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M., 1918). Y)I(e B COBeTCKoe BpeM» rro;o;06Hhle TepMHHbI, rro B03MO)l(HOCTH C pa3b-
»CHeHH»MH, 6h1JIH crpyrrrrHpoBaHbI rro OTpaCJI»M B KHHre r. E. KOQHHa «MaTepH-
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nPEA",cnOB"'E 7

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KHMraX CJIY)J{aT CJIe.n;YlOI.QMe M3.n;aHM5I CJIOBapHOrO TMrra: CJIOBaph AKa.n;eMMM POCCMM-
CKOM(T.1-6. CIT6., 1-eM3.n;. -1789-1794;2-eII3.n;. -1806-1822). -AJleKCeeBH. II.
IIpocTpaHHoe rrOJIe, 06pa60TaHHoe M rrJIo.n;OHOCHoe, IIJIIi Bce06IIJ;MM IICTOplI'IeCKHM
OpMrMHaJIhHhIM CJIOBaph. T. 1-2. M., 1793-1794. - 5blOBCKUU H. HOB hiM CJJOBO-
TOJIKOBaTeJIh, pacrrOJIo)J{eHHhIM rro ampaBMTY ... l..{. 1-3. CIT6., 1803-1806. -
BeJlbRWeB-BoJlblHl{OB If CJIOBaph MaTeMaTlI'IeCKIiX M BoeHHhlX HaYK, co.n;ep)J{aIIJ;MM
B ce6e Ha3BaHM5I Bcex HaYK, OTHOC5II.QMXC5I KaKMM-JIII60 06pa30M K MaTeMaTMKe M
BoeHHOMY MCKYCCTBY. T. 1-4. CII6., 1808. - 3H:QIIKJIOrre.n;M'IeCKIiM JIeKCIiKOH.
T. 1-17. CII6., TMrr. A. A. IIJIlOIIIapa, 1835-:-1841. - TOJlJlb CP. r. HaCTOJIhHhIM
CJIOBaph .n;JI5I crrpaBoK rro BceM OTpaCJI5IM 3HaHH5I. (CrrpaBO'IHhIM 3H:QMKJIOrre.n;M'Ie-
CKIIMJIeKCIIKoH). T.1-3IIToM.n;orrOJIHeHIIM. CII6., 1863-1864. -JI.aJlbB.H. TOJI-
KOBhIM CJIOBaph )){MBOrO BeJIMKopyccKoro 5I3hIKa. T. 1-4. M., 1863-1865. -
JI106el{KUU C. M. CrrpaBO'IHa5I KHMra .n;JI5I apxMTeKTopoB, Xy.n;O)J{HMKOB, CKYJIhrrTO-
pOB, )J{IIBorrIIC:QeB, pe3'IIiKOB M Bcex IIHTepeCYlOI.QIIXC5I IICKYCCTBOM. BhIII. 1. M.,
1875. - BceHaY'IHhIM (3H:QIIKJIOrre.n;M'IeCKIIM) CJIOBaph. [Ha 06JIo)J{Ke: 3H:QMKJIOrre-
.n;II'IeCKHM BceHaY'IHhIM CJIOBaph]. IIo.n; pe.n;. B. KJIlOIIIHHKoBa. l..{. 1-3. CII6.,
1878-1882. - Cpe3HeBcKuu H. H. MaTepHaJIhI .n;JI5I CJIOBap5I .n;peBHepyccKoro 5I3hI-
Ka. T. 1-3. CIT6., 1903. - TeXHM'IeCKa5I 3H:QMKJIOrre.n;M5I. T. 1-7. CII6., T-BO
«IIpoCBeI.QeHMe» [1910-e rr.]. - EcjJpeMoB E. HOBhIM rrOJIHhIM CJIOBaph MHOCTpaH-
HhIX CJIOB, BOIIIe.n;IIIHX B PYCCKHM 5I3hIK, C YKa3aHHeM rrpoMcxo)J{.n;eHM5I HX, y.n;apeHHM,
OTpaCJIeM 3HaHM5I H C pacIIIHpeHHoM 3H:QHKJIOrre.n;M'IeCKOM 'IaCThlO. ITo.n; pe.n;. H. A. Eo.n;y-
3Ha-.n;e-KYPTeHe. M., 1911. - TOBapHa5I 3H:QHKJIOrre.n;M5I. IIo.n; pe.n;. B. P. BMJIh5IMCa
M <1>. B. U:epeBMTMHoBa. M.-IT., 1927. - TeXHH'IeCKa5I 3H:QHKJIOrre.n;H5I. IIo.n; pe.n;.
IT. K. MapTeHca. T. 1-26. M., 1927 -1934, .n;orrOJIHMTeJIhHhIM TOM - 1936. - CJIO-
Baph PYCCKoro 5I3hIKa XI-XVII BB: BhIII. 1-13. M., 1975-1987. - CJIOBaph Pyc-
CKOro 5I3hIKa XVIII BeKa. Bhlrr. 1-4. IT., 1984-1988.
Ha.n;o rrOMHMTh, 'ITO He Bcer.n;a CJIOBapM XVIII - XIX BeKOB MorYT 6h1Th
Ha.n;e)J{HhIM rroc06HeM .n;JI5I pa3'b5ICHeHH5I M pacIIIMpeHH5I CMhICJIa TepMHHoB. HeKoTo-
phIe M3 CJIOBapeM, KaCa5ICh apxMTeKTypHhlX rrOH5ITMM, OrpaHM'IMBaJIMCh MeXaHM'IeC-
KMM rrepeBo.n;oM MHocTpaHHoro CJIOBa, He Y'IMThIBa5I ero peaJIhHOrO rrpMMeHeHH5I B
PYCCKOM apXMTeKTypHO-CTpOHTeJIhHOM rrpaKTMKe. K TaKHM HeHa.n;e)J{HhIM H3.n;aHH5IM
CJIe.n;yeT OTHeCTM «CJIOBaph pa3H05I3hI'IHhIM» <1>. f. K ypraHoBa (POCCMMCKa5I yHMBep-
CaJIhHa5I rpaMMaTMKa ... CII6., 1769) H CJIOBaph A. LJ:. MMXeJIhCOHa «30 000 MHO-
cTpaHHhlx CJIOB, BOIIIe.n;IIIMX B yrroTpe6JIeHHe B PYCCKMM 5I3hIK, C 06'b5ICHeHHeM HX
KopHeM» (M., 1866).
U:eHHYlO HHcpopMa:QHlO 0 KpeCTh5IHCKOM cTpOHTeJIhCTBe co.n;ep)J{aT CJIe.n;y-
lOI.QMe M3.n;aHM5I: BepXHe-BoJI)J{cKa5I 3THOJIOrM'IeCKa5I 3Kcrre.n;H:QH5I. KpeCTh5IHCKHe
rrocTpoMKH 5IpOCJIaBCKO-TBepcKoro Kpa5I. IT., 1926. - Be:JICKOBU'-1 A. c.,
)](eWJlOBa
C. K., JIe6eoeBa A. A., IIpocBupKuHa C. K. X035IMCTBO H 6hIT PYCCKMX KpeCTh5IH.
Orrpe.n;eJIMTeJIh. M., 1959. - lJU:JICUKOBa JI. H. CTaThM 0 )J{HJIMI.Qe B C60pHMKe
«3THorpacpH5I BOCTO'IHhIX CJIaB5IH. O'IepKM Tpa.n;M:QMoHHOM KyJIhTyphI». IIo.n; pe.n;.
K. B. l..{McTOBa. M., 1987, c. 239-243. - meHHUKOB A. A. PyccKoe KpeCTh5IHCKOe
KaMeHHoe cTpOHTeJIhCTBo. - ApxMTeKTYPHoe HaCJIe.n;CTBO, .N2 12. M., 1960,
c. 183-207. - OpcjJUHCKUU B. II., rpUwuHa H. E. LJ:epeB5IHHhle KpeCTh5IHCKMe aM-
6aphI pyccKoro CeBepa H CH6HpH. feHe3Hc H 3BOJIIO:QM5I. - IIp06JIeMhI HCCJIe.n;OBa-
HM5I, pecTaBpa:QHH H HCrrOJIh30BaHM5I apxMTeKTypHoro HaCJIe.n;M5I PyccKoro CeBepa:
Me)KBY30BCKHM C60pHHK. IIeTp03aBo.n;cK, 1989, c. 42-66. - KPOXUH B.A. IIpo-
MCXO)J{.n;eHMe Be.n;yI.QMX MOTMBOB pe3h6h1 B PYCCKOM .n;epeB5IHHOM 30.n;'IeCTBe. -
CoxpaHeHMe rraM5ITHMKOB .n;epeB5IHHOrO 30.n;'IeCTBa. C60PHMK HaY'IHhlX Tpy.n;OB. IIo.n;

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nPEAMcnOBME 8

peA. T. H. IIaHq,mIOBoH. M., 1989, c. 120-134. - CPUJl,UH CPo II. CJIOBaph PYCCKHX
HapoAHblx roBOpOB. BhIll. 1-20. M.-JI., 1965-1985. - OIIhIT 06JIaCTHOro BeJIHKO-
PyccKoro CJIOBapSI, H3AaHHblH BTOPblM OT~eJIeHHeM HMTIepaTOpcKoH aKMeMHH
HaYK. CII6., 1852. - ,Il;onOJIHeHHe K «OnhITY 06JIaCTHOro BeJIHKopYCCKoro CJIOBa-
pSI». eII6., 1869. - JIeKcHKa H q,pa3eOJIOrHSl PYCCKHX rOBopoB CH6HpH. IIOA peA.
A. H. 4>eAopoBa. HOBOCH6HpCK, 1982. - Ce.!lUU4-e6 A. M. ,Il;HaJIeKTOJIOrnqeCKHH
OqepK CH6HpH. HpKYTCK, 1921. - Mypaae6 3.M. CJIOBaph HapoAHhIX reorpaq,H-
qeCKHX TepMHHoB. M., 1984.
IIo APyrnM OTpaCJISIM apXHTeKTypbl BeChMa nOJIe3HbI HaYQHble TPYAbI
HHCTHTYTa HCTOPHH eCTeCTB03HaHHSI H TeXHHKH (AH CCCP), HHcTHTYTa TeopHH
H HCTOPHH apXHTeKTYPbI (rOCCTPoSl CCCP) , rocYAapCTBeHHOrO HCTOp1{qeCKOrO
MY3eSl, OpY)I{eHHOH naJIaTbI, a TaK)I{e PSIA H3AaHHH XVIII BeKa: IIeppo K. COKpa-
ru;eHHhIH BHTPYBHH, HJIH COBepmeHHblH apxHTeKTop. IIepeBoA 4>. Kap)I{aBHHa. M.,
1789. - 3KOHOMHqeCKOH Mara3HH, HJIH Co6paHHe BCSlKHX 3KOHOMHqeCKHX H3Be-
CTHH: .. B nOJIh3Y POCCHHCKHX AOMOcTpOHTeJIeH H APYrHX JIl060nhITHblX JIIOAeH o6pa-
30M ~HaJIa H3AaBaeMoH. q. 1-40. M., 1780-1789. - KHHra 0 aTaKe H o6opoHe
KpenocTeH, H3AaHHaSI qpe3 r. Ae Bo6aHa, nepeB. qpe3 lfBaHa PeMe30Ba. CII6.,
1744. - PeUlemHuKo6 A. JII060nblTHblH XYAO)I{HHK H peMeCJIeHHHK HJIH 3allHcm
KacalOru;HecSI AO pa3Hblx xYAO)I{eCTB, PYKoAeJIHH, COCTaBOB H AO HeKoTopblX 3KOHO-
MHqeCKHX, nOBapeHHhIX H caAOBblX pa6oTax. M., 1791. - ,I(OJI)I{HOCTh ApXHTeKTYP-
HOH 3KcneAH~HH. - B KH.: ApxHTeKTypHblH apxHB. BhIll. 1. M., 1946, c. 21-~8.
H3 KHHr XIX H XX BeKOB HaAO oco60 OTMeTHTh Tame: JIeM H. OnblT ropo-
AOBhIM H CeJIhCKHM CTpoeHHSIM, HJIH PYKOBOACTBO K 3HaHHIO, rAe pacnOJIaraTh H
CTPOHTh BCSlKoro pOAa cTpoeHHSl no HeHMeHHIO apxHTeKTopa. H3A. 3-e. CIIG., 1821
(3TO H3AaHHe 6hIJIO HCnOJIh30BaHO npH paGoTe HaA CJIOBapeM KaK pacmHpeHHoe no
cpaBHeHHIO C paHHHM, 1785 rOAa). KpaTKoe PYKOBOACTBO K rp~aHCKOH apXHTeK-
Type HJIH 30AqeCTBY, H3AaHHoe AJISI HapOAHblX yqHJIHru; POCCHHCKOH HMnepHH.
CIIG., 1789. - KyaHmepo CPo illKOJIa AepeBeHcKoH apXHTeKTypbI. M., 1794. -
rpafjJ, XpucmofjJop BepHapo. TeopeTHKo-npaKTHqeCKOe HaCTaBJIeHHe 0 rp~aH­
CKOH apxHTeKTYpe B nOJIh3Y AOMocTPoHTeJIeH. HHKOJIaeB, 1800. - C61mae6 H. H.
YqeGHoe PYKOBOACTBO K apXHTeKTYpe, AJISI npenOAaBaHHSI B rOpHOM HHCTHTYTe,
rJIaBHOM HH)I{eHepHOM yqHJIHru;e, YqHJIHru;e rpa~aHcKHX HH)I{eHepOB H B APyrHX
yqeGHhIX 3aBeAeHHSIX. q. 1-4. CIIG., 1839-1841. - J(Buzy6cKUU H. A. JIeKcHKoH
ropoAcKoro H CeJIhCKoro X03S1HcTBa. T.I-12. M., 1836-1840. - CPYPMaHH II.
3~KJIOneAHSI PYCCKOro ropoAcKoro H CeJIhCKOrO x03S1HHa-apxHTeKTopa. q. 1-4.
CIIG., 1842. - KpacoBcKuU A. rpa~aHcKaSl apxHTeKTYpa. qacm 3AaHHH. CIIG.,
1851. - CaBe.!lbeB A. AJIq,aBHTHblH C60pHHK TeXHHqeCKHX CJIOB cTaphIx H HOBhIX,
OTHOCSlru;HXCSI K cTpOHTeJIhHoMY H HH:>KeHepHoMY HCKYCCTBaM, XHMHH, q,H3HKe H
MexaHHKe. CIIG., 1869. - CKp.n6YliUHCKUU, KaUleHl.{OB. CaMoyqHTeJIh cTpOHTeJIh-
Horo HCKYCCTBa. Cne~HaJIhHOe PYKOBOACTBO AJISI apxHTeKTopoB, CTOJISIpOB, llJIOTHH-
KOB, MeJIhHHKOB, KaMeHIIJ;HKOB, neqHHKOB H 3eMJIeAeJIh~eB. B 4-x KH. lf3A. I-e. M.,
1871; H3A. 8-e. M., 1904. [,I(ml AaHHoro CJIOBapSI 6hIJIO HCnOJIh30BaHO rJIaBHblM
oGpa30M 5-e H3AaHHe - M., 1881]. - KynfjJfjJep 3.10. )l{HJIOH AOM. CII6., 1914. -
CY.!lmaHOB H. TeopHSl apxHTeKTypHhIX q,OpM. CIIG., 1901. - MUXMOBCKUU H. B.
TeopHSl KJIaCCHqeCKHX apxHTeKTYpHblx q,OpM. H3A.3-e. M., 1944. -JIacKoBcKUU CPo
MaTepHaJIbI AJISI HCTOPHH HH)I{eHepHOro HCKYCCTBa B POCCHH (AO XVIII B). q.
1-3. CIIG., 1858-1865. - BoeHHblH 3H~KJIOneAHqeCmH JIeKCHKOH. T. 1-14.
CIIG., (l-e H3A. - 1837-1851; 2-e H3A. - 1852-1858). - KlOu IJ.. A. KpaTKHH
HCTOpHqeCKHH OqepK AOJIrOBpeMeHHoH q,OPTHq,HK~HH. H3A. 2-e. M., 1889. -
BoeHHaSI 3H~HKJIOneAHSI. IIOA peA. B. 4>. HOBH~KOro HAP. T. 1-18. CIIG.,

-8-
nPEAlllcnOBIIIE 9

1911-1915. - H8aH08 H. H. BbUIBJIeHHe YTpaqeHHbIX rraM5ITHHKOB EOPO)];HHCKOrO


rrOJI5I MeTO)];OM 6Hoqm3HqeCKOH JIOKaU;HH. (Te3HCbI HayqHbIX C006In;eHHH K TBOpqeC-
KOMY OTqeTY B COlO3e apXHTeKTOpOB CCCP (15 <peBpaJI5I 1973 r.). BcepocCHHCKa5I
CrreU;HaJIbHa5I HayqHO-peCTaBpaU;HOHHa5I rrpOH3BO)];CTBeHHa5I MacTepCKa5I). M., 1973,
c. 20-23. - CrrpaBOqHHK )];JI5I BoeHHo-cTpOHTeJIbHbIX TeXHHKOB. IIr., 1917. -
MOCTb!. Kypc CTapllIero KJIacca HHKOJIaeBCKOH HH)KeHepHOH aKa)];eMHH. CII6.,
1907. - /(aHUJle8CKUU B. B. I1cTopH5I m)];pOCHJIOBbIX YCTaHoBoK POCClffi )];0 XIX
BeKa. M.-ll., 1940. -JIe6UluH B. IIOJIHOe HaCTaBJIeHHe 0 cTpoeHHH BC5IKOrO po)];a
MeJIbHHU; BO)];5IHbIX, BeTp5IHbIX, rrapoBblx, TaK)Ke CKOTCKHMH H qeJIOBeqeCKHMH
CHJIaMH B )];eHCTBHe rrpHBO)];HMbIX, rro KOTOPOMY Ka)K)l;bIH MO)KeT OHble YCTpoHBaTb.
M., 1818. - JIRMUH IT. MeJIbHHU;bI B POCCHH. - «)KypHaJI MHHHcTepcTBa rocy)];ap-
CTBeHHblX HMYIn;eCTB». CII6., 1845, q. XVII. - 3azu6aJl06 IT. PYKOBO)];CTBO K
YCTPOHCTBY BO)];5IHbIX, BeTp5IHbIX, KOHHbIX H pyqHbIX MYKOMOJIbHbIX MeJIbHHU;. - B
KH.: 3arrHcKH I1MrrepaTopcKoro Ka3aHcKoro 3KOHOMHqeCKOrO 06In;eCTBa. Ka3aHb,
1859. - HOBa5I CKpH)KaJIb. 113)];. 12-e. CII6., 1838. - Caxapo6 M. IT. 3arrHcKa )];JI5I
0603peHH5I PYCCKHX )];peBHocTeH. CIT6., 1851. - /(bR'IeHKO r. ITOJIHbIH u;epKoBHo-
CJIaB5IHCKHH CJIOBapb (co BHeceHHeM B Hero Ba)KHeHllIHX )];peBHepYCCKHX CJIOB H
Bblpa)KeHHH ... ). M., 1900. - /(uaKoH BJlaOUMUp CUOOp06. ITepBble llIam B rrpaBo-
CJIaBHOM xpaMe. M., 1991. - EepHwpo B. P. IJ;epKoBHble rrapyca. CII6., 1892. -
C060Jle8 H. CTHJIH B Me6eJIH. M., 1939. - COKOJl08a T. OqepKH rro HCTOPHH xy)];O-
)KeCTBeHHOH Me6eJIH XV-XIX BeKOB. M., 1967. - KY'IYM08 A. M. Y6paHcTBo
PyccKoro )KHJIOrO HHTepbepa XIX BeKa. ITo MaTepHaJIaM BbICTaBKH B ITaBJIOB-
CKOM )];BOpu;e-My3ee. ll., 1977. - KUCeJle8 11. A. 060H XVIII - XIX BeKOB. - «,IJ;e- .
KopaTHBHoe HCKYCCTBO CCCP». M., 1979, NQ 4, c. 46-48. - I1cKyccTBo aHCaM6JI5I.
XY)];O)KeCTBeHHbIH rrpe)];MeT - HHTepbep - apxHTeKTypa - cpe)];a. [C6.]. ITO)]; pe)];.
M. A. HeKpacoBoH. M., 1988. - COJl06be6 K. A. PYCCKHH xY)];O)KeCTBeHHbIH rrapKeT.
M., 1953. - ArjJaHacbe8 A. (/J. Pe3qHKY rro )];epeBy. M., 1990. - meneJle8 A. M.
IIITYKaTypHble )];eKOpaTHBHO-XY)];O)KeCTBeHHble pa60TbI. M., 1990. - BepzYHo8 A. IT.,
rOpOX06 B. A. PyccKHe Ca)];bI H rrapKH. M., 1988. - EOW8aR 11. 0., (/Jypco6a JI. M.
llaH)];llIa<pTHoe HCKYCCTBO. M., 1988. - C8UR3e6 H. H. TeOpeTHqeCKHe OCHOBbI
rreqHOrO HCKYCCTBa B rrpHMeHeHHH K YCTPOHCTBY pa3Hblx HarpeBaTeJIeH, K OTOrrJIe-
HHIO H BeHTHJI5Ill;HH 3)];aHHH. CIT6., 1867. - JIb606 H. A. PyccKa5I rrHpOCTaTHKa HJIH
YrroTpe6JIeHHe HcrrbITaHHblX Y)Ke B03)];YllIHbIX rreqeH ... 1799. - OPJl08 A. H.
PyccKa5I OTOrrHTeJIbHO-BeHTHJI5IU;HOHHa5I TeXHHKa. M., 1950. - C060.1le6 H. H.
qyrYHHoe JIHTbe B PYCCKOH apxHTeKType. M., 1951. - KpomKo6 IT. B., /ljeKomo8
M. IT. I1cTopHqecKHH OqepK HH)KeHepHblx coopY)KeHHH r. MOCKBbI. M., 1896\..-
KYOPR8Z,W6 A. C. OqepKH HCTOPHH )];OpO)KHOrO cTpOHTeJIbCTBa B CCCP. q. 1 ()];O-
OKT5I6pbCKHH rrepHO)];). ,IJ;opH3)];aT, 1951. - Occo6eu,Kuu H. MaJI5IpHOe )];eJIo. 113)];.
2-e. M., 1896. - EPOUlKUH H. IT. I1cTopH5I rocy)];apCTBeHHblx yqpe)K)l;eHHH )];0-
peBOJIIOU;HOHHOH POCCHH. M., 1983. - ApxHTeKTypHble KOHCTPYKU;HH. ITO)]; pe)];.
3. A. Ka36eK-Ka3HeBa. M., 1989.
ITpH pa60Te Ha)]; )];aHHOH KHHrOH 6bIJIH yqTeHbI crpyrrrrHpoBaHHble BMeCTe
TepMHHOJIOmqeCKHe rr05ICHeHH5I H CJIOBapH B Tpy)];aX HCKyccTBOBe)];qeCKOrO rrp0<pH-
JI5I, HarrpHMep: (/JJlem'lep E., (/JJlem'lep E. (/J. I1cTopH5I apxHTeKTYPbI, COCTaBJIeHHa5I
rro cpaBHHTeJIbHoMY MeTO)];Y. BbIII. 1-2. CIT6., 1911-1912. - HeKpaco6 A. 11. Pyc-
CKHH aMrrHp. M., 1935. - EpYH08 H. AJIb60M apxHTeKTypHbIX CTHJIeH. M., 1937. -
Bce06In;a5I HCTOPH5I apxHTeKTypbI. T. 1. M., 1944. - I1cTopH5I PYCCKOH apXHTeK-
TYPbI. M., (l-e H3)];. - 1951; 2-e H3)];. - 1956). - AJlrjJepo8 H. C. 30)];qHe cTaporo
YpaJIa. IIepBa5I rrOJIOBHHa XIX BeKa. M., 1960. - Acee8 10. c., JIe6eoe8 r.A.
ApxHTeKTypa KpbIMa. KHeB, 1961. - TYJIa. ITaM5ITHHKH HCTOPHH H KYJIbTYPbI.

-9-
nPEAMcnOBME 10

TIYTeBo.n;HTeJIb no.n; pe.n;. B. H. YKJIeHHa. TYJIa, 1962. - A/UjJepo6a r. B. TIaM5ITHHK


.n;peBHepYCCKoro 30.n;qeCTBa B Ka.n;alllax. M., 1974. - EymuKo6 r. II., X6ocmo6a r.
A. McaaKHeBcKHH co6op. II., 1974. - COKOJl06 A. M. OCHoBHbIe I10H5ITH5I apxHTeK-
TypHOro npoeKTHpOBaHH5I. II., 1976. - OnOJl06HUK06 A. B. PYCCKHH CeBep. M.,
1977. - OnOJl06HUK06 A., Ocmpo6cKuU r. PyCb .n;epeB5IHHa5I. M., 1981. - Kec If
CTHJIH Me6eJIH. Ey.n;anelllT, 1981. - JIU6COH B. B03po~eHHble COKpOBHIIJ;a
MocKBbL M., 1983. - reuoo6alf U op. EOJIbllla5I HJIJIIOCTpHpOBaHHa5I3HIJ;HKJIOne-
.n;H5I.n;peBHocTeH. M3.n;. 4-e. TIpara, 1984. - KUJlbne T. JI. OCHOBbI apxHTeKTypbI M.,
1984 (2-e H3.n;. - 1989). - rpy6e r., Kyt.t.Map A. TIYTeBo.n;HTeJIb no apxHTeKTypHbIM
<p0pMaM. M., 1990. - BOJlOUlUH B. CP., 3eJlbmeH H. A. CJIOBapb apxHTeKTypHo-
CTPOHTeJIhHblX TepMHHOB. MHHcK, 1990. - menumbKo H. II., Ca6amIOK JI. A.,
Mozumu'-t H. P. U op. ApxHTeKTYPHo-pecTaBpau;HoHHble TepMHHbL KHeB, 1990. -
llIuHae6 C. 5/. ,I:(epeB5IHHOe 30.n;qeCTBO. TOJIKOBbIH CJIOBapb TepMHHoB H nOH5ITHH.
M., 1992. - II,lOpyna JI.JI., HeeJl06 B.A. MJIJIIOCTpHpoBaHHoe I10C06He .n;JI5I no.n;-
rOTOBKH KaMeHIIJ;HKOB. M., 1984. - JIY.Mucme M. lJ,epKoBb HHrYJIHCTe. TaJIJIHH,
1985. - TIOrryJI5IpHa5I xy.n;O)KeCTBeHHa5I 3HIJ;HKJIOIle.n;H5I. ApxHTeKTypa. )KHBOIIHCb.
CKYJIbilTypa. rpaqmKa. ,lJ;eKopaTHBHoe HCKYCCTBO. IIo.n; pe.n;. B. M. IIoJIeBoro.
KH. 1-2. M., 1986. - BblZOJl06 B. II., YopaJl06a H. B. B KpaH 6eJIblx HOqeH.
BOJIor.n;a, KHPHJIJIOB, <pepanoHToBo, EeJI03epCK, BblTerpa, IIeTpo3aBo.n;cK, KH)KH,
MapIJ;HaJIbHbIe BO.n;bI, KOH.n;onora, KHBaq. M., 1986. - ,aaHUJl06aJI. OKHO C 3aTeH-
JIHBOH pe3b6oH. M., 1986. - Hecmopo6ufi E. H. ApxHTeKTypa cTaporo BeKa. Eeo-
rpa.n;, 1952. - Eo6'-te6 C. H. MCTOPH5I Ha apxHTeKTypaTa Ha CTapH5I CB5IT. KH. 1-2.
CO<pH5I, 1954-1955. - Biiddemmann W. Welcher Stil ist das? Stuttgart, 1938. -
Librovti E. Rusko-eesky slovnik architektonickeho tvaroslovi. Praha, [195 ... ] -
Szentkiralyi z., Detshy M. Az epiteszet rovid tortenete. Budapest, 1959. - Miivesz-
ettortenete ABC. Budapest, 1961. - Surovy B. Architektura. Naueny slovnik.
Praha, 1961. - Lexikon gradevinarstva. Beograd, 1962. - Miiveszeti lexikon
I - IV. Budapest, 1965 -1968. - Stavebnicky naueny slovnfk. 1966. - Siownik
terminologiczny sztuk pit:knych, pod red. St. Kozakiewicza. Warszawa, 1969. -
Gero L. Magyar miiemleki ABC. Budapest, 1984. - Major M. Epfteszetelmeleti
ertelmezo szotar. Budapest, 1983. - Fricky Alexander. Mestske pamiatkove rezer-
vacie na Slovensku. Bratislava, 1986. - Kiss E. Korok, butorok. 1988.
TOqHee, qeM r.n;e-JIH60, onpe.n;eJIeHH5I apXHTeKTypHo-xy.n;O)KeCTBeHHblX Tep-
MHHOB c.n;eJIaHbI B 3-M H3.n;aHHH EOJIblllOH COBeTcKoH 3HIJ;HKJIOne.n;HH H B COBeTcKoM
3HIJ;HKJIOne.n;HqeCKOM CJIOBape (M., 1981), nOqTH 6e3 H3MeHeHHH I10BTOp5IIOIIJ;eM ee
<j:>OPMYJIHPOBKH no 3TOH TeMaTHKe.
TepMHHbI cTpOHTeJIbHOH H xy.n;O)KeCTBeHHoH KyJIbTYPbl He60JIblllHX Hapo-
.n;OB Ha TeppHTopHH POCCHH OTqaCTH co6paHhI BO BpeM5I 3Kcrre.n;HIJ;HOHHbIX noe3.n;OK,
OTqaCTH B35ITbI H3 CJIe.n;yIOIIJ;HX KHHr: TOKape6 C. A. 3TilOrpa<j:>H5I Hapo.n;oB CCCP.
M., 1958. - Hapo.n;bI KaBKa3a. IIo.n; pe.n;. M. O. KOCBeHa H .n;p. (B cepHH «Hapo.n;bI
MHpa. 3THorpa<pHqeCKHe OqepKH.»). lJ. 1. M., 1960. - Ko6bl'-te6 B. II. ropo.n;a,
CeJIeHH5I, )KHJIHIIJ;e. - B KH.: KyJIbTypa H 6bIT Hapo.n;OB CeBepHoro KaBKa3a,
(1917-1967 rr.). IIo.n; pe.n;. B. K. rap.n;aHoBa. M., 1968, c. 90-150. - KaJl.MblK06 H.
X. lJepKecbI. lJepKeccK, 1974. - CmyoeHel{KaR E. H. IIoceJIeHH5I H )KHJIHIIJ;a. - B
KH.: KapaqaeBIJ;bI. MCTopHKo-nHorpa<j:>HqeCKHH OqepK. IIo.n; pe.n;. II. M. IIaBpoBa.
lJepKeccK, 1978, c. 130-156. - ,aaHUJl06a E. H. A6a3HHbI. MCTOPHKo-3THorpa<j:>H-
qeCKOe HCCJIe.n;OBaHHe X035IHCTBa H 06IIJ;HHHOH opraHH3aIJ;HH. XIX BeK. M., 1984. -
KaJl.MblK06 H. x., Kepeumo6 P. x., CUKaJlUe6 H. A. HOraHIJ;bI. lJepKeccK, 1980. -
rOJlbOUlmeUH A. EalllHH B ropax. M., 1977. - Ko6bl'-te6 B. II. TIoCeJIeHH5I H
)KHJIHIIJ;e Hapo.n;oB KaBKa3a B XIX-XX BB. M., 1982. - Ky3Hel{06 B. A. IIYTellle-

-10-
nPE,QMcnOBME 11

CTBHe B ApeBHHH l1PHCTOH. M., 1974. - MYXaMe006a P. r. TaTapbl-MHllIapH. M.,


1972. - illum06a C. H. TpaAHIJ;HOHHhle rrOCeJIeHH5I H )l(MJIH~a 6allIKHp BTOPOH
rrOJIOBHHhI XIX - rrepBoH qeTBepTH XX BB. M., 1984. - Hapo}J;hI TIOBOJl)Kh5I H
TIpHypaJIh5I. l1cToPHKo-3THorpaqmqeCKHe OqepKH. M., 1985. - 3THorpacpH5I Hapo-
AOB CH6HpH. HOBOCH6HPCK, 1984. - MUXaU.fl06 T. M. EYP5ITCKHH llIaMaHH3M: HCTO-
PH5I, CTpYKTypa, COIJ;HaJIhHhle CPYHKIJ;HH. HOBOCH6HPCK, 1987. - JKUM6ue6 B. -JK. a.
«TIOABEDKHOCTh» KOqeBOrO X035IHCTBa KaK OCHOBa apxHTeKTypHo-rrpocTpaHcTBeH-
HOH cpe}J;hI KOqeBOrO HaCeJIeHH5I (orrhIT peKoHcTpYKIJ;HH KOqeBblX X035IHCTB H 06~HH
Ha rrpHMepe 6YP5ITCKOro HapoAa B KOHIJ;e XIX B.). - B KH.: TIp06JIeMhI HCCJIeAOBa-
HH5I, peCTaBpaIJ;HH H HCrrOJIh30BaHH5I apxHTeKTypHoro HaCJIe}J;H5I PyccKoro CeBepa.
(Me)I{BY30BcKHH C60pHHK). TIeTpo3aBo}J;cK, 1989, c. 85-93. - MWlepm JI. K.
TIaM5ITHHKH apxHTeKTyphI EYp5ITHH. HOBOCH6HPCK, 1983. - HOH06a O. B. )l{H-
JIhle H X035IHCTBeHHhle rrocTpoHKH 5IKYTOB. - B KH.: CH6HPCKHH 3THorpacpnqe-
CKHH C60pHHK. T. 1. 1952. - 3blK06 (/). M. TIoCeJIeHH5I, )l(MJIH~a H X035IH-
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CKHe KOHOB5I3H. - B KH.: 5l3hIK - MHCP - KyJIhTypa Hapo}J;oB CH6HpH. (C60pHHK
HayqHblX TPY}J;OB 5lKYTCKOro rOCY}J;apcTBeHHoro YHHBepcHTeTa). 5lKYTCK, 1988. -
CMO.flRK A. B. IIIaMaH: JIHqHOCTh, cpyHKIJ;HH, MHpoBo33peHHe. M., 1991. - Bacu.fle-
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MaTepHaJIhHa5I KyJIhTypa qYKqeH.
M., 1991. - JIapbKuH B. r.
OpOqH. M., 1964. - A6pOpUH B. A. MaTepHaJIhI rro
HaHaHcKoMY 5I3hIKy H CPOJIhKJIOpy. JI., 1986. - "£[apHO.flycKUU B. B. B KpalO JIeTyqe-
ro KaMH5I. M., 1972. - 3CKHMoccKHe CKa3KH H MHcphl. COCT. r. A. MeHoB~HKOB.
M., 1986. - XOMUI.[ JI. B. TIp06JIeMhI 3THoreHe3a H 3THHqeCKOH HCTOPHH HeHIJ;eB. n.,
1976. - CYHUK O. II. YJIhqCKHH 5I3hIK. M., 1985. - HocjJaH H. A. KyJIhTypa ApeB-
HeH51rroHHH. M., 1974. - HmoH. UOp.l1cTOpH5I5IrrOHCKoroHcKyccTBa. M., 1965.
113BecTHhle TPY}J;HOCTH B03HHKalOT rrpH rrepe}J;aqe HepyccKHX TepMHHoB Pyc-
CKHMH 6YKBaMH, KOTophle AaJIeKO He BcerAa TOqHO COOTBeTCTBYIOT OTAeJIhHhIM 3By-
KaM B HaIJ;HOHaJIhHhIX 5I3hIKax. TaK, HarrpHMep, B CJIOBaX H BhIpa)KeHH5IX «eH», «eK-
MhIC rreJIheCa KepKa», «eTepHCh rrOCO}J;3» 6YKBOH «e» YCJIOBHO 0603HaqeH HeHOTHpo-
BaHHhIH 3ByK, CXOAHhIH C HeMeIJ;KHM «0», a B CJIOBaX «IOH» H «lOp3eK» 6YKBe «10»
}J;OJI)KeH COOTBeTCTBOBaTh HeHOTHpOBaHHhIH 3ByK, 6JIH3KHH HeMeIJ;KOMY «u». B CJIO-
Bax «}J;HHre3», «Ma3paca», «HHre3» 6YKBa «3» 03HaqaeT 3ByK, CXO}J;HhIH C COrJIaCHhIM
B aHrJIHHCKOM CJIOBe «the», a B CJIOBaX «aJIrhI 3H», «6aJIChIK 3H», «HKe 3HJI3» ,
«KapTa 3H», «MaJI 3H3», «M3raparr», «3CKe 3H», «3CKe 3PJI3K», «lOp33K» 6YKBa «3»
03HaqaeT 3ByK, cpeAHHH Me)KAY PYCCKHM «H» H «3». B CJIOBe «KHllIT3» 6YKBa «3»
COOTBeTcTByeT 3BYKY, cpeAHeMY Me)KAY PYCCKHMH «a» H «3». EYKBa «x» B CJIOBOCO-
qeTaHHH «xarr}J;blK a5Irbl» 03HaqaeT M5IrKHH 3BYK, cpe}J;HHH Me)K}J;Y PYCCKHMH «x» H
«r», KOTOPhIH rrOXO)K Ha HeMeIJ;KOe «h» H YKpaHHCKoe «r». 060CHOBaHHeM }J;JI5I
TaKOH rrepe}J;aqH rrOCJIY)KHJIa KHHra B. 11. rOphKOBOH H T. B. MypaHHBcKoro «TIoco-
6He rro pecpepHpOBaHHIO H peAaKTHpOBaHHIO HayqHO-TeXHHqeCKOH JIHTepaTyphI»
(M., 1964, Ta6JI. Me)KAY c. 40 H 41). 0603HaqHTh PYCCKHMH 6YKBaMH TepMHHhI H3
ceBepoKaBKa3cKHx 5I3hIKOB rrOMOrJIa JIHHrBHCT 11. TI. OJIOB5IHHHKoBa.
Hap5IAY C orry6JIHKOBaHHhIMH rreqaTHhIMH H3}J;aHH5IMH rrpH pa60Te Ha}J; 3TOH·
KHHroH 6hIJIH rrpocMoTpeHhI MallIHHorrHCHhIe MaTepHaJIhI C HCTopHKo-apxHTeKTYp-
HhIMH TepMHHaMH (rJIaBHhIM o6pa30M 3arOTOBKH CJIOBHHKOB) B IJ,eHTpaJIhHOM ro-
cYAapcTBeHHoM apxHBe JIHTepaTyphI H HCKyccTBa: cp. 2428, orr. 1, eA. xp. 14 (Ma-
TepHaJIhI apxHTeKTopa H. B. CYJITaHoBa); cp. 2059, orr. 1, eA. xp. 224 (MaTepHaJIhI

-11-
nPEAMcnOBME 12

HapO,L{HOrO apmCTa POI>CP M. <1>. JIeHHHa); <p. 2606, on. 1, e:n;. xp. 157 (MaTe-
PHaJIbI apxHreKTopa,D;. E. ApKHHa).
BIDKHbIM :n;onOJIHeHHeM KO BceM nepeqHCJIeHHbIM HCTOqHHKaM OKa3aJICSI
CJIOBapb K ,L{HCCepT~H II. C. KacaTKHHa (Ha COHCKaHHe yqeHoH CTeneHH KaH]l;H-
,L{aTa apxHTeKTypbI) «MoCKOBCKaSI rpa)K)l;aHCKaSI apxHTeKTYpa XVII BeKa» (M.,
1940). HeCKOJIbKO TepMHHOB 3aHMCTBOBaHO H3 :n;HccepTan;HH O. B. CTPyrOBOH (Ha
COHCKaHHe yqeHoH CTeneHH KaH:n;H,L{aTa HCKyccTBoBe:n;eHHSI) «IIpe:n;MeTHaSI cpe:n;a
)KHJIoro u:HTepbepa B POCCHH. KOH. XIX - Haq. XX BeKOB» (M., 1991).
3HaqHTeJIbHYIO nOMOlll;b B nO,L{rOTOBKe CJIOBapSI OKa3aJI peCTaBpaTOp
H. A. Ku:ceJIeB, rrpe:n;oCTaBHBmHH MHoroqHcJIeHHbie BbIIIHCKH H3 CJIOBapSI B. H. ,[(a-
JISI, a TalOKe CBOH H3blCKaHHSI 0 rrpO:n;YKIl;HH CTOJISIPOB H KaMeHIIl;HKOB. Orrpe,L{e-
JIeHHbIH BKJIa:n; B no:n;rOTOBKY CJIOBHHKa K CJIOBaplO H B pa3nSIcHeHHe nOHSITHH
c:n;eJIaJIH TalOKe H. C. ,D;aTHeBa, H. H. MBaHoB, JI. B. TbI:n;MaH, 10. 51. repqYK,
10. A. Be,L{eHHH, A. II. ,[(eHHcKHHa, B. M. Py:n;qeHKO, B. M. 51KY6eHSI, T. B. JIeBH-
Ha, A. <1>. KpameHHHHHKOB, B. E. XaCJIaBCKaSI, B. B. Mu:xaHJIOB, B. M. He:n;eJIHH,
ID. A. BeAeHHH, A. H. ;H:eHHcKHHa, :B ..M. Py:n;qeHKO, B. Fl. ~KYt1eHSI, T. '8. JieBII
MeHKO, B n llapHlI
<l>parMeHTbI npe:n;JIaraeMOro CJIOBapSI 6bmH orry6JIHKOBaHbI He3HaqHTeJIb-
HbIM THPIDKOM B :n;Byx H3:n;aHHSIX: ApxHTeKTypHble naMSITHHKH CMOJIeHCKOH o6JIa-
CTH. KaTaJIOr. KH. 2-SI. M., 1987, c. 610-631. MHHHcTepcTBo KYJIbTYpbI PC<I>CP.
OCHoBHble CJIY)Ke6Hble MaTepHaJIbI no OTpaCJIH KyJIbTYPbI H HCKYCCTBa 3a
1970-1989 ro:n;bI. BbIII. 14. IIaMSITHHKH HCTOPHH H KyJIbTYPbI. q. 2. «IIepBHqHaSI
yqeTHaSI :n;OKYMeHTall;HSI Ha naMSITHHKH rpa}:{OCTPOHTeJIbCTBa H apxHTeKTypbI. CJIO-
Bapb apXHTeKTYpHbIX TepMHHOB». M., 1989.
CTaTbH B CJIOBape pacnOJIO)KeHbI no <poHeTu:qecKOMY npHHn;u:rry.

