĹ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ‫�������׼‬ı 绤�
�ǰ � � � � � � � � � � � һ � � � � � � � � -
� � ʮ � � � � � ǵ İ � � š � � � һ � � � � ʦ � Ͼ � Ӧ � ÿ � � ǵ � � Է � � � ʦ Ҳ � � � � � � � �֮�������
���������ʦ�˵��һ�ֺ �ֺܺ õ ��
ѵ � �� �� �� �� �� �
ʹʹ� �� �� �� �� �� � -
� �ʼ � �ֻ��Ϊ �Լ � һ � � � İ � � � � Ƕ Ե ġ � � � � � � � � � � ԰ � Է� �� �� � � �� �Щ � Ϥ� �֣��
�Ѿ����� ˽�Щ ����� Щʲô�‫����������۾ݡ‬Ҫ � � � � � ˫ � � � İ � � 鲿
Ӧ�����о���ֻ��������һ � 㣬��Ż � � � � � � � Լ � � İ � � � Ӧ � � � � ô ȥ � 졣
Ҳֻ������������‫��ͥ�ڷ‬ϰѼ � � � � � � � � � � � һ � � � � � � ij � � � Ӷ � ͥ � ÷ �ͥ� � � � � � �
Ŀ � � � � � � � � � � � � ʣ � � � � � � ǹ � � � � ߻� ͨ� � � �� ͨ��� � �Ա� � �ܹ������ һ � �
� ��˲ � � �� �� �
̫�̫� ࡣ� � � � � � � ˶ � � Ǵ � � Լ � һ � � � � � � � � � � � ġ � � � � ǵ � � ߼� � ǣ � � � Ȼ
�Լ � � � ô � � � � � � � ⣬ � � ô � � � � Ҳ � � Ȼ � � � � �� �ķ �ʽͬ � � � � � � � � �⡣
� � � � � � � � � � ҵ � ľ � ͷ � � � � � � ϲ � � ‫��ץס‬-� � � � ⲻ �ţ �
"Ϊʲôÿ � � � � � � һ � ᵽ " � � � � � � � " � � � � � � � � ˾ ͻ � � � 񾭹 �� �'' �����Ҳ����� �
� � � � � Լ � Ϊ ʲô � � � � ҵ � � � � � � � � � � � " � � � � � � � " � ϴ � � � � � � £ � � � � � ʵ � �
� ж � � � ȴ � � � С � Ľ � � � � � � � ˫ � � � � ƴ � � � � �֤ ��� Է��д����� 󡣼��������ȥ���һ�
Էͼ �¶ ˫ ��
� � � � � 뷨���
�ô � � ˫ � � � � � к ܴ�ĺô � � � � � � � � � ҵ � � � � � ʹ � ϵ � � � � � ø � � г � � � � �
� � � � � � � � � Լ � � ĸ � � � � ж � ǿ � ң � Ҳ � � � � � � � Ƕ � ô � ϶ � � Է � վ � � ‫�ס‬ţ � -
� � � � � � � � � ȷ � � ߵĹ � � � �߱���Ҫǿ � � � Լ � � ��ͬ �Ϊ � � � ˽ ͬ � � �� �ø �� � � � � � � � � � ͬ ͬ
�ֿɹ� ѡ � � İ 취�ı �Ҫ � � � ߣ���-�������ߡ�����߲���ȷ��ij������ĸ����Ҫ���沿�ܱ���
�ϸ�‫��ؿ‬ǵ���
� � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � ľ � � � � Ҫ � ʵ � � � � -
��� � � � Ҳ � � � � � " � � � � � � � б �Ҫ � �" � �Ϊ� �- ��ѡ� � � � � ʲô� � � Ҳ � � � �
� � � � � � ߾ͺñ � � Ƕ � � � � � � � � � � � Ƕ � ԭ � � � � ϵ � � һ �ֽ���͸ �Ԥ���� � � � �Ҫ ð �
‫˵ݿ‬ķ � � ա � � � � û � б � Ҫ � � � � Ͳ � � � Ҫ � � � κ ξ � ߡ���ͺñ �һ � � � � � � ҽ � � � � ȥ � � � � �
�Ҫ � � � � � � � �
ͬ ͬ ľ��� ߻ͬ � � в �ͬ � Ĺ � � � � � � � �Щ � Ƚ ϼ � � � � � Щ ƫ � � � ‫��������ء‬
���˵ � � � Ƕ � � � � � һ � � � Ĺ � � � � � �
� � � � � � � � ȡ � � һ � � � � ʩ � � � � � ʱ � � � Ǿ ͱ � � � � � � � µ ľ � ٣��������ߡ���ҲӦ
� ò � ʧʱ � � � � � � � ߡ���������Ҫ � � � � � ҿ � � � � � � ‫��ݼ‬ŵĻ � � � � Ǿ ͱ � � � � � � �
ж � � � � � � � � � � � ȡ � ޴�ı � � � ж � � �
� � � � � � � � ¶ ࡣά ͬ� �ʱͬ� � � � ˣ � � ‫����ֹ�ڷ‬ӹ���������ϣ������ά��Ŀ�����һ�µġ��������
�ֻ�����þ � � � � � � µ İ 취��������������
‫���ڹ‬з � � � � � � � � Ǹ � � � ᰸�ij ���� � � ѡ � ˣ �֧����� һ � � � ѡ � ˵ ȵ ȡ �ֻ��ά� � һ �
� � � � � ʶ � � � � � � � � �ְ취 Ч � � � � � � ԡ � � ʹ� ʹ �ܴ��� Сʤ�̣ �̣
Ҳ�ı 䲻�������档
ά � � � �ֻ�в� ȡ � ‫�ش‬IJ � � 裬���ܿ���� һ � � � ¾ � � 档��Ϊ � � � Ѿ � � � � 壺˽Ӫ � � ҵ � ֻ а �" � � �
‫ � � "���ڹ‬Ϊ - � � � � Ч � � ѡ � � 񣬲 � �ܱ��� ⱻ����ӹ‫�ܡ‬
� � � � � � ij Щ � � � £ � Ҳ � � ȷ � � � Բ � � � � ߡ����磬��
�Ӹ � Ԥ � � � � Ҳ � � � � � ë � � � � � � -
��� � � � � � � ԰�м ���� � � � � � � " ��� �ȡ �ж��� � � � � � �ô��"��� � � � �
"� � � � � ʲ ôë � � " � Ļ � � � � Ǿ ͸ � � � Ҫ ȥ � � � � � κ θ � Ԥ Ԥ� ⣬��� �� ⣬� е� � � � � �ȷ� ���
ͷʹ�������鱾���
�ʮ � � � � Ҫ � � Ҳ � � � � � � � ʲ ô ʵ � � � Ե ĺ � � Ļ � � � � � ô Ҳ � � � � ȥ � � � Ը � Ԥ � �
� � � � � ܶ���������Ĺ� � � � � Ҳ � � � � ̫� ࡣ� м � � � ҵ � � � ‫���ٽ‬Σ � � � � � � � � �ܼ���
���Ž � � ͳ ɱ � � � � � ˣ � � �ܿ���� � �ܻ ‫ץס‬ijЩСë � � � � � ţ � � � � �ܿ ˷� � � Щ ë � � � � � � ��ܸ ı 䵱
ǰ � ľ � � 档���磬����֪������ ‫ � � ˲ � �ʹۺ‬ŵ ij ɱ � � � � 󳬹�Ԥ� Ԥ � �ָ��ʱ�����Ŭ���ȥ������������跨�
��Ƴ ɱ ʱ ʱ�
һ Լ�� ã � �� �� �� � � � � � һ � � � � � � Լ � � � � Ĩ � ‫�����ڵ��¡����ֵع‬ij�
� � � " � � � � Ҫ � � " � � � � ˼ � � � � �ְ�����¡ � � � ʱ � � � � � � һ � � ˵ � � � � � � Ϊ � � �
� ⼸
λ � � � Ͼ � Ҫ � � � � � Ͻ � � � �ְ������������ܽ � � � � ҵ��Ч�����⡣���ǣ��������
� � � � � ˵ � � � � � � Ƹ � � � Ǽ � λ � �ְ������Ϊ �Լ � � 绤��
�" � � � � � ˶ � � � � � � � � � Ϊ ʲ ô � � � � � � � � ˾ Ϳ � � Բ � � � Ч �
棿" � � � � � � � ȥ ֮��������������������������ҵ������ֻ
󡣴� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �ǵ����ĺ�����
3�������‫ش‬λ � � � � � � ϼ һ  � � ʵ � � � � � � 2 0 0 0 � � ǰ � � � � � � � � һ ��
Ѿ һ � � ɾ� �
˵ ɾ��� Ѿ �˵� ˵
� " � � � � � � ‫���ٲ‬ȥ� � � Ǽ � ë � � Ƥ ֮������顣"� ‫���ض‬һ � 㣬�����������������߶����
�Ҫ � � � � һ � Ρ �
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ‫�����������ڱ‬Բ����������֮��� ġ � � � Щ � � � �
� � Ȼ � � � � � � � н � � � Ҳ � � � չҩ չ �� �� �� �� �� ɾɾ �� �ҩ � �ĵ ᷢ ‫������������ز‬⣬ ͨͨ⣬� �ֻ
��Ҫ � � Щ � Ľ � � � ȥ � � ʲ ô ʵ � � � Ե ĸ ı � � � ¡ � � � � � � � � �֮�� 䣬�������������������仰˵ �
� � �ʹ � � � � ȡ ʲ ô � ж � � � � � � � � � Ȼ � � � � ά � � � � ȥ � � � � Ȼ � � � � � � ȡ � ж � � Ļ � � �
���Ҳ� � � � ø �á �
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � £ � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � ľ � ߿� Ӧ � � � � һ � � � Ƚ ϣ � � Dz � ȡ � ж � � ķ � � մ � � ‫�أ‬
���Dz � � � ȡ � ж � � ķ � � մ � � � � � � � � � � � ϣ � � � û � й � ʽ � � � � ԰� ľ� �� � � � � ȷ � ߣ
�Ȼ����� � � � � ԭ �� � � � Ϊ � ָ �����˶Ծ���������о��Ӧ���Dz��ѵġ������ԭ���ǣ���һ�����
�ȡ �ж � � ĺô � � � � 󳬹 �� �
Ĵ Ҫ� � � � � ‫���ۺ‬ð � ķ � �յ Ļ � � � � � ô � Ͳ � ȡ � ж � � � � ‫���ڶ‬Ҫô
� � ȡ � ж � � � Ҫ ô � � � � ȡ � ж � � � � м � ģ � � � � ɣ � Ҳ � � �ܸ����� ԡ �
� � � � � � � ҽ � � � � �ֻ�Ӳ � � � � � � � ժ � � � � � � � � � � � � � β � � � � ô � � � � � � ð � � Ⱦ � ķ � �
ղ�û�м��١�ҽ��û�н���˵����⣬���˵�����������ȸ���⡣���ҽ��Ҫ �ô ԭ��
� � � Ҫ ô � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ǿ � �ܸ����� Եġ���‫�׿‬г � Ч � ľ � � � � � ˵ Ҳ �
� һ � � � � Ҫ ô � � ȡ � ж � � � Ҫ ô � � � � ȡ � ж � � � � � � � � Բ � ȡ � � � ж � �ְ�; � � ϡ � � � ; � �
� � Ǿ � Դ � � � ģ � � � Ϊ � � � ޷��������������Ҫ � � � ‫͵��޷��ﵽ‬Ľ � � � � � � �
� � � � � ‫ڶ‬Ծ � ߵ�Ҫ � � � � � � һ � � � ͸ � � � � �� �Բ� ͬ ����� �� Բ� �� ͬ�
ѡ � ѡ� �� �һ �� �� �
̽ � � һ � � ̽ ˼ �֡��� Ծ
� ߵĵ �ʧ � � � һ � � Ȩ � �֮��� 󣬾� ߾ͳ�Ϊ˳����µ����ˡ�������һ����һ��������в
� � � � � � � ò � ȡ ʲô � � ľ � � � � Ȼ � � � � � � ŵ � � ˡ �
��� �Ȼ � � � � � � � �ʱ �� 򣬴 �� �ľ � � ȴ � � � � ˡ � � � � � � � Ϊ ͻ Ȼ ֮�������‫�ף‬ԭ�����ľ
� ߻�ʹ � ˸ е � � � � 죬����ԭ�������ô�ܻ�� ӭ��ִ�����Ҳ � � ̫� � �
‫������ס‬ԣ � � � � � � � ʱ � � 򲻵 �� �õҪ � � � � � ж ϣ � � � � � Ҫ � о ޴����������û � �
� 㹻�����
��
˵ҩ��Ӧ���ǿ�ģ������ҩͨ ����ȷ�ǿ�ġ������� �ĵ �ͬ ����� Dz���ͬ ˵���еľ� ߶
���ʹ�˾ � � � � � ᣬ � � � � � � � � Ч � ľ � �ִ�������������˲ � � � � � � ĸ о �
� � � � � � � � � � ʱ � ̣� � � һ � � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � ߾� � � � ȥ � ɡ � � � � � � � � � � � � ѹ
� �ò � � � � � � � ˵ � � " � � � � � � � � � о � � о � � � " � � � � � � � ˵ � ˣ � � � � � ų � � � � �
Ϊ � � ų � � � � � � � һ ǧ � Σ � � � � ¸ � � �ֻ����һ � Ρ � � � � " � � � о � � о � " � ĺ � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч �
Ĺ � � � � ߻� �ʵ � � " � Dz � � � � � � � һ � � � о � � � � � � � � ۳������������ʹ�о � � � �
µ � � � � ‫�����������ݣ‬
᲻� � � � � � � �Ҫ � � ľ � � � й � � � � " � � � � � Ƿ 񶨵 ģ � � � ô � � � � � � Ͳ � Ӧ �
� � �ȥ � � � κ � � о � � � � � � � � � Ϊ � Լ � � � � � � � Ѷ ϶ � � � � � ˷ ѱ � � ˵ �ʱ � 䡣
� � � � � � Ȼ � � Ҳ � � Ӧ � ô Ҵ � æ æ � � � � � � ߣ�����Լ������������ʮ������һ
� � � � � � һ � � � � � � ij � � ˣ � � � � � ѧ � � � � � � � � һ �ֱ���ϣ���ѧ���ո���‫�׳‬ ֮� Ϊ"
� ‫ � � � � � � � � � � "���ػ‬һ �ַ������ĵ � � � � � � � � � ߵ���‫ھ‬Ķ � � � � � � ‫��ص‬" �
� � � Ҫ С � ġ � " � � � � � � Ƕ Ե ģ � � � � � � Ϊ ִ�����������ѣ����߻� � � � � � � � ǵ IJ �
� � � � ߿� �ܺ������ ˣ � � � ô � � � � ߾� û � � � � � ɲ � ȥ � � � � � һ � � ߡ����ǣ � � � � �
��� � � � � -
� � Ī � � � � � � IJ � � � � � � � � � � Լ � � � � � ŵ ĸ о � � � ô � � ò � Ҫ � � ̲� ȡ � ж � � � � � � ǻ � -
� � � Ҳ � Ǻ õ ġ � � � � � � � Ϥ � � һ λ � ó � � � ߵ������������˵ � � " � � � Ҿ � � ˼ � � � � �
ʱ���Ҿͻ��� �ͣ κξ��ͣߡ�" � � �ֲ���������ʮ � � � � � о Ŵ ζ � � Ǽ � � � � � һ Щ � � � � � � � ‫�ص‬
ϸ���ϡ����ǵ���ʮ�Σ���ͻȻ��ʶ���Լ�������һ����Ϊ��Ҫ����ʵ������һ����ԵĴ������ʹ�Լ����жϷ�����
ƫ���ͺ���
� 񸣶�Ħ˹һƪ �ܶ��� ˲ � � �֪�����̽��������������� ͻȻ������"һ
� � � � Ϊ � � Ҫ � � � £ � � Ǿ � � ǵ � � � �ֳ��ֵ�ʱ����� 򣬰 ά˹���Ȯ��Ȼ û�з������".�����Ч�ʵľ���߲��
�ȵ�̫ �ã�һ���Ǽ��죬���Ҳ � � � � � Ǽ � � � � � � ‫�������ڡ‬Ǹ � ʱ � � � � � " �
‫ � � "���ػ‬û � � � � � � � � κ � � � � � � � ô � � � � � � � � � ϲ � � � � � � � � Ӧ � � � � � � ж