-12-
-\3-

ABAXYP. 1 KOJmaK MH ~TOK npH AB,lJ;3P. CYUJU'K;lIM O;lleX<;I\hI B 6YPHT- ABAHTIOPHHOBOE CTEKJIO. TIo-
CBeTMhHHKe (JIaMIIa, CBe'la), JIOKaJIH3Y- CKOH IOpme. JIyrrpo3pa'lHOe CTeKJIO rrpeHMY~eCT­
IO~H rrOTOK CBeTa. 2 OKHO C rrO;llOKOH- BeHHO KpaCHoro, 3eJIeHOrO MH CBeTJIO-
ABJIYHh. IIepe6oouHa, rrepeKJIa;llHHa.
HHKOM H rrepeMhl'lKOH, CHJIhHO HaKJIO- KOpH'lHeBoro ~eTa C 60JIhWHM KOJIH'le-
ABPA.mAThI1i''L H3pa3~OBhIH. CTBOM 30JIOmCThIX 6JIeCTOK H Mep~alO­
~ BKpanJIeHHH.
ABCH,lJ;A. Ancuoa.
ABAH<POC. POB KOHmpacKapna, ~H
ABillHHT. 1 (=pempa;lla, peTPaHwe-
rrepe;llHHH pOB, BhIKOrraHHhIH rrepe;ll zJ/,a-
MeHT). 3arracHhIe 060pOHHTeJIhHhIe
CUCOM napaJIJIeJIhHO eMY.
rr03H~H BUYTPH OCHOBHOro YKperrJIeHHH

MH rr03a;I\H Hero, 3a~eHHhIe c06- ABJIA. KPhIThIH 060P (1) ;I\JlH OBe~ H
CTBeHHhIM 6a.t10M (1) JIH60 HHOH orpa- KOPOB B Horan:cKoH ycaob6e.
;lIOH H OT;lIeJIeHHhIe pBaMH OT ;IlpYrHX
'laCTeii: ICpenocmu. 2 BaJ/, (1) co pBOM ABCTEPlUI. AycmepUR.
BUYTPH YKperrJIeHHH. ABTOTIHAHO. MY3hIKaJIhHhm HH-
ABAHEEK. TIepe;llHHH 'laCTh 6btlCa B CTPYMeHT ;I\JlH MeXaHH'leCKOH HrphI Ha
<popTeIIHaHo (pa3HOBH;I\HOcm: rrHaHOJIa,
MOCTOBhIX orropax, orpaHH'leHHaH ;lIBY-
MH IIJIOCKOCTHMH JIH60 3aKpyrJIeHHOH <poHOJIa H ;liP.). BHa'laJIe HMeJI BH;I\ npH-
rrOBepXUOCThlO. CTaBKH K KJIaBHarype POHJIH MH IIHaHH-
HO, BrrOCJIe;llCTBHH BCTPaHBaJICH BHYTPh
HeHHhIMH BHYTPh rrOMe~eHHH (rJIaBHhIM
HX Koprryca.
06pa30M B rrO;llBaJIax). 3 llpHKperrJIeH-
Hhm cHapY)I{H K CTeHe TlOpeMHOrO 3;l1a- Ar A. rpaHH~a YCa;I\e6Horo rrapKa MH
HHH H OTKphIThIH cBepxy KO)l(YX ca;lla, HMelO~aH BH;lI HerJIy6oKoro pBa C
(06hI'lHO ;lIo~aThm) BOKpyr OKHa TIO- rro;llrropHoH cTeHKoH, KOTOPaH He BH;I\Ha
peMHOH KaMephI, rr03BOJIHIO~H BH;I\eTh co CTOPOHhI YCa;I\h6hI H HMeeT rrOJIOrHH
H3 Hee JIHWh rrOJIOCKY He6a. CKaT K rrapKY.
ABAKA (=a6aK). lliHTa Ha;I\ OCHOB- ArPA q,. 1 3fl.MIC06btU Ka.MeHb apKu,
HOH 'laCThlO KanumeJ/,u, 06hI'lHO rro;ll- a TaK)l(e ero rrO;ll'lepKHYTaH HMHT~
;lIep)l(HBalO~aH aHma6J/,f~MeHm.
ABAH)J;YKH. C6au, B6HBaeMhIe B pH;lI B apXHTeKTypHoM ;lIeKope (06hI'lHO B
Y 6epera. rrepeMhI'li<:ax npoeMoB H HHW). 2 Me-
TaJIJIH'leCKaH cKperra B BH;I\e J/,acmo'l-
ABAH3AJI. TIoMe~eHHe rrepe;ll rJIaB- ICUH020 X60cma C TI-06pa3HhIM 3am60M
HhIM 3aJIOM B KPYIIHOM o6~eCTBeHHOM KO~OB - ;lIJIH coe;llHHeHHH KaMeHHhIX
3;l1aHHH MH BO o6op~e (1). 6JIOKOB. 3 OpHaMeHTaJIhHhIH MOTHS
ABAHTYPHHOBhIH JIAK. JIaK, rre- ~BeTO'lHhIX napmep06 (1), HMelO~
peMeWaHHhIH C MeTaJIJIH'leCKHMH 01IHJl- BH;I\ JIerreCTKOB, JIHCTheB MH BeTBeH,
KaMH, npH;lIalO~HMH JIaKHpyeMoH rro- KOTophle CXO;llHTCH B O;llHY TO'lKY B cpe;ll-
BepxHoCTH Mep~alO~ 6JIecK. HeH '1aCTH rrapTepa.
ABATIOJIOK. rOp6btJIb.
ABAHTIOPHHOBA}! rJIA3YPh. 3e- A,lJ;AMOBA rOJIOBA. H306pa)l(eHHe
ABAQHCCA. TIpoMe)l(YTO'lHhm 3JIe- JIeHaH JIH60 KpaCHaH rrOJIHBa rro Kepa- 'leperra Ha;ll cKpe~eHHhIMH JIOKTeBhIMH
MeHT npH nepeXO;lle OT opoepHOU Kanu- MHKe, rrpH;lIalO~aH nOBepxHoCTH H3;l1e- KOCTHMH, rrOMe~eHHoe B OCHOBaHHH
meJ/,u K a6aKe. JIHH 30JIOmCThIH 6JIecK. KpecTa.

13

-13-
A AAMACI30H - AnbKE)I( 14

MMAcI>OH. IlHaHHHO C KaMepTOHaMH AKBE,lJ;YK. KaMeHHbIH KaHarI HJlH TPY- AJIEBACTPOBOE CTEKJIO (=6e-
BMeCTO CTpYH. 60npOBOA (qaCTO C BbICOKOH apKaoou B JIoe CTeKJIO, rJIyxoe CTeKJIO, KOCTgHOe
OCHOBaHHH) Allil cHa6)1{eHHg BOAOH H3 CTeKJIO MOJIOqHOe CTeKJIo). MaToBoe
MMI1PAJITEMCTBO (=~MHparI­
OTAarIeHHbIX HCTOqHHKOB. CTeKJIO Allil ABepeH, utUpM, KaMUHHbtX
Teg). 1 ITpH6pexmag TeppHTOpHg, npH-
3KpaHo6, CBeTHJIbHHKOB.
cnOC06JIeHHag AJIg nOCTpoHKH H pe-
A.JDKl1PCKI1M METAJIJI. BeJIbIH
CDJIaB C OJIOBOM B OCHOBe H npHMecblO
MeAH C cypbMon, ynoTPe6JIgsIDHHCg Allil
OTJIHBOK.

AJII13API1H. KpacHO-limoJIeTOBbIH
HCKYCCTBeHHhIH KpaCHTeJIb, npHMeugs-
mHHCg AJIg MaIDlpHbIX pa6oT.
MOHTa BoeHHblx Kopa6JIeH. 2 3AaHHe
n;eHTParIhHhIX yqpeX<AeHHH MOPCKOro AJIKOB. 1 AJlblW6. 2 KPbITag CKa-
BeAOMCTBa. MeHKa B c~y, 6eceoKa.
A3APO,lJ;. P~ CTOJI60B BhICOTOH ABe- AKITA-wrAH. MaM6a-oyzaH. AJIJIEH. ,lJ;opora MC)I{):Iy npOAOJIbHbIX
TpH CruKeHH, C roPH30HTarIhHblMH p~OB AepeBbeB.
OTBepCTHgMH, qepe3 KOTophIe nponyc- AKPOTEPI1M. B03BbImeHHe HaA yr-
JIOM ljJpOHmOHa, HMelO~ee BRA naJIb- AJIJII1HbEMEHThI. Pa36HBKa Ha
KalOTCg )I{epAH nOA CHODhI He06MOJIO-
Memmbt, Ba3bI HJIH nOCmaMeHma A.IDI MeCTHOCTH DJIaHa 6YA~ero <P0PTH<pH-
qeHHOrO xne6a, npe):IHa3HaqeHHhIe AJIg
cTaryH, 6lOcma, He60JIbmOrO 06eJlUCKa KaIl;HOHHoro cOOp~eHHg.
npocymKH.
HT. A. AJIMEMOP. BUMa.
A3BAP. ITepeAHHH 060P (1) B Kpe-
CThgHCKOH ycaob6e TaTap-MHIllapeH, AJIOrOJIYBbIM. JIHJIOBbIH C npe06JIa-
BKJIlOqaBmHH B ce6g )l{HJIOH AOM H Ha- AaHHeM rOJIy6H3HbI.
ABopHhIe nOCTpoHKH.
AJITAH, AJITAHA (=arIbTaHa). OT-
A3YP (=mMarIhTa). CHugg KpaCKa ):\JISI KpbIToe zY.!lb6ul4e HaA KpbtuteU 3;o;aHHg
AepeBa, 6yMam H TKaHeH. HJlH .!looJICueu.
AlUI. BpeMeHHoe )l{HJImn;e arITaHCKOro AJITAPHA5I ITPErpMA. CTeHKa C
OXOTHHKa HJlH CKOTOBOAa. npOeMaMH HJlH napanem MeX<AY aJlma-
peM H OCHOBHbIM nOMe~eHHeM xpaMa.
AMJIEPOH. 3J1epoH.
AJITAPHl1qA. )l(epTBeHHHK.
AMillBA. KpyrJIbIH TPexHorHH CTOJIHK
B TP~HIl;HOHHOM a6a3HHcKoM AOMe. AJITAPb. 1 HaH60JIee BruKHag Allil
peJIHrH03Horo pHTyarIa qaCTb npaBO-
AMbID. AnTaHCKag Cpy6Hag IOpma C
cnaBHoro xpaMa, OTAeJIeHHag OT ero
qeTbIPb~, meCTblO HJIH BoceMblO rpa-
AKC. QHJIHHAPHqeCKag IIOBepXHOCTb OCHOBHoro npOCTPaHCTBa aJlmapHOU
ugMH, 3aBepmeHHag Kp06J1eU H3 KOPbI
60Jl1Ombt HJlH 6aJ1lOCmpbt. npezpaoou JIH60 UKOHocmaCOM. 2 B
JIHCTBeHHHn;bI.
3an~Ho-xpHCTHaHcKHX xpaMax - BbITg-

AKA)KY. KpacHoe oepe6o. AJIArPEK. MeaHOp. H)'ThIH nonepeK OCH XPaMa CTOJI, Ha
AJIAK. IIJluHmyc, nOgCOK. KOTOPOM COBepmaeTCg TaHHCTBO npeB-
AKAHT. (=60p~, MeABe)l{bg JIana).
pa~eHHg xJIe6a H BOAhI B DJIOTb H KpOBh
,lJ;eKOpaTHBHbIH 3JIeMeHT B BRAe· JIHCTa AJIAHqbIK. AJITaHCKOe Ko~eCKoe
XpHCTa, a TaK)l{e B03BeAeHHag HaA 3THM
C BbIe~aTbIM H3BHJlHCTo-3y6qaTbIM )KHJImn;e, KpbIToe BOHJIOKOM HJlH CTOJIOM ;o;eKOpaTHBHag CTeHKa C peJIH-
Kopoii. m03HOH )I{HBOnHCblO HJlH CKYJIbnTYPOH
AJIACbIK. 1 He HMelO~ag OKOH qeTbI- (qaCTO HMelO~ag BRA CKJIa;o;ug).
pexyroJIbHaSI nOCTPOHKa co CTeHaMH H3 AJIXI1M1151. IToMe~eHHe npH anTeKe,
KOPbI (HanpHMep, 6epeCTbI HJlH JIy6a) B KOTOPOM npHroTOBJIgJIH JIeKapCTBO.
Ha AepeBgHHOM KapKace - )l{HJIH~e
OCTgKOB (xaHThI) H BOryJIOB (MaHcH). AJIbIM KI1PITl1q. Cna60 060)l{)l{eH-
2 BamKHpCKag KapKaCHag nocTPoHKa HbIH KHp~ gpKo-KpacHoro n;seTa,
AJIg )KHJIbSI, 06mHTag KOpOH. npeAHa3HaqeHHhIH AJIg K.!laOKU KYXOH-
HbIX H KOMHaTHbIX neqeH.
AJIAqyrA. 3arny6JIeHHag 3e.MJ1RHKa C
nJIeTeHOH KpbtuteU H3 npYTbeB nOA BOH- AJIbIMMAH. KapKaCHag Kpbtuta aJI-
JIOqHOH HJIH poroxmoH Kp06.!leu. TancKoH cpy6Hon IOpmbt.
KpaeM, - HanpHMep, B KOPUHljJCKOU H
KOMn03umHOU KanUmeJlJlX, a TaK)l{e B AJIAqbIK. qeTbIpexyroJIbHOe CaMaH- AJIbBEPTI1EBbI CTEHhI. KaMeH-
MOOYJlbOHaX. Hoe HJlH cpy6Hoe )I{HJlH~e TaTap-MHma- HbIe CTeHbI C nycToTaMH Me)l{):ly BepTH-
pen, nepeKpbIToe Ha ABa CKaTa H 060- KarIbHbIMH nOBepXHOCTgMH CDJIOmHOH
AKAIO-JIAK. MHHeparIbHag Kop~He­
rpeBaeMoe rJIHH06HTHOH neqblO. K.!laGKu.
Bag HJlH )I{eJITag KpaCKa KpacHo-6yporo
OTTCHKa Ha MacngHOM HJIH BOAOpaCTBO- AJIThI 3M, AJI,lJ;ArbI 51K. ITepBaSI OT AJIbKE)I(. 1 ITo;o;qepKHYTbIH yrnoBon
PHMOM CBg3ylO~eM, - AJIg POCDHceH no BXOAa KOMHaTa (c neqblO) B nRmUCmeH- 06'beM 3AaHHg, HMelOlIl;HH B DJIaHe npg-
AepeBy. HOM 6amKHpCKOM GOMe (1). MOyrOJIbHHK H 3aBepmeHHbIH 060c06-

-14-
A AnbKOB - AHAHACHASI rPAHb 15

JIeHHOH 1(pOB.!leu. 2 He60JIbIIIaSl yrJIO- AMEAPHMK. 1 )KepAH AHaMeTpoM 3JIeMeHTbI pa6oTalOT Ha C)!(aTHe, a
BaSI KOMHaTa B ycaAe6HOM AOMe (06blq- ABa-TpH BepIIIKa, ynoTpe6JISleMble AJISI HaKJIOHHble - Ha paCTSI)!(eHMe.
HO cnaJIbHSI, Ka6MHeT JIM60 rapAepo6). B03BeAeHHSI XOJIOAHbIX (HeoTanJIHBae-
3 )KMJIOe nOMern;eHMe B KOpqMe. MbIX) nocTpoeK. 2 llpeA6aHHHK.
AJIhKOB. HMIIIa B KOMHaTe, OTAeJIeH- AMEP A3YPA. 1 llepeKpbIToe oTBep-
HaSl OT ee OCHOBHoro npocTPaHcTBa CTHe B KpenocTHoH CTeHe HJIH 6pycm-
3aHaBeCOM, ap1(ou MJIM KO.!101t1UlMU M Bepe, npeAHa3HaqeHHOe AJISI CTpeJIb6bI. AMOCOBA KAJIOPMtf>EP. OTonH-
npeAHa3HaqeHHaSl AJISI pa3Mern;eHMSI B 2 llpoeM, pacIIIHpSIIOrn;HHCSI BHYTPb TeJIbHaH CHCTeMa, B KOTOPOH ropSlqHi1
HeH KpoBaTM JIM60 AMBaHa. nOMern;eHHSI. AbIM, BblHASI H3 6opoea, pacrrpeAeJISleTCSI
rro MeTaJIJIHQeCKMM Tpy6aM, pacnoJIo-
)!(eHHblM B HeCKOJIbKO PSIAOB AJISI OTAaQH
TerrJIa B pa3Hble nOMern;eHHH, rrOCJIe
Qero YXOAMT Hap~y Qepe3 o6rn;ylO
AbIMOBYIO TPy6y.

AMBOH. 1 Bblcryrr CO.!leu nepeA cpeA- AMllEJIhHhIE P ACTEHII5I. BblO-


HeH QaCTblO UHOHocmaca. 2 B03BblIIIe- rn;MecSI pacTeHHH AJISI YKpaIIIeHMSI
HMe rrocpeAM u;epKBH, Ha KOTOPOM . caAoBo-napKoBbix coopy)!(eHMH (mpeJlb-
AJIhllMHAPMM (=aJIbnMHCKMH ca- cOBepIIIaeTcSI TOp)!(eCTBeHHoe o6JIaQe- RJ/CU, nep20.!lbl M T. A.).
AMK, aJIbnMHeTYM). qacTb rrapKa MJIM HMe apxMepeSl.
AMtf>IITEATP. Coopy)!(eHMe C pacrro-
caAa, oTBeAeHHaSl AJISI Bblparn;MBaHMSI JIO)!(eHMeM MeCT AJISI 3pMTeJIeH MJIM CJIy-
BbICOKOroPHbIX pacTeHMH Ha MCKyC- IIIaTeJIeH paBHoMepHo rroBbIllialOIIJ;M-
CTBeHHblX ropKax M3 KaMHeH. MHCSI YCTyrraMM, C orn6aHMeM cu;eHbI,
AJIh CEKKO (=aJIbCeKKO, a ceKKO). KapeOpbt, apeHbI MJIM TeaTpaJIbHOrO
)KMBonMcb BOAopacTBopMMbIMM Kpac- rrapTepa.
KaMM no CYXOH IIIryKarypKe.

AJIh TAHA. A.!lmmt.


AJIh T AHKA. BeceoKa.

AJIhTAHHASI KPOBJI5I. OqeHb


rrOJIoraSl KpOB.!lR co CKB03HbIM napane-
mOM HJIH 6a.!llOCmpaOou no rrepHMeTpy. AMEPlIKAHCKA5I BhIllIKA. B03Be-
AeHHoe M3 AOCOK nMpaMMAaJIbHOe
AJIh tf>PECKO, AJIhtf>PECKO. <Ppec- BbICOTHoe coopy)!(eHMe AJISI npoTMBorro-
1(a, a <ppeCKO. )!(apHOrO Ha6JIIOAeHHSI 3a JIeCHbiM Mac-
AMAPAHT, AMAPAHTOBO ,UEPE- CHBOM.
AHAJIOM (=aHaJIOrHH, HaJIOH). BbICO-
BO. KpacHoe oepeeo. KMH Y3KMH CTOJIHK C HaKJIOHHOH BepxHeH
AMEAP. 1 XOJIOAHOe CKJIaACKOe rrJIOCKOCTblO, Ha KOTOpylO KJIaAYT HKO-
cTPoeHHe AJISI xpaHeHHSI 3epHoBoro BY, KpecT MJIM EBaHreJIMe (AJISI QTeHHH
XJIe6a B aaKpOMax (pe)!(e - MYKH JIH60 CTOSl).

AHAHACHA5I rp AHh. llOKpbITMe


AMEPIIKAHCKIIE rOPhI. rOpbt.
u;epKoBHoH 2.!laBbt KBaApaTHbIMM Qe-
AMEPMKAHCKME K03JIhl. llpo- IIIYHKaMM C 6yropKoM B u;eHTpe Ka)!(-
Me)!(YTOQHble YCTOH AepeBSlHHbIX BoeH- Aoro KBaApaTa.
HHbIX npoAYKTOB H TOBapoB). 2 Capau
HbIX MOCTOB, rrpeACTaBJISlIOrn;He C060H
(1) AJISI ceHa, CeHOBaJI (B HOBropoAcKHX
BepTHKaJIbHYIO paMY H3 .!leJICHR, cmoeK M
H nCKOBCKHX roBopax). 3 llorpe6.
HacaoKu, CKperrJIeHHYIO AJISI )!(eCTKOCTM
4 CTpoeHHe AJISI npoM3BoAcTBeHHblx
KOHCTPYKU;MM HaKJIOHHblMM M ropM30H-
u;eJIeH (HarrpHMep, KY3HeqHblH A.,
TaJIbHbIMM CXeamKa.MU.
MeJIbHHqHblH A., MOJIOTOBOH A., TO-
qHJIbHbIH A.). CTPOllIIJIA.
AMEPMKAHCKME
AMEAPKA,UEP. lleppoH AJISI rrocaAKM Pa3HoBMAHOCTb rroABecHblx MeTaJIJIM-
B nacca)!(MpcKMe BarOHbI. QeCKHX cmponU.!l, KorAa BepTMKaJIbHble

-15-
A AHATOMH"IECKHH TEATP - AHTA6nEMEHT 16

AHATOMMqECKI1J1: TEATP. 311:a- )KeHlfe, H HaKJIOHHhIMH 3JIeMeHTaMH, AHKEPHA}l BAJIKA. rOpH30HTaJIh-


HHe HJIH KOMllJIeKC llOMern;eHHH II:JI5I pa60TalOrn;HMH Ha C)KaTHe (Cp.: AMepU- Ha5I MeTaJIJIH'IeCKa5I llOJIOCa, CT5IrHBa-
,IWMOHCTPaU;HOHHOrO BCKPhITH5I TPYllOB ICaHCICUe cmponUJw). IOrn;a51 llPOTHBOllOJIO)KHhle CTeHhI 311:a-
IIepell: CTYlI:eHTaMH-MeIl:HKaMH HJIH Bpa- HH5I H 3aKpenJIeHHa5I Ha HX BHeIIIHHX
'1aMH. nOBepXHOCT5IX aHICepaMU.

AHBEJIOTIA (=CHJIJIOHa). TIPOT5I- AHKEPHhIE KAMHM. BJIOKH -CJIO)K-


)KeHHOe 060pOHHTeJIhHOe cOOpY)KeHHe HOH KOHcpHrypaIJ;HH, llJIOTHO COeIl:HHeH-
3IIOXH rJIall:KOCTBOJIhHOH apTHJIJIepWH, HhIe TIIJ;aTeJIhHOH npHTeCKOH II:JIH CO-
AHrmrHCKMM OQAr. QyrYHHaH npOTHBJIeHHH 60JIhIIIHM BHeIIIHHM B03-
rre'lh II:JIH llPHroTOBJIeHHH llHrn;H, COeIl:H- lI:eHCTBHHM (HallpHMep, B /C.IlaoICe Ma-
HeHHa5I C BOII:OrpeHHhlM KOTJIOM. RIC06 (1) HJlII. MOCTOBhIX OllOp).
AHrJIMMCKMM TIAPK. lleUaaJICHblU AHHAJIMT (=rHllcoBhIH 6eToH).
napIC. CMech H3 CHJIhHO 060)K)KeHHOrO rHllCa,

AHrJIMMCKMM TIAPTEP. TIapKo- KpYllHo3epHHcToro lleCKa, rpaBHH H


BhIH napmep, lI:eKOpaTHBHhlH PHCYHOK rn;e6H51, ynoTPe6JI5IBIIIaHCH II:JI5I H3rOTOB-
KOTOpOrO C0311:aeTCH CO'leTaHHeM paCTH- JIeHHH HCKyccTBeHHbIx KaMHeH.

TeJIhHOCTH H IIeCKa.
AHHEJIEThI. 1 YKpaIIIeHHe B BHlJ:e
AH,UPEEBCKMM KPECT. QeThlpeX- BeH'IHKa H3 CJIerKa 3arHYThIX JIHCTheB,
KOHe'lHhIH KpeCT C OIl:HHaKOBhlMH 3aKpbIBaIOrn;ee CICOl{UIO Me)KII:Y nOJIYBa-
OKpY)KaIOrn;ee BHeIIIHHH 6aJl (1) yKpe-
JIaMH B ICanume.nu HJlH 6aae ICO.nOHHbl.
HaKJIOHHhlMH KOHu;aMH.
IIJIeHH5I C rJIaBHbIMH 6epICaMU H pacllo-
2 PeMeUlICu.
JIO)KeHHOe HellOCpell:CTBeHHo 3a ICoHmp- AH,UPEU. 1 CapaH II:JIH COJIOMhl, MHKH-
aCICapnoM. HbI, ceHa. 2 BOJIhIIIOe 311:aHHe II:JI5I xpaHe-
HHH CHOIIOB P)KH, HMeIOrn;ee BopoTa, B
AHr A. OPO'lCKHH KOHH'IeCKHH '1YM C
KOTophle MO)KeT B"heXaTh B03.
)KeplI:eBhIM KapKacoM, llOKPhIThIH eJIO-
BOH KOPOH HJIH 6epecToH. AHEMOCKOTI. YCTPOHCTBO II:JIH yc-
AHrEJI rOJIOBhl. PaCIIOJIO)KeHHhIH JIO)KHeHHhIX Ha6JIIOII:eHHH 3a llepeMe-
B6JIH3H o'lara u;eHTPaJIhHhIH CTOJI6 B HaMH BeTPa: P.nlOzep Ha MeTaJIJIH'IeC-
AHT ABA. MeTaJIJIH'IeCKaH II:BepHaH
oceTHHCKOM )KIfJIHrn;e. KOM IIIeCTe, KOTOPhlH CBH3aH BHYTPH
IIOMeIIJ;eHH5I C cHcTeMoH 3y6'1aThlX PYKoHTKa B BHlI:e ropeJIhecpHoH JIhBHHOH
AHrmU1:CKA}! )l(EJIqh. )l(eJITa51 KOJIeC, IIOBOpa'lHBaIOIIJ;HX cTPeJIKY-YKa-
MacICU C llOBOPOTHhIM KOJIhU;OM B 3y6ax.
KpacKa. 3aTeJIh IIepell: KpyroBoH IIIKaJlOH (JIHM-

AHrmn1:CKAA 3EJIEHh. MaJI5IpHa5I 60M) C 3211:eJIeHHHMH (PYM6aMH).

KpacKa ( 06hI'IHO MaCJI5IHa5l), o6pa30- AHKEP (=3au;eII, IIIIIHJIhKa). 1 MeTaJI-


BaHHa5I CMeIIIeHHeM )KeJITOrO KpoHa C JIH'IeCKaSi BCTaBKa 'Iepe3 KOHu;eBYIO npo-
6ep.nuHcICOU z.naaypblO. YUlUHY C6Rau, 3aKpellJI5IIOrn;aH ee llOJIO-
)KeHHe Ha BHeIIIHeH lloBepxHocTH CTe-
AHrJIM"HCKAA KJIA,UKA. BHIJ: KHP-
IIH'IHOH IC.naoICu, IIpH KOTOPOM Ha JIHu;e-
BOH IIoBepxHocTH Ka)KIJ:bIe II:Ba ThI'IKO-
BhIX pHlI:a (CM. Tbt'toIC) pa311:emiIOTCH
II:BYMH HJIH 60JIee JIO)KKOBhIMH ( CM. AHT ABJIEMEHT. rOpH30HTaJIhHaH
JIOJ/COIC). BepXHH5I 'IaCTh OplI:epHOH KOMn03HU;HH,
06bI'IHO nOll:lI:ep)KHBaeMa51 ICO.nOHHaMU
AHrmrHCKA}l YKJIA,UKA. CIIoco6
YCTpoHcTBa ICP06.nU H3 rrpHMoyrOJIhHhlX
IIIHcpepHhlx llJIHTOK, llpH KOTOPOM OHM
Hhl; 'Iarn;e Bcero HMeeT BHII: '1eThlpex-
paCllOJIaraIOTCH BII:OJIh CBeCa ICP06.nU,
rpaHHoro CTep)KH5I C He60JIhIIIHM cxo-
)KlI:eHHeM rpaHeH, pe)Ke - S-06pa3HYIO
HJIH X-06pa3HYIO CPOPMY. 2 KOJIbIIIIeK,
YlI:ep)KHBaIOIIJ;HH ooeJICoy ICpymocmeu

);.~'S\Q,4~
"'-

IIapaJIJIeJIhHbIMH PMaMH C HaIIYCKOM, H


IIIBhl HH)KHerO PMa IIepeKphIBalOTC5I
6nepe6eJICICy IIJIHTKaMH CJIeIl:YIOrn;erO
PMa. Qepe3 IIpHB5I3aHHYIO K HeMY 6Ul{Y (1). JIH60 nu.nRcmpaMU; '1JIeHHTCH CHH3Y
AHrJIMl1:CKME CTPOTIMJIA. )l(e- 3 Ka)KIJ:bIH H3 KOJIheB II:JIHHOH He MeHee BBepx Ha apxumpa6, ppua H ICapHua (B
JIe3Hhle pepMbl C BepTHKaJIhHhlMH II:BYX apUIHH, 3a6HThiH B 3eMJIIO II:JI5I HenOJIHOM BapHaHTe A. apxumpa6 OT-
3JIeMeHTaMH, pa60TaIOIIJ;HMH Ha paCT5I- YKpeIIJIeHHH OOeJICObl ICpymocmeu. CYTcTByeT) .

-16-
A AHTEMIIISI - APAAbI 17

AHTEMIUI. IIaJlbMemma. nepeKphITHCM, JIH60 BepxHHH nOJlyamaJIC HhIH BhlcTyn nOJIYKpyrJIOH, rpaHeHoH
3j:(aHH5I, BKJIJO'IeHHhIH B ero OCHOBHOH JIn60 CJIO)KHOH CPOpMbI B nJIaHC; 3THM
AHTECTATIOP. 3eMJHIHOe RJUI fjJa-
06'heM. 2 IIo.!lamu (1, 2). 3 Ea.!lKOH- TCPMHHOM nO'lTII Bcerj:(a 0603Ha'laJOTC5I
IUUlUlOe YKpeIIJIeHHe C 6pycm8epoM,
W.!lepeR BHyTpH BblCOKoro rrOMeru;eHH5I. JIHIIIh a.!lmapHble 06'hCMhI.
nepeCeKaJOru;ee 6acmuoH B ero nepe-
4 ):!;onOJIHHTeJIbHhIC nOJIKH HJIH OTj:(C-
j:(HeH '1aCTH.
JICHHe C j:(Bep~aMH, YCTaHOBJICHHhIC Ha
AHTE<I>HKCbI (=aHTHcpHKChI). YKpa- BCpX IIIKacpa HJIH ceKpemepa.
IIIeHHe B BHj:(e naJlbMemm, W<aHma JUl60
AHTbl. BhlcTynaJOru;Hc HapY)Ky TOp~hI
HHhIX j:(eKopaTHBHhIX ru;HTKOB Haj:( BeH-
BHYTpeHHMx CTeH, pacnOJIO)KCHHhle no
cTopoHaM OT BXOj:(a.

AH <I>EMH5I.. IIa.!lbMemma.

AH<I>HJIA):!;A. HcrrpephIBHhIH p5Ij:( npo-


CTpaHCTBeHHhIX 3JIeMCHTOB (noMcru;e-
HH5I, 080pbl) , 06'hCj:(HHCHHhIX 06ru;CH
OChJO rrcpcnCKTHBbI.

'IalOru;MM KapHU30M 3j:(aHM5I, 06pa3Y- AIlCH):!;HOJIA. Hc60JIhIIIOH nOHH-


JOru;HX pHTMM'IeCKHH p5Ij:( B OCHOBaHHH )KCHHhIH BhlcTyn nOJIYKpyrrroH IlJIH rpa-
CKaTa Kp08JlU. HCHOH CPOpMbI, rrpHMhIKaJOru;HH K oc-
HOBHOMY 06'heMY 3j:(aHH5I H HC HMCJO-
AHTHKAMOP A. 1 IIpuXOJlcaR, nepej:(- ru;mf BHyTpH cc65I npecmo.!la.
H5I5I, 8ecmu6lOJlb. 2 KOMHaTa rrepej:(
ayoueHI1-3aJlOM. AIlTEKAPCKHll oropo):!; (=aIITe-
KapcKHH caj:(). 1 Ilocaj:(KH JICKapCTBeH-
AHTMMAKACCAP. KpY)KeBHa5I caJI- HhIX pacTcHHH. 2 EOTaHH'ICCKHH caj:(.
cpeTKa Ha crrHHKe KpeCJIa HJIH AHBaHa.
AIlTP A. 5I.ru;HK j:(JI5I CCMCHHhIX Mj:(OJIOB B
AH<I>HJIA):!;HA5I. EATAPE5I.. ApTHJI- aJITaHCKOH KOHH'ICCKOH IOpme.
JICpHHCKa5I rr03H~H5I C YKphITHeM, C
KOTOPOH npOCMaTpHBaCTC5I CPPOHT KpC- AIlIIIHHT. A61UHum.
nOCTHhIX YKpCnJICHHH Ha BCJO j:(JIHHy. APAEECKA (=apa6ccK, apa6CKa5I
)KHBOrrHCh, apanCKa5I )KHBOrrHCh, rpo-
AIlAJIEP. Annape.!lb.
TCCK, MaBpccKa). IlJIOCKOCTHoH HJIH
AIlOJIJIOHHOH. K.!la8eCUH C opraH- TOHKHH JICIIHOH opHaMeHT C O'leHb
HbIMH Tpy6aMH. CJIO)KHhIM, B OCHOBHOM CHMMCTPH'IHhIM
AHTHMHHC (=aHTHMHcHH). ~eTl'IpeX­
yrOJIhHhIH JIhH5IHOH HJIM IIIeJIKOBbIH AIlO<l>MKA. 1 AIITCKa. 2 IloMcru;cHHc
rrJIaT, H306pa)KaJOru;HH rrOJIO)KeHHe XPH- j:(JI5I xpaHeHH5I MaCJIa, BHHa H HHhIX npo-
CTa BO rp06; A., 6e3 KOToporo He AOBOJIhCTBCHHbIX npHnacoB.
COBepIIIaeTC5I TaHHCTBO eBxapHCTHH, AIlIlAPEJIb. 3CMJI5IHOll. naHoyc C
HaXOj:(HTC5I B rrpaBOCJIaBHOH ~epKBH Ha YKJIOHOM OT 1:4 j:(0 1:10, j:(JI5I BTaCKHBa-
npecmOJle H Hepej:(KO YKa3bIBaeT Ha HM5I 0PYAHll. Ha 6ap6embl H 8a.!lWHlU, a
BpeM5I ee B03Bej:(eHM5I, TaK KaK nepe- TaK)Ke j:(JI5I C006ru;CHH5I PBOB H TpaHIIIew
lI:aeTC5I B xpaM rrpH ero OCB5Iru;eHHH. C OCHOBHOH rroBcpxHOCThJO YKpCrrJICHH5I.

~
"".==m-===
AHTHIlOPTHK. IIanepmb, npocTpaH-
CTBO KOTOPOH ~eJIHKOM HJIH rrOJIHOCTbJO paCTHTCJIbHbIM HJIH rCOMeTpH'IeCKHM
r~' Wj'
OTlI:eJIeHO OT cTyneHeH KOJlOHHaoou. .~- "w;;?4 PHCYHKOM, Kyj:(a MoryT 6hITh BnJIeTCHhI
AHTOBbIll IlOPTHK. IIopmuK C aH-
' .' \" /fir/'" . ~~ CPHryPKH JIJOAeH H )KJiBOTHhlX.
maMU Ha cpJIaHrax. \,r:f0k:-. .fffJ AP ABHllCKA5I. APKA. Iloj:(KoBo-
AIlIlJIHKE. H3j:(eJIH5I 113 j:(eIIIeBoro 06pa3Ha51 oj:(Ho~eHTpOBa5I apKa (1) C
MeTaJIJIa (HarrpHMCp, )KCJIe30, MCj:(h, KPHBOH 60JIce nOJIOBHHhI OKPY)KHOCTH.
JIaTYHh), rrOKphIThIC C JIII~CBOH CTOPOHhI
APA):!;bI (=Ha y6cr). illmpo6bl C j:(ByX-
CJIOeM cepc6pa HJIH HHoro ~CHHoro
cTyrreH'IaTbIMH yrJIy6JIeHH5IMH B KHP-
MCTaJIJIa.
nH'IHyJO K.!laoKY.
AIlPOEAIJ,M5I.. YTBCP)Kj:(CHHC apXH-
TeKTypHoro npOCKTa BhICOKonOCTaB-
JICHHbIM JIH~OM.
AHTOHHEB KPECT (=eBpeHcKHH
AIlPOIli (=anpOIlla, onpOIIIa). TpaH-
KpecT, KpecT «Tay»). <l>Hrypa B BHj:(e
IIIC5I j:(JI5I CTPCJIKOB.
6yKBhI «T».
AHTPECOJIM. 1 BepXH5I5I '1aCTb nOMe- All CM):!;A (= a6cllj:(a). IlpIIMbIKaJOru;IIH
ru;eHH5I, pa3j:(eJIeHHOrO BHyTpeHHHM K OCHOBHOMY 06'hCMY 3j:(aHH5I nOHH)KCH-

-17-
A APAnbiK - APOH-KO.QEW 18

AP AJIhIK. llOrrepeqHhIe 6aJIKH, rroA- (B]:IOJIh JIHIIeBOH rroBepxHocTH) rrepc- APKOCOJIJIIM. ApOqHaH HHilla HaA
Aep)J{HBalOrn:He Kp06J1/O KapaqaeBCKO- KphIBaeMoro rrpocTpaHcTBa. 2 llpoe3A C 3axopoHeHHeM.
ro )J{HJIHrn:a. KPHBOJIHHeHHOH rrepeMhlqKoH. 3 ,[(yro-
06pa3HaH BCTaBKa rrOCpe]:lH KJlaOKU,
AP AH. OTKPbIThIH Ha lO)J{HYIO CTOPOHY
rrepepacrrpe]:leJIHlOrn:aH HarpY3KY Ha oc-
CapaU-HaBeC C IIJIeTeHhIMH CTeHKaMH H
HOBaHHe (=pa3zPY3o'-tHaR apKa).
KaMhIIIIOBOH KpbtUleU, rrpeAHa3HaqeH-
HhIH ]:1m! KpyrrHoro poraToro CKOTa Ha APKMA. PHTMHqeCKMH pH]:I apoK,
3HMHeM HoraHCKOM rrOCeJIeHHH. orrHpalOrn:HXCH Ha KOJlOHHbt HJIH CTOJI6hI
6e3 rrpMMbIKaHMH K CTeHe.
AP AHr A. 1 5IpycHoe coopY)J{eHHe B
6YPHTCKOH ycaob6e, rrpeAHa3HaqeHHOe f~1}~':~::::':::'7::::?>:1:~':":::~ ,~; ;:,::~ ;,:-:::" ~;'-~';~.~
AJIH rrpHrOTOBJIeHHH MOJIOqHhIX rrpoAYK- APMATYPA. 1 ,[(cKOpaTHBHaH KOMrro-
TOB. 2 B03BbIIIIeHHhIH rrOMOCT, Ha KOTO- ~~~ 3Hl[HH H3 rrpC]:IMCTOB BoopY)J{eHHH H
POM B CH6HpH XOPOHHJIH IIIaMaHa JIH60 .,-
f-:: BoeHHoro CHapSl)J{eHHH (rJIaBHhIM 06pa-
(~:t 30M ]:IpeBHero), BOrrJIorn:CHHaH B peJIh-
y6HToro MOJIHHeH. .,'
1-_'
t-'.
,'- e<jJe, MOH}'MeHTaJIhHOH pocrrHcM HJIH
APAllCKA5I )l(JIIBOllJIICh. Apa6ec-
Ka, Ma6peCKa. APKAJIblK. OCHOBHaH 6aJIKa Ha
KpbtUle HoraHCKoro ]:IOMa, rrOAAep)J{HBa-
APEA3. MaCCHBHoe lOrn:aH 06a ec CKaTa.
COOpY)J{CHHe B 60raTOH KapaqaCBCKOH
APKA-CKAMEELJKA. BeceOKa B BH-
ycaAh6e, 06'be]:lHHHIOrn:ee HCCKOJIhKO
)J{JfJIh!X ]:IOMOB H XJIeBOB, C Bh!XO]:laMH Ae mpUYMpaJlbHOu apKU co CKB03HhI-
MH pCIIIeTqaThIMH CTeHKaMH, K KOTO-
BHYTph MHoroyrOJIhHOrO 3aMKHYToro
o6opa (2) rrOA MaccHBHoH 3eMJIHHOH phIM rrpHMhIKalOT CHAeHhH.
KPbtUleu. APKATYP A. PHTMHqCCKHH pSlA apOK,
rrpHJIeralOIIIHX K CTeHe,
APEA3 KAEAK. KpyrrHhle ABepH IIIM-
pOKoro BXO]:la B ap6a3.

APEAJIET. BOJIH006pa3HhIH crrycK K


Cepe]:lMHe rro HIDKHeMY o6pe3y KOMo):(a.
M03aHKe. 2 KapKac BHYTPH cKYJIhrrTyp-
APEAH. 1 AM6ap. 2 llOABaJI, rrorpe6. HhIX rrpoH3BeAeHHH, H3rOTOBJIeHHhIX
APEOPETYM. JI,eHopapuu. rryTCM JICrrKH H OTJIHBKH, a TaK)J{e
MeTaJIJIHqCCKHe CTep)J{HH BHYTPH )J{CJIC-
APKATYPHO-KOJIOHLJATbIM llO-
APEOPHT. 4>aHepHbIe rrJIaCTHHhl, 306eTOHHhIX 3JICMCHTOB, rrpcrrHTCTBY-
5IC. ApKaTypa Ha KOJlOHHaX,
CKJIeeHHhIe H3 ABYX, Tpex MJIH qeThlpex IOrn:He pacTH)J{cHHIO. 3 KOMrrJICKT 060-
JIHCTOB TOHKOH <paHephl, KOTophle pac- pYAoBaHHH AJIH 3JIeKTpHqeCKOrO OCBe-
rrOJIO)J{eHhl TaK, qTO B Ka)J{AOM JIHCTe rn:eHHH.
HarrpaBJIeHHe BOJIOKOH rrcpcrrcHAHKY-
JIHPHO BOJIOKHaM COCe]:lHHX JIHCTOB, H APMHJIJIbI. PeMeUlKu.
3TO MeillaeT Kopo6JIeHHIO H pacTpecKH- APMOKAMEHHOE llEPEKPhI-
BaHMIO. THE. llJIOCKaH KOHCTPYKIIHH H3 KHpilll-
APEJIJII (=pCJIH). KaqeJIH. qCH, rrOCTaBJICHHhIX Ha pe6po, H rrOJIO-
COBoro )J{CJIC3a B ropH30HTaJIhHhIX Ul6ax
APEOCTJllJIb. KOJlOHHaOa C 60JIhIIIH- KJlaOKu.
MH uHmepKoJlYMHUR.MU.
APM5IHCKJIIM KAMEHh. BOJl/Oc.
APEOTEKTOHJIIKA. B03BeAeHHe
APOMATHJIIIJ;A. Ba30H (2) C MeJI-
060pOHHTeJIhHhiX YKpeIIJIeHHH.
APKAY. llPO]:lOJIhHhle 6aJIKH KPbtUlU KHMH oTBepcTHHMH B BepxHeH qaCTH;
APJIIEP-KOP. 3aAHMH 3JIeMeHT 3AaHHH KapaqaeBCKOro )J{HJIHrn:a, orrHpalOrn:He- BMcrn:alOrn:HH 6JIarOBOHHSl.
MJIM KOMrrJIeKCa rrocTpoeK (Koprryc, (51 Ha 6peBeHqaThle U{Unl{bt TOPIIOBhIX

rrOMern:eHHe, cTeHa). (TCH.

APKA. 1 KPHBOJIHHeHHOe rrepeKphI- APKEYTAH (=yrropHaH apKa). ApKa


THe, y KOToporo rrOrrepeqHaH TOJIrn:HHa ( MmaMU (1) Ha pa3Hhlx ypOBHSlX,
KJlaOKU MeHhIIIe, qeM rrpOTH)J{CHHOCTb II<lKJIOHHO rrepcAalOrn:aH pacrrop c600a
IW BHCIIIHIOIO orropy,

APOH-KO,[(EIII (=apoH-KOH]:IeIII).
CBHrn:eHHhIH KOBqer B cUHazoze, BMern:a-
lOrn:HH CBHTOK TOphI H 06hlqHO YCTa-

-18-
A APOLiHASI cJ)EPMA - AY,QHEHIl-3An 19

HaBJUmaeMbIH Y BOCTO'IHOH CTeHbI Ha APXHTPABHOE IIEPEKPhITHE. ATJIAHThI (=TCJIaMOHbI, TCJIaMCHbI,


B03BbIIIIemHI co cTyrreHbKaMH. BCRKoe rrJIOCKOC rrcpcKpbITHC H3 Il,CJIb- nCpCH,T1CKHC HCBOJIbHHKH, rrcpCHp;bI) .
Horo 6JIOKa. CTaTYH B BHp;e POCTOBbIX MY)KCKHX q,H-
APO'IHA51 <l>EPMA. IIpe,!lHa3Ha'IeH-
HlliI ,!ImI rrepeKpbITHll rrpOJIeTOB CBbIIIIe ryp, nO,T1,T1Cp)KHBaIOIIIHX al-lma6JleMeHm
10 M pa3HOBH,!IHOCTb MeTaJIJIH'IeCKHX JIH60 HHOM apXHTeKTypHbIH BbIcTyrr.

AP'IHBHOJIA. MY3bIKaJIbHbIH HH-


cTpYMeHT, 06"bCP;HHRIOIIIHH B cc6c
cmponUJI, ,!IJIll KOTOPOH xapaKTepHbI
q,opTeIIHaHo H lIIapMaHKY.
II1apHHpHbIe coe,!lHHeHHlI rrpllMOJIHHeH-
HbIX 3JIeMeHTOB rro,!l TyrrbIM yrJIOM. ACAK. OT,!IeJIbHbIH O'Iar C rrJIHTOH P;JISI
IIpHrOTOBJIeHHlI nHIIIH, B 6alIIKHpcKoM
APCEHAJI. 1 3,!1aHHe ,!IJIll H3rOTOBJIe-
Hapop;HoM :lKHJIHIIIC.
HHll H xpaHeHHll BoeHHbIX 3arraCOB
(KpoMe B3pblB'IaTbIX H JIerKO BOCrrJIaMe- A CEKKO. AJlb ceKKO.
HllIOIIIHXCll). 2 XpaHHJIHIIIe cTapHHHoro
ACETh. 'IacTb OBUI-la, OTBC,!ICHHaR ,T1JISI
0py:lKHll H HHbIX rrpe,!lMeTOB, Il,eHHbIX p;mI ATTHK. 1 BbIT5!HYTall rro ropH30HTa-
CyIIIKH CHonOB.
BoeHHOH HCTOpHH. JIH CTCHKa Ha,T1 BCH'IaIOIIIHM KapI-lU30M.
ACIIH,U. (=acIIH,T1HbIH CJIaHCIl"
APTE3HAHCKHM KOJIO,UEU (=ap- 2 (=aTTH'ICCKHH 3Ta)K, aq,HHcKHH
HaCIIHC, SICIIHC). IIpHpOP;HbIH IIIHq,Cp. 3Ta)K). IIOHH:lKCHHbIH BCpXHHH :;lTa)K
Tya3cKHH KOJIOp;eIl" apTyacKHH KOJIO-
2 (=HacnHc, SIcnHc). 5I1IIMa. 3 MpaMop
3p;aHHS! B OpOepl-lblX q,opMax, orpaHH-
,!IeIl,). KOJIop;eIl" B KOTOPOM HCrrOJIb3Y-
(rnaBHbIM 06pa30M TCMHblH). 4 Ccpall
'ICHHbIH CHH3Y Kapl-lU30M.
eTCSI rrpHpop;HbIH Harrop rpYHTOBbIX BOP;
KJIeCBaR KpacKa ,T1JISI MamIpHbIx pa60T, C
CKB03b rrp06ypeHHylO BepTHKaJIbHYIO
H3MeJIb'IeHHblM CJIaHIl,eM B OCHOBC.
CKBa:lKHH)' •
ACCAMEJIEMHA5I. 3aJla (1, 2) BO
APTH <I> HIJ,HAJIhHhIM. HCKYCCTBeH-
oBop~e HJIH P;OMC BCJIbMO:lKH, npC,!IHa3-
HbIH, rrOp;p;eJIbHbIH.
Ha'IeHHall ,!IJIll 6aJIOB H YBeCCJICHHH, a
APTY A3CKHM KOJIO,UEIJ, (;=apTya- TaK:lKe ,!IJIll CB06o,!lHOro o6IIIeHHR ,T1BO-
CKHH KOJIOp;eIl,). Apme3ual-lc/wu KOJlO- pllH (c 1718 rO,!la). ATTHKOBhIM II05lC. HCBblcoKaSI
oe~. CTCHKa no KynoJla HJIH
rrcpHMCTPY
ACCEKYPAHIJ,-KOHTOPA
HHoro 06"bCMa Hap; BCHtJalOIIIHM Kapl-lU-
(=q,eHcp-Ka,T1aCTp). Y'IpC)K,!IeHHc no
APXHBOJIhT. PeJIbeqJHaSI OKaHTOBKa 30M.
CTpaXOBamHO cTpoeHHH OT rro:lKapa.
apO'IHOrO H3rH6a BP;OJIb ero Kpall.
A TTHKOBhIM 51PYC. rJIYXOH RpyC
ACTPArAJI. 1 CBOHCTBCHHbIH opoep- HC3Ha'IHTCJIbHOH BbICOTbI, OT,!ICJICHHbIH
HOU apxHTcKType 06JlOM B BR,T1e nOJly- KapHu30M OT OCHOBHoro. HccYIIl,Cro
8aJla Hap; nOJlO'iKOU, 3aBeplIIaIOIIICH 5!pyca II rrOBTOp5!IOIIl,HH B IIJIaHC cro
OQepTaHM51.

ATTHKypr. JIonamKa, nUJIol-l np5!MO-


yrOJIbHOrO CC'ICHHll.
BblKpyJICKy. 2 BaJlUK Ha CTbIKC CTBOJIa
A TTH'IECKA51 EA3A. Ba3a KO-
KOJlOHHbl HJIH nUJlRCmpbl C KanWrCJIhlO.
JlOl-ll-lbl co CBOHCTBCHHbIM UOI-lU'ieCKO-
APXHEPEMCKHM ,UOM. OqmIl,HaJIb- 3 )[(eM'iYJICl-luK.
My opoepy IIPOq,HJICM, B KOTOPOM ,!IBa
HaSI pe3Hp;eHIl,HSI errHCKorra, apxHemfc-
ACTPAJIHT (=reManmoH, nypny- nOJlY8aJla COC,!IHHSIIOTCS! CKo~ueU.
Korra HJIH MHTpOrrOJIHTa.
pHH). IIPHMCHSIBIIICCCS! B M03aHKax He-
ATTH'IECKHM OP,UEH (=MaJIbIH
APXHTEKTOHHKA. 1 Pacrrpcp;eJIe- rrp03pa'IHOe CTeKJIO nypnypHoro IIBCTa.
'IHH). <l>acap;Ha5! p;CKOpaIl,H5! C O'ICHb
HHe apxHTeKTypHoro p;eKopa B KOM-
ACTPAXAHCKA5I EAJIKA (=HH30- KOPOTKHMH nUJlRCmpaMU, Y KOTOPbIX
rr03HIl,HH rrpoH3Bep;eHHll 30p;'IeCTBa,
BaR 6aJIKa). COCHOBbIH HJIH CJIOBbIH BbICOTa Bccro JIIIllIb B II5!Tb-llICCTb pa3
rrOp;'IepKHBaIOIIIee 3pHTeJIbHYlO Hap;C:lK-
6pyc (1) C ,!IByMs! nJIOCKIIMH rpaHSIMH. 60JIbllIC llIHpHHbI.
HOCTb KOHCTPYKIl,HH, YCTOH'IHBOCTb B
COOTHOllIeHHH HecYIIIHx H HeCOMbIX AC<I>AJIhT (=acq,aJIbp;, rOpHaS! CMOJIa, ATIH'IECKHM 3TA)K. AmmuK (2).
'IaCTeH, rrpO'IHOCTb KapKacHblx Y3JIOB, roPHbIH BOCK, ropHbIH ,!ICroTb, )KH,!IOB-
ATTH'IECKOE YKPAllIEHHE.
BeCOMOCTb OCHOBaHHH H T. p;. 2 HaY'IHall CKaS! CMOJIa, )KH,T10BCKHH KJICH, 3eMJIS!Ha5!
,UCKOpHpoBKa BCPXHCH 'IaCTH KaMUI-lOB
p;HCIl,HrrJIHHa 06 HCrrOJIb30BaHHH 30p;'Ie- cepa, 3CMJI5!HaS! CMOJIa, 3eMJI5!HOH
CKYJIbiiTypOH HJIH apxHTcKTypHbIMH
CTBOM MaTeMaTHKH H MexaHHKH. 3 Teo- p;erOTb, HY,!lCHCKall CMOJIa). BCIIICCTBO,
OpOepl-lblMU 3JICMCHTaMH H3 MpaMopa,
pHSI apxHTcKTypbI KaK HCKYCCTBa. 6JIH3KOC CMOJIaM; IICnOJIb30BaJIOCb P;JIS!
rHilca HJIH ,!IepcBa.
4 ApxHTeKTypa. rH,T1pOH30mIIl,HH H B TBCP,T1bIX P;OPO)KHbIX
IIOKPbITHllX, a TaK)KC P;JIS! npO'IHOrO CIl,C- A ThI,U3 hI -,UY . ,UOM P;JI5! 60JIbllIOH
APXHTP AB. HH:lKHSISI H3 Tpex COCTaB-
IIJICHHR KaMCHHbIX 6JIOKOB. CCMbH B a6a3HHcKoM CCJICHHH.
JIRIOIIIHX al-lma6JleMel-lma, - ero OCHO-
BaHHe, orrHpalOIIIeecll Ha KanUmeJlU, AT EAAMAP C3pr3. 51KYTcKall KOHO- AY,UHEHIJ,-3AJI. 3aJI P;JIR oq,HIl,HaJIb-
JlOnamKU JIH60 Herrocpep;cTBeHHo Ha B5!3b YTHJIHTapHOro (HC KYJIbTOBoro) .HbIX M ,!ICJIOBbIX IIPHCMOB BblCOKono-
CTCHY· Ha3Ha'Iemu[. CTaBJIeHHbIMH ,!IOJI)KHOCTHbIMR JIHIl,aMH.

-19-
A AYKUMOHHASI KAMEPA - ASiT -IO~ 20

AYKll;lIOHHA5I KAMEPA. IIoMc-


~CHl'[C rrpH rOp0;L\CK0l1 ;L\YMC, B KOTOPOM
rrpOH3BO;L\HTCSI rrpO;L\a)l{a ;L\BH)l{HMOro
HMY~CCTBa C rry6JIH'lHbIX TOprOB.

AYJIA. AKTOBbIH 3aJI B YHHBCPCHTCTC


HJIH aKa;L\CMHH.

AYCfEPM5I (=aBCTCpHSI). Tpalcmup C


q,YHK~HSlMH KJIy6a.

A4>AHOP. JIaMnaOHaR ne'tb.

A4>E.IJ:POH. OTXO)l{CC MCCTO, y6opHaSl.

A4>MHCKA5I KOJIOHHA. [JUIlR-


cmpa.
A4>MHCKMH 3TAK AmmuK (2).
JIAMIIA.
JIaMrra-KypHJIbHH~a C rrJIaTHHOBoH crrH-
paJIblO, KOTopaSl B paCKaJICHHOM COCTO-
SlHHH rrOMoraCT HcrrapcHHlO ;L\YXOB, BJIH-
TbIX B pC3cpByap.

AX-AX. BHc3arrHbIH rrpocBcT B rrJIOT-


HOM 3CJICHOM MaCCHBC rrapKa y cro rpa-
HH~bl, OTKPbIBalO~HH rrcpcrrCKTHBHbIH
BH;L\ Ha OKPCCTHOCTH (cp.: BOJI'-tUU CKOK).

AlII YH. qcpHaSl rrOJIOBHHa O;L\HOKaMCp-


Horo 6aIIIKHpcKoro )l{HJIH~a, B KOTOPOH
)l{HJIH )l{CH~HHbI H rOTOBHJIH rrH~.

AlII 5IK (=Ka3aHJIbIK, Ka3aH SlK, Ka-


IIIblSlK SlK). OT;L\CJICHHbIH 3aHaBCCblO
yroJI rrcpc;L\ ycmbeM rrC'lH B 6aIIIKHpcKOM
)l{HJIH~C, rrpc;L\Ha3Ha'lCHHbIH AJISI rrpHro-
TOBJICHHSI rrH~H.

A3P APMH. CrrC~HaJIbHO o6opY;L\OBaH-


HaSl rrJIO~a;L\Ka ;L\JISI rrpHcMa B03;L\YIIIHbIX
BaHH rrO;L\ Ha6JIlO;L\cHHCM Bpa'la.

A3POEAJIKM (=a3pOTCJIa). HarroJI-


HCHHbre ra30M HJIH B03;L\YXOM rH6KHc
HcrrpoHH~acMblc 060JIO'lKH ;L\JISI B03BC-
;L\CHHSl3;L\aHHH, 6aUleH (1), 3JlJlUH208 (2),
MOCTOB H HHbIX cOOPY)l{CHHH, 3arraTCH-
TOBaHHblC POCCHHCKHM HH)I{CHCPOM
M. CYMOBCKHM B 1894 r.
A3POCTATMqECKA5I JIAMIIA.
MaCJISlHaSl JIaMrra, B KOTOPOH C)I{aTbIH
B03;L\YX rrO;L\aCT MaCJIO K CBCTHJIbHHKY·

A3POTEJIA. A3po6aJtKU .

. A5IT-IOH. KyxHSI-ceHu B Horai1cKoM


;L\OMC.

-20-
BABA. 1 CTOSIK C npoyUlU1wu ~JISI Y~MYpTCKaH H3hl'leCKaH MOJIeJIhHSl C o'la- BAHrYIli. 3aHMKa (1,2), OT~aJIeHHhIH
KOJIO~e3Horo )[(ypaBJISI. 2 Ba6Ka. rOM nocpe~H 3eMJISIHOrO nOJIa. xyTOp.

BABAPHA. 5lKYTcKaSi lloBapHSl, O~HO­ BA3. 1 LI.BOp C HaBeCOM ~JIH poraToro BAHLI.AK. 1 TecaHhle ~OCKH TOJI~MHOH
BpeMeHHo CJIY)[(HBillaSi JIeTHHM )[(HJIH- CKOTa. 2 M:napan. B 2,5 ~IORMa ~JIH HaCTHJIKH nOJIOB. 2
~eM. Bap)[(a B OCHOBaHHH nJIaBY'leH BO~HHOH
BA3A. HeBhlcoKoe H, KaK npaBHJIO,
MeJIhHH~hl.
BABHH KYT. CmpRn1WU Kym. npotjJUJlUp08aHHoe OCHOBaHHe nUJlR-
BABHHEll,. 1 3alla~Hhnl H3 Tpex cmpbl, KOJ10HHbl, aHma HJIH cToJI6a, BAHLI.AqHhIE LI.OCKH (=6aH~aIII­
OCHOBHhlX 06beMOB ~epeBSlHHoH ~epKBH 60JIee IIIHpoKoe, '1eM HX CTBOJI. Hhle ~OCKH, 60R~aIIIHhIe ~OCKH, 6apo'l-
Hhle ~OCKH). JI.OCKU (1) TOJI~HHOH B
C ~BYMSI OCSlMH CHMMeTpHH llJIaHa.
llOJITOpa BepIIIKa ~JIH HaCTHJIKH llOJIOB,
2 IIpum80p HJIH KphITaSI 2a.rzepCR xpaMa
MOCTKOB H MOCTOBbIX, - C yKJIa~KOR
(Ha IOro-3all~e POCCHH):
nOllepeK yJIH~bI.
BABKA (=6a6a, K03eJI, cTpeKarro).
BAMLI.AIlIHhIE rB03LI.H (=np06HB-
CTOJI6HK Me~y cmponuJlaMu, KOTO-
Hi;>Ie rB03~H). KpyllHbIe rB03~H, ~JIHHOH
PhlH cBepxy llO~~ep)[(HBaeT nO~BeIIIeH­
OT 13 ~o 20 CM.
H)'IO K HeMY ropH30HTaJIhHYIO 3amRJICKy.
BA3AMEHT (=6a3aMeHTo). 1 BOJIee BAKJIYIlIA. qyrYHHoe KOJIeCO rH~po­
IIIHpoKaH HH)[(HHH '1aCTh nbedecma.rza, CHJIOBOR YCTaHOBKH.
npHMepHO B '1eTBepTh ero BhlCOThI.
2 Ba3a. BAKJIYIlIKA. qeThIpexrpaHHblH ~epe­
BHHHhiH 6pyCOK Ha nOBopOTHOM BaJIy,
BA3AP. 1 TIJIO~a~h B 2Opode (2) HJIH y~apHIO~HR B MaJIeHbKHH KOJIOKOJI,
BArAHA. HaH60JIee TOJICThle CTOJI- 60JIhillOM ceJIe, Ha KOTOpyIO llO yCTa- '1T06bl 06JIer'IHTb caMOKOHTPOJIb 3BO-
6hl, nO~~ep)[(HBaIO~He 6aJIKH KpblUlU B HOBJIeHHhlM ~HSlM Cbe3)[(aJIHCh Kpe-
HapH npII nepe3BOHe.
coopy)[(eHHSIX Kapa'IaeBCKOH ycadb6bl. CThSiHe H3 oKpecTHhlx ceJI - ~JIH TOp-
rOBJIH C MeCTHhlMH )[(HTeJISlMH. 2 BOJIh- BAKYJIh. TIo~beMHble BOPOTa y KOp-
BArET (=6aTO)[(OK, CHypOK, raJICTy- IIIOH ~WW3UH (1) ~JISI TOprOBJIH pa3Ho- dezapduu.
'10K). 1 CbeMHhlH npocpHJIHpOBaHHhIll 06pa3HhlMH TOBapaMH. BAJIABOJIKA. 1 BHcSI'IaSi KHCTO'lKa y
KapHU3 (1) H3 ~epeBa JIH60 npyT ~JISI TKaHH. 2 TIoABecKa y naHUKadUJla.
BA3HJIHKA. 3~aHHe C BhITHHyThlM
nO~BeCKH WpdUH. 2 Pe3HaH HJIH npocpH-
npHMoyrOJIhHHKOM B OCHOBe llJIaHa, pac-
JIHpOBaHHaH ~epeBSlHHaSi nJIaHKa, H3 BAJIAr AH. 1 JIerKoe BpeMeHHoe co-
'1JIeHeHHOe BHYTPH npO~OJIhHhIMH
KOTOPOH ~eJIaIOT paMhl ~ml CTaHKOBhlX opy)[(eHHe Ha SlpMapKe, npe~Ha3Ha'leH­
pH~aMH KOJlOHH HJIH CTOJI60B Ha HetjJbl.
npoH3Be~eHHH HCKYCCTBa. Hoe ~JIH ~HPKOBbIX HJIH TeaTpaJIbHhIX
npe~CTaBJIeHHH JIH60 ~JIH TOprOBJIH H
BArETKA. CocHoBaSi HJIH eJIOBaSI
CKJIa~HpOBaHHH TOBapoB, a TaK)[(e ~JIH
~OCKa (1) TOJI~HHOH 0,5-3 ~IOHMa H
npoH3Bo~cTBeHHblx peMeCJIeHHblX npo-
IIIHPHHOH 1 - 3 ~IOHMa. ~eCCOB. 2 He)[(HJIOe cTPoeHHe ~JIH pa60-
BArJI5l. LI.opora, BhIMo~eHHaH ro- 'lHX HJIH CTOpO)[(eH. 3 JI.J/cue. 4 JIeTHee
pH30HTaJIhHhlMH 6pe8HaMu. )[(HJIH~e KaM'la~arrOB, B03Be~eHHoe Ha
C8aRX H 3aBepIIIeHHoe llHpaMH~aJIbHOR
BArOp. rYCTo-KpaCHbrH ~BeT C CPHO-
Kp08JleU H3 )KepAeii.
JIeTOBhlM OTTeHKOM.
BAJIAKA. MamuL{a (1).
BALI.3hIM KY A. KPhlTaSI Ha ~Ba CKa-
Ta, C npocBeToM no rpe6HIO KP08JlU, BAJIrAY3. Ba.rzbWY3.

21

-21-
Ii IiAnAAXIIIH - IiAPAHblil porA 22

BAJI.IJ:AXMH. 1 <l>HryPHhrii: .n;eKopaTHB- BAJIIOCTPMA. CKB03Hoe orpa)K,L\e- BAHHA. BaRRa.