� � � � � � � � � � ߸���ʵʩ� �
� � � � � � � ˹ � � ù � � � �߲�����Ҫ � ù � � � � � ȥ � � � � � Լ � ϲ � � � � � � ¡ � � � � � � ߵ�
������Ҫ � Ѹ � � � � � � � � ã � � � � � � ˵ � � � � � � Ҫ � � � � � � Ч � ľ � ߡ�
��� � � � � � � � � �
��� � � � � � � � � � � � � ˵ � � � ԣ� ô � �� ߵ�‫���ھ‬Щԭ���Ƿ���Ȼ���ã�������
� ‫������ڸ‬ǣ � � � � Խ � � � ȡ � � � � � ߡ��������в � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 󣬵 �� Խ� �Խ �
� � � � � � � � � � � � ‫�־‬Ӫ����ľ�
ߡ�Ҫ � � � ˶ � á � � � � Ի � � � � Դ � � � � � � � � � � ս � � � Ե ľ � ߡ�
� � � � ʵ � � � ϣ � � � � � � ߽� � � � � � � � � � � � � �ֻ��һЩ �͵ � � � Ӧ � Ե ı 䶯�����
�Եij��ֽ�����ʹ� � � ǽ � � � � � � � � ‫�ڲ‬ȡ����Щ��Ӧ�Ա 䶯��
ߵ������ߵĸ߶ȡ����Խ������ഫ ͳ��ֻϲ � � " � � � � � � � � " � Ĺ � � � � ߸ı � � � � � � � � � ϵ Ĺ �
� � � ߣ��ı � � � � � � ľ � � � ߡ�
� � � � � � � � � ǹ � � � � ߵ���Ч � � � ߡ�������Ǵ � � ӻ � ǯ � ӣ � � � ȴ � � � � � � � � � � � � Ĺ �
�߲ �ͬ�����ͬ
߲�ͬ� � � � û � � � � � � £ � � � � � Ҳ � � � � � � � � � � � �ܴ�������� Ӽ�����‫�ٶ‬Ҫ �
� �˿ 첻֪���‫���������ٱ‬Ϊ � � � ߣ���Թ���������е���룬�
�Զ����е�ƣ���Ӱ�Ҳ����Ҫ���Ӱ������������
ͣ �����������
ͣͣͣ ѡ �ܰ��� ˰�������ø�õĹ���һ����Կ���ʹ�˵
ͣ
��� � � ɰ � � � ǧ � � � � � � � � � � ǵ � � � Ҳ � � � � � � � � � еĹ� � �һ � � � � � � � � � �
� � � � � � � � ޵ģ � � � � � � � � Լ � � ľ � � � � ԡ � � � � Ե � � � � ‫־‬
����Խ�ʹ���ǵĹ����߲��ò � � Լ � � е � � � � � � � � � � ߵ����Σ � � � � ɽ � Ŀ ǰ � � � � � � Ӧ �
Ա 䶯������ߵ������ߵ�ˮƽ � � � � �
��� � � � � Եij � � � � � � � � � � � - ���
߼� � � � � � � �ܰ�������� ij � � � � � о � ȷ � � � � � 㣬����˵ � � �ֿ���‫���������׼‬
�����Ҳ �ǰ‫׳‬գ���Ϊ�߼� � � � � � � � �֪��� ġ � � �ֻ�� �����������
� � � � � � � � � ֮� �ܽ £� � � � ಻��
� �֮
�߼���������ио � Ķ � � �  � � � �� ʱ � � � � � �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �
�ʱ ӦӦ � � � � � � 졣������
ҲҲ
�ж � � � � � � � � � � �ֳ�����������Ӧ�������˵����Ҳ���Ը���������
 Ϣ ��ƶ������ȫò���
�ʹ � � һ � � � � Ϣ Ҳ û � У � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ƶ � � �ܲ ⡣����Ҫ�
˲�κγ ��� �ܼ�� ‫��ס‬
������顣
� � � � һ λ � � � ͵ Ĵ � ͳ � ľ � � � � � � � � � ı � � ǹ � � ‫��䷽������ڿ‬ľ � ߡ���������ʱ�
ͨ � �õ�İ� � � 취�Ǹ � ‫�ݵ‬ʱ�ֳ�����ȡ��Ӧ�Ĵ�ʩ��һλ���͵ĵ������
‫�����۾‬Ȼ����ȷ��� ˽ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ȴʮ � � � � � �ͻ � A � Ĺ ���
� ϸ � � � � � � ƻ � � � � � � � ‫������ת‬Ѿ���Ӧ�Ĺ����ܰ�� ʱ�����������ܴ������ ⣻
� � һ λ � ͻ � B �Bͷ ͷ ͨ �ܻᱣ��� һЩ � � 汸������˾ � � ǹ � Ӧ � � � ˼ � � 죬���
� �� �� �� B
�Ҳ � � � �󣻵 �� �
λ � ͻ � c Ա � � � ˾ � � � Ļ � � � � � � � � � Ѱ � � � ʵ � � Ľ � ‫��ڣ‬Ա������̼������ ҹ
˽ � � ‫ � � � � �˾���ڱ‬쳧�
ֻҪ � � � � � λ � � � � λ � � � � � � ˵ � � û � � � � � � � п � �ܻ�� õ � ijЩ � � � Ӧ ⹩Ӧ� � �� �� �� �� �� �� � Щ
� � � � Ļ � � ϣ � � � � ͵ � � � � ‫�ݵ��ͻ���۾‬ʱ�ľ���������һЩ��Ӧ�Եľ�ߡ�
� � � � � � � � � ȴ � ޷��˽ � � � Щ � � � � � ߿� � � � � ô ˵ � � � � � � � ˲ � � � ȷ � ߵ��‫��ظ‬Թ�� ˾�
� ij � � ͻ � � � ij �ֲ�Ʒ��������Щ��ߵĻ � � � � � ô � � � � � � � ޷��˽ � � � Щ � � � ġ � � � � � � � �
� �ֻ�Ƕ� � � � � ij � � � �ָ�����Ӧ��
��� � � � � � ˾�õ � ����� � � � 棬��ô� � � � � � � � ƶ � һ � ‫��׿‬Ĺ� � � � � �
ߡ��������У � � � ˾�ַ��ֹ��‫��ڿ‬Ļ � � � ʵ � � � ϲ � � � � � ǿ � � � ߣ�����˷� � ռ � � ߵ�
��ҵ��ߡ������ʵ� ֻ �ƽ� � � �ַ��յ�һ�� �ֶΣ � � � Щ � � � հ � � � � � ͻ � � Թ � � � ͷ � � � � Ƿ
� � � � ⣻ � � Ʒ � � � � � � � � Ƿ � � ȶ � � � � � � ʽ � � ѹ � � � � Ʒ � ϣ � � � � � Ʒ � � �ܻ�� 仵���
�ʱ��ʧȥ��ֵ��
� � � � � � ͳ ʽ � ij ´ � � ĵ � � �ܸ���� ԰ � � ϶ � � � æ � � � � � 磬
һ� � � �͵ � ˵ � � � � � ǣ � " � � � ǵ � Ŀ � � � � Ҫ Ϊ 90 � � � Ŀ ͻ � � � � 9 0 � � � Ľ � � � � ŵ � � " � �
�� �һ � �ı � � � ѭ� 򽥽� ĵ � � ͻ � � � ͻᷢ � � � �
߼�ʱ 仰��ʵ� � � � � � � 塣��
�Dz � � � ˵ � � � п ͻ �ֻ��ܵ õ � 90 � � � Ķ � � � � � � � � Ƿ � � � ζ � Ŷ Թ � ϵ � � ȷ � � õ Ŀ ͻ � Ӧ � � � � � ‫ڽ‬
�����ô � � � � � � Ӧ � � � � � � � � � � " � � ϵ � � õ Ŀ ͻ � " � � 7 � � � Ƿ � � � ˵ � � � ǵ � Ŀ � �
� � Ҫʹ � � � � � Ʒ � � � � � � � ߽�����‫����ֻ��ڹ‬Ҫ � � Ʒ �ܹ����� ‫�����ڹ‬ô � � � к ü �
� � � � � 䲻������Ҫ � IJ � Ʒ � Ƿ � Ҳ Ӧ � � � � һ � � � �
ߣ���Щ � � Ʒ � Թ � ˾ � ˵ Ҳ � � � � � � Ҫ � � � � � � ǰ � � � � � Ŀ ͻ � � ˵ � � Ҳ � � � � ൱��Ҫ � �
� � � � � � � � � � � ÿ һ � � � � � ⣬ � � � � Ҫ � � һ � � � � � � � յ ľ � ‫�����ߣ��ر‬Ҫ � � һ � � ԭ �
� � Ե ľ � ߡ�ֻ�������Щ � � �֮������������������ 󣬲� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 档�����
�Щ � � ߶����в �ȷ � � � � ԣ � � �̫ ˲� ��̫� � � ‫��׸‬й � � � � � � � � � ȷ � Ķ � � 壬���
�Щ � � � � ȴ � � � � � õ � � � � � ‫ز����ٵ‬ġ�
� � � � Ϊ � � ʹ � � � � �ܰ����� ˵ � Ҫ � � ƽ � ȵ � � � � У � � � � й ‫ � � � �¼��ص‬Ԥ � ‫ڵ‬ķ� Ӧ � � � �
� � � � Щ � ¼ � � � ‫���װ‬ź˵ � ͷ � ĵз � � � � � � � ͻ Ȼ � � �֣�������� ͳ����ԭ���з��ֳ�
��Ѱ����������Ǿͱ���Ծ�߽� � � � � � � ϸ � µ Ŀ � � ǣ � � � � һ � Ҫ ʹ � � � � � һ � � �
�Ԥ � � � ԡ � � � � � � ‫־‬
�߲�������������Ҳ � � � � � � һ � � � � һ � � � � � ʯ ͷ � � ӣ � � � � � � � � һ � � � � � ԭ
� Ե ľ � ߡ�
��� � � � � � � � � � � � � ԭ �� 򲢲 �� � ‫��ڵ‬ԡ � � � � � � � Ϊ һ �  � ߣ�������ܳ � Ϊ�κ � � � � �
� ԭ � � � �ֻ�����ǽ � � � � ‫������ڷ��������������ذڵ‬ǵ���ǰ����ʵ�����ִ����
����Ӧ�Ա 䶯��ԭ��� Ծ � ߵ���һ‫̵���ת‬ij � � � � � � � � ൱ һ � �ʱ � � � ˣ � �
‫�������ر����ڵڶ‬ս�‫ڼ‬估 ս�����������
‫����ھ���ڲ‬ȱ���������������ս�ȳ� ԡ һ Ϊһ �ִ��ģ � ġ � � ໥�����ж � � � � � Ҫ � � � � Ϊ � � ս
�� �ӷ � � � ĺ � � � �֧ Ԯϵͳ�������в�ָ�ӹ��Ǿ�Խ�Խ�б�Ҫ�˽�ս�Ծ�ߵĴ � � � � � � � � � � � Ǿ � � � �
Է���Ӧ�е����á�����Խ�Խ��Ҫ�������ľ�ߣ�������ֻ����Լ���ʵ����� �᳹�ϼ������һ
� ϼ� � � � � � һЩ
� � � � � Ե ͵ Ľ � � � � � � е ¹ � � ¡ � � � � � � IJ � � ‫����������׵‬ɷ�ȣ���������˶�ս���˲���
ľ � � � ս � Լ ң � � � � ‫�ڵ‬ʱ���ǻ�ֻ��" � в � � 쵼" � � � � � � � � � � ˼ � � � � � � ľ �
ߣ����ȥս� � � � � � Щ ֻֻ֪������������������ȫ���� � ͬ� ͬ
� � � � � � � � һ � � � � �߲�������߲��������˵� � ¡ � � � �ִ��������ÿ � � �֪ ʶ��
� � � ‫��߻����ٶ‬ѳ� Ϊ � � � � ߣ�Ҫ � � � � � � Ҳ � � � ߵ�‫ھ‬Ĺ �̸� � � Ż � ġ � � � ĺ � � � � ˴ � � ‫��۽‬
���á� � ‫�ڹ‬ȥ� � � � � � � һ � � � ߶�‫ר‬ҵ���Ĺ��������ɼ������˺�‫ר‬ҵ������
� ġ � � � � � � � � � � � ˵ � �ֻ�ǰ� � � ij � � ϰ � ߵ�ģʽ�ִ� ִ ���Щ� �߰��ˡ� � � � � � ‫�ڵ‬ǰ � � Щ �
�ģ �ϴ � � �֪ ʶ�� � У � � � � � � � ‫��ڱ‬һ�ֳ��湤�����Ŀǰ � � δ � ‫�ﵽ‬ճ�����ij̶ ȡ�������Ч��
ߵ������������Խ�Խ��Ϊ֪ʶ�� � � � ߹������ǿ� � � һ �ֱ������ � � � � ֣� ‫���ٶ‬Щ� � � � ߹

���Ч �ʡ � � � � � һ � � � � � ε � �֪ ʶ�� � � � ߸�����ˡ�
� � � � � � � � � ¼ � � � ij � �֡���� ʹ� � � � � ‫���ھ‬Ͻ � � � ‫�ת‬䣬�
��ⷽ � � � � һ � � � � � � � � Ӿ � � � � � � dz � � � ̸� � � " � ƻ � � � � � � � 鼼�
�" � � P ERT � � � � � � �ּ�����‫߶ڸ‬ȸ��ӵij����� ���������ƺ������ɴ���Ϊ�����ṩ��ɹ
‫ � � � � � � � � ·����������ؼ‬һ �ֿ��Ƴ � � � ļ � � � � � �ܶ�� һ � � � � � � � е � ÿ � � �
�� � � � ж � �ȼƻ� �Ͷ � � 壬
ȷ������֮����� Ⱥ� � � � � � ໥��ϵ� � � � � �ܹ �֭��� ÿ� � � � � � � � ɵ � � � � � � � ‫��ޡ‬Ӷ � ʹ
� � � � � � � �ܰ���� Ҫ � � � � � � � � ɡ � � � � � һ � � � � � � Դ � � � � � � � � � ʱ � � Ӧ � Ծ �
ߵı � Ҫ � �
ԣȡ�ȡ� � � �֮��� ȴ�Ǹ ߷��յ ľ�ߡ���Ȼ��� տ � ʼ ʹ�� � � - ����ʱ��� � � � � �Ա��
� �ӡ � �-
� żƻ � � � � � � � � ƻ � � � � � � � ϶ � ÿ �  � � � � ж ϶ � � � � � Щ � � � � � � � � � � Ϊ � � � � �
Ծ � � � � � � � � ʱ � � Ӧ � Ծ � ߵİ 취����ֻ��ϵͳ�ķ��վ�߲����ܽ � ε� � � � ⡣
� � � � � � � Զ � ս � Ծ � � Ҳ � � � � �� �á � � � � � ͬ �� �Ե�Ȼ��� � �ܴ����������� ս�
Ծ � ߡ�����ֻҪ � � � Ƕ � � � � � � в � ̫� � � � � δ � � � � � � ij Щ � � � 룬�
�ô � � � Ծ � � � � � � � � � � Щ � � � 뽫�������Щ� � � � �
ߵ����˵� � � � � Կ � � � � � � � � � � ij Щ � ж � � � � � � ı � � � � � � � � � Щ � � � � � � � � �
� � á � � � � � � � � � Щ � £ � � � Ҫ � � � � � � � � � � 㡣 Ϊ� ˱ � � � � � � 㣬������Ҫ � � � � Ϊ � �
‫ � � � � ·˼����׼‬ķ � � � � ‫��ر‬ǶԾ �߱���‫�ﵽ‬Ľ � � � � � � м � Ϊ � � ȷ � ij � � � � � � Ҫ � � � � �
DZ� � � � � � � � � � Ҫ � ġ � � � ȴ � � � ŷ � � � � Ե � � ж ϡ �
� � � � � � � Ե � Ȼ � � � � � � � � � ߵ�‫������ھ‬档���磬Ҫʹ� ֻ � �ʵ � � � � � � Կ � � � ԰���
ߴ������߼ӷ��ӵ������н��ѳ��������ȱ���ɿ����� Ϣ ����������ò������� �Щ ͷ�� �֮�� С� � � � ˵ �
� Ժ�󣬹 � � � � ߾ͻ��и��Ļ���ߵ����ȥ� � һ � � � � � � Ϊ ֻ����������ҵЧ��������
Դ� �
� � � � � � � Ի � � п � �ܻ�� ı � � ߹
���г � � � � � һ � � � � � � � � � ʡ � � Ӵ � � � � � ͳ � �� �ǹ �� ȥ
� �� �ǹ� ȥ � �� �� �� � � � � ˵ ‫�׽‬һ � � � Ե � �
� � � � � � � � � ¼ � � � � � Դ � � � � � Ϊ � � � � ϰ � � � ‫�������֢״‬ ‫������� ڰ‬ϡ������
�ֻ�� ����ܴ
� � һ � � � Ե � � � � � � Ϊ � � � � � � � � ߼�ֻ��ʶ��һ� � � Ե � � � � � � ˣ � � � δ � � � � � �
᷸� � һ�ִ����Ǿ � � ǻ Ὣ � � Щ � �ֵġ � � � � � � � � � � � һ � � � Ե � � � � � � � � Զ Դ �
Ǻܿ��ܻ��
� � � � � � Ϊ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ǿ � ʼ � � Թ ˵ � � � ‫ � � �¾��ھ‬ϣ � � � Ӧ � �
� õ � � � � ȡ � � � � Щ � � � � � � ľ � � � � � Ա � � � ж ϡ � � � � Dz � � � ð � � � �ֱ�Թ����һЩ�߼� �
� � � � ǵ � � � ɧ � � � � � Ծ � � ¾ �߱�‫������׼‬Ϊ� � � � � � ‫����۾‬һλ �ܳ��� " � � � � � ѧ �
�" � � � � * � � � � � � � � � Ӣ � � һ λ � � � � � � � � � ѧ � ҡ � � � Ӣ � � � � � � Ŀ � ѧ � � � ʡ � �
� � ‫������ڿ‬Է���������о��Ĺ����з��ӹ���Ҫ�����á�
��� � � � � Դ � � � � � ǵ � � � � � � ǡǡ � � � � � � � � � � ľ � � � � ԡ � � � � ‫־‬
����Խ�����ʹ����ȥ����ľ�‫�ʹ�����ߣ��ر‬в 㾭���ǴӾ � ‫��ߵ�ִ����ת‬Ϊ � � � � � � Ա � ; � � �
ߡ�
� � � � � � ʵ � � � � � � � � � Ӧ � � � � � � ˡ � � � ��˾ ��ҵ�� ���˾ �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �ҵ �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� � � � ¾ͨ
� �ܲ�� ı � � � � � � ľ � � ¾ � ߵ�λ � � � � � � � � Ͱ � һ Щ � � � � IJ � � � � � � � � � ľ� � � � �
� �ˡ � � � � � � � � ǵ � һ � � 󳤴 �� �� �
� � � � ҵ � � � � � � � � � � � � � ѧ � � �� ԷԷ�� �� պպ�Ͳ �� � ��֪
� ��Ͳ ͨ ���� ‫��ص‬о � � � � ж ϵ ķ � � � �
� � � о � ߵĻ � � � � � ô � � � Ǿ � � � � � ˷ � Ŀ ǰ � � � � ҵ � � � � ‫ͨ�ڵ‬ һ� � � ͨ��� � � � � � ϲ�� � �
� � Ա � ľ � � � � � ȱ � � � � ѵ � Ͳ � � ���У� � � � � ճ � � � � � � ͨ � � � � � � � ǿ � � � � ��ͨ
ͨͨ �����ʱʱ��
պ ϵİ 취����‫�����ؽ‬ϸ˼�����������Ļ�������������ǿ��Ը����Լ���"�о�"������
‫���ؽ‬ �֪ ʶ�� � � � � � � � � � � � � Ļ � � � � � ô � � � � � � � � � � � � š � � � � � ‫�������ڲ‬ҵ��
� �IJ � � � � � Ա � � � � Զ � � � � � �ܵ õ � Ӧ � е � � � ѵ � � � � � � � � �ܵ�� ĥ � � � � � � ǵ ľ � � � �
�Ҳ � � � � � �ܵ õ � � � � �
ԡ�Щ ��� � � �� DZ� ˵ ���� ߼� � � � �ְ��ʱ���������‫�ٷ‬Ҫ � � �
ս�Ծ���Ŀ��顣
� � � � � � Ȼ � � � � � � Ҳ � � � � �ܰ���� ְͨԱ����ɾ���ߣ���ͺ� � � � � �߲������ܰ � һ� � � �
� � � � � � � ѧ � � һ � � � ǵ � � Խ � � � ʹ � � � � � � � � � � � ѡ � � � ǵ � һ � � � � ְͨԱ�‫����أ‬ǵ�һ
� � DZ � ‫ڵ‬ľ� � � ߣ����Խ�ΪDZ�‫ڵ‬ľ � � � � � ṩ Ŀ � � � � ȷ � � � � � � Ч � � ľ � � ѧ ϰ � � ᡣ�����
�������ȥ� � � � � � � � � � � � ã � � � � � Ļ � � � � � � Dz � � � � � � � � � ‫�ת‬ġ �
� � � � � � ȷ � г �ֵ����ɿ � � � ˵ � � � � Ե ij � � � � Ѽ � � � � � � � � Ƕ Ծ � ߵ�����Ȥ�����
Ⲣ����˵���Խ���"ȡ��"������о�ߡ���������ĺô � � � � � � � Դ � � � � � ˽�и �
ӵ � � � � 㣬�Ӷ � ʹ � � � ‫ڵ‬ĸ � � � � � � � Ա � и � � � ʱ � � � � � ѧ ϰ � � ε � � ù � � � �
‫�ߣ�������׿‬г � Ч � ľ � ߡ�
��� � � � � ۱���ѧ�� ‫�׿‬г � Ч
� � � � � � � � � � � ۵������������������Ϊǰ� � � 1 . � � � � � ߵĹ � � � Ӧ � � � � ‫�׿‬г
� Ч � ģ � 2 . ‫�׿‬г � Ч � ǿ � � � ѧ � � � ġ �
� � � � � � � � Ƹ � ù � � � � ߣ�����ϣ����Ĺ���‫�׿‬г � Ч � � � � � � � � Ӧ � ‫�ڻ��ڿ‬չ� � Ч
� Ĺ � � � � � � Ͷ Բ � ‫ס‬Ƹ����Ļ��� ˡ Ϊ�˲����û �һ�ƺţ�������Ӧ��ѧ��ʲô����Щʲô� ‫�������أ��ڻش‬
�ʱ������ѻ����� ͹����ߵĹ � � � Ч � � Ϊ � � � Ŀ � ꡣ
� � � � � � � � � ᵽ � ĵ ‫���ڶ‬ǰ � � � ǣ � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � ǿ � � � ѧ � � � ġ � � � ˣ � � � � � Ӹ � � � � չ � �
� ˹ � � � � ߹���Ч � � � � � � ŵ Ĵ � � � � � � � � ‫����ڶ‬Լ�ѧ����γ�Ϊһ��
‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � ߡ���Ȼ����� 鲻�ǽ̿�� 飬��Ϊ
‫�׿‬г � Ч � � Ȼ � � � � ѧ � � � � � � � � � � � ⿿���ǽ̲���ġ���Ͼ�����һ��"ѧ��"���
�ֻ��-
� � � � � � Լ � � � Ե � ʵ � � � ̡� � � � � � Ǵ � � � Ľ ṹ � Ͽ � � � � � � Ǵ � ȫ � � � � � � � � Ͽ � � � �
� һ � � � � � � ʼ � չ ᴩ ȫ � 飺��ʲô� � � � ‫�� ˻��ٳ‬ ͹ � �� �� �
‫�ߵ�׿‬г � Ч � � � � � � � � � � � � ᵽ � � � � � � � � ⣺ Ϊ ʲ ô Ҫ‫�׷��׿‬г � Ч2 � � Ϊ ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Թ � � � � ߶
���������Ȼ��Ӧ���� ġ �
��� � � ‫߻�ֹ����ߵ�׿‬ᷢ� ���������� � �֤ � � � �۵�������������˱‫�ع‬г � Ч � � � � � � һ �
� �߻ᷢ ֤�
� � � ȫ � � � ʵ IJ � � 档��Ը � � ˵ � � � ߣ��Ի�ķ�չ�����ִ��������������DZ‫ز����ٵ‬ġ�
� � � � 1 . Ҫ � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � � � ȱ � � � � � � � һ � � � � � 򣺼 � ¼ �ʱ � �ʹ � � � � � � � � � һ � � � � е
� Ե Ĺ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Լ � ȥ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �ִ��͡���������
�ȷ����ôȥ����ô����ջ��Ȼ��ܴ���� Ȼ����˵ � �ͼ �Ӱ��� � � � Ч �� � � � � ú ܿ졣����ܹ��� � �֮
�Ժ 㣬��ô � � � � � � � � � � � � ƶ � � � � õ ‫������ؽ‬ǵĵ‫�����ڶ‬Ч � � ʩ � �
� � � � � Թ � � � � ߵ�ʱ�䰲���
�һ � � � � � � � � � � Ҫ � � � ˷ � � � � � � � � � Ҫ � � � ж � � � � � Ҫ � л � � ߡ�Ҳ � � Ҫ � � � � �
� � � � � Ϊ � � � ˼ʹ � ϵ � �͹� Щ ������ � � � �һ ���� �ַ���ɶ�ʱ����÷����Ը������� �Ŀ�
� � � � ʡ � Ե � � � � ⡣ � � �ַ�ʡ� � � � � ๤�������ˮƽ � � � � � � 𵽻
� � � � � á � � � Ȼ Ҳ � � � � �� �¼ � � � ��ͨ һ � � ʹ � � ʱ � � ļ � ¼ � ķ � ʽ � � ͬ ���Ŀ � ġ � � � � � Ĺ
ͬ‫ﵽ‬
‫������ؼ‬ʱ��������ʣ�ʱ���ǵ�ǰ��Ϊ��ȱ����Դ��
� � � � 2 . � � ‫���ڶ‬Ҫ � � � � ǹ � � � �߱�������Ŀ� ⼯
�е � � � � � � ϡ � � � Ҳ � � � � ˵ � � � � � � � ߵĹ � � � Ҫ � ӳ � � � � Ե IJ � � � � � ۵����ߵĸ߶��ϣ
� Ҫ � ӻ � е � Ե IJ � � � � � ߵ������Եķ�����Ҫ��ֻ��������Ч � � � � ߵ����ӹ���Ľ������
��� � �ʱ
ͬ ͬ�� � � � � � ߻� Ӧ � � � � � ɼ � � � Ҫ � � � � Ϊ ʲ ô � ˼ � Ը � ⻨
Ǯ � � � � � Լ � � � Ҫ � � � Ϊ ʲ ô � Լ � � � � � � � � � ‫�ס‬Ҫ � � � � һ � 㲢��̫��
�ӡ � � � � � � �ֻҪ � � � Լ � � � � һ Щ ֱ���˵ � � ġ � � � � � � � � � � � � ʽ � � � � � � � � � � ˡ � �
� � Ƕ � � � Щ � � � � Ļ ‫�ش‬ȴ� � � � � � � � ߶��Լ�����ߵ�Ҫ ��ʹ � � ȥ� �
󣬴 �ʹ ȥ � � � �� Լ
�Լ� � � �� �� �� �
Ŀ꣬ ��� ӹ��Ĺ������ܲ���� ļ�ֵ������Ҫ � � � ǣ � � � Щ � � � ⻹��Ҫ � � � � � �߳е � � � � �
� Σ � � � � � � � � � � ‫ִ�����ڵ‬ ������ ֻ �" � � � ˾�" �� �� С����� � � � � � � �
� � 㹻�����ӣ � � � ô � � � � � ߾� - � � � � � � � 濼����Ŀ � � � � � � � � �ֻ�ǿ � � � �ֶ����⡣
� � � � 3 . ‫�׿‬г � Ч � ĵ � � � � � Ҫ � � � dz �ַ����˵ij � � � � � � � Ҳ � ǹ � � � � � � � � � Ϊ � ϱ �
� �߱���һ � � � ̬� ȡ � � � � � � � � � Ҫ � � � Ƕ � � ˵ � � � � ‫��أ‬Թ����߱��˼ � � Ա � � ˵ � � � � ‫ء‬
����漰���
�Ϊ � � � � ļ �ֵ��ϵ� � � ⡣ � � � � �ַ����˵ij � � � Ҳ � � Ҫ " � � � � � ѧ " . � � Ҫ ͨ� � ʵ � � � � � �
� � � � � ‫�����ַ�ߡ��ڳ‬ij � � � � � � 棬�����
߻Ὣ � � � ˵ Ķ � � � � � � � � � Ҫ � � � � � ˵ � � � � � � � � Ч � 棬���˵ijɾ � � � � Ļ � � � �ܺ õ
‫�������ؽ‬
� � � � 4 . � � � � � � " � � Ҫ � � � � � � � � � � " � � ‫ � � � � � "���ڶ‬Լ � � � ʱ � � " � � � ศ��ɵ
ġ � � � � � Ҳ � � � � � � ô ˵ � � � � � � � � �֧�� Ź � � � � ߹���
‫�׿‬г � Ч � � � � �֧� ������������������ ĵIJ � � � � � � � δ � � � ʱ � � � � Դ � � �
� � � � � δ � � � � ռ � � � Ʒ - һ� � � ͹ � � �� �
ߵļ � Ч � � � ⡣ � � � � ¼ � ͱ � � � � � � � Ȳ � � � � � � � � � � � Χ � � � � � � ¼ � � � � � � � � � �
� Ŭ � � � � � ȥ � ‫ٳ‬ɵ� � � � 顣������������‫������ڱ‬IJ� � � � � Ϣ � � � � � ǹ � � � �
ߵ��Ը � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ǿ � � � ¸ Ҿ � � � 񡣻 �� � 仰˵� � � � �
‫������ڱ‬Ŀ϶�� � � ǽ ܳ�ġ � � � ŵ � � 쵼���‫�����ܣ‬һ � � Ĺ � � � � ߶������һЩ � 쵼��
�ʣ � � � �ܰ�������� ‫���߾���ס‬飬 ʹ� � � � Զ � � � Ŀ � ꡢ�ᶨ�ľ��ģ���������
� � � � 5 . � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ч � � ߵ����⣬�����������������
� � Ϊ � � � � � � � � ‫ص‬ġ ͨ� � � � � � � һ � � � ͨ � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ŀ � ‫�������ׯ‬Ƕ� � � β � � �ܴ ‫�ﵽ׿‬г � Ч
� � � � � ⣬ � � � 黹���ṩ � � һ Щ � �ȷ � IJ � � Ա � ‫����׼‬Щ� � ‫ָ���������׼‬ 𵽷� � � � ���
ָ� � Ե����
� ���
磬�Թ�����Ӧ����δ�ʶ��һ���Ե���� ⣬���ȷ��� �߱�������Ľ� � � � � � � � � � 鲢
û � � � � � � ϸ � Ľ � � ⣬ � � Ϊ � � � � Ҫ � � ‫�ݵ‬ʱ�ľ���������ġ����ǣ�����Ҫ��Щʲô�Լ���ʲô����Ⱥ���
� � � � � ȴ � � ˵ � ÷ dz � � � � � � � � � � Щ � � ߾�������‫���׼‬ѵ � � � � � � � � Լ � � � � �
� � � � � � � � � � ε � � ж ϡ � � � Ч � ľ � ߼� Ҫ � � һ � � � IJ � � 裬 ҲҪ � з � � � � � � � �
‫����ؼ‬Ҫ � � ij � �ְҵ��µ�‫��׼‬
� � � � � � � � � ߵ������������Ҫ � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � � � ѵ�ø Ե �Ϊ�Ҫ � � � � � � � ȵ � Ҫ �
�֪ ʶ�ͼ � � ߵ���������‫ܡ‬Ĺ � � � У � � � � � � � � � � � � � µ � ϰ � ߣ�ż � � � ò � � ĵ � -

Щ � ϵ � ϰ � ߡ������ֵ�˵ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ɽ � � � Ч � ʵ � ϰ � ߵĻ � � � � � ô � � � � � ж �
� ��֪ ʶ�� � ж � õļ � �ܺ�� ϰ � ߣ�ͳͳ���‫��ﲻ‬ʲô � � æ � �
� � � � � � - � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � �߲�û � � ʲ ô � � ˲�� �ĵ
‫������ְ�����������ֻ�����ط‬ѡ�û���˻Ὣ�Ȿ‫�׿‬г � Ч � � � � � � � � � � � ѵ���� �
� � ˶ � � � � ΰ � � � � � � � � �� �� �� �� �� �ȥȥ � �� � Ƚϡ
Ƚϡ��� ȵȵ ��һһ� � � ͽ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � ߸�ߵ�����Ŀ�
� � е � � ǣ � Ȼ � � � � � � � Ϊ � � һ Ŀ � 겻�Ǹ߲����ʣ � � � � � � � � Dz � �ܹ����
‫�׿‬г � Ч � � � � � п � � � � � ʹ � � �ִ����ͻ�����Ҫ�ġ�‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � ߡ��������
�ֻ��Ҫ ʥ � ˡ � ʫ � ˻ � � һ � � � ѧ � � � � � ʵ ʶ�� ֪ � � Ĺ � � �ְλ � Ļ � � � � � ô � � � � � � Ҳ � ʹ � � ‫��ڲ‬
������ʵ� � � � � � � Ҫ � � � � �ܹ����� � " ����ͬ��Ѱ�"� � � � � �� " Ѱ � � � ˲ � " . � � �
� � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � �߱���ҪŬ � � � � � ¡ � � � Ȼ � � һ Ŀ � 겻��̫�
ߣ�ֻҪŬ � ˭ � � � � õ � � � � � � � �ܹ�� ѧ��������ߣ�������������ϵĶ� � ˵ � � �
� � � � ѵ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ӧ � ð � � � Ӽ � � � � � ϸ � ‫�̬�����ڵ‬ȡ���ֵ�ۡ����� Եȸ�
� � 棬�����������ͨ� ij� �򵽳е � � � � � � � � � ȸ � � � � � �
� � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � � � � � ߣ�������ߵ����ǻ �չ � � � � � Ļ � � ‫ ܸ���ڲ‬û � � � � � ҵ � � � �
� � � ‫��ء‬о � � � ҽ Ժ � � � Ǿ � � ² � � š � � � � � � � ߻� Ч � � Ψ һ ; � � � � � � � Ź � � � � ߹
���Ч�ʵ � � � � � � � ߣ�����ļ � Ч ˮƽҲ � ͻ ᲻ � ϵ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ĸ � � ƣ � � �
��԰ � Χ� � � � ˽� �� �Լ � � � � � � ��� ‫�۽‬ŵø� Զ � �
� � � � � � � � ǣ � � � � � � � Ĺ � � � Խ � � Խ � ã � � � � һ � �ܲ��� ϵ‫س‬е� � � � � � � ‫����׷‬Ŀ
� ꡣ Ҫ � ѹ � � � � � ѵ � � � � � � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � � � Ǿ ͱ � � � Ի � � � � � з � � � Ŀ � � � � � � � ս � �
��� � � � � � � � ս � � � � 񣬾 Ϳ����ʹ � �� ˵ ‫��۽‬һЩ � � � � Ϊ � � � � � � � � � � � Ѱ � � � µ Ļ � � �
� � � � � �ֻ�����˵ � ȱ � � � � � � � � � � � � � ˵ ij � � � � � � � � � � � � � �ܴ ‫��ﵽ‬һ � � � 磬�
�ͻ�������˲Ų���ܴ�������������������������� � � � � � � � � � � � � � �ܼ ҵ�ľ���ʹ���
� � ‫�ڼ‬Ч � � � � � � � Ĺ � � ‫������������ס‬ˣ� � � � � һ � � � � � � � � ߻� � Ч � 档�����
���ˣ � � � � � Ϊ � � � к ܸߵı� ‫����׼‬Ҫ � � � � � � � � � � µ � ϰ � ߺʹ� � � � µ Ļ � � � � � � � � � � �
� � � � � � ʵ � � � н � � � � � � � � � ߵ�Ե�ʡ�����Щ��‫��׼‬ϰ � ߺͻ������γ���������ġ
� � ‫��ͻ�ص‬ġ�Ŀ����ȷ�ġ�ּ�����‫�׿‬г � Ч � � � � � � � ѵ � �ܲ��� ɷֵġ �
��� � � � ִ ������‫ � � � ˵�����ת‬Ļ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ч � 棬�������
�ǵļ�Ч��ɹ���������ǵļ�ֵ����‫�׼‬Լ��������Ҫ��
� � � � � � ļ � Ч � � � Ե � Խ � Խ � о � � Ե � � � � 壬�ⲻ������
‫������������������ھ‬ҽ�Ʊ�����
򣬶� � � � � � � � � � � � �֪ ʶ�� � � � � � � � � � � � Ҳ � � һ � � � � � ‫�أ‬һЩ �
� � � � � � ‫ص‬Ĵ � � � ѳ � � � �֪ ʶ�� � � Щ � � � � � � � �֪ ʶ�� � � � ߣ��������dzе� � � � � � � ߵĹ�
� � � � � � � ‫�ڿ‬չ� � � � ʱ � � � � � � � � Ч � � е � һ � � � � � Σ � � � � � � � � ‫���ڹ‬ �֪ ʶ�� � ‫ص‬㣬
���������ľ � ߽� � � Ӱ � 쵽����ļ � Ч � ͳ ɹ �
� � � � � � � � � � Ч � Ļ � � � � � ̫� ‫�ࡣ���������׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � ߸�Ϊ � ѵ á � � � � � ˵ � �
� �һ � � � � � � ӱ ȱȽ � � ǡ � � � � � � � � � � � � � ˵ � � � � ļ � Ч � � � � � � ʼʼ �� ԭ ‫׶‬Ρ � � � � � � �
� Դ � � Ͷ � 뵽�ִ�Ĵ � � � ҵ � � � � � � � � � ‫���ء‬ҽԺ���ߴ�ѧ��ȥ�������
‫��������ڴ‬£ � � � � ȴ � Ե ò � � � ô � � � � � � � � � � ɢ � ˣ � � 󲿷 ‫����־‬Ͷ�뵽����"� � � �
� � � � � " � � ȥ � ˡ � � � Ŀ � � Ҳ ʮ � � � � � � Ϊ � ˱ � � � � ߺͲ� � � ȡ � κ � � ж � � � � � Ҳ � գ � � � � � �
� Ҳ � գ � � � � � Ҫ ϵ ͳ � � � � � � � Լ � � � � � Ч � ԣ � � � � � Ҫ � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � ϰ � ߡ����
DZ� � � ѧ � � � � � ȥ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ⣬ ᡣ������Ҫ � � � о � � � � � ƶ � � � � � �
�Ⱥ � � � � 򣬶 �� ˮ� �� �� � � ʲô ѵ � � 鶼����ôһ � � 㡣
� � � � � � � � � ߹���‫�׿‬г � Ч � � � � ϶ � � �
‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ļ � � � � � �߱��Ļ� Ҫ � �֮����� Ҳ � ǻ � �ܵ��� Է�չ��ʮ����Ҫ��һ��ԭ��
� � � � � � ߹����ߵĹ � � � Ч � ʣ � � � � Ǵ ‫���ִ��ٽ‬ᾭ�����ϣ�����
‫�ڣ‬Ҳ � � �ִ����������ͷ�չ��һ���ϡ�
� � � � � � � � � � � ᵽ � � һ � ۶ ϣ� �֪ ʶ�� � � � � � � � � Ѹ � ‫�ٵس‬Ϊ� � � � � ҵ � һ � � � � Ҫ � � Դ � � �֪
ʶ�� � � � � � ѳ � � � � � Щ � � ҵ � һ � � � � Ҫ Ͷ �ʡ � � � Ϊ � � � � һ � � � Ǹ � � � Ͷ � � � � � � Ϊ � � � � � һ � �
Ͷ�ʡ � �֪ ʶ�� � � � � � ‫�ڳ‬Ϊ � � Ҫ � ij ɱ � � � � ġ � � � � ʹ � � � Ƿ � � � � 䳤������
�ȳ � �˸ ߶ȷ���Ĺ�ҵ����һ�‫�����־‬Ҫ � � � � � � � � � � � � � �� � �� Ͷ ߵijɱ � � ޷��뷢
չ� й � � � � � � � � � Ͷ � � � ྺ �� �ֻ��֪� ʶ�� � � � ߵ��Ͷ����� ʣ � � � �ܰ������� ǵ�����
Է�չ���ҵĵ͹��ʾ���ʹ���DZ������ˮƽ��������ơ�
� � � � � � � Ϊ ֹ��ֻ���۵ֹ��‫˲��ر‬Ż � Թ � ҵ � � � � � � �֪ ʶ�� � � � ߵ�����ʲ � � � � � � κ ε � � �
� Ǻ͵� � ġ � � Դ Ӷ � � δ � ս � � � � � � � � � � � � Ͷ � � � � � � � � � � � ȴ � � � � � Ͷ � ‫�����ת‬
���Ͷ���Ȼ����һ ‫�ת‬䲢 û� � � � ʾ � � ޴�ľ � � � Ч � 档�ܵ��
�˵ � � � � Ч � ʺ � � � � � � ϶ � û � г � � � � � � Ե � � � ߣ�����ǡǡ���Ǻ����ҵ����Ч�
� � � � ѳ � � ӡ � � � �ܹ�� ҵ�߶ȷ�������ս��� 󶼸 ò�����ǵ ļ�¼Ҳ��������̵ �ӡ�����
󣬵����‫ַ�ڳ‬ � ���֪� ʶ�� � �
�߳��������ϣ���Ȼ����һ������ĵ�·Ҫ�‫� � � ��϶������ߡ���������ؼ‬
� � � � ù � � � � � � � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � � � � Ϊ � � � � �߱�����Ǵ� � о � � Ե � �֪ ʶ�� � � � ߡ����ǵ
�ˮƽ � � � � � ǵ ı � ‫�����׼‬Ƕ � � Լ � � � Ҫ � � � ܴ‫��̶�ں‬Ͼ � � � � � � � � � Χ � � �֪ ʶ�� � � � ߵĹ� �
� �� 򡢹�� � � � � � � � � � �
� � � � � � � � � Թ � � � � ‫�ߵ�׿‬г � Ч � � � � Ҫ � � ͸ �Ϊͻ � � ˡ � � � � � � � Ƶ ķ � � ӡ � � � � � �
��� � � Խ � Խ � � � � � �֪ ʶ�� � � � � � Ƿ � �ܽ������������������ � � �ͬ ͹ � ҵ � � � � Ŀ �
��� � �- ��
��� �� ͨ� �� ͨ � ͨ �
֪�˵ ʶ�� � � �߲����Ϊ � � � ľ � � � � � � ⣬ � � � � һ � � � � � DZ Ƚ ϸ � � е ģ � � � �
ǵĹ���Ҳ�Ƚϱ��ա������� �֪ ʶ�� � � � Ǿ � � � � � � Ը � � � � � � � � � ͨ � � � � � � Լ � � ‫�����ڻ‬Ƿ‫���ݹ‬
��������ǵ����������ʵ�����ǵ������ֵ������Ȼ����һ � � � � � ⡣ � � �ܴ�� Ҷ���Ϊ
� � � � � � ‫ͬר‬ ҵ��Ա���������
� ʱ���ǹ�Ա����
ͬ
˵ ͬð�ձ�����ͼ��� �¡ ˵���Ƕ� ij
Щ֪ʶ�� � � � � � � � � 񣬵 ͬʱ�
�ͬ ʱ ������� �ֱ���ʹ֪ʶ��Ȩ � � Է � � � � ‫�ڻ‬Ŀ� � � � � Ҫ � � � � �֪ ʶ�� � � �  û � � � �
� ¼ �֮�֣���� е�ֻ���������볤�ߵ���𡣿��ǻ�ȴ � 벻��
�ȼ� � ƶ ȡ � � � �� � �� � ȫ � � �� �� � � � Ⲣ � Ӻ � Ĺ ⣬���Ա���� �ֵȼ � � ƶ Ⱥ � � � Ϥ �
� � � � �֪�������������� Ƶ � � � � ⡣ � � Ȼ � � � � Щ � � � � � � � � ʵ � ġ � �֪ ʶ�� � � �߲�
������ƶ������������‫�ٵ‬Σ � � � Dz � � � ¶ � У � � � Ҳ � � � � ˵ � � � � � � � � � � � � � IJ �
� � � �� ��ʧʧ �� �� �� �� �� �� �� � ᷳ
�� � � � � 19� ��
ͣ ͣ � � չ � й � � � � � � � ‫�ٵ‬һ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Ͷ � �
‫�ߵ����������ڷ‬չ� ľ � � �֮���� ì� 20�����‫���ܡ‬ ����� �� ��
�ͣ �
�֪ ʶ�� � �
� ߵõ � �ʵ � � �ְλ � � � � � ʹ � � � dz �ַ������ã � � � � � � � � � Ǿ � � � Լ � � � � � � � � � �
� �ѳ �Ϊ � � � � � ҵ � һ � � � � � � � � ⡣
��� � � � � � � � � ⲻ�Ϊ �� � � Ƿ � � � � � Ĵ � � ‫���ڶ‬ʧ � � � � �ֻ�о � � ú � � � � Ч � � � "
��͹ � "� ʵ � � ǿ ͹ ۵ Ĵ � � ‫�ڣ‬Ҳ � � � � � � � � ⡣ � � � � � � Щ � � � � � � � ѧ � ң � � � Ү ³ � � ѧ �
Ŀ � � � ˹ � � � � � � � � ˹ � � � ‫������������ڣ‬Ҳ � � �ܽ����� һ � � � ⡣ � � Щ � � � �
� � � ѧ � � � � ȷ � �ָ����Ŀ� 겢�
�һ � � � � � � � � ˵ � Ը � � � � һ � £ � � � ˣ � � � � ǵ ó � � �ۣ���� ð � � � Щ Ŀ � � 鵽
һ� �ȥ � � � � � Ǽ � Ҫ � � � � � � � Ի � Ч � � Ŀ ͹ � � � � � � � Ҫ � � � � � � ˶ Գ ɾͺ;� � � � � � � �
� � � � � � � � � � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � � � � � � � � � � �߱��ǽ � � � � һ � � � � � Ψ һ � � � а 취������
�ʹ� � � Ŀ � � � � � � ˵ � � � � � �ܺ õ‫����ַ��������������ؽ‬Լ��������˵ij���
� Ĺ � � � � ߣ�һ � � Ҫʹ � � ļ � Ч � � � � � � ˵ ij ɾ � Э � � � � � � � � � Ҫ � 跨��
�Լ��� �֪ ʶ�� Ϊ � � � � ԰ � � � � ‫�����ץס‬óɹ� � Ĵ ‫���ͨ�ٽ����ء‬ǿ � � � ‫ � � � � � �ʹ������ף‬ļ
�ֵ‫��ת‬Ϊ � � � Ч � 档
� � � � 1 9 � � ͵ � � � � � Ϊ � � � � � � Ͷ � � �ֻ�о � � � Ŀ � ꡣֻҪ � � � � ˾�ñ� ꣬ ��������� ˡ
� � �ʵ � � � � � � " � � � � � ϵ ѧ � � " � � ˵ � � � � � � � � � � ˵ � � � � � � ȫ � ԡ � һ � � � � � ʱ �
� � � � ߵ�ƶ�������ʱ������˵����վ��‫���ס‬ˡ� �֪ ʶ�� � � � ߶Ծ � � ñ � � � Ҳ � � Ҫ � � 󡣾 �� ñ � � Ҳ �
Ƕ��֪ ʶ�� � � � ߵ�һ � � � � Լ � � � ‫����أ‬ǣ � � � � о � � ñ � � 겢����������-
� С � � � � � Ҫ � л � � � � � Ҫ � г ɾ ͣɾ � ϣ � � � Լ � �ܾ����� �ְ��ʵ� � � Լ � � � � � � � �ֵ��ֻ��ʹ
�Լ � � � Ϊ - � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � ߣ�����ʹ� � � � � � � � � � �ֵ����㡣ֻ����߹����
‫�ߵ�׿‬г � Ч � � � � � � �ܰ������� Э � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 󣻻 � �ø Ҫ � �� Ϊ��� �
� � � � � Ĺ � � ‫�������ף‬Ҫ � ѻ � � � ʵ � � � Լ � � � � � � � Ŀ � � � �ֶΡ � � � ˣ � � � � � �߱��
�ѧ����‫�׿‬г � Ч � �
� � � � P c ter F.Drucker THE EFFECTIVE EXECUTIVE Harper � � R ow � � P ublishers � � N ew
York � � 1985 � � � Ŧ Լ � � � � � � � 1985 ����޳� � � � � �
� � � � ‫�׿‬г � Ч � Ĺ � � � � � [ � � ] � ˵ á � � � ³ � � � � � Ϻ � � � � ij � � � � � 桢���
�1999 � � 4 � µ � һ � � 1999 � � 12 � µ ‫���ڶ‬ӡˢISBN7-5327-2242-2/F.106