HhIH HaBec Ha ICOHCOJlRX JIII:60 CTOJI6H- HHe H3 PHTMH'IHO pacnOJIoX{eHHhIX
BAHHOE IIOKPhITME (=6aHH).
<pHrypHhIX CTOJI6HKOB, no.n;.n;epX{HBa-
rpaHeHaH ICP06Jlil C rpyrneBH.n;HhIM CHJly-
rorn;HX nopY'IeHh.
3TOM.
~~~

BAJI5ICMHA. EaJllocmpa (1).

BAH.IJ:EPOJIh. M306paX{eHHe perorn;eH


Kax. 2 Kpecmo6blu C600 Ha 'IeThlpex
TOHKHX KOJIOHKax no.n; yrJIaMH.

BAJIKOH. 1 OrpaX{.n;eHHaH BHCH'IaH


HJIH no.n;IIHpaeMaH cToJI6aMH nJIOrn;a.n;Ka,
MHCH KOHQaMH.
~- ...
B B03.n;yxe TOHKOH JIeHThI C 3arn6arorn;H-

BAH5I. 1 OXOTHH'IhH H36yrnKa y KOMH-


BhlcTynarorn;aH H3 CTeHhI 3.n;aHHH H CBH-
3hIpHH .. 2. EaHHoe nOICpbtmue.
3aHHaH rrpOXO.n;OM C HHTephepoM. 2 BH-
CH'Iee KPhIJIhIIO. 3 KOHroIIIHH Ha 70-150 BEH,IJ;JIEThI. EpyclCu .n;JIH YKparneHHH BAP. CTeHKa .n;JIH rnMHaCTH'IeCKHX
JIorna.n;eii:. ICapHU3a (1). ynp~HeHHii:.

BAJIJIOTMPOBAJIhHMK. IIpHcrro- BAPABAPA (=6apa60p, 6apa60pa).


BAHETA. EOHem.
C06JIeHHe .n;JlH Taii:Horo rOJIOCOBaHHH, JIerKoe .n;epeBIDIHoe cTPoeHHe, rnaJIaIII.
HMerorn;ee BH.n; MHHHaTropHoro rraBHJIh- BARK. 1 (=6aHKa). HH3KHii:napanemB
BAPABAH. IJ;HJlHH.n;p HJlH MHororpaH-
OHa Ha TPex nYCTOTeJIhIX TYM6ax, Ky.n;a 060pOHHTeJIhHOM coop~eHHH, He HMe-
HHK, 3aBeprnarorn;Hii: 06'heM 3.n;aHHH H
rorn;HH npOCBeTOB .n;JIH CTpeJIh6hI 060po-
06hI'iHO YBeH'IaRRhrii: ICynOJlOM JIH60
HHrorn;HXCH, KOTOPhIM rrpHXO.n;HTCH BeCTH
2Jla60U.
OroHh rroBepx 6aHICema (CM. Eap6em).
2 Y'Ipe)K,L\eHHe, BhI.n;arorn;ee CCy.n;hI rro.n;
3aJIOr He.n;BHX{HMOrO HMyrn;ecTBa JIH60
HHhIX IIeHHocTeii:, a TaKX{e MeHHrorn;ee
.n;eHhrn Ha BeKCeJIH, aCCHrHaIIHH, 6aH-
KOBCKHe 6HJIeThI.

BAHKA. 1 CKaMhH B 06rn;ecTBeHHoM


3.n;aHHH, 3aHHMaeMaH orrpe.n;eJIeHHhIMH
JIHIIaMH B COOTBeTCTBHH C 3THKeTOM.
2 KpoBaTh, nOCTeJIh, JIoX{e. 3 EaHK (1).
BAHKET. 1 CTyrreHh y 6pycm6epa
H3HYTpH YKpenJIeHHH, Ha KOTOPYro
BCTaroT COJI.n;aThI .n;JIH CTpeJIh6hI rro oca- BAPAK. BpeMeHHoe HJIH pa360pHoe
'Iepe3 nopmaJZ C 3aBeCOH orrycKaJIH 6aJI-
)K,L\arorn;HM. 2 Y3KaH ropH30HTaJIhHaH coopyX{eHHe H3 OOCOIC (1), xBopoCTa,
JIOTHpOBaJIhHhle rnaphl (npaBaH T)'M6!l
rrOJIoca Me)K,L\y OTKOCOM H KpaeM .n;opoX{- KapTOHa HJIH MeTaJIJIa - .n;JIH pa3Mern;e-
OTMe'IeHa Ha.n;nHchro «COrJIaCHhle», JIe-
Horo rrOJlOTHa, He rrOKphITaH 6aJIJlaCTOM
BaH - «HeCOrJIaCHhIe», cpe~HAA 3a.n;- HHH COJI.n;aT, pa60'IHX JIH60 3apa3HhIX
(rn;e6HeM, rpaBHeM, rnJIaKOM, rrecKoM). 60JIhHhIX.
HAA - «CyMHHTeJIhHhle»).
3 HerrpephIBHhrii: tPYHOa.MeHm BO BCro
BAJIChIK 3M. rJIHH06HTHoe 6arnKHp- .n;JIHHy CTeHhI. BAP AH. 3aMeHHrorn;HH 6b/OutICy rreq-
CKoe X{HJIHrn;e. HOH npu60p .n;JIH 3aKphIBaHHH .n;hIMOBOH
BAHKETKA. He60JIhrnOH JIerKHH TPy6hI rrOCJIe OKOH'IaHHH TonKH: Ha
BAJIhrAY3. 3.n;aHHe HJIH rrOMern;eHHe .n;HBaH'IHK 6e3 cnHHKH HJlH aHaJIOrn'IHhIH rOpH30HTaJIhHOM CTepx{He 3aKpeIIJIeHa
.n;JIH Hrphl B MH'I HJIH Ha 6HJIhHp.n;e. CT)'JI C MHrKHM CH.n;eHheM. MeTaJIJIH'Ie'(,KaH IIJIaCTHHa, 3aKphIBa-
BAJIhKA. MamUl.l,a (1). rorn;aH HJlH oTKphIBarorn;aH KaHaJI Tpy6hI
rrpH nOBopoTax BHernHeH PYKOHTKH.
BAJIIOCTPA. 1 <l>HrYPHhIH CTOJI6HK B
6aJllocmpaoe. 2 Ka)K,L\hrii: H3 .n;Byx 3aBH- BAPAHhM porA. CHMMeTPH'IHOe
ThIX BaJIHKOB no 60KaM uOHUtteClCou 3aBeprneHHe HaJIH'IHHKa, HMerorn;ee BH.n;
ICanumeJlu. .n;Byx CIIHpaJIeH, 3aKpY<iHBarorn;HxcH B
CTOPOHY BepTHKaJIhHOH OCH rrpoeMa.

-22-
6 6AP6AKAH - 6AWH5I 23

BAPBAKAH. 1 A.M.6paaypa (1) WISI BACT. IJ;BeTHaSI QHHOBKa C OCH060U H3 AHH, 3a PBOM H 6aJ10M (1).. 2 CHa6)KeH-
cTPeJIh6hI. 2 BOAOCTOK rro CTeHe. 3 Pa3- IIIeJIKa, a ymICoM H3 JIy6a HHAHHCKHX Hoe HaBeCOM YKphITHe AJISI apTHJIJIepHH.
HOBHAHOCTh 6acmuoHa. paCTeHHH.
HAPBET. CAeJIaHHaSI BR}'TPH yKpeIIJIe- BACTEH. POltOeJlb.
HHSI 3eMJUIHaSI IiJIom:aAKa AJISI 0pYAHH,
BACTHJIh8, OTAeJIhHOe KaMeHHoe
Ct'peJISlIOm:HX rrOBepx 6pycm6epa.
YKperrJIeHHe, coeAHHeHHoe TPaHIIIeSIMH
C rroA06HhIMH YKperrJIeHHSlMH.

BACTHOH. MHoroyroJIhHOe (06hIqHO


IISITHrpaHHoe) CPOpTHcpHKaQHoHHoe co-
opJ)KeHHe, BhmBHHYToe rrepeA OCHOB-

BAPEJIhEcp. CKYJIhrrTYPHoe H306pa-


)KeHHe. C CPOHOM, H3 KOTOPOro cpHryphI
BhICTYIIaIOT He 60JIee qeM HarrOJIOBHHY
CBoero 06'beMa.

BAPEJIhEcpHAH OIIYIIIKA. OrrYIII-


Ka B neU3aJICltOM nap ICe, Ha KpalO KOTO-
EATMAP, BATMAPb. )lrIHHHhIH
pOH OTAeJIhHhIe rpyrrrrhI AepeBheB MH HhIM CPPOHTOM 060pOHhI B CTOPOHY rrpo-
Slm:HK C KPhIIIIKOH, HrpaIOIQHH POJIh
KycTapHHKa eABa BhIcryrraIOT H3 oc- THBHHKa H CBSl3aHHoe CTeHaMH JIH60
rrpMaBKa, PYHoYlCa (1), ICOHUlCa.
HOBHoro MaCCHBa 3eJIeHH. 6aJ10M C ApyrHMH KperrocTHhIMH cooPY-
)KeHHJ;JMH. BATO)KOK. Bazem.
BApoqHhIE nOCKH. Bauoa'tltbte
OOCICU. BACTPOr. nrem. BATTEP. BamapeR.
BAPPHEP. Bapbep. BATA METAJIJI (=rrpHHQ-MeTaJIJI). BATTEPcpJIHH. CKJIaAHOH CTOJI, xa-
CBeTJIO-XeJIThIH CITJIaB - pa3HOBBA- paKTepHhIH AM ropoAcKoro )KMHm:a
BAPXATHhIE OBOH. BYMa)KHhIe
HOCTh JIaryHH C cOAep)KaHHeM QHHKa cpeAHero AOCTaTKa B POCCHH XIX BeKa.
060H, Y KOTOPhIX rpYHT HJIH PHCYHOK
rroAp~aeT rroBepxHocTH 6apxaTa JIH60
45-80%; HCrrOJIh30BaJICSI AJISI H3rOTOB-
BATYPA. BhIIIIKa, lCaJlaH'ta, 6aw,HR.
JIeHHSI rrOACBeqHHKOB HAp. rrpeAMeToB.
cYKHa, qTO AOCTHraeTCSI HaChIIIKOH
H3MeJIhqeHHOH oKpaweHHoH IIIepCTH Ha BAY (=MaJI 0PYH). XneB B KapaqaeB-
BATAHEIJ;. 06pea1UlR oocICa IIIHPHHOH
CBe)KeHarreqaTaHHYIO KpacKY. CKOH ycaob6e.
He 60JIee ceMH AIOHMOB H AJImIOH OKOJIO
TPex Ca)KeHeH. BAYJI. CYHAYK C AepeBSlHHhIMH CTeH-
BAPhEP (=6ephepa, 6appHep). 1 YK-
peIIJIeHHaSI aacma6a Ha rryTH HerrpH- KaMH H cKpyrJIeHHhIMH yrJIaMH, HHorAa
BATAHqHHA. ,lJ;JIHHHaSI )KepAh, OTe-
06HThm KO)KeH H 06IIIHThIH )KeJIe30M.
SlTeJISI. 2 KperrOCTHhIe BopOTa. 3 IDJlaz- caHH~ Ha qeThIpe rpaHH.
6aYM, pozamICa. 4 IIpoXOA B QeHTpe BAYPHHK. TOHKaSI )KepAh, rrpH)l{HMa-
BATAPnA. KaMeHHaSI HJIH 6eToHHaSI
paca Ha BXOASlm:eM IIJI~apMe, CJIJ)KHB- lOm:aSI B ICp06J1e KaMhIIlI MH COJIOMY.
nJlOmUHa rrorrepeK KperroCTHoro pBa -
IIIHH AJISI BhlJla30K B CTOPOHY HerrpH-
AJISI C03AaHHSI BOAHOH rrperpaAhI, AJISI
J;JTeJISI H 3am:Hm:eHHhIH OCTpOKOHeq- BAcpJIAHK. BOJIee HH3KHH, AOrrOJIHH-
HhIMH KOJIhSlMH B rrOJIOTHHm:ax BOpOT. TeJIhHhm pJlaHIC, HCrrOJIHSlBIIIHH POJIh
5 OrpaAa rrepeA BoeHHhIM MH X03S1H- lCaaeMama (1).
CTBeHHhIM 06'beKTOM, HMelOm:aSI BBA
BAqErA. 3aropoAKa B 3aroHe AJISI
rrepeKJIaAHH rroBepx CTOJI60B. 6 IIpeIISlT-
MeJIKOrO CKOTa.
CTBHe AM JIOIIIaAeH B MalteJICe MH Ha
cKa~ax. EAIIIEHHAH KPOBJIH. IDamep.

BAC. OTrOpO)KeHHhIB 3arOH C HaBecoM, BAIIIH )pKABhmrAH APBA3.


rrpeAHa3HaqeHHhIH AJISI 3HMHero cOAep- Ap6aa.
)KaHHSI cKOTa, B 3aAHeH qaCTH KpecThSlH-
3am:HThI cyxoro pBa OT rrpHTOKa peqHOH BAIIIJIABA. IJ;epKoBHaSl 2J1a6a.
CKoro ABopa.
BOAhI H AJISI rrpeCeqeHHSI CBSl3H Me~y
BAIIIMAK. qyrYHHhIH MH )KeJIe3HhIH
BACMEHHAH KO)KA. BhITJ;JR}'TaSI yqaCTKaMH pBa. HaKOHeqHHK AepeBSlHHoro KOHCTPYK-
Ha 60JIBaHKe H THCHeHaSI OpHaMeHTOM
EATAPEH (=6aTapea, 6aTeTPHa, 6aT- THBHoro 3JIeMeHTa Ha CThIKe qaCTeH, He
Koxa AJISI 06HBKH CTeH.
Tep, pacKaT, pocKaT). 1 B03BhIIlIeHHaSl CBSl3aHHhIX Me~y C060H )KeCTKHM Kpe-
BACOH. H3rOTOBJleHHaSI AJIJ;J yKpaIIIe- IIJIom:aAKa AJISI YCTaHoBKH Ha HeH 0PY- IIJIeHHeM.
HHSI Me6eJIH H opanup060IC y30pHaSI
BAIIIHH. 1 CoopyxeHHe C SlBHhIM KOH-
TeChMa, 6axpOMa, KHCTH, IIIHYPhI H3
TPacToM Me~y 3HaqHTeJIhHOH BhICOTOH
JIhHJ;JHOH, A)KYTOBOH MH IlIeJIKOBOH rrpSl-
H He60JIbIIIHM OCHOBaHHeM. 2 BKJIlOqeH-
)I{H, a TaKXe 30JIOThIX HJIH cepe6pSIHhIX
HhIH B KperrocTHYIO, MOHacThIpcKYIO
HHTeH.
MH YCaAe6HYlO orpaAY H BhICTyrralOm:HH
BACPHJIEB. BapeJibep. 3a ee rroBepxHocTb 06'beM C He60JIb-

-23-
6 6AIOl - 6EPmtHCKASI nA3YPb 24

mHMH npoeMaMH HJIH rJIYXHMH CTeHKa- BEMrEJIhB. )KeJITaX MeJIK03epHHcTax BEJIhrMMCKMM K03EJI. Y CTOH
MH. 3 3)l;aHHe, npe)l;Ha3Ha'IeHHOe )l;JIX KpacKa. )l;epeBXHHoro MOCTa, COCTOXlIJ;HH H3 )l;Byx
060pOHhI H BKJIIO'IeHHOe B cHcTeMY 6pYC'IaThIX TPeHor H nepeKJIa)l;HHhI.
BEMIIIJIOT. ,!J;epeBxHHax HJIH KaMeH-
<pOPTH<PHK~OHHhIX coopY}KeHlrn.
Hax illJII030Bax nJIOTHHa, peryJIHpy- BEMCKOE CTEKJIO. BhICOKOCOPT-
IOlIJ;ax ypoBeHh BO)l;hI B BO)l;OXpaHHJIHlIJ;e.
Hoe JIHCTOBOe CTeKJIO )l;JIX OKOH, illJIH-
<pOBaHHOe Ha rmffiSlHhIX TIJIHTax; OTJIH-
BEJIA5I BAH5I. ,!J;epeBxHHax 6aux,
'IaeTCX H)l;eaJIhHO POBHOH nOBepXHO-
o6orpeBaeMax ne'IhlO C TPy60H.
CThlO ()l;OnyCTHMax KpHBH3Ha - He
BEJIM BAPHM:QA. COJIeBapUX, B 60JIee 1/350 OT )l;JIHHhI JIHCTa) H np03-
KOTOPOH TonKa YCTpoeHa B BH)l;e ne'IH C pa'IHOCThlO (JIHillh npH HaJIO}KeHHH TPex
Tpy6oH. JIHCTOB B. c. Ha 6eJIYIO 6YMary MO}I{HO
o6Hap~HTh CJIa6hIe }KeJITOBaThIe HJIH
rOJIy6oBaThIe oTTeHKH).

BEPBEPT. PaHHxx pa3HOBH)l;HOCTh


6emOliUmOBbtX IW.MHeU, oco6eHHocTh
KOTOPOH - )l;Ba 60JIhmnx KpyrnhIx
KaHaJIa BHYTPH npxMoyrOJIhHOrO 6JIOKa
BAIOT. CTapHHHax pa3HOBH)l;HOCTh H nJIOCKO-cKpyrJIeHHhle BhIeMKH Ha
mKa<pa. BEJIM M3BA (=6eJIOKypHax H36a). mbl'tKOBbtX TOpU;ax.
B03Be)l;eHHaX Ha nO)l;KJIeTe U36a (1) C
BErM HEBECHhIE. M306pa}KeHHe BEPBA. 1 3eMJIXHax Hachm'b HJIH nJIO-
TPy60H.
He6a C COJIHu;eM, JIYHOH, 3HaKaMH 30)l;Ha- THHa, B03Be)l;eHHax Ha 6epery, y BO)l;hI.
Ka, 3Be3)l;aMH H nJIaHeTaMH - B pocnHcH BEJIM KA3HA. XpaHMHlIJ;e 6eJIMI B 2 JIaBbl (1), MOCTKH Ha)]; BO)l;OH MH
nanaTHhIX nepeKphITHH. 6oraToM )l;peBHepyccKoM )l;OMe. TonKoH nOBepxHocThlO.

BErYH. BhITXHYToe Me}l{)l;y )l;ByMX BEJIA5I KOPOBh5l. HeKpameHhIH BEPrAMT. ry6epHcKax KaHIJ;eJIxpHX,
pX)l;aMH umYHmOBbtX cBau npocTpaH- )l;epeBXHHhIH CyH)l;y'IOK. Be)l;aBmM rOpHhIMH H TIJIaBHJIhHhIMH
CTBO, no KOTOPOMY nocTynaeT BO)l;a Ha 3aBO)l;aMH.
KOBmH MeJIhHH'IHOrO KOJIeca. BEJIA5I TIEqh. IIe'Ih C Tpy60H )l;JIX
OTBO)l;a )l;hIMa. BEPrBJIAY (=roPHM CHHh). 1 ro-
BErYHEIJ;. rOpH30HTaJIhHhIH y30p H3 JIy6M KpacKa JIa30peBoro OTl'eHKa.
TPeyrOJIhHhIX Bna)];HH Ha nOBepxHocTH BEJIM IIOJIOBMHA. qHcTax nOJIO-
2 rOJly6eq.
CTeHhI, nonepeMeHHo 06paIIJ;eHHhIX BHHa U36bl (1), 2OpHuqa.
BEPrBEPK. rOpHhIH 3aBO)l;, PY)l;HHK.
OCTpHeM TO BHH3, TO BBepx. BEJI,!J;EY. TKaHhrn mepCTxHoH noxc,

e
:-::~-·:···:··,c: :.~.'< 3aKpeTIJIXIOIIJ;HH nOCpe)l;HHe KyCKH BOH- BEPrrEJIhB (=6eprreJIh6). Oxpa.
,<.'-'-, JIOKa Ha HOraHCKOH IOpme. BEPrrPMH. CBeTJIO-3eJIeHax KpaCKa.
';....!" ..,'""'..:-.--;,....
;',v. ,,-..- ...... _. BEJIE3HhIE PEMHIiI. BeJIhIe peMHH BEPEr. KpaH 6peBeHQaTOrO cpy6a B
)l;JIX npH6HBKH nOJICTH (BOiI:JIOK, Mex) K norpe6ax.
CTeHe.
BErY:W;A5I BOJIHA (=KPHBOJIHHeH- BEPErOBOM BAJI. HH3KHH 3eMJIX-
HhIH MeaH)l;p). IIpOTX}KeHHhIH opHaMeH- BEJIOE )KEJIE30. JIHcToBoe JIY}KeHOe HOH BaJI B)l;OJIh 6epera cy)l;OXO)l;HOro
TaJIhHhIH MOTHB, 06'be)l;HHXIOIIJ;HH B Mep- }KeJIe30 )l;JIX KpOBeJlb, }KeCTh. KaHana, npe)l;OXpaUXIOIIJ;HH OT na)];eHHX B
HOM pHTMe PXll: CnHpaJIeH, HanpaBJIeH- BO)l;y }KHBOTHhIX, KOTophIe TXHyT cy)l;a
BEJIOE CTEKJIO. AJle6acmpOBoe
HhIX B O)l;HY CTOpOHy. Ha 6eQeBe.
CmeKJlO.
BEJIOKYPHA5IM3BA. EeJlaR U36a. BEPErOBOM JIE)KEHh. BeperoBM
onopa )l;epeBXHHoro MOCTa, C)l;eJIaHHM B
BEJIOHO)KKA. Ebl'tOK (1). BH)l;e 6pyca (1), 6peBHa C oTecKoH Ha )l;Ba
BE,!J;)KEHhI. BpeBeH'IaThle KJIeTKH KaHTa JIH60 B BH)l;e CTIJIO'IeHHhIX ooeoK
BEJIhI. BTophIe, 'IHCThIe eeHU.
BHYTPH ap6aaa, Ha Ka}I{)l;ylO H3 KOTOPhIX (1) H BocnpHHHMalOlIJ;aX HarpY3KY OT
onHpanHCh 'IeThlpe 6aJIKH (B pa3Hhle BEJIhIM ,!J;BOP. KpecThXHcKHH OTKPhI-
KOHU;OB MOCTOBhIX nepeBoouH.
CTOpOHhI), nO)l;)l;ep}I{HBaIOIIJ;He KPblUlY ThIH OBOP (1) 6e3 HaBeCOB.
ap6a3a. BEP)KEPKA. rJIy6oKoe MXrKoe Kpe-
BEJIhIM KAMEHh. Pa3HoBH)l;HOCTh
CJIO Ha HH3KHX HO}I{Kax.
BE)KEH. KpyrJIhIH MH npO)l;OJIroBa- H3BeCTHXKa, HCnOJIh3yeMax B apXHTeK-
ThIH B nJIaHe HoraHCKHH 3epHOBOH Type )l;JIX KJlaOKU CTeH HJIH BKJIIO'IaeMaX
a.M6ap (1) C o6Ma3aHHhIMH rnHHoH TIJIeT- B KHpnH'IHylO KJIa)l;Ky )l;JIX YCHJIeHHX
HeBhIMH CTeHaMH H KaMhImoBoH Kpbl- npO'IHOCTH JIH60 B BH)l;e )l;eKOpaTHBHhIX
meu. 3JIeMeHTOB.

BE3AHMH, BE3,!J;AHMH. MeaoHuH. BEJIhBE,!J;EP. 1 Kpyrnax MH rpaHe-


Hax Ha)l;cTPoHKa C npoeMaMH, 3aBepm'a-
BE3hIMEHKA. /{ocKa (1) TOJIIIJ;HHOH
IOlIJ;ax yCa)];e6HhIH )l;OM MH oeo6HRK H
MeHee BepmKa.
n03BOJIXlOll~M o603peBaTh oKpecTHo-
BE3hIM5IHHhIE BPYCh5l. HaCTHJI CTH. 2 Ca)];oBo-napKoBhIH naBUJlbOH HJIH
Ha)l; BepxHHM UlnYHmOBblM PX)l;OM B 6eceoKa B B03BhlmeHHoH qaCTH yca)l;e6- BEPJIMHCKAA JIA3YPh (=6epJIH-
)l;epeBXHHhIX 3aBO)l;CKHX TIJIOTHHax. Horo JIH60 )l;BOpu;oBoro aHcaM6mI. Hep 6JIay, napH}KCKaX JIa3yph, MMOPH-

-24-
6 6EPnor - 6nOKrAY3 25

eBaH CHHh). CHHHH KpaCKa HHTeHCHB- HhIH H3 rrOpTJIaHIl:-u;eMeHTa, Iu;e6HH, JIOIlIa,qeH. 4 TOproBM rrpHcTaHh, 'l'Opro-
Horo 'IHCTOrO U;BeTa, C CHHepo,qHCThIM KHprrn'lHOH MYKH, IIIJIaKOB, FI3rapHHhI. BaH IIJIOIu;a,qh, phIHOK.
)KeJIe30M B OCHOBe.
EETOHl1TOBbIE KAMHl1 (=6eToH- El1CKBl1T. <I>ap¢opoBoe H3,qeJIHe, He
EEPJIOr, EEPJIOrA. COJIOMeHHM Hhle KaMHll). CTpOllTeJIhHhie 6JIOKH H3 rrOKphIToe rJIa3yphID II 060)K)KeHHOe
rro,qCTllJIKa ,qJIH rrOCTeJIH. 6emoHa HJIH 6emoHuma, HMe1OIu;He '3Ha- O,qHH-,qBa pa3a IIpH TeMliepaType 06-
'IHTeJIhHhle reOMeTpH'IeCKH-rrpaBHJIh- )Imra rJIa3ypH, 'ITO rrpH,qaeT MaTOBOH
EEPMA. Y cTyrr rrepe,q 6pycm8epO,M,
Hhle CKB03Hhle rrycToThI B CBoeM 06'h- rrOBepXHOCTH TaKoro H3,qeJIHH JIerKHH
Me)K)l;Y pBOM H BHeIIIHeH rrOBepXHOCThID
eMe (pa3HoBH,qHOCTH - 6ep6epm, MH- 6JIecK.
CTeH YKperrJIeHHH, ,qJIH rrOBhlIIIeHHH HX
paKJIh, pOKO). El1THbU'1:. l13roTOBJIeHHhIH C rro-
rrpO'lHOCTH.
EETTYHrl1. TIpHrro,qRHTOe Ha,q 8a1l- MOIu;h1O 6HTMI, 'IeKaHKH.
EEPCO. B03Be,qeHHhIH Ha,q ,qOpOroH B
zaH2a.MU B03BhlIIIeHHe ,qJIH apTHJIJIe- El1Tb. O'leHh TOHKaSl IIJIOCKa5! HJIH
rrapKe KOPH,qOP C peIIIeT'IaThIMH CTeH-
PHHCKOH cTPeJIh6hI '1epe3 napanem. KpyrJIM rrpOBOJIOKa ,qJI5! BhIIIIHBaHH5!
KaMH H TaKHM )Ke rrepeKphITHeM H3
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BOH ,qJIH paCTIneJIhHOCTH, KOTopaH Kapa'laeBCKOH ycaob6e. Ha IIIeJIK) , HCrrOJIh3yeTC5! B Me6eJIhHhIX
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¢opa, CJIOHOBOH KOCTll, CTeKJIa H
T. Il:. - ,qJI5! YKpaIIIeHH5! 3ma:»cepoK, El1<I>OPl1ll. )J,Ba o,qHHaKoBhlx Y3KllX
KaMHHOB, crrHHOK Il:llBaHOB, a TaIOKe apO'lHhIX IIpoeMa, 06'he,qHHeHHhIX 06-
ll:eKOpHpoBKa CTeHhI opY)KlI.eM. Iu;eH apKou 06paMJIeHH5!.
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2 CHIl:5!'1aH BaHHa. KOJI). KpyrrHhIH KOJIOKOJI C O'leHh HH3-
KHM perHCTpOM 3BY'laHH5!, Hrpa1OIu;HH
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EEPbEP A. Bapbep.
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EECE)J,A. 1 CKaMh5!, Ta6ypeTKa, CTYJI, PHHCKHH KJIy6.
Kapeopa. 2 06Iu;ecTBeHHaH u36a (2) ,qJIH
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YCTPOHCTBO Ha 6epery peKH. ll:eTeH Il:BOP5!H.
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HhIMH rrpoeMaMH, B rrapKe llJIH Ha ERJIO. 1 (=6HJIU;O). MeTaJIJIll'lecKa5! EJIAH-<I>l1KC. IIocmoRHHble 6eAU/la.
HJIH ,qepeB5!HHa5! oocKa, Hrpa1OIu;M POJIh
EJIA<I>OH. II/lapoH.

EJIE3l1P. 3epKaJlO (5) 2O/l/laT-tOCKOU


ne'tu, BhIJIO)KeHHOe 3arro,qJIHU;0 co CTe-
HOH o,qHoro rrOMeIu;eHH5!, Tor,qa KaK
TorrKa BhIX0Il:HT B Il:pyroe rroMeIu;eHlle.

EJIEH)J,A, EJIEH)J,YHr. lllaHoeJlbep.

EJIECTA. KOJIhU;O, rrpHKperrJIeHHOe K


6epery Bo,qoeMa. 2 Be/lb8eOep (1) Hall: MeTaJIJInqeCKOH rrJIaCTHHe Ha rrOJIOT-
KpOBJIeH 3,qaHHH. 3 He60JIhillaH He)KH- HHIu;e BOpOT.
JIaH rrocTpoHKa C O,qHOH-,qBYMH KOMHaT- KOJIOKOJIa. 2 KO/lOKO/lbHR. 3 (=rrpH-
KaMH ,qJIH 3aIu;HThI OT 3HOH H Herroro,qhI B TBopHoe 6llJIO). HaU{e/lbHUK (1) rroJIy- EJIl1H)J,A)K. <I>opTH¢HKau;noHHoe YK-
ca,qy HJIH B JIecy. 4 illaJIaIII, CTOpO)KKa H3 KpyrJIOro HJIH MHoroyrOJIhHOrO ce'le- phITHe rrpoTHB HaBeCHoro 06CTpeJIa.
XBopocTa. 5 JIaBKa, CKaMeHKa B ceHHX HH5!, rrpHKphIBa1OIu;HH CThIK CTBOPOK B
HJIH Y BOpOT. u,apcKux 8pamax.

EETAP)J,bI. )J,epeBHHHaH llJIH KaMeHHaH El1JIb. EHJIJIHapll:.


rrJIOTllHa co Ul/l103a.MU (1), rrOBhlIIIa-
El1JIbHl1UA. KO/lOKO/lbHR.
1OIu;aH ypoBeHh BO,qhI Ha Y'IaCTKe peKH.
El1MA. B03BhlIIIeHlle rrocpe,qll CUHa-
EETOH. YrrJIOTHeHHaH CMeCh BH)KY-
202U, C KOToporo '1HTaIDT CB5!Iu;eHHOe
Iu;ero BeIu;eCTBa, BO,qhI II 3arrOJIHllTeJIeH EJIOK-EATAPE51 (=6JIOK6aTape5!).
rrncaHHe.
(rrecoK, rpaBllH, Iu;e6eHh II T. rr.), B TIOIl:BH)KHM ,qepeB5!HHM 6aTape5! ,qJI5!
3aTBep,qeBilieM COCTOHHHH rrOll:06HM El1H)J,A)K. Ozu6HaR oopoza. He60JIhIIIllX Opy,qllH, YCTaHOBJIeHHaH Ha
KaMHID C BhICOKHM COrrpOTIfBJIeHHeM KaTKax, rrJIOTaX HJIH cy,qax.
El1P)KA. 1 3,qaHHe HJIH rrJIOIu;a,qh, r,qe
C)KaTHID. EJIOKrAY3. OKpY)KeHHOe 3eMJIHHOH
C06HPaJIHCh KyrrU;hI ,qJI5! TOproBhIX c,qe-
EETOHl1T. TIOPHCThlH 6emoH C HH3- JIOK. 2 MecTo HaHMa pa60THHKOB. HaChIIIhID He60JIhillOe 060c06JIeHHOe
KOH TerrJIorrpOBOIl:HOCTh1O, COCTaBJIeH- 3 CToSlHKa H3B03'IHKOB, C RC/lR,MU ,qJISl YKperrJIeHHe B BHll:e ll:epeB5!HHOrO HJIll

-25-
s snOKWMn - sonbwoA BAn 26

KaMcHHoro ;O:OMa co MHO}KCCTBOM BOf;LJ;OHH-XAJIfA. IIapa;n:HbIc BOpO- BOllHHQA. IIpocM ;O:IDl CTpcJIb6bI.
fLM6paayp (1), rrpucnOC06JICHHOC K 060- Ta Ha IO}KHOH CTOPOHC 6y;n:;O:uHCKOro
MOHaCTblpSI.

BOfEMCKA5I 3EMJI5I (=3CJICHaSI


3CMJISI). 3CJICHaSI MUHCPaJIbHaSI KpaCKa.

BorOYrO;LJ;HbIE 3ABE;LJ;EHH.H.
qaCTHbIC UJIU 06~CCTBCHHbIC 6JIaroTBo-
PHTCJIbHbiC yqpC}K):ICHUSl ;O:JISI nOMOIQH
--.:..::.:11---
MaJI0HMY~ U HCTPy;n:ocnoc06HbIM: =--
CUPOTCKHC rrpUIOTbI, BOCnHTaTCJIbHbIC
):IOMa, pa60mHbte OOMa, 6ozaoe.ltbHU,
60JIbHHU:bI.

BO;LJ;BA. HH}KHHH BCHCU: cpy6a.

BOEBA5I KAPHH3HHA. BpyCOK,


BJIOKIIIHII (=6JIOKlilllB, 6JIOKlllU<p).
COC):IHHSlIOIQHH KOHu;bl .lte:JICHeU B Kpblute
Kopa6JIb, ncpc;O:CJIaHHblH B Ka3apMY UJIU
C TCCOM KP06.1tU.
rrpUlllBapTOBaHHYIO K 6cpcry TlOpbMY (c BOJIBAH. 1 CTary». 2 <popMa ):IJI» OT-
B03BC;O:CHUCM KpblW,U, rrpCBpam;CHHCM BOEBA5I IIJIOmA;LJ;KA. BcpxHnH JIHBKH MCTaJIJIU'iCCKUX U3;n;CJIuH.
nyrnCqHblX nopmo6 B OKHa, YCTaHoBKoH yCTyn KpcnOCTHOH CTCHbI co CTOPOHbI
KHpnHqHblX nCqCH U T. ;0:.). BOJIBAHKA. 1 qCThIpcxrpaHHbIH coc-
060pOHSlIO~UXCSI, KOTOPbIH n03BOJI»CT
HOBhIH 6pyc (1) ;n;JIUHOH 9,12,15 UJIU 18
BJIOHKA. 1 3a;n:BU}KHOH CTaBCHb BOJIO- BCCTH CTPCJIh6y H3HYTPH YKpCnJICHUSl
apIIIUH npH CCqCHHH 5x5 JIH60 4x4
KOBOro OKHa. 2 3aCTCKJICHHblH OKOH- qCPC3 60UHU£(bl B ay6£(ax, 3aBcpma-
BcpmKa. 2 COCHOBOC UJIU CJIOBOC
HbIH ncpcnncT. 3 YTcnnUTCJIbHbIH CTa- lO~ux CTCHY, UJIU MC}K):Iy HUMO; 06bJqHO
6pe6Ho ;n;JIUHOH B 3-7 Ca}KCHCH rrpu
BCHb. UMCCT Bu;n: npOTjJ}KCHHoro xO):la MC}K):IY
nOnCpCqHHKC 4-6 BcpmKoB.
6aw,HJlMu (3), onupalO~crocSi Ha apKU U
BJIOIIIHHQA. 1 APCCTaHTCKOC nOMC- orOpO}KCHHOrO ):ICPCB»HHblMO nCpUJIaMH BOJIBEPK. BO.ltb6epK.
~CHHC B nOJIHQUH. 2 KfLMeHllblU Mew,OK. nO):l HaBCCOM.
BOJI;LJ;bIPb. By.ltOblpb.
BJI~IOmHH CA;LJ;. JIa6upw-tm.
BOEBOE KOJIECO. KOJICCO BO;O:SlHOH
BOJIO}:PICE. ;LJ;BycKaTHhIH OPOqCKuH
BJI3K-BAPHHIII (=6mIKBapHHm, ra- MCJIbHUD:bI, Y KOToporo JIOnaCTU no
maJIaIII C 6pCBCH'iaThIM KapKacoM U
30BaSi CMOJIa). BbICTpOCOXHY~ qCP- KpalO rrpuMbIKalOT K 60KOBOH nOBcpx-
nOKphITHCM U3 CJIOBOH KOphI.
HbIH ac<paJIbTOBbIH JIaK, ynoTPC6JISI- HOCTU.
CMbIH ;O:IDl nOKpbITUSl ;O:CpCBSlHHblX U BOJIOHKA. 1 MaJICHhKOC CTCKJIO B
BOEBbIE qACbI (=6UTbU qaCbI).
}KCJIC3HblX U3;O:CJIuH, ;O:JISI npu;n:aHUSl OM ua6e (1).2 OKofl'tufla. 3 CTCKJIO B OKHC.
qacbI, U3;n;aIOIQHC MCJIO;n;U'iHblC y;n;apbI
JIOCHSl~CHCSI nOBcpXHoCTH.
,UJIU MY3bIKaJIbHbIH 3BOH qCPC3 orrpc;n;c- BOJIOHOK. rOp6bt.ltb.
BJIIO;LJ;HHK. IIIKa<pquK UJIU nOJIOqKa JICHHblC rrpOMC}KYTKH BpCMCHH.
;O:JISI nocY;O:bI. BOJIbBEPK (=60JIBCpK). 1 ;LJ;CPCBSlH-
BO)KE;LJ;OMKA. 1 (=y60rHH ;n;OM, HaSI noonopHaR cmeHKa C OTBCCHOH UJIH
BJUIKBAPHHIII. BJl3K-6apHUw,. }KaJIbHUK). MCCTO B 2Opooe, Ky;o:a OqCHh KPYTOH nOBcpXHoCTblO, npcnuT-
BOBHK, BOBOqKA. Hc60JIbmOH ;n;OCTaBJI»JIH TPynLI y6HTbIX UJIH BHC3a- CTBylO~aSI OnOJI3HSlM U OCbJTIjJM 6cpcra.

CTOJIUK C ;O:ByMR CTOHKaMH, KOTOPbIC nHO yMcpmux Ha yJIuu:c. 2 CTOpO}KKa B 2 BpeK6amep. KaMCHHaSI npcrpa;n:a ;n;JISI
no;o:;o:cp}KUBaIOT CmO.lteUlHU£(y, no OqCP- TO:ii: qacm KJIa;n:6~a, mc XOPOHUJIH 3a 3aIQHThi MopCKoro 6cpcra OT y;o:apOB
TaHUSIM noxo~1O Ha 606. 06~CCTBCHHbI:ii: CqCT HUlQHX, y6UThIX, BOJIH.
caMoy6uHu: U Haii;n;cHHbIX BHC ;n;OMa
BOJIbMAHOB KHPIIHq. KpYllHbIC
MCPTBhIMH. 3 BOZaOe.ltbHR. 6JIOKH ;O:IDl KaMcHHo:ii: 1C.ItaOKU CTCH, 06-
BOXHHUA. 1 MOJIUTBCHHhIH ;n;OM, JICrqCHHbIC }KCJI06aMU nOJIYKpyrJIOro
ceqCHUSl Ha qCThIPCX MCHbmHX rpaHSlX
U:CPKOBHOC 3;O:aHHC (06hJqHO HCnpaBO-
CJIaBHOC H MaJIhiX pa3McpoB). 2 MOJICH- U napaJIJICJIbHhlMO D:UJIUH)J;PU'iCCKHMU
HaSI KOMHaTa B ;n;OMC. 3 3aCTCKJICHHhIH KaHaJIaMU ;n;Byx ;n;uaMcTPoB qCPC3 Mac-
mKa<p, B KOTOPOM BhICTaBJICHhi HKOHhI, CUB 6JIOKa; H306pCTCH B 1870-c -rr.
U3BCCTHhIM nCTcp6yprcKHM rrpo<pccco-
CBSITaSI BO;n;a, naCXaJIhHblC SIii:u:a, Bcp6a U
POM A. K. BOJIbMaHOM (1805-1887).
;n;pyruc npc;O:McThI pCJIUrU03Horo 3Ha-
qCHUSl. 4 lJac06HR, B03BC;n;CHHaSI Ha;n: BOJIbIIIEMEPHbIH KHPIIHq. 1 Pac-
BOBPOBbIH XBOCf. lliOCKaSI 'tepe- MmapeM HCcoxpaHUBmcHcSI U:CPKBU, npOCTpaHCHHhIH B ;n;pCBHCpYCCKOM 30;n;-
nUl4ll ;O:IDl Kp06e.ltb, no <pOPMC 6JIU3KaSI Ha;n: pO;n;HUKOM UJIU Ha UHOM MCCTC, rrpo- qCCTBC KHpTIU'i C pa3McpaMH 7-8x14-
BbiTSIHYTOMY rrpSiMOyroJIbHUKY, Y KOTO- CJIhIBmCM KaK CB»TOC, JIH60 Ha;n; MOrH- 16x28-32 CM. 2 Kupnuq «60JIhmo:ii:
poro KOPOTKaSI cTopoHa, 06pa~cHHaSI K JIOH. MCPbI» - C pa3McpaMu9x13,5x27 CM,-
CBCCY KP06.ltU, W006Pa3HaSI. UCnOJIh30BaHHbI:ii: B PYCCKOM CTpOHTCJIb-
BOH. 1 fOPH30HTaJIhHhIH pSI;O: 60UflUl{ B
CTBC 1775-1780-x rr.
BOfA;LJ;EJIbH.H (=60}Kc;o:oMKa). IIpH- KpcnoCTHoH CTCHC UJIH 6aw,fle (3).2 P»;n;
lOT ;O:IDl rrpCCTapCJIbiX H HCTPY):IOCno- rB03):1C:ii: B TCCOBO:ii: 06w,u6Ke, 3a6HThlx BOJIbIIlOH BAIT. OTCCaHHbm Ha
C06HbIX. no O;n;HOH JIUHHH. HCCKOJIbKO rpaHc:ii: CocHoBhm UJIH ):Iy60-

-26-
6 60nbWOH rOPoA - 6PAHAMAY3P 27

BbIH KpIDK p;mmoH 6-11 M p;m! CTPOII- rpaHIIl\e KOBpa IIJIH 060eB, KaMeHHbIH HOM H nOnepeqHOM CeqeHMHX Op;HOl\eHT-
TeJIbCTBa BOP;~HhIX M BeTp~HbIX MeJIb- 60PTMK Me2Kp;y MOCTOBOH II TpoTyapoM). pOBble JIH60 Kopo606ble ,l\yrII pa3HbIx
HHl\. pa,l\HycoB.
BOPOB. fOpH30HTaJIbHbIH HJIH
BOJIhIIIOM fOPOJ];. BHeIII~ H3 HaKJIOHHbIH Obt.MOXOO H3 KHpmlqa JIH60
Tpex KOHl\eHTpWlecKHx qaCTeH Kpyn- 2KeJIe3a (CM. J(bt.M60.!lOK (3).
HOro p;peBHepyccKoro 2Opooa.
BOPOBOK. BbInyKJIbIH npOMe2KYToK
BOJIhIIIOM KOITOKOIT. B.lta208ecm- BOl.J:El.J:HA5I UEPKOBh. UepKoBHoe
Me2Kp;y .!lOJICKaMU (2) M paK08UHaMU B
HUK. H3p;eJI~X KaMeHOTeCOB H pe3qHKoB.
3):\aHlIe, 3aBepIIIeHHoe ,l\BYCKaTHOH
Kp08.!leU KU.!le6UOHOzO CeqeHHH.
BOIThIIIOM. OPJ];EP (=KOJIOCCaJIbHbIH
BOP03J];A. 1 )KeJI060K Ha KpOBeJIb-
opp;ep). Opp;epHa~ p;eKOpal\~ C KO.!lOH- BOl.J:KA. J];BYCKaTHoe nOKpbITHe KU.!le-
HOM Tece, P;JI~ CTOKa BOP;bI. 2 I1poP;OJIro-
HaMU IIJIH nU.!lRCmpaMU Ha BbICOTY TPex 6UOH020 CeqeH~, paCIIIlIp~IOII\eeCH Ha):\
BaToe yrny6JIeHMe B CTeHe P;JI~ YCTPOH-
H 60JIee 3TruKeH. OCHOBaHMeM.
CTBa Obt.MOXOOa, P;JI~ nRmbl c8ooa, P;JI~
BOIThIIIOM YfOIT. Kpaolblu Y20.!l. npMMhIKaHH~ JIeCTHHl\hI JIH60 KP08.!lU H
T. n. 3 TpaHIIIe~.
BOJIIOC (=ap~HcKHH KaMeHb). MeJI-
K03epHHcTa~ 2KeJIe3MCTa~ rJIHHa, yno- BOPOHA. Tepca.
Tpe6JI~eMa~ B KaqeCTBe KpacHoH, KO-
BOPOHKA. CTOp02KKa, KapaYJIbHOe
pHqHeBOH, 3eJIeHOH HJIH 6eJIOH KpacoK,
nOMeIl\eHHe.
a TaK2Ke npM 30JIOqeHIIH.
BOPCTBEP (=6opcTep, 60pcTq:,ep). BOl.J:KA UEPKOBHA5I. meuKa no):\
BOH (=60M, 600M, 6YM, 6YHa)•. 1 I1JIa-
Bpycm6ep. l\epKOBHOH Z.!la6ou.
Byqee 3arpa2Kp;eHHe nonepeK peKH JIH60
HHOH npoToKII, Cp;eJIaHHOe H3 OCMOJIeH- BOPT. 1 (=60PTOBOH KaMeHb). I1pOT~- BOIIIHH. CMecb acq:,aJIbTa M KayqyKa,
HhIX 60qeK, JIOP;OK, nJIOTOB, 6pe8eH, 2KeHHbIH KaMeHHblH BbIcTyn no rpaHHl\e p;eJIaIOIIIaH KaMeHHYIO KJIa}:\Ky BO,l\oHe-
KOTopbIe 2KeCTKO CKpenJIeHbI Me2K)J;y P;Op02KHOrO nOJIOTHa C TPoTyapoM, ra- npOHHl\aeMoH.
C060H cK06aMH, xOMymaMU IIJIH 60JI- 30HOM HJIH BOP;OCTOqHOH KaHaBoH.
TaMII M 06'bep;HHeHbI B l\enb co 3BeHb~MH 2 (=6opTeBoe YX02Kbe, 6opTHoe BP A. HaCTeHHbIH KaHOe.!lR6p C O):\HHM
Ha ~KOp~X. 2 3aKpenJIeHHhIe l\e~MH yX02Kbe). I1aceKa. HJIH HeCKOJIbKHMM pa3BeTBJIeHH~MM.
p;epeB~HHbIe 6aJIKH Ha nOBepxHocTH
BOPIIJ,. AKaHm.
BOP;bI y onopbI MOCTa, 3aIl\HIl\aIOIl\He ee
OT yp;apoB CYP;OB. BOCAfA. I1opor HoraHcKoH IOpmb/.
BOHBAHK. Pa3HoBHp;HOCTb 6e.!1020 BOCA)K. BbInYKJIbIH yqaCTOK CTeHbI.
KaMHR, 6JIH3K~ ~qKOBCKOH.
BOCKET. 1 YqaCTOK pezy.!lRpH020
BOHJ];APH5I. MacTepcK~ no H3roTOB- napKa, orpaHHqeHHbIH co Bcex CTOPOH
JIeHHIO 60qeK II p;pyrHx p;epeB~HHbIX nJIOTHOH nocap;KOH KYCTapHHKa H
eMKocTeH - YIIIaToB, Be):lep, JIOXaHeH. p;epeBbeB, nO):lCTPM2KKa KOTOPblX C03-
BOHET (=6oHe, 6aHeTa, 60HHeT). p;aeT H3 3eJIeHH qeTKHe reoMeTPHqeCKHe
I10KpbITHe H3 3eMJIH, MeIIIKOB C 3eMJIeH
HJIH oepHa Ha):l 6pycm6epoM, yrJIaMH
pa6e.!lUH08, KOHmpzapoo6 H T. p;. - ):IJI~
3aIl\HTbl 060pOH~IOIl\MXC~ OT npO):lOJIb-
BPAKAPH5I. I1oMeIl\eHMe P;JI~ COPTH-
Horo H 3aTbIJIbHOrO 06CTpeJIa, IIIpan-
POBKM TOBapoB no KaqeCTBY.
HeJIH H OCKOJIKOB.
BPAKETC. Y30pH~ 6pOH30B~ KOH-
CO.!lb 6pa, B BH,l\e aKaHm080Z0 3aBMTKa.

BP AMA (= 6paHa). J];eKopHpOBaHHhle


BopOTa MOHaCTblpCKOH HJIH l\epKOBHOH
orpap;bI (B IOro-3ana,l\HbIx 06JIaCTHX).
06'beMbI, nopoH HMIITHpy~ apxHTeKTYPY BPAMAHTOBO OKHO. ApOqHOe
C apKaMII H 6aIIIeHKaMH. 2 I1op;qepKHY-
OKHO B npHMoyrOJIbHOM 06paMJIeHHH,
T~ rpynna ,l\epeBbeB, MCKYCCTBeHHaH
3aBepIIIeHHoM caHOpuKoM.
BOHET-KAI10HHP. 06opOHHTeJIb- pOIl\IIl\a B napKe, OKpY2KeHHa~ nJIOC-
Ha~ nocTpoHKa THna KaaeMama BO pBy, KOCTHbIM zaaoHoM HJIII nOJl~HKoH. BP AHA. BpaMa.
HMeIOIl\a~ 3cKapnHbte CTeHKH H CBH3aH- BPAHA5I TKAHh. I1oxo2Ka~ Ha
BOCKETHA5I. KOMHaTa B yca):le6HOM
HaH nomepHou C BHYTpeHHocTbIO oc- KHceIO Y30pqaTaH HJIM KJIe~aTaH pa3pe-
p;OMe, CTeHbl KOTOPOH pacnlIcaHbl no,l\
HOBHoro yKpellJIeHH~. 2KeHH~ TKaHb C KpynHbIMM oTBepcTM-
napKoBble neH3a2KlI.
HMH, ynoTpe6JIHeMaH Ha cKaTepTH,
BOOM. BOH.
BOTAnO. 5I3b1K KOJIOKOJIa. 3aHaBeCH, nOJIorn, nooaopbl (1).
BOPJ];IOP. OP;Hopop;Hoe 06paMJIeHHe
3CTeTlfqeCKOrO xapaKTepa (l\BeTOqHaH BOl.J:APHhIM CBOJ];. I1epeKpblTlIe BPAHJ];MAY3P. HeMHoro BhIcTyna-
rpHp;a no KpaIO zaaOHa, nOJloca 3eMJIH P;BOHKOH KplIBII3HbI Ha):\ npHMoyrOJIb- IOIl\a~ Ha,l\ KpOBJIeR rJIyx~ KHpIIMqHaH

BOKpyr Ca):lOBOrO napmepa (1), y30p no HbIM yqaCTKOM, HMeIOIl\ee B npO,l\OJIb- CTeHa Ha CTbIKe CTPoeHMH HJIH BHyTpM

-27-
6 6PAHUEPBEPK - 6PYCOM ~OM 28

npOTSDKeHHoro 3,qaHIDI, IIpeIIRTCTBy~' BPE<I>OTPO<l>E5L IIpliIOT ,qmI BOCIIll- opHaMeHTOM 113 u:seTOB II «MepTBbIX
IO~aR paCIIpOC'TpaHeHHIO OrHR IIpli TaHll5I CliPOT, IIO,qKH,qhIIlIeH ll,qeTeH 6e,q- MaTepHaJIOB», 06hr'IHO Ha cpoHe rreCKa.
IIO)Kape. HhIX pO,qHTeJIeH.
BPO.D,5I:tKKMHO OKOIIIKO. CBOH-
BPAHUEPBEPK. YC'TpOHCTBO ,qJIR BPEIIIh-BATAPE5I (=6peIlI6aTape5I). CTBeHHhle cH611PCKliM u36aM He6oJIh-
IIO,qHRTIDI II OrryCKaHliSi KOJIeC BO,q5IHOH 3eMJI5IHOe YKpenJIeHlle, B03Be,qeHHoe Ha IlIoe OKHO HJIH HllIlIKa B Hll)l(HeH 'IaCTli
MeJIhHllU;hI, 'IT06hI OHli 3HMOH He BMep- 2Aaeuee KpenocTH npoTHBHllKa, 'IT06hl CTeHhI, o6pa~eHHoH Ha yJIllU;y; cIOga
3aJIli B JIe,q, a JIeTOM MOrJIli ,qeHCTBOBaTh npo6HTb apTHJIJIepHHCKllM orHeM X035IeBa H36hI BhICTaBJIRJIli 'egy )l;JIR
IIpH pa3HhIX ypOBHRX BO,qhI. 6peIlIb B ee CTeHe. HH~HX H 6erJIhlx.

BPATCKASI M3BA. IIOCTpOHKa ,qJIR BPM3YPA (=6PH3yp). M3JIOM, HJIli EPOKATEJIh. TR)I(eJiaR IlIeJIKO-
CXO,qOK CJI060)KaH. H3r1l6 B 6pycm6epe, gJI5I 60JIee y;g06HOH 6YMa)KHa5I TKaHh C KpynHhIM Y30POM,
CTpeJIh6bI. gJI5I 3aHaBeceH, nOKphIBaJI, 06HBKll
BP A TCKME KEJIhM. IIoMe~eHH5I, B Me6eJIli.
KOTOPhIX IIOCT05IHHO )KllByT MOHaXli EPMKCHEHCKASI 3EJIEHh (=IlIBeHH-
cpypTCKa5I 3eJIeHb). MHHepaJIbHruI 3eJIe- BPOH3A MA.D,:tKEHTA. <l>llOJIeTOBruI
O)l;HOH H TOH )Ke 06HTeJIH.
HruI KpacK3 ,qJIR M3JIRpHOrO ,qeJI3 H KpacKa.
BPATCKME IIAJIAThI. MOHacThlp- oKpacKH 06oes, CMeCh MbIIllh5IKOBO-
BPOH30BASI 3EJIEHh. KJIeeBa5I II
CKllH KOPrryC, B KOTOPOM )KHByT MOHaxll. KHCJIOH MeAll C YKCYCHO-KJilCJIOH Me,qhIO. MaCJIRHa5I 3eJIeHaSi KpacKa MliHepaJIh-
BPATCKMll .D,BOP. MecTo gJI5I cxo- EPMJIJIMAHTMH. IIIepCHIHa5! llJIM Horo npOllCXO)KgeHHSI, C KOpH'IHeBbIM
,qOK cJI060)KaH (06hI'IHO PMOM C u;ep- 6YMa)KH<l5! TKaHh C aTJIaCHhlM 6JleCKoM. OTTeHKOM - MexaHWleCKa5I CMeCb xpo-
KOBhIO II KJIa)l;6H~eM, a TaK)Ke coe3J/Ceu MOBOH )KeJITH, IIapH)KCKOH CllHH H ,qp.
u360u HJIli coe3J/CUM 060pOM). EPMJIJIMAHTOBA5I lJEPHh. 1-Jcp-
Ha5! KpacKa, ra30Ba5I ca)Ka C BbICOKHM BPOHHMUA. 1 MacTepcKaSi no H3ro-
BPAYHPOT (='IepHh). TeMHo-Kpac- co,qep)KaHlieM 'IHCTOrO yrJIepoga. TOBJleHlllO BoeHHhlX ,qocneXOB. 2 lJacTb
HruI MeJIK03epHHCTa5I 3eMJIRHa5I KpacKa. wpooa HJIli nOCeJIOK, r,qe )KHByT opy-
EPMJIhHSI. 3aBegeHlle, r).:(e 6pHJII1, a
)KeHHllKH.
BP A YHIIIBEllr ( = 6paYHIlIBeHrCKa5I TaK)Ke rrycKaJlll KpOBh B Me,qJilU;JilHCKHX
3eJIeHh). MHHepaJIhHaSi 3eJIeHruI KpacKa u;eJI5IX. BPYHU-KAMEPA. BpaymeKaMepa.
(HHor,qa C rOJIy6oBaThIM OTTeHKOM),
EPMJIhSlHTOBhU1 PYCT. 1 KAaoKa BPYC. 1 Bpe61l0 C napaJIJIeJIbHhIMli
113rOTOBJIeHHa5I H3 Me,qHoro KyIIopoca,
113 KpyIIHhlX o,qHHaKOBbIX KaMHeH, y oC'TpyraHHbIMH IIJIOCKOCTRMli II o,qllHa-
MhIIlIh5IKOBOH KHCJIOThI, IIOTaIlIa H
Ka)K)l;Oro 113 KOTOPhlX JIJilu;eBa5I cTopoHa KOBhIM Ce'IeHlleM Ha Topu;ax. 2 BpeBHo,
H3BeCTKOBoro MOJIOKa.
IIO KOTOPOMY CJIe,q5IT 3a ypoBHeM BO,qhl y
BPAYTCKAMEPA (=6pYHU;-KaMepa). 1111/11I1I~1111~"f/iI/jI'
BOgRHOH MeJIhHHU;hI. 3 IIOJIKa B c1l6HP-
CIIeU;HaJIhHruI KOMHaTa ,qJISI IIepBoH CKOH U36e (1).
6pa'IHOH HO'Ili.
BPYCKOBOE :tKEJIE30. IIpo,qoJIro-
BPEBHO. OCBo6o)K,qeHHoe OT cy'IheB II BaThle )l(eJIe3Hhle 3arOTOBKH KBa,qpaT-
BeTBeH cpy6JIeHHOe ,qepeBo ,qJIHHOH He Horo Ce'IeHH5I co CTOPOHOH OT 1 ,qo 9
MeHee Tpex Ca)KeHeH II ,qHaMe'TpOM He
,qIOHMOB.
MeHee Tpex BepIlIKOB (B JIeCHCThIX MeCT-
HOCTRX CBhIIlIe 'IeTblpex BepIlIKOB), BPYCKOBhIll KMPIIMlJ. IIp5IMO-
OTecaHa Ha 'IeThlpe rpaHli. 2 IIITYKaTYP- yrOJIhHbIH KllpIIll'I, y KOToporo ,qJIHHa
HCIIOJIb3yeTcR KaK CTpOllTeJIhHhIH MaTe-
HruI HJIli plicoBaHruI HMllTaU;H5I TaKoH Ka)K)l;OH rpaHH B,qBoe 60JIhIlIe IlIllpHHhI.
PllaJI, a TaK)Ke )l;JIR pa3,qeJIKH Ha 6pyebR
KJIa,qKll.
II ooC/CU. EPYCOBhIll JIEC (=KaHToBaHHhIH
BPMTAHCKMll METAJIJI. CHHeBa- JIec, KaHTOBhIH JIec). Bpe6lla, OTecaH-
BPE3EH.D,YK (= 6pe3eHT). KpaIlIeHa5I
To-6eJIh1H CIIJIaB OJIOBa, I.:(HHKa, Cyph- Hhle JIH60 OnllJIeHHhIe C ,qByX, TPex HJIH
IIapYCHHa, KOTOPOH BbICTHJIaJIli IIOJIbI B
MhI II Me,qH (llHor,qa JIHIlIh U;HHKa II 'IeThIpeX CTOPOH AJI5I 60JIee 6hIC'TpOrO
IIOKORX.
CYPhMhl) ,qJIR H3rOTOBJIeHHSI IIogcBe'IHll- ynoTpe6JIeHllSi B cTpOllTeJIhCTBO H gJI5I
BPEKBATEP. BOAb6epK (2). KOB II HHhlX npegMeToB. 60JIee nJIoTHoH yKJIa,qKH, 'IeMY cnoco6-
BPEKlJM5I. Cu;eMeHTllpOBaHHruI rop- BPOBAPh. IIllBoBapeHHhBl HJIH Me,qo- cTByeT y,qaJIeHlle Manou;eHHhIX 'IacTeH;
Ha5I IIopo,qa 113 YrJIOBaThIX 06JIOMKOB C BapeHHhIH 3aBO,q. pacnpocTpaHeHHhle pa3HOBH,qHOCTll:
OC'TphIMH pe6paMll, XOPOIlIO IIo,q,qaIO~a­ 6pye (1), 6aJIKa, umaAa.
BPOBKA. 1 .D,eKOpaTllBHruI peJIhecp-
RCR IlIJIHcpoBKe H IIOJIHpOBKe IIpH ,qeKO- BPYCOK. 1 IIpogYKT npo,qoJIhHOH pac-
Ha5! apO'IKa Ha,q npoeMoM llJIli HllIlIeH.
paTHBHhIX gOCToHHCTBax (,qJI5I H3rOTOB- nllJIOBKH ooeoK Ha 'IaCTli ,qJIliHOH OKOJIO
JIeHH5I emoAeulHuu" IIO,qOKOHHbIX IIJIllT, 6,5 M C KBa,qpaTHhIM HJIli rrp5IMoyrOJIh-
Ba3 H T. ,q.), a TaK)Ke npll BblCOKOH HhIM Ce'IeHHeM (OT 5x5 ,qo 7x7 CM),
)l(apOCTOHKOCTH (,qJI5I KAaoKu ne'IeH). ynoTpe6JIReMble Ha 06peUlemKy Kpbt-
UlU, napKeT II MeJIKHe no,qeJIKll. 2 PeUle-
BPEMEHCKA5I 3EJIEHh. CBeTJIO-
mUlla. 3 lleThlpeXrpaHHhIH 6pye (1) C
CllH5I5I rpYHTOBruI KpacKa ,qJI5I MaJIRPHhIX
O):lllHaKoBhIMli ):IJIllHHhIMH nOBepXHOCT5I-
pa60T II )l(HBOIIllCH - CMeCb yrJIeKHCJIOH
2 JIHHll5I nepeCe'IeHH5I OTKOCOB HaChIIIH MliumpHHoH MeHee 4 BepIlIKoB. 4 KpaH-
Me,qH H rHgpaTa OKllCli Me,qH.
C ee ropH30HTaJIhHOH nOBepxHocThIO. HHH p5I)l; KllpnH'IeH y llIeCTKa ne'IH.
BPEMCBEPr. HaKJIOHHruI IlIaXTa B 3 KaAe6Ka (1). EPYCOM .D,OM. XapaKTepHoe AJIR
ropHhlX pa3pa6oTKax. BPO.D,EPM (=6pO,qPH, napTep-6po- KapeJIHH ,qepeB5IHHOe KpecThRHcKoe
BPETh5IHMUA. AM6ap, KJIa,qOBaR. APll). IIJIOCKliH 2G301l, YKpaIlIeHHbIH )KllJIll~e, o6be,qHHeHHoe Kp06Aeu C

-28-
6 6PYC'fATASI MOCTOBASI - 6YHKEP 29

}WYX'MIPyCHhIM X03IDl.CTBeHHhIM OBOPOM EY.D:HbIM MAM.D:AH (=6y,qHhIH rrOJIO)KeHHbIMH 6yropKaMH Hano,q06He


(2) Ha era npo,qOJIhHOH OCIf. CTaH). IIOTallIHhIH 3aBOA. 6YJIaB0'1HbIX rOJIOBOK.

EPYCQATA5I MOCTOBA5I, EPYC- EY.D:YAP. 113hlcKaHHO y6paHHa5I KOM- EYJIrAH. Eyp5ITCKOe 6peBeH'1aTOe
QATKA. TBep,qoe ,qopQ)l{Hoe nOKphl- HaTa CBCTCKOH ,qaMhI, npc,qHa3Ha'1CHHaS! )KHJI~C C KapKaCHoH OCHOBOH.
THe If3 KaMeHHhIX 6pYCKOB, cpOpMa ,qJI5I OT,qbIxa, TYaJIeTa, a TaK)Ke npHeMa
EYJI.D:bIPb (=60JI,qblpb). IIJIOXO no-
KOTOPhIX 6JIIf3Ka napaJIJIeJIenIfne,qy npH 6JIIf3KHX H 3HaKOMhIX.
cTpoeHHhIR )1;OM B cTopoHe OT ,qpyrHX
He6oJIhllIOM BCTpe'1HOM CKallIHBaHHH
coopY)KeHHH:.
rpaHeH.
EYJIEBAP (=6YJIeBap,q, 6YJIBap, 6yJIe-
EPYCTBEP (=60pCTBep, 60pCTep,
BCp), 1 3eMJISlHOH: 060pOHHTeJIbHbUf
6opCTcpep, 3aTKaHIfe, napaneT). 3eMJISI-
BaJl, MaCCIfB 6acmuoHa IfJIH Kypmwlbl
HaS!, 6peBeH'1aTaS! HJIH KaMeHHaSl npe-
(3), OT,qeJIhHOe 3eMJI5IHOe YKpenJIeHHe,
coe,qIfHeHHoe TPaHllIe5IMIf C no,qo6HbIMIf
CMy. 2 ByJlb6ap. 3 MCCTO pa3BJIe'1eHIfH:.

EYJIEB KOJIO.D:E3b. MIfHHhUf KOJlO-


oe~ (2) ,qJISI B3phIBaHH5I rro,q3eMHhIX
zaJtepeu (2) KpenOCTfI.
EYJIEHrpI1H. <l>parMcHT pezyJlRp-
HOW napKa, IfMeIO~IfH: BH,q W3'lHa C
rpa,qa B BH,qe BaJIa Tpane~MeBH,qHoro n;BeTHHKaMIf HJIH He60JIhllIHMIf npy)1;a-
Ce'1eHIfS! - ,qJISI 3a~IfThI 060POHSlIO- MIf, KOTOPhIH pacnOJIaraeTC5I HIf)Ke npIf-
~MXCSI B KpenOCTH IfJIH TpaHllIee OT
EYEBO. KJIa)1;6If~e (B OJIOHe~KIfX JIeraIO~HX ,qopO)KeK.

BCTpe'1Horo 06CTpeJIa. rOBopax).


EYJIblr A, EYJIbILKHI1K. He6oJIh-
EPYCTBEP MOJIA. CTeHa BhICOTOR EYM. 1 06HeceHHoe orpa,qoR MeCTO
IlIHe BaJIYHhI, oKpyrJIhle KaMHM TBep,qhIx
OKOJIO 2 M Y caMara KpaSl MOJIa, 3a~If­ OKOJIO n;epKBIf, KJIa,q6If~c npM n;epKBM
rropo,q, yrroTpe6JI5IeMble ,qJIH BbICTHJIKM
~aIO~aS! ero OT BO,qhI; MHOr)W o,qHOBpe-
(B nCKOBCKMX H TBepCKMX rOBopax).
MOCTOBbIX, a TaK)Ke B Ka'1eCTBe 6yma
MeHHO no,q,qep~BaeT HaBec Ha,q CKJIa- 2 B)1;eJIaHHbIH: B cTeHY )KeJIe3HbIR rrpYT,
(2), HHOr):(a - 3a6ymoBKu.
K KOTOPOMY rrpHKOBbIBaJIH apecTaHToB.
,qOM TOBapOB.
EYKET. 1 He6oJIbllIaS! HCKyccTBeHHaSl EYJIb. TCXHHKa xy,qO)KeCTBeHHOH: OT-
EPbIHKA. rOpH30HTaJIhHhIR H3JIOM Ha ,qeJIKH Me6eJIH, HCrrOJIh3yIO~a5I '1ep-
CThIKe Me)K}J;Y CTBopKaMIf ,qBepM HJIH pO~H~a B rrapKe, COCTaBJIeHHaSl H3
6JIM3KO rrOCa)KCHHhIX ,qcpeBbcB. 2 JKu- Hoe ll:epeBO If 6pOH3Y, rJIall:KHe rrOBepx-
OKHa, 3ar~H~alO~IfH aT CKB03HS1KOB. HOCTIf KOTOPhIX YKpallIaJIIfCh UHKpyC-
paHOOJlb.
EYAJIO. BhIT5IHYToe no ropH30HTaJIIf ma~ueu H3 '1epenaXIf, rrepJIaMYTpa,
np5IMoyrOJIbHOe OKHo-cpoHapb C BepTM- EYKETHA5I IIOCA.D:KA. IIoca,qKa rrO)1;KpaIIIeHHOH: KOCTIf H T. )1;.; H306pe-
KaJIbHbIM OCTeKJIeHeHMeM, Ha,q KpOBJIeR HeCKOJIbKMX Ca)KCH~CB B OAHO rHe3)1;O, TeHa BO BTOPOR rrOJIOBHHC XVII B.
npOMbIIlIJIeHHOrO ~exa. C03,qalO~aSl KOMrraKTHble rpyrrrrbI cppaHn;Y3CKHM MaCTcpOM xy,qO)KeCTBeH-
,qepcBbeB B neU3a:JICHOM napKe. HOH: Mc6CJIH H )1;eKOpaTopOM A. III. Ey-
EyrEJIb. 1 KOJIb~O M3 nOJIOCOBOro
EYKETbI MAKAPTA (=MaKapToBbI JIeM (1642-1732).
)KeJIe3a, 3a~M~aIO~ee npM 3a6HBaHMM
BepXHIfH KOHen; CBau. 2 LKCJIC3HaS! 3aMK- 6YKeThI). KOMrro3Ifn;MM If3 HCKYCCTBeH- EYJIbBAP (=6yJIeBap). IIporYJIo'1HaS!
HYTaSl nOJIOca, OXBaTbIBaIO~aS! pSl)1; HbIX n;BeTOB, pacrrpocTpaHeHHble B HH- Il:opora MC)K}J;y p5Ill:aMM nOCa)KCHHhIX
3a6IfTbIX cBau (HanpIfMcp, O,qMH 6yrCJIb TCPbepax BTOpOH: rrOJIOBHHbI XIX B., - )1;CPCBbCB, pHTM KOTOPhIX O~BJIHIOT
Ha nOJICOTHM cBaH). . no cpaMMJIHH aBCTpHH:CKoro xy,qO)KHIfKa n;BCTHIfKM, He60JIbllIHC BOIl:OCMhI, CPOH-
r. MaKKapTa (1840-1884). TaHhI, cKYJIhrrTypa.
Eyrp A. 3CMJISlHKa PbI60JIOBOB M OXOT-
HIfKOB. EYKPAHI1M. .D:eKopaTHBHhIH MOTIfB EYM. BOH.
6apeJlbecjJoB B BH,qe 6hI'1hCrO '1epcrra,
EY.D:A. 1 .D:PCBHCPYCCKMH ,qCPCBSlHHbIH E YMALKHI1K. XJIon'1aT06YMa)KHhIH
06bI'1HO OKPY)KCHHOrO ZUPJlRHOaMU,
CKJlen. 2 IIocTpoRKa (B rOBopax IOro- MaTpac (cTeraHhIH TIOcpSlK).
n;BCTaMIf, CPPYKTaMH.
3ana,qHoH POCCIfM). 3 JIccHaSl nocTpoH- EYMEA. 3aBcpllIcHHaSl MHoroSlpyc-
Ka, B KOTOPOR rOHSlT CMOJIY HJIIf ,qerOTb. HhIM KOHYCOM BhIIIYKJIaSl CPCIl:H5IH '1aCTh
EY.D:KA. 1 Hc60JIhllIOC JICrKOC cooPY- cy6ypwHa, B KOTOPOH: HaxOIl:HTCSI 6YIl:-
)KCHHe ,qJISI '1aCOBOro, KapaYJIbHOrO HJIH )1;HH:CKHC pYKonHcH, MO~H M Il:parO~cH­
CTPCJIO'1HHKa, PSl,qOM C cro nOCTOM. HOCTM.
2 060c06JIeHHaS! ToproBmI JIaBKa Ha EYHA. 1 (=TPaBcpc, nOJIy3anpy)1;a).l1c-
YJIMn;e, ,qJI5I npo,qa)KIf 6YJIOK, cyxapeH, KYCcTBcHHaH rrpcrpa)1;a, BhIIl:BHHYTaSl B
Ta6aKa. 3 He60JIbllIOC cOOpY)KCHIfC B peKy OT 6epcra Il:JIH ero 3a~IfThI OT
BM)1;e ,qOMHKa. pa3MhIBa. 2 BOH.
EY.D:KA BOEHHA5I. BbIHeceHHaSl Ha EYHKEP. CaMopa3rpy)KaIO~CCCSI xpa-
KPOHIlITcRHax KaMeHHa5I 6allIcHKa ,qJI5I HMJIM~C cbmy'1HX MaTCpHaJIOB, HH)KHH5I
'1aCOBOro, npH H3JIOMC KpcnOCTHOH: EYJIABQATAA MATEPI15I. IIICJIKO- '1aCTb KOTOPOro MMCCT BIf,q onpoKHHy-
CT~HbI - ,qJI5I JIY'111ICrO 0630pa. Bill!, 6YMa)KHaS!, IlICpCT5IHa5I HJIH JIhHSl- TOH: rrMpaMIfll:hI C BhIrryCKHhIM OTBep-
EY.D:KOIO OKHO. l'/JoHapeM OKHO. HaSl TKaHb C '1aCThIMH, pcryJISlpHO pac- CTHCM Ha BcpllIHHe.

-29-
6 SYHT - SIOCT 30

BYHT. Pac:umpeHHhlH no KpasIM 060;I\ BYTOBA5I KJIMKA. Krra;I\Ka H3 npH- BYI.1;Y,ll;3H. XpaM co cTaTyeH BY;LIAhI,
H3pa3n;OBOH PYMnbl. P0;I\HbIX KaMHeH HenpaBHJIbHOH !fJ0PMbI. B03Be;LIeHHbm Ha rJIaBHOH OCH ;LI33H-6y;o;-
;I\HHCKOrO aHcaM6JIg.
BYPA AJIAChIK (=6ypaMa). He HMe-
IOIIJ;HH OKOH O;I\HOKaMepHbm cpy6 C BYHH. 1 IIpHCTaHb C a.M6apa.Mu ;I\M
nOJIoroH KpblUleu, JIeTHee }KHJlHlIJ;e neHbKH, JIbHa, CaJIa H Maena, nepeB03H-
IO)KHOYPaJIbCKHX 6awKHp. MbIX no BO;I\e. 2 Ba3apHag llJIOlIJ;a;LIb.
BYPABJIEHhIM KOJIO,ll;EU;. Apme- BhIK. 1 IIpoMe.:lK)'To'lHag onopa MOCTa.
auaHcKuu KO.llOOel{. 2 ,ll;epeBmHbm HJIH KaMeHHbm KOHmp-
rjJopc. 3 CTPOllHJIbHag HOra (HaKJIOH-
BYPAK. 1 IImlc H3 KpOBeJIbHoro :lKe- BYTOBhIM KAMEHh. CJIOHCTbIH Hag onopa KP08.llU). 4 BamapeR (1).
JIe3a, ;I\Jlg O;I\HOro gpyca KpyrJIOH ne'lH. npHpO;I\Hbm KaMeHb, a TaK:lKe 6YJIbI:lK- 5 Ka:lK;I\ag H3 rJIaBHbIX CTeH ;LIOMHbI.
2 CeKpeTHag O;I\HHO'lHag KaMepa B HHK H lIJ;e6eHb, ynoTpe6JIgeMbIe ;o;JIg
BhICTPOTOK. rH;IlpOTeXHH'leCKOe co-
TlOpbMe. 3 CneIJ;HaJIbHag TPy6Ka ;I\JIg 6yma.
0pY:lKeHHe B BHAe HaKJIOHHOrO JIOTKa
!fJeHepBepKoB, Ha'lHHeHHag roplO'lHM
BYTOBhIM cI>YH,ll;AMEHT. q,YHoa- AM 6bICTPOH nepe6pOCKH BO;LIbI (BO
COCTaBOM C XJIOnYWKaMH H n;seTHhlMH
MeHm, OCHOBY KOToporo COCTaBJIglOT H36e:lKaHHe 3aHOCOB) H3 BepXHero
3Be3;I\aMH.
KpynHbIe (;0;0 nOJIYMeTpa B nOnepe'lHH- BO;LIoeMa B HH)KHHH.
BYPAMA. Bypa a.aaCbIK. Ke) HepOBHble KyCKH KaMHH, - rJIaB-
BhJqHM rJIA3. rOpH30HTaJIbHOe HJIH
HbIM 06pa30M H3BeCTHHKa, neC'IaHHKa,
BYPET. IIIeJIKOBag TKaHb;I\M Me6eJIH. BepTHKaJIbHOe OBaJIbHOe OKRO.
;LIOJIOMHTa.
BYPCA. 1 MY:lKCKOe ;I\YXoBHoe Y'lH- BhIqOK. 1 (=6eJIOHO:lKKa) IIpoMe:lKY- ,
BYcI>ET. 1 Cnen;HaJIbHhlH wKa!fJ HJIH
JIHlIJ;e C 06IIJ;e:lKHTHeM (Y'leHHKH B. HaxO- TO'IHag IIJ;HTOBag CTeHKa BooocnycKa B
cToHKa AJIg CTOJIOBOrO 6eJIbg, CTOJIOBOH
;I\HJIHCb Ha Ka3eHHOM 06eCne'leHHH). nJIOTHHe. 2 CTeHKa, enO:lKeHHag H3 H3-
2 061IJ;e:lKHTHe npH MY:lKCKOM ;I\YXOB- BeCTHHKa, pa3;L1eJIglOIIJ;ag o'te.llKU B
HOM Y'lHJIHlIJ;e. 3 IIepcH;I\cKag WeJIKO- ne'lax ;LIJIg o6:lKHra.
Bag TKaHb.
BhEcI> (=nJIeco). qacTb CYAOXO;LIHOro
BYPhIM KHPIIHq. CneIJ;HaJIbHO ne- KaHaJIa HJIH peKH, orpaHH'IeHHag ;LIByMH
pe:lK:lKeHHbm KHpllH'l CO CTeKJIOBH;IlHOH llIJl103aMH H OTJIH'IalOlIJ;agCg no ypOBHIO
CTPYKTYPOH, ;I\JIg rjJYHOa.MeHmOB B BO;LIbI OT coceAHero aHaJIOrH'lHOrO
CblpbIX MecTax. Y'laCTKa.

BYPXAH. 1 H306pa:lKeHHe 6Y;I\;I\HHC- B3MJIAH. IIpoMe:lKYTo'IHoe CTOH6H1IJ;e


KOro 60:lKeCTBa HJIH CBgTOro. 2 IIIaMa- 6ypHT.
HHCTCKHH H;IlOJI.
B3Y (=1IJ;31IJ;). HaABOPHag KOHIOWHH
BYCHHA. IIIapoBH;IlHbIH 3JIeMeHT Ae- '1epKeCCKoH ycaob6bl.
nOCY;LIbI H HanHTKOB. 2 CTOJIHK, Ha KOTO-
Kopa B ;I\peBHepYCCKOM 30;I\'leCTBe, no- BIOBET. IIaBU.IlboH (1) HJIH HHoe
pOM paCCTaBJIeHbI TapeJIKH, 6JIIOAa, CTa-
MelIJ;aBWHHCg nOCpe;I\H CTBOJIa KO.llOHHbl coopY:lKeHHe Ha;I\ MHHepaJIbHhlM HCTO'l-
KaHbI, PIOMKH, rpa!fJHHbI H T. n.
MeHbwero AHaMeTPa.
3 (=6y!fJeTHag). KOMHaTa 60raTOro HHKOM, B KOTOPbIX 6epYT BOAY AJIg
;LIOMa, B KOTOPOH CTOgT wKa!fJhI co JIe'le6HOrO nHTbg.
BYCT. BlOcm.
BCeMH npHHaAJIe)KHOCTgMH ;LIM eAbI.
BIbrEJIh. Byze.llb.
BYChI. CBOHCTBeHHbm UOHU'teCKOMY 4 IIoMelIJ;eHHe HJIH cToHKa B 061IJ;eCT-
opoepy OpHaMeHTaJIbHblH MOTHS B BHAe BeHHOM 3AaHHH, npe;LIHa3Ha'leHHble AM BIOP. rpy6ag WepCTgHag TKaHb TeM-
MeJIKHX wapHKOB Ha O;I\HOH JIHHHH, pa3- npoAa:lKH HanHTKOB H 3aKycoK. Horo n;seTa - Ha nOKpbITHe llHCbMeH-
;I\eJIeHHbIX ;I\HCKaMH Toro :lKe ;I\HaMeTPa, HbIX CTOJIOB.
BYcI>hI. IIIapOBH;IlHble BblcTynbI Ha
KOTophle no !fJ0pMe HallOMHHalOT 'le'le-
HO:lKKaX M CTOHKax Me6eJIH. BIOPO. CTOJI AJIg nHCbMeHHbIX 3aHH-
BHIJ;y.
THH, nOXO:lKHH Ha KOMOA HJIH wKa!fJ'IHK
H HMelOlIJ;HH MHO:lKeCTBO HIIJ;H'lKOB (B
TOM '1Hene H nOTaHHbIX) - KaK HH:lKe
BhI;LIBH:lKHOH HJIH OTKHAHOH CmO.lleUlHU-
BYT. 1 3arJIy6JIeHHOe HH:lKe ypOBHH I{bl, TaK H Ha;I\ HeH.
3eMJIH OCHOBaHHe 3;I\aHHH, COCTOglIJ;ee H3
6YJIbI:lKHHKa, llJIHTHHKa H lIJ;e6HH C
3aJIHBKOH paCTBOpoM. 2 Bec!fJ0pMeHHble
MaJIOn;eHHble KaMHH, KOTOPbIMH BMeCTe
co cTpOHTeJIbHhlM pacTBopoM 3anOJI-
HHIOT npOCTP~CTBO Me:lK;I\y BHeWHHM H BYXTOBhIE BAP)KH. JIO;o;KH HJIH
BHYTpeHHHM enOgMH KHpllH'IHOH CTeHbI nOHTOHbI, nO;I\;LIep:lKHBalOIIJ;He nJIaBY'lHH
(cM.3a6ymoBKa). MOCT B MecTax Cn;ellJIeHHH ero COCTaB-
HbIX 'laCTeH.
BYTAC. )KeJITbIH HJIH cepbIH KpynHbIH BIOCT (=6yCT). OTAeJIbHOe CKYJIb-
neCOK H3 KaMeHOJIOMeH neC'IaHHKa, yno- BYX3K. CeBep06ypgTCKOe KOHH'leC- nTYPHoe npoH3BeAeHHe, H306pa:lKa-
TPe6MeMbIH B pacTBopbI ;LIJIg KJIa;I\KH Koe }KHJlHlIJ;e C nOKpbITHeM 3BepHHhlMH IOlIJ;ee BepxHlO1O '1aCTb '1eJIOBe'leCKOH
CTeH H !fJYHAaMeHToB. wKypaMH no :lKepAeBoMY KapKacy. !fJHryPhl: rOJIOBY, llJIe'lH, rpYAb.

-30-
BABMJIOH. JIa6upuHm B napKe, 06pa- apXHTeKTypHoe YKpameHHe B BHll:e HHSI. 2 06pa6oTKa Ul6a B BH,I\e Henpe-
30BaHHhrH 3eJIeHbIMH HaCa)Kll:eHHSlMH. cocYll:a C pacmHpSlIOIIIHMCSI KBepxy napa- PbIBHOH npOTSI)KeHHOH BbIIIYKJIOCTH C
60JIOH,I\HbIM OCHOBaHHeM. Y3KOH OKaHTOBKOH (CM. PaCUIU6I<:a).
BABMJIOHCKA5I TKAHh. MaTep'la-
TbIH 6a.nOaxUH (1).
BABMJIOHhl. EOJIbnIHe norpe6a B
rrpHMopcKHX 6yrpax, HMeIOIQHe BHIl:
npOpbITbIX XO/.lOB, no cTopoHaM KOTO-
pbIX paCnOJIaraIOTCSI JleOHUI<:U C JIapSlMH BAJIKAHT (=BaJIKaHTHbIH 6pyc, mJIH-
Il:JISI 3aCOJIKH H xpaHeHHSI pbI6bI. nep, mnaJIa). Epe6Ho, OTecaHHoe Ha 4
BArA. EOJIbmHe BeCbI Il:JISI rpOM031l:KHX rpaHH C OCTaBJIeHHeM Y3KHX nOJIOc
TSI)KeCTeH, 06bI'lHO BKJIIO'leHHbIe B cne- 0630JIa (KOpbI) Me)Kll:y rpaHeH.
~aJIbHOe coopY)KeHHe - 6aJICHlO. BAH ( =BOHO). YJIb'lCKHH cpy6 Il:JISI
BAJIOBhIH KOJIOKOJI. O'tenHou
3axopoHeHHSI KocTeH pHTyaJIbHO y6H-
BArAJIMll,A. 1 CJIIOIl:SlHaSl OI<:OH'tUHa. 1<:0JlOI<:OJl.
Toro MeIl:Be).lSl.
2 JIHCTOK CJIIOll:bI. BAJIhrAHr. BaJl2aH2.
BAH5I. )J,eKopaTHBHbIH MOTHB B BH).Ie
BArEHIIIOc. BaH'tec. rraJIbMOBOH BeTBH, BKJIIO'laeMbIH B BAJIhKA. 1 BaJlel<:. 2 IIPOIl:OJIroBaTbIH
BArOHKA (=KaJIeBKa). 06mHBKa H3 y6paHcTBo IIepKoBHoro UHmepbepa. MemOK C neCKOM, YKJIall:bIBaeMbIH Ha
Y3KHX eJIOBbIX HJIH COCHOBblX 1l:0COK OKHO Il:JISI 3aIIIHTbI OT CblpOCTH.
BAKCAJI. BOl<:aaJl (1).
(mHpHHOIr 7,5-12,5 CM H TOJIIQHHOH
BAJI. 1 3eMJISlHaSl HaCbIIIb Il:JISI 06opo- BAJIhMOBA5I KPOBJI5I. IIOKpbITHe
1,3-1,8 CM), HMeIOIIIHX Ha npOTHBono-
HbI. 2 (TO'lHee, nOJlY6aJl) - ::meMeHT C BaJIbMaMH - TpeyrOJIbHbIMH CKaTaMH
JIO)KHbIX Y3KHX Il:JIHHHbIX CTopOHax na3 H
apxHTeKTypHoro y6paHcTBa, HMeIO~H OT KapHH3a 1l:0 ero BepmHHbI, nOIl:HHMa-
rpe6eHb paBHOH BeJIH'lHHbI, a B/.IOJIb
BH,I\ npOTSI)KeHHOrO BbIcTyna C OIl:HHaKO- IOIIIHMHCSI Hall: TOPIIOBbIMH CTeHaMH.
KpaS! Ha JIHIIeBOH nOBepxHocTH - )KeJIO-
60K HJIH HHOH npocToH npOCPHJIb. BbIM nOJIYKpyrJIbIM Ce'leHHeM. BAJIhMOBhIE HOrM. CmpOnUfta.
BArOHHA5I 3EJIEHh. 3eJleHaJl I<:U- BAJIrAHr (=BaJIbraHr). IIpHMbIKa- BAJIhIIMII.J:E. IIpHcTaHb, 06CJIY)KHBa-
H06apb. IOIIIaSl K 6pycm6epy ropH30HTa.ITbHaS! IOIIIaSl JIeCOCnJIaB.
nOBepxHocTb BHYTpeHHero YCTyna B
BArOHHhIH CAP AH. 1 )KeJIe3HOIl:O- KperrocTHoM 6aJlY, Ha KOTOPOH YCTaHaB- BAJIhll,OBA5I IIJIOTMHA. IIJIoTHHa,
pO)KHOe oeno Il:JISI naCCa)KHpCKHX Baro- JIHBaJIHCb 0pYIl:HSI. B KOTOPOH aam60p (4) BbIIl:BHraeTCSI no
HOB, rJIaBHbIM 06pa30M Il:JISI Tex, KOTO- HaKJIOHHbIM HanpaBJISlIOIQHM B HHmax
pbIe He BKJIIO'laJIHCb B perYJISlpHbIe BAJIrAHr COOEII.J:EHM5I. IIoHH- MaCCHBHbIX onop.
peHCbI (caJIOHHbIe, HMnepaTopCKHe, )KeHHbIH 6aJlWH2 /.IJISI nepeMeIQeHHSI
BeJIHKOKHSI)KeCKHe H T. Il:.). 2 31l:aHHe 60eBbIX rpY30B. BAJIh5IH. Pe3HaS! HJIH 'leKaHHaSl xYll:o-
Il:JISI npHBell:eHHSI B nOpS!ll:OK H MeJIKOrO )KeCTBeHHaSl pa60Ta.
BAJIEHhIH. TecaHbIH.
peMoHTa naCCa)KHpCKHX BarOHOB. BAJIh5III.J:AThIH. Pe3HoH, TO'leHbIH.
BAJIEK. IIoIl:JIOKoTHaS! IIHJIHHll:pH'leC-
BA)KH5I. KpbIToe coopY)KeHHe Ha)l; KaS! nO).lymKa Ha KpaIO ).IHBaHa, COcpbI, BAH)J,PYThI. EpyCbJl, BepTHKaJIbHO
KPYIIHbIMH BecaMH (6a20u) , B03Bell:eH- TaXTbI, KpoBaTH B napall:HOH cna.TIbHe. npH6HTble K CTeHaM maXTbI Il:JISI 3aIIIHTbI
Hoe npH ToprOBOH nJIOIIIaIl:H. ee OT HCKpHBJIeHHSI H3-3a HarpY3KH.
BAJIMK. 1 ApxHTeKTypHO-ll:eKOpaTHB-
BA30H. 1 EMKOCTb C 3eMJIeH Il:JISI HaSl nOJlo'tl<:a He6oJIbmOrO BbIHoca, co BAHHhIH IIIKA<I>. BapHaHT BaHHbI,
)KHBbIX IIBeTOB, HMeIOIQaS! BH,lI Ba3bI HJIH cKpyrJIeHHbIMH pe6paMH, HJIH npoTSI- npH KOTOPOM rOJIOBa HJIH OTll:eJIbHble
ll:eKOpaTHBHoH KOP3HHbI. 2 Ba3a - )KeHHbIH BbIcTyrr nOJIYKpyrJIOro ce'le- 'laCTH TeJIa npHHHMaIOIIIero BaHHY OCTa-

31

-31-
B BAHTEnATOP - BEHCKASI ME6Enb 32

IOTCll BHe ~eHCTBHll rrapa H.lm rOpllqerO 12-13 ~IOHMOB H TOJIru;HHOH 10-11 BEEPHhIH 3AMOK. 3aBcpIllcHHC rrc-
B03~yxa, rrocTyrraIOru;HX B ~epCBllHHhIH AIOHMOB, yrroTPc6JIllBIIlHHCll ~JIll pacrrH- PCMhIqKH rrpocMa HJIH HHiliH HaJIO)J{CH-
IIIKacp JIH60 KO)J{)'X H3 rrJIOTHOH MaTcpHH JIOBKH Ha CTOJIllPHhIC ~OCKH H cpaHcpy. HhIMH ~pyr Ha ~pyra Tparrc~HcBH~HhIMH
Ha ~ByX CToHKax.
BACI1JIIiK. EaaU/lUKa.
BAHTEJIATOP. BeHmUJlRmop.
BACIiCAAC. <l>opTOqKa B OKHC HJIH
BAHTOBA5I <l>EPMA. KOHCTPYK~Hll ~BCpH.
H3 CTep)lmCH, HcrrhiThIBaIOru;all TOJIhKO
YCHJIHll paCTll)J{CHHll. BACbKA-PA3YBAHKA. HcrrO~BH)J{­
Hall ~oru;CqKa C BhICMKOH ~JIll CHHMaHHll
BAHThl. AOrrOJIHHTeJlhHhIC KaHaThI carror.
BEEPHbIH CBOA (=HopMaH~cKHH
JIH60 TpOChI B 6UCR'lUX Mocmax H rro~o6-
BATAfA. PhI6a~KHH rrOCCJIOK, BKJIIO- CBO~). C600, orrHpaIOru;HHcll Ha yrJIOBhIC
HhIX KOHCTp'yK~HllX.
qaIOru;HH B CC6ll ua6bt (1) H aeM/lRHKU, orrophI, OT KOTOPhIX BCCPOM KpyTO
BAHqEC (=BareHIIIOC, BaHqYK, BaH- 6a6UJlOHbl, rrpHcTaHh, KphIThIC rrOMO- rrO~HHMaIOTCll O~HHaKOBhIe H30rnYThIC

qyc, BaH'fIOC, BaHIIIOC, BOHqac). OCTpO- CThI Ha CBallX. JIOrraCTH.


KaHTHhIH ~y60BhIH 6pyc (1) C TpCMll OTC- BATYJIKA. llJICTCHhIH rrOJIOBHK pyq- BE)KA. 1 BhICOTHOC cOOPY)J{CHHC H3
caHHhIMH rpaHllMH H 3aKpyrJICHHOH HOH pa60ThI. ~cpCBa. 2 K/Oum.
qCTBCPTOH CTOPOHOH, coxpaHllIOru;cH
KOPY; yrroTPc6JIllJICll B HH)J{HHX qaCTllX BAIIIllEPT. MapHHcKoC KPCCThllHCKOC BEKO. HaKJIOHHall 3aCTCKJICHHall
CTpOCHHH. )J{HJIHru;C, COCTOllru;CC H3 ~ByX ~CpCBllH­ BHTPHHa.
HhIX u36 (1) C 06ru;HMH CeHRMU rrocpe-
BAHhKA. KpIOK ~JIll KOTJIa B JIorrap- BEJIAMIiHA. 3aBcca.
~HHC.
CKOH XH)J{lfHC. BEJIAPIiH. PaBHoMcpHOC paC'fJICHC-
BBEPTHhIH IIIAHAAH. 3aKpCrrJICH- HHC opHaMcHTHpoBaHHoH BHYTPCHHCH
BAllA. 1 )KH~Kall MaJillpHall KpacKa
HhIH Ha CTCHC rrO~CBCqHHK. nOBcpxHOCTH Kyno/la (1) HJIH KOHXU Ha
~JIll oKpacKH CTCH. 2 PacTBop ~JIll 3a-
JIHBKH KHpIlHqa HJIH KaMHll rrpH B03BC~C­ Y3KHC BCPTHKaJIhHhIC ~OJIH.
B fJIYXAPb. B /lany.
HHH KaMCHHhIX cOOpY)J{CHHH. BEJII1KI1E BPATA. aapcKue 6pama.
B ABA )KI1JIb5I 113EA. KPCCThllHCKOC
BAP A)KH5I. IIIaJIaill H3 JIarrHHKa, )J{HJIHru;C H3 ~BYX Cpy606: B O~HOM - C BEJII1KI1E ,QBEPl1. ,QBCpH, OT~CJlll­
XBOH. rrCqhIO - )J{HJIH 3HMOH, B ~pyroM IOru;He npum60p OT nanepmu.

BAPA q. BapuHI<a. JICTOM. BEJIYM. KpyrrHall opanupo6Ka, 3a-


B ABA CBETA. p6yc6emHblu. KphIBaIOru;all npoxo~ UJIH CBCTOBOH rrpo-
BAPBOPKA. Bop6opKa.
eM (HarrpHMCp, CBCTOBOH rrOTOJIOK cpO-
B ABA IIIAPA KPbIIIIA. ABycKaTHOC TOaTCJIhe) .
BAPI1HKA (=Bapaq). 060c06JICHHhIH
rroKphITHC.
HJIH YCTPOCHHhIH rrpH u36e CKOTHhIH BEH,QEPKA. Y cTyrr B OCHOBaHHH
~BOp. BAOBIiH AOM. Eozaoe/lbHR ~Jlll rrCqH.
B~OB, MY)J{hll KOTOPhIX HaXO~HJIHCh Ha
BAPI1CTA5I llEqh. PyccKaR ne'lb.
rocy~apcTBeHHoH CJIY)J{6c (BOCHHOH BEHElI,. 3aMKHYThIH ropH30HTaJIhHhIH
BAPKA. 3aroH ~JIll KpyrrHoro CKOTa. JIH60 rpa)J{~aHCKOH) He MeHCC ~CCllTH pll~ 6pe6eH HJIH 6pycbe6 B cpy6e.
JICT. BEHElI,MAHCKOE OKHO. Hma/lb-
BAPHHlI,A. 3aKphIToC rrOMcru;CHHC
~JIll BhIBapKH COJIH H3 COJIllHhIX paCTBO- B AOPO)KHI1KI1 OEP AEOTKA. RHCKoe OKHO.
pOB. llpocpHJIHpoBKa OKOHHhIX rrepCnJIeTOB. BEH3EJIb .. 0pHaMCHTaJIhHhIH Y3CJI H3
HaqaJIhHhIX 6YKB C06CTBCHHhIX HMeH.
BEBIiHA. BUl{a ~JIll rrcpCB1l3KH rraphI
.KOJIhCB H3ropO~H, O~HOBpeMCHHO

rroAAcp)J{HBaIOru;all )J{Cp~H orpa)J{~eHHll


(HarrpHMcp, rrJICTHll).

BEBT. 1 O~HocKaTHall Kp06/1R KpC-


BAPH5I. 3aBc~eHHc rro H3rOTOBJIeHHIO CThllHCKHX rrocTpocK y KOMH-3hlpllH.
HarrHTKOB (rrHBa, Mc~a H rrp.). 2 KPbtUW KPCCThllHcKoro ~OMa y KOMH-
rrCpMllKOB.
BAPOK. KphITOC rrOMcru;eHHC ~JIll
JIOIlla~CH,
HMCIOru;CC TOJIhKO 3a~HIOIO BEfJIOB5I3b. OCHOBROH CTOllqHH BaJi
CTCHY, a C TpCX CTOPOH OTKPhITOC BO BCTPllHOH MCJIhHH~hI, Bparu;aIOru;HH
060P (1). )J{epHoBa. BEHMK. EYKCT, rryK ~CTOB.
BAPTA. CTopo)J{cBall 6aUlHR Ha B03- BE,Q)KBY,Q. BKJIIOqCHHhIC B Mc6cJIh BEHMlI,EHCKA5I 5IPb. OqCHh npoq-
BhIIIICHlIH pCJIhccpa. ~cKopaTHBHhIC BCTaBKH B BH~C 6CJIhIX Hall H llpKall MHHCpaJIhHall KpaCKa 3CJIC-
BAP5IKA. Epe6Ho (06hlqHO XBOHHhIX 6ape/lbefjJo6 H3 aHrJIHHCKOro cpallHCa Horo ~BCTa (B OCHOBC yKCyCHo-Mc~Hall
nopo~) TOJIru;HHOH 3-4 BcpIIIKa B HH)J{- 6C3 rJIa3ypH. COJlh) , yrroTpc6JIllIOru;allCll AJill OKpaCKH
HCM oTpy6c. KpblUl H HHhIX MamlpHhIX pa60T.
BEAME,QMK. He6oJIhillOC HaJIHBHOe
BACMJIEK (=nOJIYBaHqCC). KOpOTKHH KOJIeCO BO~llHOH MCJIhHH~hI, nOKphITOC BEHCKA5I MEEEJIb. Mc6CJIh C rrJlC-
6aH'leC ~JIHHOH 3-7 apIIIHH, IIIHPHHOH KO)J{YXOM. TCHhIMH TPOCTHHKOBhIMH BCTaBKaMH

-32-
B BEHTlIIl1S1TOP - BEPX HA APEBSIHO AE110 33

MeJK):IY OCHOBHbIX rHYTbIX 3JIeMeHTOB 3 ,lJ;JIHHa lIaxoTHoro 1I0JISl, ollpe):leJISl- IO~HXCSl mbt'tK06 H JlOJICK06, a BepTH-
KpyrJIOrO Ce'IeHIDI, HHOr):la C THCHeHOH eMaSl paccToSlHHeM MeJK):\Y 1I0BopoTaMH KaJIH ut606 COBlla):\aIOT 'Iepe3 PSl):l.
cpaHepoH. COXH Ha lIailiHe.
BEPT. Bepmozpao.
BEPEXA. 1 CocHoBaSl HJIH eJIOBaSl
BEPTI1KAJIbHA5I OEB5I3KA. CTO- .
JKep):lb ):IJIHHOH He MeHee 10 M IIpH
SlKH pUJIell'tamoil ):IBepH, COe):lHHeHHhIe
1I0llepe'IHHKe 8-11 CM, YlloTPe6JISleMaSl
IIIHllaMH C 1I0Ilepe'IHHaMH.
IIpH CIIJIa'IHBaHHH 6pe6ell. 2 )Kep):lb KpO-
BeJIbHOH o6peutemKu. BEPmKAJIbHAA llJIAHI1POBKA.
I1cKyccTBeHHoe H3MeHeHHe peJIbecpa B
BEPE5I. 1 ,lJ;epeBSlHHbIH CTOJI6 ):IJISl
CPYH~HOHaJIbHO-TeXHH'IeCKHX H KOMIIO-
HaBeCKH 1I0JIOTHHII\a BOpOT. 2 BOPOT-
3H~HOHHO-3CTeTH'IeCKHX ~eJISlX.
HbIH KpIOK, HJIH noocma6, BMeCTe C
1I0JIOCOBOH lIeTJIeH Ha 1I0JIOTHHII\e BEPTI1KAJIbHOE 03EJIEHEHME.
BEHTI1JUITOP (=BeHTHJIaTOp, BaHTe- BOpOT. 3 KOCRK, ):IBepHaSl npUmOJlOKa. YKpaIIIeHHe CTeH 3):1aHHH BbIOII\HMHCSl
JIaTop). 1 OTBepcTHe ):IJISl IIpHToKa CBe- 4 CTOJI6, pa3):1eJISlIOII\HH 'Iacm B paCTeHHSlMH JIH60 C03):1aHHe CTeHOK H3
JKero B03):1yxa B KOMHaTY, C):IeJIaHHOe B 3am60pe (4) llJIOTHHbI. paCTHTeJIhHOCTH, pa3):1eJIMIOII\HX Y'IaCT-
CTeHe HJIH OKHe. 2 (=cpa6pH). Mexa-
KH lIapKa HJIH OT):IeJISlIOII\HX ero OT BHe-
HH3M C JIOllaCTSlMH Ha OCH, lIepeMe~a­
BEPE5IJIbHbII1: CTOJIE (=BepHaJIb-
IIIHero OKpYJKeHIDI.
IOIIl,HH B03):1YX B 1I0Me~eHHH. HbIH CTOJI6). CTOJI6, KOTOPbIH CJIYJKHT
OCbIO ):IJISl 1I0BOpOTHOro KOJIeCa UI./l/030- BEPTI1KAJIbHbIE QJIEHEHI15I.
6btX BOpOT. PHTMH'IeCKHe BepmKaJIhHhIe BhICTyllhi
JIH60 3amy6JIeHHSl Ha cpaca):le 3):1aHHSl,
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KOTopble 'IJIeHSlT ero 110 ropH30HTaJIH.
MeHT B BH):\e 6aJtUKa C lIapaJIJIeJIbHbIMH
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CTOSlHHSlX. HHe BHeIIIHeH CTeHhI 3):1aHHSl BhIOIIl,H-
MHCSl paCTeHIDIMH Ha BbICOTy ):IByx H
BEP3E5I. IIpocBeT B OrpaJK):\eHHH, C):Ie-
60JIee 3TaJKeH.
JIaHHbIH ):IJISl IIpoxo):la HJIH IIpOe3):1a.

BEPMAJIbHbII1: CTOJIE. BepeRJIb- BEPTMKAJIbHbII1: llIIIYHT. Bepm-


llbtil cmoJl6. KaJIhHhIH BhICTyIl KJlaOKU, HMeIO~HH
BEHUOBA5I KPEIIb. Cpy6 H3 6pe6ell rJIy6HHY B 1I0JIKHpIIH'Ia H IIIHPHHY B KHP-
HJIH 6pycbe6 (1), 1I0):l):lepJKHBaIO~HH BEPMHfA CMCTEMbl. IIpe):lHa3Ha- rrH'I - ):IJISl COe):lHHeHHSl 'IaCTeH KHprrH'I-
CTeHKH IIIaxTHoro KOJlOou,a (2). 'IeHHaSl ):IJISl utnYllm06btX cBaH JKeJIe30- Horo 3):1aHHSl, KOTophle KOHTpacTHhI rro
6eToHHaSl KOHCTPyK~IDI C apMamypou BbICOTe H rrpH 06hI'IHOH rrepeBSl3Ke Ha HX
BEHqAHME fJIACMCA. TpaHilieSl
(2) H3 o6yma6p06btX 6aJIOK, JKeCTKO CThIKe rrOJIY'IHJIH 6hI TpeIll,HHhI H3-3a
Ha lIoBepxHocTH rJIaCHCa, HallpaBJIeHHaSl
COe):lHHeHHbIX MeJK):\y C060H oTpe3KaMH HeO):lHHaKOBoH oCa):lKH CTeH.
B):IOJIb ero Zpe61lR (3) H coe):lHHSlIO~aSl
ut6eJlJlep06, YZOJlK06, ma6p06.
6peutb-6amapeu. BEPTJIJOf. 1 IIeTJISl HJIH KpIOK ):IJISl
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BEHqATA5I OfPA,lJ;A. 3anJlom.
pOHHTeJIbHOrO YKpellJIeHIDI. HarrpHMep, y KpblilieK B Kopo6bRX (2).
BEHqAJOmml KAPHM3 (=maBHbIH
BEPMEJIb. II030JIo'IeHHoe cepe6po.
KapHH3). IIpOTSlJKeHHbIH HellpepbIBHbIH BEPTOfPA,lJ;. 1 OrOpOJKeHHbIH Ca):\.
BbICTyIl 110 BepxHeMY 06pe3Y CTeHbI. BEPCTA. 1 IIpH):IOpOJKHbIH CTOJI6 C 2 IIJIO):lOBhIH ca):l. 3 UBeTHHK.
0603Ha'IeHHeM 'IHCJIa BePCT ):10 rOpO):lOB
BEHqMK. 1 3arHYTbIH TblJlbHbIH KpaH
Ha KOH~ax ):Ioporn. 2 JIH~eBoH pSl):l KHP-
BEPTOK. IIOBOPOTHhIH 3arrop ):IJIM
paJtbu,e6oil, HJIH MapCeJlbCKOil, 'tepenu- ):IBepH HJIH OKHa.
IIH'Ia HJIH KaMHSl, Ollpe):leJISlIOII\HH
U,bt. 2 Xopoc.
OCTaJIbHYIO KJlaoKY CTeHbI. 3 1l0Ilepe'I- BEPTbl. M3BHJIHCThle ):IOPOJKKH ca):la
BEPAH,lJ;A. 1 IIpHMbIKaIO~ee K ):IOMY HbIe H IIpO):lOJIbHhle pSl):lbI KPYIIHOro HJIH neU3a:JJC1l0Z0 napKa.
HJIH BCTPoeHHoe B Hero C yrJIa 3aCTe- KaMHSl B 6YJlblJlClloil MOCTOBOH, 110
BEPTJOfMEH. 1 1l0KPbITbIH la30-
KJIeHHOe HeOTallJIHBaeMOe 1I0MeII\eHHe, KOTOPbIM paBHSlIOT OCTaJIbHOH Ka-
110M OTKOC, orpaHH'IHBaIOII\HH pezyJlRp-
06bI'IHO YBHTOe CHapYJKH llJIIOII\OM. MeHb.
llbtU Y'IaCTOK lIapKa. 2 TeppaCUp06all-
2 JIerKHH na6UJ1bOll C 3aCTeKJIeHHbIMH
BEPCTAK. CTOJI HJIH CKaMhSl, HMe- lloe lIapKoBoe B03BblIIIeHHe C 1I0JIYKPY-
CTeHaMH.
IOII\He Clle~aJIhHble IIPHCIIOCo6JIeHHSl rJIhIMH cTYlleHSlMH H CTpHJKeHOH 3eJIe-
BEP-,lJ;E-IIEPCMKO. MTaJIbSlHCKHH ):IJISl PY'IHOH pa60ThI. HOH CTeHKoH.
MpaMop TellJIbIX TOHOB, YlloTpe6JISlB-
BEPCTOBA5I KJIA,lJ;KA (=roTH'IeC- BEP<I>b. MeCTO Ha 6epery KPYIIHOro
IIIHHCSl B PYCCKOH apxHTeKType ):IJISl
KaSl, 1I0JIhCKaSl, PYCCKaSl, cTapopyccKaSl). BO):lOeMa, IIpe):lHa3Ha'IeHHOe ):IJISl CTPOH-
OT):IeJIKH 1I0Me~eHHH.
KHpIIH'IHaSl KJlaOKa, Ha JIH~eBOH TeJIbCTBa, peMoHTa H xpaHeHHSl BoeH-
BEP,lJ;)KMHAJI. BupzulIaJl. lIoBepxHocTH KOTOPOH KaJK):\hIH roPH- HbIX JIH60 Kyrre'IeCKHX CY):IOB.
30HTaJIbHbIH pSl):l COCTOHT H3 'Iepe):lY-
BEPE)KKA. CocHoBoe HJIH eJIOBOe BEPX. 1 Qep):Ia'IHOe IIpocTPaHcTBo.
6peBHo ):IJIHHOH13 apIIIHH (9 M) H ):IHaMe- 2 UapcKHH o6opeu, (1), 60raThIH 6ap-
TPOM 1,5-2 BepiliKa (7-9 CM). CKHH AOM. 3 OTBepcTHe ):IOMeHHOH lIe'IH.
BEPETEHO. 1 BaJI, sa KOTOPOM BEPX HA ,lJ;PEB5IHO ,lJ;EJIO. 3aBep-
3aKpeIlJleH 1I0):lBHJKHOH JKepHoB. 2 Bep- IIIeHHe 3):1aHHSl KaMeHHhIM utampOM C
THKaJIbHbIH CTepJKeHb nallUKaOUJIa. KPYTbIMH llJIOCKHMH rpaHSlMH.

-33-
B BEPXHEliOMHOE KOnECO - B IIIrny 34

BEPXHEBOHHOE KOJIECO (=Bep- BETPEHI1I~A. 1 BeTpHHaH MeJIbHIn~a. HbIe rrOJIOBHHKH 6pe6eH C BbI));OJI6JIeH-'
Xo6oHHoe KOJIeco). KOJIeco BO));HHOH 2 KaX<f\aH H3 )Kep));eH HJIH XBOPOCTHH, HOH Cep));~eBHHOH, rrOOqepe));HO o6pa-
MeJIbHHIl;bI, KOTopoe rrpHBO));HTCH B ));BH- rrpH)l{HMalO~ COJIOMeHHYIO Kp08/l10, ~eHHbIe TO BHH3, TO BBepx, rrepeKpbI-

)KeHHe BO));OH, rrOCT)'IIalO~eH rro )KeJIo6y ));JIH ee 3a~HTbI OT pa3pyweHHH BeTpoM BaH rrpOMe)KYTKH.
cBepxy. H OCa));KaMH. 3 IIpocTPaHcTBo 'lepoa7ca
B3AKPoH. IIOKpbITHe rripH30HTaJIb-
HJIH BbICOKHH rroMocT, rrpHcrroco6JIeH-
BEPXHEE OKRO. Y3KHH roPH30H- HO YJIO)KeHHbIMH TeCHHaMH B O));HH CJIOH,
Hble ));JIH CyWKH 6eJIbH, BHJIeHbH PbI6bI H
TaJIbHbIH rrpoeM ));JIH BbIXO));a ));bIMa, c));e- C HarrycKoM KaX<f\OH BepxHeH TeCHHbI Ha
T. rr. 4 Pe3HaH BepTHKaJIbHaH ));OCKa, Ha
JIaHHbIH B BepXHeH qaCTH CTeHbI KYPHOU HH)l{HIOIO.
ua6bt, qepHOH 8apHU14bt H T. ));. Top~e KOHbKa, 3aKPbIBaIO~aH CTbIK
npU'lelluH. B 3AMET. KOHCTPyK~HH ));epeBHHHoH
BEPXHEE CTPOEHHE. PeJIbCOBbIH BETPEHKA. 1 '¥OpTOqKa
"'" orpa));bI H3 ropH30HTaJIbHbIX OOCOK (1),
));JIH rrpo-
rryTb BMeCTe C 6aJIJIaCTOM (~e6eHb, rpa- BCTaBJIeHHbIX KOH~aMH B BeprnKaJIbHble
BHH, WJIaK, rreCOK rro)); wrraJIaMH). BeTPHBaHHH JIH60 OT));ywHHK B cTeH.e. 'rra3bI CTOJI6oB.
2 CP/llozep. 3 CP/l,/OZapKa.
BEPXHHH CBET. 1 BepXHHH PH)); BETPOBOH KPIOqOK. )l(eJIe3HbIH B3AChIQKY. KHprr}lqHaH KllaoKa C
OKOH, pacrrOJIO)KeHHbIX B rrOMe~eHHH Ha H36b1TOqHbIM pacTBopoM, BbIcTyrra-
));ByX HJIH 60JIee ypOBHHX. 2 BepxHHH KPlOqOK ));JIH 3aKpeIIJIeHHH CTBOPKH OT- IO~HM H3 Ut606.
KpbITOro OKHa.
ypOBeHb OKOHHoro rrpoeMa.
B3BO,I1;. C600.
BEPXHHH YrOJI. KpaCHbtU Y20Il. BETPO,I1;YH (=BeTp0));YHHoe KOJIeCO,
BeTporoH). BeHmUllRmop (2). B3BO,I1;HhIH MOCT. MOCT, B03Be-
BEPXHHK. 1 OTBepcTHe B rrOTOJIKe ));eHHbIH Ha C6aRX.
ua6bt (1), rrpe));Ha3HaqeHHOe ));JIH OTBO));a BEqEBAHhE (=Be%). 1 Co6opHaH
B3B03 (=B3Bo3be). 'HaKJIOHHbIH Ha-
));bIMa H3 KYPHOU rreqH, KOTOPbIH CHa- IIJIO~a));b. 2 BaUtHR (1) C KOJIOKOJIOM,
CTHJI ));JIH B'be3));a B030B co o60pa (1)
qana rroCTyrran Ha 'lepOaK (1) H JIHWb C03b1BalO~HM Ha Beqe.
KpeCTbHHcKOH yca));b6bI B CKJIa));CKOe
rrOTOM H3-rrO)); KP081lU Hapy~. 2 Bepx- BEqEBA5I H3BA. KaH~eJIHpHH, B rrOMe~eHHe Ha nooKlleme.
HHH )KepHOB Ha MeJIbHHIl;e. KOTOPOH OCPOPMJIHJIHCb peweHHH Beqa.
B3rJIABhE (=B3roJIOBOK, B3rOJIOBbe).
BEPXHHUA. Ha));cTPoeHHble Ha)); oc-
BEIllAJIKA. KplOK ));JIH rrO));BeCKH KO- HaKJIOHHOe ));epeBHHHoe H3rOJIOBbe B
HOBHbIM 06'beMOM ));epeBHHHoro ));OMa
JIbI6eJIH. BH));e TpeyrOJIbHOH npH3MbI, YKJIa));bIBae-
mepeMoK (2), 2OpHu14a HJIH 'lepOa'lOK.
BEIllAJIO. 1 IIoMe~eHHe BbICOTOH B Moe Ha JIaBKY, 6aHHbIH nOIlOK H T.));.
BbtUtKa (2), c8emellKa, 63Py60K.
HeCKOJIbKO 3Ta)I{eH cpa6p}lqHOrO KOp-
BEPXOBOHHOE KOJIECO. BepxHe- B3rOJIOBAIIIEK (=H3roJIOBaweK,
rryca JIH60 oco6oe 3));aHHe, B KOTOPOM
60uHoe KOlleco. rrpHrOJIOBaweK). H3rOJIOBbe B BH));e
pa3BeIIIHBalOT TKaHH BO BCIO ));JIHHY
JIap~a Ha CKaMbe ));JIH crraHbH.
BEPXOBA5I CTOPOHA. IIoBepx- KycKa - ));JIH CyWKH rrOCJIe 6eJIeHHH HJIH
HOCTb TeJIa nIlOmUHbt, o6pa~eHHaH K KpaweHHH. 2 ropoob6a (1) ));JIH CyWKH B3JIA3. JIecTHH~a (HarrpHMep, Ha Kpe-
Harropy BO));bI. CHorrOB, HeBO));OB H T. ));. rrOCTHYIO CTeHY) , rrOMOCT, o6JIerqa-
IO~HH rrpO));BIf)I{eHHe BBepx.
BEPXOBHHK. B03BbIWeHHaH yKpe- BEIllKE3EM. Mopza 33eM.
rrJIeHHaH qaCTb 2Opooa (1, 2). B3MOCT. IIpeoMocmbe (2).
BEIllKH. 3aTBopHble ~HTbI rrpH BO));O-
crrycKe nIlOmUHbt, C));eJIaHHbIe H3 OOCOK B30PHOE MECTO. CTOpO)KeBOH
BEPXQBOH OBHH. 08UH B BH));e
));BYX3TIDKHoro cpy6a, 6e3 HMbI B HH)K- (1), KOTopbIe rrpH6HTbI K paMe H3 6pyc- nOCT.
HeH qaCTH. K06 C rrorrepe'I1ffiaMH.
B3PYB. 1 ,I1;epeBHHHaH nOonopHaR
BEIllH5IK. 1 OTBepcrne B nIlOmUHe, CTeHKa. 2 Cpy6. 3 IIopy6.
rrporrycKalO~ee rraBO));KOBbIe BO));bI.
B3PYBOK. Ha));CTPOHKa Ha)); ua60u (1),
2 BO));HHaH MeJIbHH~a yrrpo~eHHoro TH-
HJIH XOpOMaMH: 6btUtKa, c8emellKa,
rra, pa60TalO~aH TOJIbKO rrpH BbICOKOM
20peHKa (1).
ypoBHe BO));bI B peKe, OTqerO MeJIbH}lq-
HbIe KOJIeCa rrpHrrO));HHTbI Ha)); Me)KeH- B3'bE3)1(HH ,I1;BOP. 1 IIocmoRllbtu
HbIM (cpe));HHM) ypoBHeM. 4 IIo));'beM- 060p. 2 MOPCKaH rrpHcTaHb.
BEPXOBOH CA,I1;. BUCR'tUU cao. HbIH 3am60p (4) B rrJIOTHHe. BHA,I1;YK. IIpHIIO));HHTbIH Ha)); 3eMJIeH
BEPIllHHA CBO,I1;A (HJIH apKH). BblC- BEIllH5IqHhIH ,I1;BOP. qacTb BO));O- neWeXO));HbIH JIHGO rrpoe3)1{Hil: MOCT, rro));
waH TOqKa Ha BHYTPeHHeH rrOBepXHOCTH eMa rrepe)); rrpope3aMH 3aBO));CKOH nIlO- KOTOPbIM HeT BO));HOH rrperpa));bI.
C600a (apKU). mUHbt, orOpO)KeHHaH C6aR.MU ));JIH 3a- BHBHAHHT. qepHaH KpacKa C CHHe-
~bI ee OT Harropa JIb));a H HaHOCHoro
BEPIllHHK. BepxHHH qaCTb paMbI B BaTbIM OTTeHKOM, HCrrOJIb30BaBWaHCH B
));BepHOM rrpoeMe, 06eCrreqHBalO~aH JIeca. MaJIHPHbIX pa6oTax.
IIJIOTHOe rrpHJIeraHHe ));BepHOro rrOJIOT-
BEP-KEPKA. OXOTH}lqbH H36YWKa B HrJIY. CrrocoG yKJIa));KH 6pe6eH B
HH~a.
KOMH-3bIpHH. CTeHax, py6JIeHHbIX C OCTaTKOM, KOr):~a
BEPIllH5IK. IIO));'beMHbIH 3am60p 'laUta ));eJIaeTCH y 60JIee TOJICTOrO KOH-
B )l(E.rrOB. 1,I1;peBHeHwHH BH)); TeCOBOH
MeJIbH}lqHOH nIlOmUHbt.
KP06IlU, B KOTOPOM TeCHHbI, CrryCKaHCb
BECTHBIOJIh. 1 IIpocTopHoe rrOMe- OT KOHbKa, yIIHpalOTcH HH)l{HHMH KOH-
~eHHe rrepe)); napa));HOH JIeCTHH~eH, ~aMH B )KeJIo6, YKperrJIeHHblH Ha Kypu-
3aIlOM, za/lepeeu, mujJUIlaoou. 2 06- ~X. 2 BH)); ));epeBHHHoH KP06IlU, B KOTO-
WHpHaH rrpHXO)KaH. POM BMeCTO TeCHH YJIO)KeHbI rrpO));OJIb-

-34-
B B~3AHT~H~ nn~TA - B~TPA)I{ 35

~a, a TOHKHil: Bpe3aeTCSI B 6peimo no- rrOJIOBHHe XIX B. KaK 6aJIKH ~JISI rrOTO- BHC.sIqA5I JIOTIATKA. JIonam1Ca,
nepe'lHOH CTeHhI. JIO'lHhIX rrepeKphITHH. HH}I{HHii: KOHe~ KOTOPOH: He orrn:paeTCSI
Ha U,01COJ/,b, nOCmaMeHm JIH60 HHOH:
BH3AHTHHH IIJIHTA. )KeJIe306e- BHPrHHAJI (=BHp~}I{HHaJI, Bep~}I{H­
BhIcTyrr H OKp~eH q,OHOM CTeHhI.
TOHHaSI 6aJIKa C OTBepCTIDIMII MeX<JIY HaJI). He6oJIhmOH KJIaBeCHH C '1eTbI-
Y'laCTKaMH, oco6eHHo nO~Bep}l{eHHblMII pexyrOJIhHOH OTKH~HOH KpblmKOH:,
C}I{aTHIO, paCTSI}I{eHHIO MH H3rH6y. 06b1'1HO YKpameHHOH: ~eKOpaTHBHOH
POCIIHChIO 1'1 HarroMHHaIOm;eH: cmoJ/,eut-
BHJIKA. 1 Cnoco6 coe~HHeHIDI ~epe­
HUU,y.
BSlHHhIX 6pycbe6 no~ yrJIOM, ~JISI '1ero B
npocBepJIeHHOM KOHQe O~Horo 6pycKa
~eJIaeTCSI rra3, a Ha npoCBepJIeHHOM
KOHQe ~pyroro - umYHmo6blu BhIcTyrr.
2 Ha'laJIo paa:JICeJ/,o61Ca - MeCTO rrepece-
'1eHHSI rroBepxHocTH 1CpblutU C 1COHb1COM BHC.sIqA5I CTEHA. CTeHa, TSI}I{eCTb
CJ/,YX06020 O1CHa HJIH ~pyroH, 60JIee HH3- KOTOPOH rrepe~aeTCSI He Ha ee OCHOBa-
KOH KphIIIIH. HHe, a Ha ~yrHe CTeHhI JIH60 Ha KapKac
BRTI.TIA. KOMq,opTa6eJIhUbIH 3aropo~­ coopY}l{eHIDI.
HhIH OC06HR1C C napKoM, pacrrOJIO}l{eH- BHC.sIQHE CTPOTIHJIA. CmponUAa
UbIH B aq,q,eKTHoM rreH3a}I{HOM oKp)')Ke- 6e3 rrpOMe}l{YTO'lHbIX orrop.
HHH. BHPEH,[(EM EA1IKA. Pa3HoBM-
HOCT!. }l{eJIe306eTOHHOH: fjJepMbl, rr03BO-
BHMA. U;eHTPaJIhHaSi '1aCTh QJ/,mapR
JISlIOm;aSI rrepeKpblTh 6e3 npoMe~TO'l­
(1), B KOTOPOH HaxO~HTCSI npecmoJ/,.
HhIX orrop npOJIeT ~o copoKa MeTPoB.
BHMTIEPr. muneu, C O'leHh KPYThIMH
CKaTaMH, 3aBepmaIOm;HH: nopmQJ/, JIH60 BHCEJIhrA. TIorrepe'lHas. }l{ep~h
HQJ/,U'tHU1C. ceMY}l{Horo aa60pa (2).

BHCJIA5I TIO,IJ;BOJIOKA. 1 ,IJ;epeBSlH- BHC.sIQH11: 3AMOK (=BblCTaBHB-


HblH rrOTOJIOK Ha 1CpOHutmeuHax. 2 TIo~­ mHHCSI 3aM6K). 3aM1C06btU 1CaMeHb,
BeCHoe YKpameHHe rrOTOJIKa, BKJIIO'IaIO- 3aMeTHO BhICTYIIaIOm;HH HH}I{e apO'lHOH:
m;ee B ce6S1 npoce'tHoe :JICeJ/,eao, OT- ~yrH.
JIHBKH 1'13 OJIOBa 1'1 CJIIO~y.

BHCJIOE KAMEHhE. Pe3HaSi KaMeH-


HaSI zupb1Ca rro~ BHCSI'IeH: nRmOU CMhIKa-
IOm;HXCSI apo1C.
BHCJIhIH PYH,IJ;YK. TIo~BecHble
rrOJIKH co CTBopKaMH JIH60 3a~BH}l{HblMH
CTeHKaMH.
BHH,IJ;ABA (=B rrpHThI'IKY). TIeprreH-
~HKyJISIpHOe npHMblKaHHe KpbIToro Kpe-
BHCJIhIH illAH,IJ;AH. BHCSI'IHH: rro~- BHC.sIQHH MOCT. MOCT, Y KOToporo
CTbSlHCKoro o6opa (2) K cepe~HHe ~JIHH­ CBe'lHHK, rrpoo6pa3 JIIOCTPhI. npoe3}1{aSI '1aCTh rrO~~ep}I{HBaeTCSI ~e-
IISIMH HJIH TPocaMH, 3aKpeIIJIeHHbIMH Ha
HOH: CTOPOHhI U36bt (1). BHCTA. Y3KaSI rrapKOBaSI rrepcrreKTHBa 6epery.
BHHOrpAp;HHU;A. TeIIJIH~a ~JISI BbI- MeX<JIY rrapaJIJIeJIhHblMH rrJIOCKOCTSlMH
3eJIeHH, HarrpaBJIeHHaSI K KOMrr03H~HOH­
pam;HBaHIDI CTOJIOBOrO BHHorpa~a.
HOMY a~eHTy (apXHTeKrypHoe coopy-
BHHTEP-KBAPTHPhI. 3HMHHe rrOMe- }l{eHHe, CKyJIhIITYPHhIH MOHYMeHT,
m;eHIDI ~JISI BOHCK. XOJIM, Bo~oeM HJIH q,OHTaH, OCBem;eHHaSi
rroJISlHa B KOH~e 3aTeHeHHOH aJIJIeH,
BHHTOBA5I JIECTHHU;A. JIecTHH-
o6oco6JIeHHOe ~epeBO OpHrHHaJIhHOH:
~a, COCTOlIID;aSI 1'13 O~HHaKOBbIX aa6e:JIC- BHC.sIQHH CAp; (=BepxoBoH ca~,
q,OPMbI). KpacHhIH c~). C~, YCTPoeHHbIH Ha
Hbtx cmyneHeU.
BHCTHHrAY3EHA TIEQh. Boaoyut- CHJIhHO nO~HSlTOM HCKyccTBeHHoM OCHO-
BHHTOBO-KOJIhU;EBOI1 CBO,IJ;.
HaR ne'tb, B KOTOPOH: npHTOK B03~yxa BaHHH.
TIepeKpblTHe ~yroo6pa3Horo Ce'leHIDI,
C03~aBaJICSI 6eHmUARmopOM (2).
rro~~ep}I{HBaIOm;ee 6UHm06Y1O J/,ecm- BHTAJIhHHu;A. 1 rOCTHH~a,
Ituu,y MH JIeCTHH'IHble MaputU C 3aKpy- BHCTH.sIPH.sI. 1 lliaTSIHaSI KOMHaTa, cmpaHHonpuitMHblu OOM. 2 )KHJIaSI KOM-
rJIeHHblM rrOBopOTOM npOMe}l{YTO'lHhIX rap~epo6HaSI. 2 COKpOBHm;HH~a. HaTa, 2OpHuu,a. 3 CTOJIOBaSI.
IIJIOm;a~OK.
BHC.sIQA.sI rA1IEPE.sI. rQJ/,epeR (1) BHTA5I TIHJI.sICTPA. IIUARcmpa, rro
BHHThI. rOpH30HTaJIhHble ~hIMOBhIe Ha 1CpOHutmeuHax. CTBOJIY KOTOPOH rrpoxo~ rrapaJIJIeJIh-
KaHaJIbI B ne'lH. HhIe HaKJIOHHbIe :JICeJ/,o61Cu, 6QJ/,U1CU (2)
BHC.sIQA5I JIECTHHu;A. He HMe-
JIH60 ZUPJ/,RHObl.
BHHhOJI.sI PEJIhChI. CTaJIbHble IOm;aSI cToJI6'1aTbIX orrop JIeCT~a, cry-
peJIhCbI C mHpOKHM rrJIOCKHM OCHOBa- rreHH KOTOPOH: 3~eJIbIBaIOTCSI O~HHM BHTP A)K. 1 3anOJIHeHHe npoeMa
HHeM H CHMMeTPH'IHOH O~HHapHOH: KOHQOM B 1CJ/,ao1CY CTeHbI, a ~pyroH opHaMeHTaJIhHOH: HJIH CIO}I{eTHOH KOM-
rOJIOBKOH, npHMeHSlBmHecSi BO BTOPOH OCTaeTCSI He3aKpenJIeHHbIM. rro3H~eH H3 pa3Ho~eTHhIX CTeKOJI.

-35-
B BHCI)AHHSI - BOAHOE CTEKnO 36

2 3aCTeKJIeHHe 06nIHpHOM. rroBepxHo- KJIeM.KOM. ero 3JIeMeHTOB cpaHepOM. y)!{e BHEIIIHME IIPMCTPOI1KM. <l>0PTH-
CTH, pa3~eJIeHHOe MaJI03aMeTHbIMH rre- Ha MeCTe HX yKJIa~KH. cpHKaI.\HOHHble coopy)!{eHH5I, rrpHMbIKa-
peIIJIeTaMH. IOIIl,He co CTOPOHbI OCa~aIOIIl,HX K rJIaB-
B KPYrJIYIO. B .J1any.
HOMY 6a.J1y (1) YKperrJIeHH5I.
BM<I>AHM51. ApXHTeKTypHo-rrapKO-
B KPIOK. Py6Ka CTeH C BblcTyrra-
BbiM. KOMrrJIeKC rrpH MOHaCTblpe, CHMBO- BHEIIIHMI1 IIPECTOJI. CO.J1eR.
IOIIl,HMH 3a KpaM. cpy6a KOHI.\aMH 6pe6eH,
JIH3HPYIOIIl,HM. rreM.3a)!{ H coopy)!{eHH5I, C
y KOTOPbIX Kperre)!{Ha51 BbIeMKa ~eJIa­ BHEIIIHMI1 IIPMTBOP. llanepmb.
KOTOPbIMH CB5I3aHbI C06bITH5I eBaHreJIb-
eTC5I B 'IeTBepTb Kpyra, C BepTHKaJIb-
CKOM. HCTOpHH. B HO)J(OBKY. Crroco6 rrO~IllHBKH
HbIM rrOrrepe'IHbIM cpe30M.
rrOTOJIKa HJIH 06IllHBKH CTeH OOCKaMU
BMXPEBA51 P03ETKA. KpymbIM.
BJIA,lJ,bIl.JHbII1 ,lJ,BOP. KOMrrJIeKC, (1), y KOTOPhIX ~JIHHHbIM. KpaM. cpe3aH
~eKopaTHBHbIH 3JIeMeHT, H3 I.\eHTpa
coopy)!{eHHbIM. rrpH 0CPHI.\HaJIhHOM. pe3H- rro~ 45° (cp.: BHan.J1aoKY).
KOToporo paCXO~51TC5I O~HOCTopOHHe
~eHI.\HH apXHepe51 (CM. ApxuepeucKuu
BhlrHYThIe ~yrH O~HOM. H TOM. )!{e KpH- BHYTPEHHEE KPbillbUO. JIecT-
OOM).
BH3HbI (cp.: B CnUpa.J1b). HHI.\a rrpH Bxo~e B ~OM, Y KOTOPOH O~Ha
B JIAIIY (=B KpymyIO, B Illarr, B rJIy- HJIH ~Be cTyrreHH HaXO~51TC5I cHapY)!{fl, a
xapb, Ha KOKC). Coe~HHeHHe 6pe6eH HJIH OCTaJIhHhle - B ceHRX.
6pycbe6 B yrJIy cpy6a 6e3 Bblxo~a HX
BHYTPEHHMI1 KAPHM3. 1 IIITYKa-
KOHI.\OB 3a rrJIOCKOCTb CTeHbI.
TypHa51 rrpocpHJIMpOBaHHa51 mR2a rro
Bepxy CTeH B rrOMeIIl,eHH5IX. 2 IIITYKaTYP-
HaS! mR2a rro KpaIO rrOTOJIKa.

BHYTPEHH5151 IIJ:EKA. BepTHKaJIh-


Ha5I 60KOBa51 rrOBepXHOCTb JIeCTHHI.\bI,
06paIIl,eHHa51 BHYTPb .J1eCmHU'lHOU
BMUA. 1 rH6KHH rrpyT B rraJIeI.\ TOJIIIl,H- K.J1emKU.
HOM., rrpHMeH5IeMhIM. ~JI5I rrepeB5I3KH B OEJIO (=B 'IaIlly, B 'IaIllKY). CaMbIM.
cjJaUtUH H cpanIHHHhIX KaHaTOB, a TaK)!{e pacrrpOCTpaHeHHbIH BH~ py6KH 6peBeH-
B JIAC. OTecKa BHyTpeHHHx cTeHcpy6a
~JI5I YKperrJIeHH5I ooeJ/Co Kpymocmeu. 'IaTbIX CTeH C ocmamKOM; ~JI5I 3Toro y
rro~ e~HHyIO rrnOCKOCTb CHH3Y ~oBepxy,
2 Be6uHa. 3 Pa3MO'IaJIeHHbIH XBOPOCT, KOHI.\OB 6peoeH cBepxy ~eJIaeTC5I rrOJIy-
rrpH coxpaHeHHH 3aKpyrJIeHH5I 6pe6eH B
3aMeH5IIOIIl,HH BepeBKy. Kpyrna51 BbleMKa, orH6aIOIIl,a51 BbIIlleJIe-
yrJIax.
B KBA,lJ,P AT. BbIKJIa~Ka c600a H3 KHP- )!{aIIl,ee 6peBHO.
rrH'Ia, C03~aIOIIl,a51 pIiCYHOK BJIO)!{eHHhIX
BOBJIbII1. PenbecpHbIH, KpyrJIbIH.
~pyr B ~pyra KBa~paToB, C HeCOBrra~e­

HHeM rrOrrepe'IHbIX Ut606 B coce~HHX BOEJIbII1 IIO,lJ,KJIET. CBO~'IaTOe


p5l~ax. rrO~BanbHoe HJIH n0.J1yno06a.J1bHOe rrOMe-
B KMPIIMl.JMK. Crroc06 HaKJIeHKH IIl,eHHe.
U{um06020 napKema rrp5lMoyrOJIbHhIMH
B OEOJIOHb. Py6Ka u36bt H3 HeTeca-
~OIIl,e'IKaMH (K.J1emwu) rro rrapaJIJIeJIb-
HbIX H HeCTporaHbIX 6pe6eH.
HbIM 3Hr3araM C H3JIOMaMH B 90°.
B MOCT. PacrrOJIO)!{eHHe naBOK B~onh
B OEPE3 (=rro~cKpe6Ka). 06pa60TKa
Bcex CTeH BHyTpH na.J1ambl HJIH U36bl.
Ut6a, rrpH KOTOPOH H36bITOK CTpOHTeJIb-
B HArpA,lJ,. IIapannenbHoe CrrJIa'IHBa- Horo paCTBopa rrJIOCKO cpe3aH ~O JIHI.\e-
HHe Tpex 6peoeH rrYTeM Bhlpy6KH BOM. rrOBepXHOCTll.
IllrryHTa TparreI.\HeBH~Horo Ce'IeHH5I B
BOrHYTA51 APKA. ,lJ,eKopaTHBHoe
BepxHeM 6peBHe H COOTBeTCTBYIOIIl,HX
rrepeKpbITlle B BH~e ~yr, 06paIIl,eHHbIX
cHMMeTpH'IHbIX rra30B B ~ByX HH)!{HHX
BbIIIYKJIOCTbIO BHYTPb rrpoeMa.
6peBHax.
BHAKM,lJ,KY (=BHaTpycKY). IIpocTeH-
BKJIA,lJ,hIIIIM. BepTHKaJIbHble BaJIHKH
IllHH THrr conOMeHHOH KpOO.J1U, rrpH
C 3aKpyrJIeHHhIMH KOHI.\aMH, pacrroJIo-
KOTOPOM COJIOMy, paBHoMepHo pa36po-
)!{eHHhle Me~y pe6paMH KaHl-le.J1l0p B
caHHYIO rro ~epeB5IHHoMy HaCTHJIY, rrpH-
HH)!{HeM. 'IaCTH K0.J10HHbl co 6Cmpe'l-
)!{HMaJIH )!{ep~51MH OT BepIllHHbI K cBecy.
Hbl.MU KaHHe.J1l0paMU.
BHAIIJIABKY. BbICTHJIKa rrOJIa TeCH-
B KOCYIO KOP3MHKY. Crroc06
HaMH, Ha~BHHyTbIMH O~Ha Ha ~pyryIO
HaCTHJIKH U{um06020 napKema C 06-
~JIHHHbIMH CKOIlleHHbIMH KpOMKaMH
(cp.: B HO:J/C06KY).
BO,lJ,HOE CTEKJIO (=CTeKJIO <l>YKca).
BHATPYCKY. BHaKuoKY.
PaCTBopHMoe B Kllrr5lTKe CBeTJIOe
BHEIIIHME IIOMEIIJ:EHM51. Ba.J1KO- rrOKpbITHe ~epeB5IHHbIX, MeTaJIJIH'IeC-
Hbt (1, 2), .J1oo:J/Cuu, OTKpbITble w.J1epeu KHX HnH KepaMH'IeCKHX H3~eJIHH, HMe-
(1), 6epaHObt (1), meppaCbt (1) H IOIIl,ee 6JIeCT5IIIl,YIO rrOBepXHOCTb H
maM6YPbt, rrpHMbIKaIOIIl,He K HapY)!{HOH 3aIIl,HIIl,aIOIIl,ee fIX OT Kone6aHHM. TeMrre-
CTeHe 3~aHH5I. paTYPbI, HCTHpaHH5I H CblpOCTH.

-36-
B B OAHY CK06KY - BOnOTOBASI KPblWA 37

B OJJ;HY CKOBKY. OTeCKa KOHH'IeC- BOJJ;PY)l(AJlbHbII1: KPECT. BOChMH- B03JJ;YIIIHMI IIIAXTA. BeHTHJUI-
KHX CTBOJIOB AepeBa AO n;HJIHHApa - AJUI KOHe'lHhIH AepeBHHHhIH KpecT Ha nOAHO- n;HOHHhIH KaHaJI B PY]."(HHKe.
'IHCTOBOH YKJIaAKH 6pi!Bell B cpy6e. )KHH, YCTaHaBJIHBaBWHHcH npH 3aKJIaAKe
B03JJ;YllIHOE OTOllJIEHME. CH-
n;epKoBHoro 3AaHIDI Ha MeCTe 6YAYIn;erO
BOJJ;HbIE KYHiliThI. cpOHTaHhI C CTeMa 060rpeBa nOMeIn;eHHH, B KOTO-
npecmolta.
CIOpnpH3aMH H APyrne YBeCeJIHTeJIhHhIe POH TerrJIO rrepe]."(aeTcH HarpeThIM B03]."(y-
YCTpOHCTBa Ha BOAHOH OCHOBe. BOMHOE CTEKJIO. PaCTBOpHMruI B XOM, nocryrralOIn;HM 'Iepe3 )KapOBhIe
ropg'leH BOAe CTeKJIOBHAHruI Macca (B KaHaJIhI OT Crren;HaJIhHOH KaMephI
BOJJ;OBol1:. CpeAlOOI, caMruI MOrn;HruI
OCHOBe KpeMHeKHCJIhIH HaTp H KaJIH) (06hNHO HaA TOrrJIHBHHKoM).
'IaCTh qJ/uom6ema, BocnpHHHMalOIn;ruI
AJIH 3aIn;HThI AepeBa OT 3aropaHHj{.
YAaphI naAalOIn;eH BOAhI B llJIOTHHe H B03JJ;YllIHhII1: KMPllMlJ. 1 JIe.Mna'l.
Harpy3KY OT ee coopyx<eHHH. BOJJ;.HHol1: B3BOJJ;. BOAOnOA"beMHOe 2 CaMall.
BOJJ;OB3BOJJ;HMI BAillIDI. Baul1tR YCTPOHCTBO. B03JJ;YllIHhII1: TEATP. TeaTp rro]."(
(1) C BOAOnOA"beMHhIM ycrpOHCTBOM BOMHOI1: TIO<t>5IK. HanOJIIDIeMOe OTKphIThIM HeGoM.
BHYTPH. BOAOH HCKyccTBeHHoe yrJIy6JIeHHe nOA B03JIOXEHME. KanUme/l,b.
BOAOCJIHBOM naOmUllbl, B KOTopoe 6heT
nMalOIn;HH cBepxy nOTOK. BOI1:O. Bau.
BOEHHMI BYJJ;KA. ByolCa BOem{1l1l. BOI1:CKOBMI M3BA. BOHCKOBruI·
Kaun;eJIHPHH Ka3aKOB.
BOEHHMI KPACKA. MaJIHPHruI
BOK3AJI. 1 (=BaKCaJI, BOKCaJI, BOKC-
KpacKa AJIH nOKphITIDI 60JIhWHX nOBepx-
raJI). 3aropo]."(HhIH 3aJI ]."(JIH Taun;eB H
, HocTeH, BKJIIO'IalOIn;ruI B ce6H 6eJIHJIa,
llJIaBJIeHhIH MeJI, rOJIJIaHAcKYIO ca)KY H
CypHK.

BOEHHMI YJIMI(A. JJ;opora BAOJIh


BaAOB (1) BHYTpH KpenocTH - AJIH nepe-
BOJJ;OB3BOJJ;HbII1: JIAPb. BOAoeM MeIn;eHHj{ BOHCK H npHllacoB K Kpeno-
BHYTPH 3AaHIDI, HanOJIIDIBWHHCH C CTHhIM BeplCaM.
nOMOIn;hlO BOAOnOA"beMHOrO YCTPOH-
CTBa. B03BOJJ;HhII1: MOCT. 1 llOA"beMHhIH
MOCT npH o60poHHTeJIhHoM coopyx<e-
BOJJ;OrPEI1:KA. PacnOJIO)KeHHOe B
HHH. 2 B3BoollblU Mocm.
ymy KpeCTh)lHCKOro oBopa (2) nOMeIn;e-
HHe C ne%lO, B KOTOpylO BMa3aH KOTeJI. B03BhIIIIEHME CBOJJ;A (HJIH apKH).
BOJJ;OMET. JIomolC (2) AJIH OTBOAa BepTHKaJIhHOe YAJIHHeHHe ]."(yrn nepe-
Koun;epTOB, C peCTOpaHOM. 2 rJIaBHOe
]."(o~eBoH H TaJIOH BO]."(hI C ICPOBAU, HMe- KphITIDI nyTeM onycKaHIDI nRm HH)Ke
3]."(aHHe )KeJIe3Ho]."(opO)KHOH CTaHn;HH.
IOIn;HH 3Ha'lHTeJIhHhIH BhIHOC HM CTe- n;eHTpa OKPY)KHOCTH.
B03JJ;YXOllPMBOJJ;HhII1: KAHAJI. BOJIHMCTO-POMBMlJECKA.H PE-
BhIJIO)KeHHhIH H3 HecropaeMoro MaTe- IIIETKA. OKOHHruI peweTKa, PHCY-
pHaJIa BHYTpHCTeHHhIH KaHaJI, 'Iepe3 HOK KOTOPOH pa36HT Ha OAHHaKOBhIe
KOTOPhIH HapY)KHhIH B03AYX nocTynaeT 3JIeMeHThI, HanOMHHalOIn;He BepTHKaJIh-
B KaMepy lCa/lopucpepa. HhIe pOM6hI C BOJIHHCThIMH CTOPOHaMH.

BOJIOrOJJ;CKA.H CA)I(A. llHrMeHT


B03JJ;YllIHA5I JIMHM.H. lJeTKo o'lep-
'IepHOH MaJIHpHoH KpacKH, rrOJIY'laeMhIH
BOJJ;OEMHOE 3JJ;AHME. llOcTPoHKa 'IeHHhIH, H3pe3aHHhIH JIHGO paCllJIhIB'Ia-
npH C)KHraHHH COCHhI, eJIH HJIH 6epe3hI.
B KOMnJIeKCe coopY)KeHHH )KeJIe3HOAO- ThIH BepxHHH KOHTYP MaCCHBa AepeBheB
PO)KHOH CTaHn;HH, BKJIIO'IalOIn;ruI l! ce6H B napKe. BOJIOK. JJ;OIn;aThIH, GpeBeHqaThIH HJIH
KpynHhIH pe3epByap BO]."(hI. 6pYCHHOH nalloyc ]."(JIH BTaCKHBaHHH H
B03JJ;YIIIHA5I llElJh. OTOnHTeJIh-
CBOJIaKHBaHHH Tj{)KeCTeH.
BOJJ;OllOJJ;'bEMHA5I llJIOTMHA. HhIH npH60p, B KOTOPOM ropeHHe
[J/I,omwta, peryJIHpYIOIn;ruI ypoBeHh BO- TOnJIHBa H pacnpOCTpaHeHHe TellJIa CTH- BOJIOKOBOE OKHO. 3aKphIBaeMhIH
]."(hI B peKe. MYJIHpYIOTCH ]."(orrOJIHHTeJIhHhIM rrpHTO- 3aABH)KKOH ropH30HTaJIhHhIH rrpoeM,
BOJJ;OPA3BOPHhII1: cpOHTAH. OK- KOM B03]."(yxa. npopy6JIeHHhIH B ]."(Byx 6pi!Bllax, KOTO-
phIe nOJIO)KeHhI O]."(HO Ha ]."(pyroe.
PY)KeHHhIH <l>OHTaHHOH'IameH BhI- B03JJ;YIIIHA5I CB5I3b. CBR3b (1),
xo]."( Bo]."(orrpoBo]."(HOH Tpy6hI H3-no]."( rpYH- OCHOBHruI 'IaCTh KOTOPOH npoxo]."(HT rro]."( ~~
Ta, npe]."(Ha3Ha'leHHhIH ]."(JIH pa3]."(a'lH CBOOOM. ~ \~
BOAhI HaCeJIeHHIO.
BOJJ;OCJIMBHMI nrrOTMHA. [J/I,O-
mUlla, rrOMep)KHBalOIn;ruI ypoBeHh BO]."(hI
B Bo]."(oeMe.

BOJJ;OCllYCKHMI nrrOTMHA.
[J/I,omulla, npHcrroc06JIeHHruI K 3Ha'lH- BOJIOTOBA5I KPbIIIIA. CeBepoKaB-
TeJIhHOH rrepe6pocKe BO]."(hI H3 npY]."(OB H Ka3CKoe COJIOMeHHOe rroKphITHe c
Bo]."(oxpaHHJIHIn;. YKJIaAKOH CHorrOB KOMeJIhKaMH BBepx.

-37-
B BonXOBCKASI M3BECTb - B norOH

BOJIXOBCKAH H3BECTh. Pa3HO- BOP. 3a60p (1), orpa)];a H3 )Kep;n:eH. B OTXBAT. BH;n: KAaoKu, rrpH KOTOPOM
BIl)(HOCTb H3BeCTH, rrpHro;n:Hru! ;n:mI paCTBOp He pa3paBHHBaIOT rro rrOBepx-
BOPBOPKA (=BapBopKa, <papa<pop-
rro;n:Bo;n:HOH KJIa;n:KH. HOCTH KHprr~a, a Ha6paCbIBaIOT, He
Ka). KHCTOqKa, MaXpOBa51 HJIH IIIapo-
;n:OBO;n:SI )];0 JIHl(eBoro Kpa5l, B paCqeTe Ha
BOJIXOBCKHH H3BECTH5IK (=;n:H- BH)];Ha51 rrO)];BeCKa Y naHUKaOUJla, a
JIyqIIIee Cl(eIIJIeHHe C 06JIHl(OBOqHOH
KapHbIe CJIOH). OqeHb TBep;n:bIH KaMeHb TaK)Ke 30JIOTOH, cepe6p5lHbIH, IIIeJIKO-
IIITYKaTypKoH.
ceporo l(BeTa, rrpHMeIDIBurnHC5I KaK BbIH, IIIepCT5IHOH, HHT5IHOH C l(BeTHbIMH
06JIHl(OBOqHbIH H ;n:eKopaTHBHbIH MaTe- KaMeIIIKaMH IfJIH )KeMqY)KHbIH IIIapHK Ha BOY. PO)];OBru! 60eBaSI 6autHR (1) y
pHaJI B <paca;n:ax MOCTOB H rH;n:pOTeXHH- IIIHypKe JIH60 TeCbMe. MHrYIIIeH.
qeCKHX cOOPY)KeHHH, a TaK)Ke KaK BO <l>PH3. IIOJIbI, COCTaBJIeHHbIe H3
BOPOEHHA. 1 )KeJIe3HbIH KpIOK B
HCXO;n:HbIH rrpo;n:yKT rrpM rrOJIyqeHHH m;n:- OOCOK (1) TOJIIl(HHOH B 2,5 ;n:IOHMa, KOTO-
COJIeBapHe, K KOTOPOMY rro;n:BeIIIeH
paBJIHqeCKOH li.3BeCTH ;n:JI5I KJIa;n:KH CTeH pble rrorrapHo CKJIeeHbI Y3KHMM )];JIHH-
'lpeH. 2 ,o:JIHHHa51 oocKa (1) TOJIIl(HHOH
rro;n: BO;n:OH H B CbIpbIX MeCTax. HbIMH cTopoHaMH H CB5I3aHbI CT5I)KKaMH,
OKOJIO ;n:ByX BepIIIKOB.
a C ;n:pymMH ;n:OCKaMH coe;n:HIDIIOTC5I
BOJILIHH 3YE. OpHaMeHTOBKa Ka- BOPOK. CKOTHbIH )];BOp. utnOHKaMU.
BOPOH. KpOHutmeuH. B OXJIYII. BapMaHT py6KH CTeH B
06AO, rrpH KOTOPOM 'lauta y KOHl(OB
BOPOHEQ. 1 rpRoa (1, 2). 2 Mamu- 6pe8eH 06paIl(eHa He BBepx, a BHM3.
l1a (1).
B OXP5IIIKY. BapHaHT py6KH CTeH C
BOPOHKA. PacIIIHpeHHa51 BepxH5ISI
ocmamKOM, xapaKTepH3YIOIl(HHC5I BbI-
qaCTb BO;n:OCTOqHOH Tpy6bI.
py6KOH 'laut C rrJIOCKMMH )];HOM H CTeHKa-
BOPOTA 0 TPEX IIIHTAX. BopoTa C MH, rrpHToM KaK cBepxy 6pe8eH, TaK H

%"'AT&'T&'f!~"f
• tdl:llllt:J!~i_W~~
)];ByMSI KaJIHTKaMH . CHH3y.

BOIIIAHHQA. QepKoBHblH rro;n:CBeq-


BOPOTHJIO. X060m.
BOJILIHH CKOK. OTBepcme B )KH- HHK.
BOH H3ropo;n:H rrapKa, OTKpbIBaJOIl(ee BOPOTHA5I EAllH5I. KperrocTHa51 B IIA3. KOHCTPYKl(H5I ;n:epeBSIHHbIX
HeO)KH;n:aHHYIO BH;n:OByIO rrepcrreKTHBY HJIll MOHacTbIpCKa51 6autHR co CKB03HbIM
CTeH H3 ropH30HTaJIbHbIX 6pe8eH, BCTaB-
(CM ... Ax-ax). rrpOe3)];OM. JIeHHbIX KOHl(aMH B BepTHKaJIbHbIe rra3bI
BOJILIhH 51Mhl. Y cTPoeHHru! B TBep- BOCKJIOHEHHE. 1 CrraJIbIDI. 2 CTO-
;n:OM rpYHTe rrepe;n: 060pOH5IeMOH rr03H- JIOBaSI. 3 JIo)Ke, rrOCTeJIb. 4 H3rOJIOBbe.
l(HeH CHCTeMa H3 qeTbIpex-II5ITH P5l;n:OB
3aMacKHpoBaHHbIX rJIy60KHx 51M B IIIax- BOCIIOKOHIIIE. KJIa)];6HIl(e.
MaTHOM rropSI;n:Ke, HMeBIIIHX BH)]; orrpo-
KHHYToro yceqeHHOrO KOHyca (MaKcH- BOCXO,o:. CTyrreHb JIeCTHHl(bI.
MaJIbHbIH ;n:HaMeTp - OT 6 ;n:o 7 <PYTOB,
BOCXO,o:HHQA. 06JIaqaJIbHbIH aM-
80H (2), YCTaHOBJIeHHbIH B l(epKOBHOM
3)];aHHH ;n:JISI apxHepeHcKoro rrOCBSIIl(e-
HHSI ()];JI5I rraTpHapxa OH )];OJI)KeH HMeTb
12 cTyrreHeH, ;n:JI5I MHTpOrrOJIHTa - 8, CTOJI60B; 06blqHO BCTPeqaeTC5I B X03SIH-
;n:JISI apxHerrHcKorra - 6, ;n:JI5I errapXHaJIb- CTBeHHbIX coopY)KeHH5IX HJIH rrpHCTPOH-
HorO apxHepeSI - 4). Kax K OCHOBHOMY cpy6y, HarrpHMep, B
ceHRX rrpH ua6e (1).
BOCXO,o:HhIH CBO,o:. Kop0608blU
rJIy6HHa - OT 6;n:0 7 <PYTOB) C 3aocTpeH- HJIH l(HpKyJIbHbIH C800 C HaKJIOHHbIMM BIIAJIA5I KOJIOHHA. [JOAYKOAOH-
HbIM KBepxy KOJIOM B l(eHTpe; rrpe;n:Ha3- rrapaJIJIeJIbHbIMH nRmaMU. Ha, He BblcryrraIOIl(ru! 3a rrOBepXHOCTb
HaqaJIaCb ;n:JI5I 3aIl(HTbI OT KOHHMl(bI rrpo- CTeHbI.
BOChMEPHK. BocbMHrpaHHbIH apxH-
THBHHKa.
TeKTypHbIH 06'beM. BIIEPEEE)KKY. Pa3MeIl(eHHe O;n:HO-
BOJIhEP (=BOJIbepa). PacrrOJIO)KeHHru! PO;n:HbIX 3JIeMeHTOB ropH30HTaJIbHbIMH
BOChMEPHK HA LIETBEPHKE.
B ca;n:y OqeHb KpYIIHa51 KJIeTKa ;n:JI5I MHO- p5l;n:aMH, rrpH KOTOPOM rrpOCBeTbI Me)KJl:y
KOMrr03Hl(HOHHbIH rrpHeM B03Be)];eHHSI
rOqHCJIeHHbIX H pa3Ho06pa3HbIx rrTHl(. 3JIeMeHTaMH B O;n:HOM pSI;n:y pacrrOJIara-
BocbMHrpaHHoro 06'beMa Ha qeTbIpex-
IOTC5I rro OC5IM TaKHX )Ke 3JIeMeHTOB
BOJIIOTA. ,o:eKopaTHBHbIH 3JIeMeHT B rpaHHoM.
coce;n:Hero p5l;n:a.
BH)];e CrrHpaJIbHOrO 3aBHTKa.
BOChMHKOHELIHhIH IIPABO- B IIEPEIIJIET. IIepeKpbITHe rrOMeIl(e-
CJIABHhIH KPECT. KpecT, CXO)];HbIH
HHSI B3aHMHO rreprreH;n:HKyJISIpHbIMH,
C uteCmUlC01te'lHbiM rrpaBOCJIaBHbIM, HO OrrHpaIOIl(HMHC5I )];pyr Ha ;n:pyra 6aJIKa-
MMeIOIl(HH, KpoMe Toro, HeMHoro HH)Ke
MH, ;n:JIHHa KOTOPbIX MeHbIIIe paCCTO-
BepxHero KOHl(a KOPOTKYIO ropH30H-
TaJIbHYIO rrOrrepeqHHY' rro IIIHpHHe 6m13-
KyIO HH)KHeH HaKJIOHHOH JIHHHH. B IIEPEIIJIETE IIOTOJIOK. CepAUO
nomOAOK.
BOChMHJIOTKOBhIH CBO,o:. IIepe-
KpbITHe BocbMHrpaHHoro 06'beMa CMbI- B IIOrOH. BapHaHT py6KM CTeH C
KaIOIl(HMHCSI AOmKaMU (1). ocmamKOM, xapaKTepH3YIOIl(HHCSI BbI-

-38-
B B nOA60P - BPEMEHHblE YKPEnnEHIUI 39

py6KOH Herny60I{HX OKpyrJIbIX 'taUl CMbIKaIOIqHXCg CKOCOM no;o; yrJIOM B 135° JISIIOT '1eTbIpe KBa;o;paTa. 2 Cnoc06
KaK cBepxy, TaK H CHH3Y 6pe6Ha; npH K npocmynu HHX<HeH cTyneHH H noocmy- OKJIeHKH CTeH 060SIMH, npH KOTOPOM
3TOM npocBeTbI Me:lK,ll;y OCHOBHbIMH neHKY BepxHeH. SIpKHe (06bI'lHO o;O;Ho~eTHbIe) nOJIOCbI
6peBHaMH 3anOJIHSI1OTCg 60JIee TOHKH~ B IIPI1ThftIKY. BUHOa6a. oKpY:lKalOT naHHO.
MR, co Bpe3KoH HX KOH~OB B MaCCHB
BPAHhIl1:. llieTeHbIH.
OCHOBHbIX 6peBeH. B IIPHqEPTh C BhITECOM. MOIqe-
HHe OOCKaMU (1), C03;o;alOIqee rJIa;o;KylO

~
B PACm;EII. YnpOIqeHHbIH BH;o; OKOH-
H pOBHYIO nOBepxHocTb. HbIX pemeToK ;o;JISI He:lKHJIbIX IIOMeIqe-
HHR, HCnOJIb3YlOIqHH illHpoKHe :lKeJIe3-
B IIPHqECKY. HaCTHJIKa COJIOMeH-
HbIe nOJIOCbI C paBHOMepHo oTorny-
HOH KP06.11U CJIOSIMH H3 CHOTIHKOB, npH-
B IIOABOP. B03Be;o;eHHe CTeH H3 Bep- TblMH 3ayceH~aMH no 060HM KpaSIM.
BSI3aHHbIX K C.IIe2aM H 3aTeM npWlecaH-
THKaJIhHbIX 6pycbe6 H 6pe6eH.
HbIX IqeTKaMH.
B IIOAB5I3KY (=B npHBg3KY). Cnoc06
BIIPOrAPh. TOHKaSI K.IIaOKa ne'lH H3
YCTPoHcTBa COJIOMeHHOH KPOBJIH 6e3
KHpTIH'Ia, 06paIqeHHOrO nOCme.llblO Ha
npIDKHMHbIX :lKep;o;eH.
JI~eBylO CTOPOHY (cp.: B 'tem6epmb
BIIOJIAEPEBA. Coe;o;HHeHHe ;o;Byx Kupnu'ta).
6pe6eH HJIH 6pycbe6 nOT( npgMbIM yrnoM
BIIPOCA,[(h. PaBHoMepHaSI noca;O;Ka
nyTeM BbIpy6KH ycrynOB ;0;0 cepe;O;HHbI
;o;epeBbeB no npSIMbIM JIHHHSIM HJlH B;o;OJIb
6pe6Ha JIH60 6pyca (1).
;o;opom.

B IIP5IMYIO KOP3HHKY. Pa36HBKa


KBa;o;paTHOro napKeTHoro IqHTa Ha
60JIee MeJIKHe KBa;o;paTbI (HanpHMep, no
'1eTbIpe C Ka:lK,ll;OH CTOpOHbI).

BPATA. Bxo;o; B a.llmapb, xpaM, MOHa-


CTbIpb.

BPATHJIO. meCT.
B IIOJIKHPIHfqA. B03Be;o;eHHe CTe- BPA THA5I HKOHA. HKOHa Ha;o; BXO-
HhI H3 KHpnWleH B O;o;HH BepTHKaJIb- ;o;OM B MOHacTbIpb, xpaM HJlH ;o;OM, a
HbIH CJIOH, C JIH~eBbIMH cTopoHaMH H3 TaK:lKe Ha;o; BOPOTaMH KpenOCTH HJlH
O;o;HHX TOJIbKO ./to3ICK06. ropo;o;cKoro YKpeIlJleHHjJ:.
BPA3BE)I(KY. Cnoco6 yKJIa;o;KH Teco- B PE)I( (=B pe:lKb, B pSI:lK). Py6Ka rpa-
BbIX Kp06e.llb B ;O;Ba HeIIJIOTHbIX CJIOSI:
HeB Ulampa HJIH CTeH 113 6pe6eH, Me:lK,ll;y
TeCHHbI HHX<HerO pSI;o;a pacnOJIaralOTCH KOTOPbIMH OCTalOTCg 3Ha'lHTeJIbHbIe
C npoMe:lKYTKaMH, KOTopbIe cBepxy ropH30HTaJIbHbIe npOCBeTbI BCJIe;O;CTBHe
3aKpbIBaIOTC5} OOCKaMU (1) CJIe):lYIOIqerO MaJIOH rJIy6HHbI 'taUl.
B IIOJIYJIAIIY. Coe;O;HHeHHe 6pycbe6 pSI;o;a.

~???ni?:i
IIO;o; rynblM yrJIOM 6e3 BbIXo;o;a KOH~OB BPE3HA5I 3AABH)l(KA. BepTHKaJIb-
3a IIJIOCKOCTb CTeHbI. HbIH 3anop ):IBYCTBop'laTbIX ;O;BepeH, Bpe-
3aHHblH Ha yrny nOJIOTHHIqa 3anO):lJI~0
B IIOTEMOK. Py6Ka C ocmamKOM, BPA3HOIIA3. Pa3HoBH;O;HOCTb py6KI1 C ero Y3KOH CTOpOHOH.
npH KOTOPOH coce;O;HHe 6pe6Ha COe;O;HHg- CTeH C ocmamKOM, npH KOTOPOH '1epe-
IOTCg B 'taUle IIIHTIOM, HeBH;o;HMblM CHa- ;o;YIOTCH 6pe6Ha 6e3 'taUl H 6peBHa C BPE3HA5I II5ITA. BKJIIO'IeHHbI"H B
nOJIYKpyrJIblMH '1amaMH KaK Ha Bepx- K.IIaOKY KJIHH'laTbIH KaMeHb JIH60 KHP-
PY:lKH·
HeH, TaK H Ha HHX<HeH CTOPOHax. TIH'I, Ha KOTOPbIH onHpaeTCg apKa.
B IIPHB5I3KY. B noo6R3KY.

B IIPHCEK. Cnoc06 B03Be;o;eHHjJ: CTeH B PAKOBHHY. T-06pa3Hoe coe;O;HHe-


H3 roPH30HTaJIbHbIX 6pe6eH, 6JIH3KHH HHe 6pycbe6 C IIOMOIqbIO TPane~eBH;o;­
py6Ke 6 06.110, HO C OCTaBJIeHHeM B 'taUle HOHBpy6KH.
HeBbIpy6JIeHHOrO 3y6a' (npSIMoyrOJIb- B P AMKY. 1 Ksa;o;paTHbIH 3JIeMeHT
Horo BbIcryna), KOTOPbIH npeTISlTcTByeT U{um06020 napKema, pa3):1eJIeHHbIH Ha
C;o;BHry 6peBeH B 6eHl¥lX. '1eTbIpe OKaHTOBaHHbIX KBa;o;paTa,
BIIPHThIK. Y CTPOHCTBO JIeCTHH~bI H3 Ka:lK,ll;bIH H3 KOTOPbIX TaK:lKe COCTaB-
KaMeHHbIX HJlH 6eTOHHbIX cTyneHeH,

BPE3HA5I CTYIIEHh (=BCTaBHaSI


cTyneHb). CryneHb, BCTaBJIeHHaSI B
na3bI Ha memu6ax.

BPE3hI. KaHHe.lllOpbt.
BPEMEHHhIE YKPEIIJIEHH5I. He-
;O;OJIrOBe'IHble 060pOHHTeJIbHbie CO-

-39-
B BPEHTvr - B WECTHVrOnbHHK 40

opY)KeHIDI H3 3eMnH, AepeBa HJIH Me- BCfABHA5I CTYTIEHb. Bpe31WJl B YC. COeAHHeHHe aocoK (1) HJIH 6pyc-
TaJIJIa. cmyneHb. K06 KOHu;aMH, cpe3aHHhIMH nOA 45".
BPEHTYr (=BpeTHIu;e, BpeTyra). BCTABHOH IIIMll. CoeAHHHTeJIhHruI
3aBeca, pa3AemnoIIl;ruI CTaP006pHAqeC- rrpHMoyrOJIhHaH BCTaBKa B 06paIIJ;eHHhIe
KylO MOJIeJIhHIO Ha ABe nOJIOBHHhI. Apyr K )l;pyry ZHe30a (1) Ha )l;JIHHHhIX
B P5I.IK. B pe:JIC. cTopoHax rrapaJIJIeJIhHO CnJIaqHBaeMhlX
6pe6eH HJIH 6pycbe6.
BCEBMA5ImEE OKO. CHMBOJI XPH-
CTHaHCKoro 60)KeCTBa, HMelOIu;HR BHA B CfAMMK. KOHCTpYKu;IDI AepeBHH-
TPeyrOJIhHHKa, OT KOToporo paCXOAHTCH HhIX orpa~eHHH H3 rrJIOTHO nOCTaBJIeH-
BYTbI. YTOJIIIJ;eHIDI nJIHT HJIH 6aJIOK B
JIyqH. HhIX BepTHKaJIhHhIX OOCOK (1), 6pe6eH
)KeJIe306eTOHHhIX KOHCTPYKU;HHX, rrOBhI-
HJIH 6pycbe6.
rnalOIIJ;He conpOTHBJIeHHe H3rH6alOIu;HM
B CfOJIE. KOHCTPYKu;IDI )l;epeBHHHhlx HarpY3KaM.
orpaYAJ\eHHH, COCTOHIIJ;ruI H3 ropH30H-
BXOA5ImVl n YfOJI (B YKpeIDIeHHHX C
TaJIhHhIX OOCOK (1), BCTaBJIeHHhIX TOP-
JIOMaHhIM JI.I.IHOM). YroJI C BeprnHHoH,
u;aMH B BepTlIKaJIhHhle na3hI CTOJI6oB.
06paIIJ;eHHOH K 060POillllOIIJ;HMCH.
BCfPE"llHbIE KAHHEJIIOPbl. lla- B "llAIIIY, B "llAIIIKY. B o6.no.
paJIJIeJIhHhle BepTHKaJIhHhle :JICe.no6Ku
Ha CTBOJIe KO.nOHHbt HJIH nU.flJlCmpbt, B "llETBEPTb. Cnoco6 HaCTHJIKH no-
pa3AeJIeHHhle B HH)KHeH qaCTH rrepe- TOJIKa B KpecThHHcKOH H36e, C HaKa-
BCETIPMMMHMUA. fOCTHHHu;a, 3ae3- TOM H3 rrpOAOJIhHhIX nOJIOBHH 6pe6eH
:JICUU a60p. (n.nacmUIl), nJIOTHrui nO)l;roHKa KOTO-
BCKAT. llOJIOrHR nOMOCT AnH BKaThI- phIX )l;OCrnraJIaCh C nOMOIIJ;hlO BhIeMKH
BaHHH 60qeK, 6pe6e1l H T.n. npHMoyrOJIhHOrO CeqeHIDI no )l;JIHHHOMY
KpalO.
B CKOEEJIb. Bpe6fta, 6pyCbJl HJIH
aocKu (1) C qHCTO oCTPyraHHoH JIHu;eBOH B "llETBEPTb AEPEBA. 1 llepeKpeCT-
nOBepxHocThlO . Hoe CrrJIaQHBaHHe 6pycbe6 (1), B Ka~OM
H3 KOTOPhIX AeJIaeTCSI np»:MoyrOJIhHruI
B CKOBOPOAEHb. T-06pa3Hoe Kpe- BhleMKa rnHpHHoH B 6pyc, He )l;OCTHra-
nneHHe 6pycbe6 C rrOMOIIJ;hlO TPaneIJ;H- lOIIJ;aSl B rny6HHy ero cepeAHHhI.
eBHAHoro BhlcTyrra, paCrnHpHIOIIJ;erOCH K 2 llapaJIneJIhHOe CnJIaqHBaHHe 6pycbe6
ropOAKOH Ha 60JIee Y3KHe JIH60 3a- (1), nAaCmUH H T.A. C rrOMOIIJ;hlO npo-
KOHU;y OAHoro 6pyca H nJIOTHO rroAo-
maHHoro rrOA ZHe3aa (1) TOR)Ke q:,OpMhI rrOJIHeHHhle Ha TY )Ke BhICOTY 6a.nu- )l;OJIhHhIX 6pycheB H BhIeMOK, HMelOIIJ;HX
Ka.MU (1) C oKpyrnhlM BepxoM (CM. B CeqeHHH paBHhle npHMhIe oTpe3KH.
Ha APyroM 6pyce.
BK.naObtUlu) .
B COK. K.naoKa Ha rYCTOM pacm60pe C B "llETBEPTb KMPllM"llA. B03Be)l;e-
3aJIHBKOR )KHAKOR H3BeCThlO rrpOMe)KYT- BCXOA. 1 llOMOCT. 2 JIo61loe .Mecmo. HHe TOHKOH CTeHKH H3 KHpn~eH,
KOB, 3anOJIHeHHhiX 6HThIM KHpnHqOM, 3 CTyneHH Ha a.M601l (3). rrOCTaBJIeHHhIX Ha y3KylO rpaHh H o6pa-
IIJ;e6HeM H T.rr. IIJ;eHHhIX nocme.nblO Ha JIHu;eBylO CTO-
BCXOAHMUA. 1 Bcxoo. 2 BblUlKa (2). pOHy (cp.: BnpozaPb).
BCllAPYIIIEHHbIH CBOA. Kpecmo- BCXOAH5I. 3aMeHHIOIIJ;ruI JIeCTHHU;y
6blU C600, Y KOTOPOro u;eHTpaJIhHruI B "llEIIIYIO. KPOBJISI H3 O):lHHaKOBhIX
aocKa (1) C Ha6HThIMH rrorrepeK 6pycoq- 3JIeMeHTOB, BhlcTyrralOIIJ;HX O)l;HH H3-rrO)l;
qaCTh 3aMeTHO nOAHHTa Ha)l; 60KOBhIMH. KaMH BMeCTO cTyrreHeK (cp.: r6apOUJl, APyroro rrOJIYKpyrJIhIM KpaeM .
B CllMPAJIb. BhIKnaAKa c600a rro .na3HJl).
B IIIAll. B .nany.
OAHHaKOBO HanpaBneHHhIM paBHhIM BTOPOM CBET. BTOPOR OT rrOJIa pSiA
AyraM, paCXO)l;HIIJ;HMCH OT u;eHTpa (cp.: rrpoeMOB B rrOMeIIJ;eHHH. B IIIAXMAT. Pa3)l;eJIKa nOBepxHocTH
BUXpe6aJl p03emKa). qepeAYIOIIJ;HMHCH CBeTJIhIMH H TeMHhIMH

BCllOJIOIIIHOH KOJIOKOJI (=Ha- BHHHhIX CTeH, npH KOTOPOM npoMe-


6aTHhIH KOJIOKOJI, nepenOJIOrnHhIH )KJTKH Me~y cToJI6aMH 3anOJIHeHhI B IIIECTMYfOJIbHMK. Py6Ka C oc-
KonOKon, OCa)l;HhIH KOJIOKon). KOJIO- BepTHKanhHhIMH OOCKa.MU (1), C rrOCJIe- mamKO.M H3 rnecTHrpaHHhlx 6pycbe6 (1).
KOJI, B KOTOPhIH 3BOHHJIH, KOr)l;a )KHTe- AylOIIJ;HM 3aKpenJIeHHeM HX rrOnepeqHhl-
JIHM yrpo)KaJIa onaCHOCTh (HarnecTBHe MH )KepAHMH.
BparOB, MHTe)K, nO)Kap).
BTYJIKA. 06HThIH BOHJIOKOM HJIH CYK-
BCllOP. 1 llOTOJIOK. 2 lloAnopa. HOM AepeBSlHHhIH IIJ;HT, 3aKphIBaBrnHH
BCTABEHb (=CTaBeHh). 3HMHHH OKHO H3HYTPH rro BceH ero rrJIOIIJ;aAH (Ha-
OKOHHhIH rrepeIIJIeT. rrpHMep, Ha HOqh HJIH )l;JISI coxpaHeHHH
TerrJIa B nOMeIIJ;eHHH).
BCTABHA5I PEHKA. PeHKa Tparre-
u;neBHAHoro CeqeHIDI, BCTaBJIHeMruI B BYJIKAHOJIb. BhICOKorrpOqHhIe KaM-
OOCKY (1) B)l;OJIh ee OCHOBHOH nOBepxHo- HH )l;JIH MOCTOBhIX, HMelOIIJ;He BH)l;
CTH, qTo6hl nOMernaTh Kopo6JIeHHIO, KpyrrHhlx nnHT H3 npeCCOBaHHOH CMeCH
3aKphITh IIJ;eJIH H T.)l;. rrOJIeBOrO rnrraTa.

-40-
B B WnVHT - BblOWKA 41

B IIIIIYHT. Py6Ka CTeH H3 6pycbe6 (1) BhIIIPABMTEJIhHhIE COOPY)]ffi- BhICTABMBIIIMHC5I 3AMOK. Bu-
JIH60 llIHPOKHX OOCOK (1). HM5I. rH)l;pOTeXHwlecKHe cooPY)KeHIDI CR'tUU 3aMOK.
)l;JIM rro)l;)l;ep)KaHIDI B rrOpM)l;Ke cY)l;OXO)l;-
BhICTABKA. .JJ:orrOJIHHTeJIbHM Qep-
Horo rryTH, )l;Ha H 6eperoB BO)l;OeMa.
KOBb B rrpe):leJIax rrpHXO):la.
BhIIIYKJIO-BOrHYTA5I APKA . .JJ:e-
BhICTABOQHA5I IJ;EPKOBh. XpaM
KopaTHBHaM apKa, B KOTOPOH H3rH6bI Y
rrpH 060c06HBmeHcM qaCTH rrpHXO):la.
fIRm 06pal.l(eHbI BbmYKJIbIMH CTOpO-
BhICTYIIAIOII.J;A5I II5ITA. BblHocHaR
nRma.

BhICh. 1 lJepoaK (1). 2 BbICOTa CTeH


BhIBO.JJ:. 1 (/Jopm. 2 IIeqHM TPy6a. 3):1aHIDI.

BhIBO.JJ:HOE OKHO. BbtnYCKlwe BhITh. 1 Ha):lBOpHaM rrocTpoHKa.


OKHO. 2 3arOpO):lKa.
BhIrOHOQHA5I TEIIJIMIJ;A. IIap- BhIT5I:lKHOH KAHAn. KaHaJI, rro
HHK )l;JIM BbIpal.l(HBaHIDI KYJIbTypHbIX KOTOPOMY yXO):lHT B aTMoc<pepy B03):1YX
paCTeHHH B MeCTHOCTH C qY)K)l;bIMH )l;JIM H3 rrOMel.l(eHHH, HerrpHro):lHbIH ):IJIM
HHX rrOqBOH H KJIHMaTOM. HaMH BHYTPb rrpoeMa H rrJIaBHO rrepexo- ):IbIXaHHM.
)l;MT B O)l;HoQeHTPoBoe JIH60 MHoroQeHT-
BhIroPO.JJ:. Orpa)l;a. poBoe rrO)l;BbImeHHe rro ero BepTHKaJIb- BhIT5I:lKHhIE EPEBHA (=rrpOTMrH,
HOH OCH. rrO):lCTPoIIHJIbHble 6peBHa). OrropbI ):IBY-
BhIrPEE. 1 BbleMKa B 3aKpOMe, H3
cKaTHoH KPblutU, rrO):l):lep)KHBalOl.l(He ee
KOTOPOH BbIrpe6alOT 3epHo. 2 5IMa )l;JIM BhIIIYCKHA5I II5ITA. BblHocHaR CBeCbI.
HeqHCTOT. nRma.
BhIXO.JJ:. 1 CYXOH rrorpe6 rrepe):l ):\0-
BhIrPhI3EHHhIH cpPOHTOH. Pa- BhIIIYCKHOE EPEBHO. KPOH-
MOM - He60JIbmOH cpy6, Ha TpeTb HJIH
30p6aHHbiu ppoHmoH. utmeuH B )l;epeBMHHoM 30)l;qeCTBe.
HarrOJIOBHHY 3arny6JIeHHbIH B rpYHT,
BhI.JJ:P A. 1 EOp03)l;a B rrpHMbIKaHHH rroKpbITbIH Ha .o;Ba CKaTa H YTellJleHHbIH
Kp06J1U K KHprrHqHOH KJIa)l;Ke CTeHbI HJIH cHapY)KH 3C\UeH. 2 EaJlKOH HJIH ZaJlepeR
TPy6bI. 2 BbIcTyrr C ropH30HTaJIbHOH
BepxHeH rrJIOCKOCTblO, paCmHpMIOl.l(HH
HH)KH101O qaCTb )l;bIMOBOH Tpy6bI, Herro-
Cpe)l;CTBeHHo Ha)l; Kp06J1eu.

BhIKPY)KKA. ApxHTeKTypHbIH 3JIe-


MeHT C BorHYToH KPHBOH B CeqeHHH.

BhIIIYCKHOE OKHO (=BbIBO):lHOe


OKRo). Qep.o;aqHOe OKHO, BbIcTyrralOl.l(ee (1), CBM3aHHbIe C qep):laqHbIM rrOMel.l(e-
HHeM U36bl HJIH XOpOM.
BhIXO.JJ:HA5I .JJ:PAHh. CJIOH opaHu
BhIMOJI. IIpHcTaHb.
(2) Me)K)l;y npOCmUJIbHOU opaHblO H
mTYKaTypKoH CTeHbI.
BhIHOC KAPHM3A. rOpH30HTaJIb-
BhIIIIrOPO.JJ: (=BbImerpa.o;). YKpe-
Hoe paCCTOMHHe Me)K)l;Y KpaeM KapHU3a BMeCTe C 60KOBblMH CTeHK'IlMH, COe):lH-
rrJIeHHaM B03BblmeHHaM qaCTb zopooa
H rroBepxHocTblO CTeHbI rrO):l HHM. HeHHbIMH rroKpbITHeMif H3 OCHOBHoro
(1,2).
BhIHOCHA5I II5ITA (=BbmycKHaM 06"beMa Kp06J1U.
BhIllECTOJIME. CTOJIHQa, CTOJIbHblH
rrMTa, BbIcTyrralOl.l(aM rrMTa). ApOqHaM BhIIIYCKHOH 3AMOK. 3aMK06blU
zopoo (1, 2).
nRma, OrrHpalOl.l(MCM Ha ropH30HTaJIb- KaMeHb, CHJIbHO BbI.o;BHHYTblH rrepe.o;
HbIe pM.o;bI KJlaOKU, CTecaHHble rro KpH- <pOHOM . BhIllKA. 1 BbIcoTHoe coopY)KeHHe co
BOH, KOTopaM rrJIaBHO rrpO)l;OJI)KaeTCM CMOTPOBOH rrJIOl.l(a.o;KoH B BepxHeH
.o;yroH apKU. BhIIIYII.J;AJIO . .JJ:BepQa. qaCTH. 2 C6emeJlKa. 3 JIeTIDIM u36a Ha
BhIP AEOTKA. IIo):l3eMHaM rrOJIOCTb nOOKJleme, rrpHMblKalOl.l(aM K ceHRM.
ropHOro rrpOMbICJIa. 4 lJepoaK (1).5 Yca):le6HOe coopY)KeHHe
.o;JIM xpaHeHHM Bel.l(eH, B03Be):leHHOe Ha
BhIPEIJ;. KJIYM6a.
cToJI6ax B cTopoHe OT rocrrO):lCKOrO
BhIPYQKA. IIpHJIasoK, CTOJI C Ml.l(H- .o;OMa.
KOM .o;JIM .o;eHer HJIH CyH.o;yK Toro )Ke Ha3-
BhIOHillA IIEPEKPhITME. :lKeJIe30-
HaqeHIDI, B ToproBoM 3aBe.o;eHHH.
6eToHHoe rrepeKpblTHe c· ropH30HTaJIb-
BhICOKMH IIAPTEP. JIapmep (2). HblM BepxoM cHapY)KH H rrOJIOrHM C60-
OOM H3HYTpH.
BhICOKO-OEPOHHAA P AEOTA.
BhIIIOJI30BO (=060JIOHbe). IIpe.o;- CKYJIbllTYPHbIH peJlbep, B KOTOPOM BhIOIIIKA. Pa306l.l(alOl.l(aM OCHOBHoe
MeCTbe zopooa (2) HJIH KpaHHHe U36bl <PHrYPbI rrOqTH oT.o;eJIMIOTCM OT <poHa rrpocTpaHcTBo rreqH H .o;bIMOBYIO Tpy6y
(1) CeJIeHHM. (cp.: rOpeJlbep). .o;BYCJIOHHM 3aCJIOHKa, KOTOPM COCTOHT

-41-
B B3HT3XA - BUb 42

H3 paMKH H ~Byx KphIWeK C 3aKpaHHaMH


~ml nJIOTH0l10 npHJIeraHlUl.

B3HT3xA. 3HMHHH KOHlf'IeCKHH wa-


JIaW ~JIH dPO'lCKlIX OXOTHHKOB, coopy-
x<eHHhIH H3 nJiax.

BIOTA. XrreB B MapHHcKoH KpecThHH-


CKOH ycaob6e.
B5DKYIl(EE. MCnOJIh3yeMoe B KJlaOKe
Be~eCTBO, cnoco6Hoe Heo6paTlIMO
nepexo~HTh H3 nJIaCTH'IHOrO COCTOHHHH
B TBepJ(oe H Cu;eTIJIHIO~ee KHpnH'IH JIH60
6JIOKH KaMHH.

B5I3AHME. Coe~HHeHHe 6pe6eH,


6pycbe6 (1) HJIH OOCOK (1) B HaKaT,
nOTOJIOK, nOJI H T.~.

B5I3KA. 1 CmponU.!w. 2 BR3allUe.


B5I3HA5I ,IJ;BEPb. ,IJ;Beph C cjJUJlellKa-
MU, oKpyx<eHHhIMH cocTaBHoH paMoH.

B5I3b. KaJIJIHrpa<pH'IeCKOe CnJIeTeHHe


HeCKOJIhKHX 6YKB HJIH u;eJIhIX CJIOB
(06hI'IHO u;epKOBHO-CJIaBHHCKlIX HJIH
apa6cKHx) B 60JIee HJIH MeHee CJIOX<HhIH
y30p.

-42-
t

r ABBI1HA CMCTEMA. KOHCTPY~ HHbIMH HCKYCCTBeHHbIMH nperpaAaMH HbIH Ka3eMam MaJIOro Ce'leHHSI, nO~3eM­
~epeBmlHbIX MOCTOB, AmI KOTOPOH ~JISI3aIWiTbi Cy~OB OT BOJIHeHHSI Ha HbIH KOPHAOP B KpenoCTH HJIH PYAHHKe.
xapaKTepeH HaKJIOH BepXHeH 'laCTH Mope. 3 CBO):l'laTbIH KOPHAOP, 3aIl\HIl\aIOIWiH
MeTaJIJIl{qeCKHX paCKOC06, coe~HWI­ :lKeJIe3HO~OpO:lKHbIH nyTb OT 06BaJIOB
rABPMK (=<I>a6pHWiYCa CHCTeMa).
IOIWIX CTOHKH Me:lKAY ropH30HTaJIb- ropHbIX nopo~. 4 Co6paHHe KapTHII HJIH
06JIerqeHHaSI KllaOKa, B KOTOPOH npO'l-
HbIMH nORCaMU (2), B CTOPOHY 6epero- HIIbIX MY3eHHbIX ~eHHoCTeH.
HOCTb napaJIJIeJIbHbIX CTeHOK B 'leT-
BbIX onop.
BepTb KHpllH'la KOMlleHcHpyeTcSI ap- [AJIEPHbIH CAPAH. 31lllUH2 (1).
MHpylOIl\HM :lKeJIe30M.
rArrJIEPA llEPEKPbITME. "YCTOT-
[A3MPOBAHHbHi CTOJI. Y6op- Hoe nepeKpbITHe H3 Ul6ellllep06, 3ep-
HbIH, HJIH TYaJIeTHbIH, CTOJI (HanpHMep, KaJIbHO BKJIaAbIBaeMbIX O):lHH B ):\pyroH.
rABBPO. TeMHO-CepbIH KaMeHb C B 6yoyape) , 3a~paITHPOBaHHbIH JIerKOH
rAJICTYQOK. Bazem.
HCKOpKaMH B KPHCTaJIJIH'leCKOH 3epHH- np03pa'lHOH TKaHblO.
CTOH CTPYKTYpe, ynoTPe6JISIeMbIH B [AJITEJIb. 1 ,o;epeBSIHHaSi peHKa C
[A30BA5I CMOJIA. EIlRK6apHUUl. BbIKPY:lKKOH B HeCJIO:lKHOM npoq,HJIe,
KOIlOHHax, nOCmaMeHmax, I{OKOIlRX,
6a1llOcmpaoax, JIeCTHHD;aX, a TaK:lKe B 3aKpbIBalOIl\aSI CTbIK CTeHbI C nOJIOM HJIH
[A30H (=MypaBHOe MeCTO). MCKYC-
HaArpo6HSIX. CTBeHHaSI JIY:lKaHKa CaAa HJIH napKa,
nOKpbITaSI KOPOTKOH, POBHO nO~CTPH­
[ABED;. rOll6el{ (1).
:lKeHHOH TpaBoH.
[ABMOH (=ra6IOH). 3anOJIHeHHaSI
KaMWIMH KapKaCHaSI npOBOJIOqHaSI
rA30<l> YJIAKM5I (= ra30q,HJIaKHSI, ra-
30q,IOJIaKHSI). XpaHHJIHIl\e Ka3HbI HJIH
KJIeTKa 60JIbIIIHX pa3MepOB, 3aIl\HIl\a-
HHbIX COKPOBHIl\.
lOIl\aSI 6eper HJIH YCTOH MOCTa OT pa3-
pa3~eJISIIOIl\aSI nOJIe CTeHbI.
2 PeJIbeq,-
MbIBa H y~apoB BOJIH. r AMHO (=raHHHIl\e, raHbHIl\e, roiiHo,
HaSI nOJIOca, pa3~eJISIIOIl\aSI Y'lacTKH
KaTYX, KaTyxa). XJIeB ~JISI CBHHeH.
r ABMOHA,o;A. CllJIOIIIHOH PSIA 3anOJI- oIIITYKaTypeHHoro nOTOJIKa. 3 BorHY-
HeHHbIX 3eMJIeH za6uoHo6, 3aKpbIBa- r AJIA. )KHJIaSI 6aIIIWI B 'le'leHCKOM H)IH ThIH IIITYKaTypHbIH nepexo):l OT CTeHbI K
IOIl\HH OT npOTHBHHKa MeCTO q,opTHqm- HIIryIIICKOM CeJIeHHH; nepBbIH SIPYC nOTOJIKY. 4 06JIOM B BH):Ie 6bIKPY3fCKU
KaWiOHHbIX pa60T JIH60 YKa3bIBalOIl\HH 3aWIT XJIeBOM H nOMeIl\eHHSIMH ~JISI HJIH :lKeJIo6a.
BOHCKaM nyTb B HOqHOe BpeMSI. HHbIX X03S1HCTBeHHbIX HY:lKJl, BTOPOH - [AJITbIPb. )KeJI060qHbIH y30p Ha
:lKHJIbeM, TpeTHH - nOMeIl\eHHeM AJISI OKOHHOH paMe .
. - npa3~HeCTB H npHeMa rocTeH.
[AJIYAH. OceTHHCKHH YKpellJleHHbIH
[AJIAHKA. rOllllaHOCKaR ne'tb. KOMllJIeKC, B KOTOPOM :lKHJIaSi H o6opo-
r AJIEBAHT. rallbc6aHm. HHTeJIbHaSi 6aUlHR (1), a TaK:lKe pSl~
:lKHJIbIX H X03SIHCTBeHHbIx nocTPoeK
r AJIEPE5I. 1 ,o;JIHHHbIH H CBeTJIbIH 06HeceHbI KaMeHHOH CTeHoH.
KpblThIH npoxo~. 2 llo~3eMHbIH ~JIHII-
r ABMTYC. BHeIIIWISI q,opMa AepeBbeB r AJIbI3b (=MOCTOBHHK). Bpe6Ha
H KycTapHHKoB. (06bI'lHO OT ~epeBbeB XBOHHbIX nopo~)
~JIHHOH OKOJIO 6 apIIIHH H C nOnepe'lHH-
r ABIOH. ra6UOH.
KOM no BepXHeMY oTPy6y B 21/3'-3 1/ 2
rABAHb XY,o;O)KECTBEHHA5I. BepIIIKa, HJ:\YIWie Ha MOIl\eHHe ):Iopor B
[aBaHb, orpaHH'leHHaSI llJIOTHHaMH HJIH 60JIOTHCTOH MeCTHOCTH.

43

-43-
r rAnbC6AHT - rEPIllAOH 44

rAJIhCBAHT (=raJIe6aHT). XOMym, rACEHh. ,lJ;om;aTruI j:\bIMOBruI TPy6a. rEK3ArOH (=aK3arOH). illeCTHrpaH-
OXBaTbIBarom;HH WeHI{)' BepeH..llbHOZO HHK.
r ACMH. rYMHO.
cmoJl6a B BOPOTax Ul//lOaa (1) H BMypO-
rEJIEHr. JIe3ICeHb (1).
BaHHbIH B K.IIaiJKY CTeHhI; BMeCTe C f ACIIEJIh. IIoj:\'beMHHK C ropH30H-
noiJnRmHUKOM B HH).KHeH qaCTH BOPOT TaJIhHhIM BOPOTOM B Hemy60KHX PYj:\HH- rEJIMKOH,lJ;AJIhHhIH. BHHTo06pa3-
06eCneqHBaeT BepTHKaJIhHOCTh HX OCH Kax, npHBoj:\HMbIH B ~eHCTBHe j:\BYMR Hbm.
Bpam;eHIDI. pa60qIfMH.
fEllHOCTAT. faJOBaSI JIaMna, HCnOJIh-
rAMA3EH.MazaauH (2). rATh (=raTh6a). 1. HaCTHJIKa H3 6pi!- 3YIOm;aSI aHeprHIO OT cropaHIDI :lKH):\KHX
BeH H XBopocTa Ha TonKOM yqacTKe ymeBo~opoj:\OB.
r AHAX. OCeTHHCKruI xrn:JIruI 6auutR
~opom. 2. 3eMJIRHaSI j:\0P0:lKHruI HaCbIIIb
(~oM-KpenocTb), B KOTOPOH nepBbIH rEMATHHOH. AcmpaJIum.
Ha 60JIOTHCTOM MeCTe, YKpellJleHHruI
aT~ HCnOJIb30BaJICR no~ 3epHoxpaHH-
f/JautuHaMu, m;e6HeM H T. n. rEOIIJIACTHKA. HCl{)'ccTBeHHoe
JIHIll;e H nOMem;eHHe ~JIR CKOTa, BTOPOH -
q,OpMHpoBaHHe peJIbeq,a B JIaHWllaq,T-
KaK xaiJaap, TpeTHH 6blJl npHcnoco6- fAY-)I(YPABCKOrO <l»EPMA (=ray
HOR apxHTeKTYpe (HanpHMep, B napKe).
JIeH j:\JISI 060pOHhI. cHcTeMa). MeTaJIJIoj:\epeBSIHHruI KOH-
cTPYKIUfR j:\JISI MOCTOB H nepeKphITHH B fEIIEJIh. rOpHOpYj:\HhIH nOj:\'beMHHK C
r AH,J:()KMP. MHOrogpYCHbm utnUJIb,
KPYllHbIX nOMem;eHHSIX, 3anaTeHTOBaH- KOHHbIM npHBOj:\OM, ~JISI my60KHX
3aBepwaIOm;HH rpe6eHb KpOBJIH Ha~
HruI B 1840 r. aMepHK~eM fay H WaxT.
6YMHHCKHM xpaMoM H q)JIaHKHpoBaH-
BCKope ycoBepweHcTBoBaHHruI PYCCKHM
Hhm ~HHj:\plfqeCKHMH 06'beMaMH rEPAKJIHT (=q,H6poJIHT). 06JIaj:\a-
HH:lKeHepOM ,lJ;. l1. )l(ypaBCKHM (1821-
'iJlCaJll¥lHOB. IOIIJ;He HH3KOH TenJIonpoBo~HOCThIO H
1891); OCHOBHOH ee aJIeMeHT - ~epe­
BSIHHhle ropH30HTaJIbHhle nORca H j:\epe- MaJIhIM Yj:\eJIhHbIM BeCOM llJIHTbI H3
BRHHble paCKOCbl C MeTaJIJIHqeCKHMH CMeCH Marue3HaJIhHOrO n;eMeHTa C coc-
CTOHKaMH. HOBOH HJIH OCHHOBOH CTPYX<KOH, HCnOJIh-
3yeMhIe B KOHCTP)'Kn;WIX CTeH H nepe-
rAYIITBAXTA(=rorBaxTa, roy6Bax- KphITHH.
Ta). rJIaBHbIH KapaYJIhHhIH nOCT B Kpe-
nocmu HJIH HaCeJIeHHOM nyHKTe, B KOTO- rEP AP,lJ;A CTEHhI. OrpaX<):larom;a}l
POM pacnOJIO:lKHJIHCh BOHcKa, 06'bej:\H- KOHCTPYKIUfR j:\JI}l OTallJlHBaeMbIX CeJIb-
CKHX nocTPoeK, COCTOSIm;ruI H3 j:\Byx
fAHK. raHKa (1). napaJIJIeJIhHhIX CTeHOK B nOJIKUpnU'ta,
npocTPaHcTBo Me:lKj:\Y KOTOPbIMH 3anOJI-
r AHKA. 1 KphlJleqKO C HaBeCOM Y
HSIeTC}l MaTepHaJIOM C HH3KOH TellJlO-
BXOj:\a B U36y (1). 2 TOqeHruI HO:lKKa
npOBO~HOCThIO .
HJIH 6aJISICHHa C wapoBHj:\HhIM YTOJIm;e-
HHeM. rEPBEPr. 1 [JocmOH..llblU iJBOP C mpaK-
r AHhMm;E. rauHo. mupoM. 2 YCa):\e6HbIH q}/lU2eJlb (1) j:\JISI
CJIyr.
r APBE. CeHu Me:lKj:\Y KOMHaTaMH B
KYMhIKCKOM :lKHJIHIll;e. rEP3A. repca.
HSIIOm;HH nOMem;eHHe j:\JISI CTPaxm: H ape-
rAPrYllM. OTBeTBJIeHHSI OT BOj:\O- cTaHTcKYIO KaMepy (c 1884 r. - 06}l3a- fEP3HJIHOH (=WTypM6peTThI).
OTBOj:\Horo :lKeJI06a no KpruIM KPOBJIU. TeJIhHruI npHHa):\JIe:lKHOCTb f.). CnJIOqeHHble BMeCTe H YThIKaHHhle
OCTPbIMH rB03j:\SIMH iJOCKU (1), 3am;Hm;a-
fAP,lJ;EPOB. 1 illKaq, j:\JI}l XpaHeHIDI rAY CMCTEMA. ray-)[(ypaBcKow IOIIJ;He npoxoj:\ B YKpellJleHHe HJIH Ha
6eJIbSI H HHOH OJ:\e:lKj:\hI. 2 IIoMem;eHHe B tjJepMa. MOCT (cp.: repca).
06m;ecTBeHHoM 3j:\aHHH, npej:\Ha3HaqeH- fA qYJIH. KaqeJIH.
Hoe j:\JI}l KpaTKOBpeMeHHoro xpaHeHHSI rEPH,lJ;OH. 1 He6oJIhWOH BbICOKHH
BepXHeH OJ:\e:lKj:\bI H rOJIOBHbIX y60pOB, rBAP,lJ;MH. 1 PbI6an;KruI CTOpO:lKKa. CTOJIHK-nOj:\CTaBKa Ha OJ:\HOH HO:lKKe.
pa3j:\eBaJIKa. 3 (=rap~epo6-peTHpaj:\a). 2 EpeBHo C Ha6HThIMH nonepeK 6pyc-
HYX<HHK, y60pHruI, OTXO:lKee MeCTO B KaMU, 3aMeHSIIOm;ee JIeCTHHn;y (cp.: JIaa-
npej:\eJIax 3j:\aHIDI. HR (3). BCXOiJHR).

r AP,lJ;MHA. 3aBeca H3 TSI:lKeJIOH TKaHH rEBAHOBhIH (=re60HoBbIH, rej:\aHO-


j:\JIR aJlbKOBHOU HHIIIH H T. j:\. BhIH). Cj:\eJIaHHbIH H3 a6eHoBoro (<<qep-
HOro») j:\epeBa.
f APMOHMYM. KJIaBHWHbIH MY3bI-
KaJIhHbIH HHCTpYMeHT, CXOj:\HbIH C opuj- rE3EHK (=re3eHr). Coej:\HHSIIOm;HH
HOM npH ropa3j:\0 MeHhwHX pa3Mepax. utmOJlbHU H He BbIXOj:\SIm;HH Ha nOBepx-
HOCTb BepTHKaJIhHbIH KaHaJI (KOJloiJe~)
r APHMTYP. KOMJIeKT OJ:\HOCTHJIbHhIX j:\JI}l nOj:\'beMa PYj:\hI, j:\JISI BeHTHJI}lIJ;HH
npej:\MeTOB (HanpHMep, CTOJI, CTYJIhSI, HH:lKHHX ropH30HTOB B PYj:\HHKe JIH60
KpeCJIa, ~HBaH), 06pa3YIOm;HX xYj:\O:lKe- ~JI}l reOJIOrlfqeCKOH pa3Be~KH.
CTBeHHOn;eJIhHbIH aHCaM6JIh.
fE3MMC (=re3HM3). KapHU3.
r ACAPhl. IIepeHocHruI ~epeB}lHHruI
rEHBEU. rOJl6e~. 2 Kpymoe OCHOBaHHe ~JI}l MHO:lKeCTBa
KpenOCTh, rJIaBHhIH aJIeMeHT KOTOPOH -
~Om;aTbIe m;HTbI JIH60 mbtH, npope3aH- fEH30H. BeH'talOUJ,uu KapHU3 B op- nO~CBeqHHKOB, 3aBepWaIOm;ee onop-
HbIe 60UHUl¥l.MU. iJepHou apXHTeKType. HyIO KOJIOHKY. 3 3KpaH nepej:\ KaMUHOM.

-44-
r rEPMCCOH - rnACMC 45

fEPMCCOH. YCeSIHHasI ):IJIHHHhIMH fEllIJIEIlIl. BO):lO):leHcTBYJOll..\asI Ma- fHPhKA. ,UeKopaTHBHasI nO):lBeCKa K


OCTphIMH nIHnaMH H3 x<:eJIe3a nOBOpOT- IIIHHa B ropHoM npOH3BO):lCTBe. 061l..\eH nRme (1) COCe):lHHX apoIC.
HaSI p02amICa B BOpOTaX, npOJIOMe Kpe-
fEBE"lJ. IIooICJlem KpecThSIHcKoro
nOCTHOH CTeHbI, nepe):l B"be3):10M Ha MOCT
oOMa (1) KOMH-3hlPSIH, HCnOJIh3yeMhIH B
H T. n.
CKJIa):lCKHX Il,eJISIX.
fEPKOTEKTOHMKA. MCKYCCTBO BO-
fE3EH. "lJYJIaH Y BXO):lHOH ):IBepH 6aJI-
3BO):lHTh BOeHHhle YKpenJIeHHSI.
KapcKoro HJIH KapaqaeBCKOro X<:HJIHll..\a,
fEPMA (=repMeC, repMeCOB CTOJI6). npe):lHa3HaqeHHhIH ):IJISI xpaHeHHSI C"beCT- fJIABA. KynOJlbHOe HJIH MHororpaH-
BlOcm Ha onope npSIMoyrOJIhHOrO Ceqe- HhIX npHnacoB H OT):IeJIeHHhIH OT oc- Hoe nOKphITHe 6apa6a1la Ha KYJIhTOBOH
HHSI, 06b1qHO cyx<:aJOll..\eHCSI KHH3y. TaJIhHOrO nOMell..\eHHSI mYPJly'tHOU HJIH nOCTpoHKe.
x<:ep):leBOH neperopO):lKoH. fJIABfII.:(A. 1 He60JIhIIIasI ZJla6a Il,ep-
KOBHOro coopyx<:eHHSI, ZJla6ICa. 2 Kanu-
fETEPMHKM 10M. KyMhIKCKHH OOM
meJlb. 3/(ocICa.
(1) Ha BhICOKOM KaMeHHOM nOJlynoo-
6aJlb~OM amaJICe. fJIABKA. He60JIhIIIaSI ZJla6a
06hlqHO Ha weuICe (1).
DKEJIhCKHM KMPIlH"lJ. Omeynop-
HhIH KHpnHq H3 6eJIOH rJIHHhI (pa3MephI fJIABHhIM BAJI. BaJI (1) ICpenocmu,
23xll, 5x5,5 CM H 19x9,5x5 CM). oKpyx<:aJOIl..\HH ee OCHOBHhle coopyx<:e-
HHSI.
f3hIMC. KapHua.
fJIABHhIM KAPHM3. Bell'talOUI,uu
fHAJIOfP A <I> l-UI.
fEPMAHCKMM CIIOCOB. TeXHOJIO- ICapHua.
PHCYHKOB, opHaMeHToB H Ha):lnHCeH Ha
rHSI YCTPOHCTBa KPOBJIH rOpH30HTaJIh- CTeKJIe nJIaBHKOBoH KHCJIOTOH. fJIAfOJIEM (nocTpoHKa). KpecThSIH-
HhIMH pSI):IaMH H3 IIIHcpepHhIX (aCnH):I- CKoe X<:HJIHll..\e HJIH ):IpeBHepyccKoe 3):1a-
HhIX) nJIaCTHHOK pa3JIHqHOM BeJIHqHHhI fH,U. IloMell..\eHHe ):IJISI CKOTa B Kpe- HHe C f-06pa3HhIM nJIaHOM.
(3aKpenJIeHHhIX Ha CnJIOIIIHOM ):IOll..\aTOM CThSIHCKOH ycaob6e KOMH-3hlpSIH.
OCHOBaHHH, C YMeHhIIIeHHeM BhICOThI fJIA,UKHM HAJIH"lJHHK (KOH. XVIII
PSI):IOB no Mepe npH6JIHx<:eHHSI K ICOHb- fM,UPO. MCTOJIqeHHhle B nopoIIIoK - Haq. XIX B.). HerrpephIBHoe 06paM-
060X{X{eHHhle KHpnHqH H3 CMeCH JIeHHe npoeMa, HMeJOll..\ee HeCJIOX{HhIH
ICy (1).
H3MeJIhqeHHOrO H3BeCTHSIKa H yrJISI npocpHJIh B BH):Ie acmpazaJla (1),
fEPMEC, fEPMECOB CTOJIB. rep- (JIH60 necKa) - HCXO):lHhIH MaTepHaJI 'tem6epmHozo 6aJla H T. n.
Ma. ):IJISI HCKyccTBeHHhIx ICaMHeU JIe6peHa.
fJIA30K. 1 ,UeKopaTHBHhIH MOTHB B
fEPOOH. He60JIhIIIaSI MeMOpHaJIhHaSI fHIlEPTHPOH. llIHpoKaSI ):IeKOpaTHB- cpaca):lax KHpnHqHhIX ua6 (1) C JlUl{e60U
pOUl,a co cKYJIhnTypaMH H naMSITHhIMH HasI oocICa (2) Ha):l npSIMoyroJIhHhIM BXO- /(.l/aOICOU, HMeJOIl..\HH BH):I KpacHoro
):IepeBhSIMH. ):10M (B opoepH011 apxHTeKType). JIex<:al.!ero pOM6a, KOTOPhIH BnHcaH B
6eJIhIH npSIMoyroJIhHHK; ):IJISI 3TOro
fEPCA (=rep3a, 6opoHa, KaTapaKTa). fHIlOTPAXHJIHOH. )l(eJI060K, OT-
mbt'toIC 6pYCK060Z0 ICupnu'ta o6MaKH-
Ilo):l"beMHasI 3arpa):lHTeJIhHasI peIIIeTKa B ):IeJISIJOIl..\HH weuICY (3) oopu'tecICou ICO-
BaJIH KaX{):\hIM yrJIOM B H3BeCTh.
npm!Me KpenocTHhIX BOpOT. JlOHHbt OT ee CTBOJIa. 2 He6oJIhIIIOH KPYX<:OK B Il,eHTpe
3aBHTKa UOHu'teCKOU 60JllOmbt.
fHIlCOBhIE ,UOCKH. <l>opMoBaHHhIH
cTpOHTeJIhHhIH MaTepHaJI H3 KaMhlIIIa, fJIA3YPh. CTeKJIOBH):IHOe nOKphITHe
):IpaHH H TOJICTOH COJIOMhI, 3aJIHThIX aJIe- Ha KepaMHQeCKHX H3):1eJIHSIX, 3all..\Hll..\a-
6acTpoM. JOll..\ee HX OT pa3pYIIIHTeJIhHOrO ):IeH-
CTBHSI X<:H):IKOCTeH H ra30B, a TaKX<:e npH-
fHIlCOBhIl1: BETOH. AHHaJlum.
):IaJOll..\ee HM 60JIee 3cpcpeKTHhIH BH):I.
fHPEBOM KOJIO,UEll BepTHKaJIh- fJIA3YPh BOJIhllIOfO OfH5I.
HhIH KaHaJI BHyTpH KaMeHHoH ICJlaOICU, B TyroJIJIaBKOe CTeKJIOBH):IHoe nOKphITHe
KOTOPOM npOXO):lHJIH Il,enH C rHpSIMH,
cpapcpopa, cpasIHca H KaMeHHhlX H3):1e-
npHBO):lHBIIIHe B ):IBHx<:eHHe qaCOBOH
JIHH.
MexaHH3M (HanpHMep, Ha 6awHe (1) HJIH
fJIA3YPh MAJIOfO OfH5I. JIerKo-
ICOJlOICOJlbHe) .
nJIaBKOe CTeKJIOBH):IHoe nOKphITHe KHP-
fMPJI5IH,UA. BhITSIHYToe B JIHHHJO nHQeH, 'tepenul{bt, uapaal{o6 H 06JIHIl,O-
):IeKOpaTHBHoe CnJIeTeHHe Il,BeTOB, BOQHOH nJIHTKH C nopHcThIM l.!epenKoM.
JIHCTheB H CPPYKTOB, HHOr):la nepeBHToe
fE<I>A IlOJIhl. IlOJIhI H3 nycTOTeJIhIX fJIACMC. IloJIorasI HaChIJIh nepe):l
JIeHToH.
x<:eJIe306eToHHhIX 6aJIOK, npocTPaHcTBo HapyX<:HhIM pBOM YKpenJIeHHSI, 6ecnpe-
MeX{):\y KOTOPblMH 3anOJIHeHO 6emoHoM. nSITCTBeHHO 06CTpeJIHBaeMaSI C Kpeno-
CTHoro 6aJ1a (1).
fE<I>CHMAHH5I. ApxHTeKTypHo-ca-
):IOBhIH KOMnJIeKC npH MOHacThlpe, CHM-
BOJIH3HPYJOIl..\HH MeCTHC?CTh, B KOTOPOH
rrpoHcxO):lHJIH HeKoTophle BaX<:Hhle co-
6hITHSI eBaHre.[IhcKoH HCTOpHH.

-45-
r rnE3AYH - rOnnAHACKASl nE"Ib 46

fJIE3)J;YH. Bpe3HOH aaMOK (3). fJIYXOMllII1II. Ky6HqeCKHH IIIHn ):IJIM fOJIfO<l>A. CTynesqaToe OCHOBaHHe
CIIJIaqHBaHHM ):IByx 6pycbe6 nO):l npMMhIM peJIhe<l>Horo KpecTa Ha CTeHe KyJlhTO-
fJII1HOBETOH. YTpaM60BaHHilli rJU!:- yrJIOM, paBHhI:It: TPeTH OT IIIHpHHhI 6pyca BOH nocTpoHKH.
Ha C ):I06aBJIeHHeM KaMHeH, npHMeIDI- H cMeIu;eHHhIH K yrJIy Ha ero Topu;e.
eMilli B nepeMhl'IKax H l"H):IPOH30JIMU;HOH-
HhIX rrpOCJIOHKax. fJIYllIEHOE CTEKJIO. MaToBoe
CTeKJIO, XOPOIIIO pacceHBalOIu;ee CBeT
fJII1HOBI1THhIE CTEHhI (=rJlHHO- 6JIarO):lapM paBHoMepHoMY pacnpe):leJIe-
MMTHble cTeHhI). CTeHhI H3 CMeCH rJlHHhI HHIO B HeM qaCTHU; TaJIhKa, rHnca, OJIO-
C neCKOM (npHMepHo nopoBHY) HJIH H3 Ba, <l>OC<l>0PHblX COe):lHHeHHH, OKHCJIOB
O):lHoro JlHIIIh rJIHHHCTOro rpYHTa, MblIIIhMKa H T. ):I.
coopY)l{aeMhIe npH nOMOIu;H MIu;HKOB,
KOTopble <l>OpMyIOT rJIHIDIHYIO Maccy. fJI5IHEIJ,. rJlaaypb.

fJII1HYXA. IIorpe6-Maam{Ka, rrpHMhI- fMhmH5I. IIO):lroJIOBhe Ha 6aHHOM


KalOIu;HH K KpecThMHcKOMY ):IOMy. nOJlKe.
fOJIKEJIh. rOJlOpe6epc.
fJIOBA. rHem. fHE3.o;O. 1 BhI):IOJI6JIeHHOe C OTCTY-
fOJIJIAH.D:KA. rOJlJlaHOCKaR ne'tb.
nOM OT KpaM npMMoyrOJIhHOe yrJIy6JIe-
fJIOBKA. MOCTKH. HHe - npHMepHO ):10 nOJIOBHHhI OOCKU fOJIJIAH.D:CKA5I f AJIEPE5I. <l>0PTH-
fJIOPI1ETTA. OTKphIThI:It: KOJlOHHhI:It: (1), 6pyca (1) HJIH 6pe6Ha. 2 .D:Be Kpe- <l>HKaU;HoHHaM laJlepeR (2) co CTeHKaMH
na6U.!lbOH (1) B napKe, pacnOJlO)l{eHHhIH CThMHCKHe ycaob6bl, npHMhIKalOIu;He H3 OOCOK (1), pacnOJIO)l{eHHhIX B CThIK
y BXO):la B Hero, Ha XOJIMe JIH60 B KOHu;e O):lHa K ):IpyroH 6e3 pa3):1eJIMIOIu;erO HX O,L\Ha K ,L\pyroH.
rJIy60KoH nepcneKTHBhI. npoyJIKa. 3 IIapa J/CUK06UH ):IJIM O):lHoro
):IBepHOro nOJIOTHHIu;a. 4 (=HaCe):lKa).
fJIYBI1HA APKI1 (HJIH CBO):la). Pa3- Ha60p qa:lt:HhIX CTOJIHKOB, B):IBHraeMhIX
Mep KPHBOJlHHeHHOro nepeKphITHM no O):lHH B ):IpyroH.
ropH30HTaJIH, napaJIJleJlhHO ero ono-
fHE3.D:OBA5I IIOCA.D:KA. fpynna H3
paM.
HeCKOJIhKHX ):IepeBheB, BhICa)l{eHHhIX Ha
fJIYBI1HA 3AJIO)l(EHI15I. PaccTo- paccToMHHH ):10 MeTpa ):Ipyr OT ):Ipyra H
MHHe no BepTHKaJlH OT nOBepxHocTH 06pa3ylOIu;Hx e):lHHylO KpOHy. , .
3eMJlH ):10 noooUJ6bt. :<~--S;~-?
fHET (=rJl06a). fOPH30HTaJIhHilli
fJIYXA5I JIABKA. JIaBKa B):IOJIh cJleza B 3aBepIIIeHHH ua6bl (1), npH)!(H-
CTeHhI 6e3 OKOH. MalOIu;aM B Kp06J1e BepxHHe KOHU;hI
TeCHH HJIH opaHoK (1) JIH60 COJIOMy.
fJIYXA5I IIJIOTI1HA. llJlOmUHa 6e3
BO):lOcnycKHhlx OTBepCTHH. fHOMOH (=rpa):lIIIToK). BepTHKaJlh-
HhIH HJIH HaKJIOHHhIH CTep)l{eHh B COJIHe-
fJIYXA5I IIOBETh. KphIThIH 060P (2) fOJIJIAH.D:CKA5I KJIA.D:KA. KHpnHq-
qHhIX qacax, TeHh OT KOToporo na):laeT
B KpeCTb5IHCKO:lt: ycaob6e. HaM KJIa,L\Ka, B KOTOPO:lt: pM,L\hI C qepe,L\O-
Ha U;H<l>ep6JIaT, YKa3hIBilli BpeMM.
BaHHeM mbl,{K06 H JlOJ/CK06 pa3,L\eJIeHhI
fJIYXOE BATAP.o;O. IIepeceKalOru:illI fOBEJIEH. llInaAepa (1). O,L\HHOqHblMH pM,L\aMH H3 O,L\HHX ThIqKOB.
KpenocTHoH POB KaMeHHaM CTeHKa C
KPYTOH ):IBYCKaTHOH Kp06J1eU, YCJIO)l{HeH- fOfBAXT A. KapayJlhHM, zaynm6ax- fOJIJIAH.D:CKA5I KPOBJI5I. BaJlbMO-
HO:lt: 3arpa)l{):leHHeM, KOTopoe MeIIIaeT ma. 6aR KP06J1R.
nepeHTH C O):lHOH CTOPOHhI pBa Ha ):Ipy- fOJIJIAH.D:CKA5I MEJIhHI1IJ,A. llIa-
fOMHO. raUHO.
rylO. mp06Ka.
fOJIAHKA. rOJlJlaHOCKaR nelfb.
fJIYXOE CTEKJIO. AJle6acmp060e fOJIJIAH.D:CKA5I IIEl..Jh (=raJIaHKa,
CmeKJlO. fOJIBEIJ,. 1 (=ra6eu;, re:lt:6eu;, r06eu;, raJIJIaHKa, rOJIaHKa, rOJIJIaH,LIKa, ryJIaH-
roJly6eu;, Kap)l{HHa) . .D:epeBMHHaM npH- Ka). 06JIHU;OBaHHilli Ka¢eJleM HJIH
fJIYXOM. He HMelOIu;H:It: oTBepCTH:It:.
cTpoHKa K neqH, HMelOIu;illI HaBepxy
fJIYXOM IIO.o;KJIET. lloJlynoo6aJl
nO):l KJleThlO (JIeTHHM HeOTanJIHBaeMhIM
nOMeIu;eHHeM KpecThMHCKO:lt: ua6bl) , B
KOTOPOM cO):lep)l{aJICM CKOT H pa3MeIu;a-
JIaCh KJla):IOBilli.

fJIYXOM CKOBOPO.o;EHh (=rnyxoH


CKOBOPO):lHHK). TpaneU;HeBH):\HhI:It: Kpe-
JIe)l{aHKY, a C60KY - ):IBepu;y K JIeCTHHu;e
ne)l{HhIH BhIcTyn B nOJIOBHHY CeqeHHM Ha
B nO):lnOJIhe. 2 BhIrOpO)l{eHHhI:It: qYJIaH B
KOHu;e OOCKU (1) HJIH 6pyca. IIOMeIu;eHHH. 3 IIO):lnOJIhe ua6bl (2),
cnYCK B Hero. 4 Orpa):la KJlUpoca. 5 ro-
Jly6el{ (3).

fOJIBEIJ,. .D:OMHK, XH)I{HHa, 6aJlalaH,


JIaBKa.

-46-
r ronnAHACKASI 'tEPEnHUA - rOHT 47

uapa3u,aMU rrpSlMoyrOJIbHaSl rre'lb ;n;JISI rOJIOE CEPEEPO. Cepe6po 6e3 rrpH- ;n;apTHhIMH rrpSlMoyrOJIhHhIMH KHpnH-
060rpeBa KOMHaT, HMelOlQaSI BepTH- MeceH. qaMH H YCHJIHBalOlQIfe cn:errJIeHHe mTy-
KaJIbHble OblMoo6opombl. KaTypKH C MaCCHBOM CTeHhI.
rOJIOKOCT. CBeqa rrepeA HKOHOH:.
rOJIJIAH,n:CKA~ qEPEIIMIJ;A. Ke-
rOJIOMO. KOHHqeCKOe )I{HJIHlQe KO-
paMHqeCKHe KpOBeJIbHble rrJIHTKH S-06-
peHHbIX HapoAoB CH6HPH, YTerrJIeHHOe
pa3Horo Ce'leHHSI, C Kperre)l{HbIM mHrrOM
3eMJIeH H oepHoM.
Ha HH)I{HeH CTopOHe - ;n;JISI co:errJIeHHSI C
o6peUlemKO/l; YKJIaAbIBalOTCSI ropH30H- rOJIOPEBEPC (=rOJIKeJIb, rOJIbKeJIb).
TaJIbHhIMH PSlAaMH, Ka)l{;n;bIH H3 KOTO- 1 )KeJI060K B apxHTeKTypHbIX yKpa-
pbIX 3aKpbIBaeT TpeTb HIf)l{Hero. meHHSlX (B KapHuaax, KOJlOHHaX HAP.).
2 raJtmeJlb.
rOJIJIAH,n:CKME P AMhl. IIpeAHa3- rOJIYEMu;A. IIOArrOJIhe KpeCThSlH-
Ha'leHHble AJISI YKperrJIeHHSI CTeH <pOPTH- rOJIOCHMKM. BKJIIO'leHHbIe B KJIa;n;- CKOH: ua6bl (1), XOA B Hero.
<pHKaO:HOHHOH wJlepeu (2) lQHTbI H3 Ky CTeH HJIH C60006 KepaMHqeCKHe cocy-
OOCOK (1), CrrJIO'leHHbIX B CTbIK OAHa K ;n;bI, OTKpbITbIe KpyrJIhIM oTBepcTHeM rOJIYEKM. rOJly6eHKU.
APyroH (CM. rOJlJla/-10CKaJl WJlepeR). BffYTph rrOMelQeHHSI; o6JIerqaJIH KOH- rOJIYEHMK, rOJIYEHMIJ;A. rOJlY-
CTPYKn:HIO H YCHJIHBaJIH aKycTHqeCKHH 6RmHR.
rOJIJIAH,n:CKMM 3YE. HapalQHBa-
pe30HaHc.
HHe 6pycbe6 (1) B CTbIK rro O;n;HOH OCH C rOJIYEOAJIhIM. JIIfJIOBhIH C rrpe06JIa-
rrOMOlQblO KOCbIX Bpy60K C KOHI~eBbIMH rOJIOTH~. )KepAH ;n;JISI cymKH ceHa,
;n;aHHeM KpacHoro OTTeHKa.
3an:erraMH, Me)l{;IJ;y KOTOPbIMH B6HBalOT roPH30HTaJIhHO YKperrJIeHHbIe Ha CTOJI-
BCTpe'lHbIe KJIHHbSl, yrrJIOTHSlIOIIJ;He coe- 6ax. rOJIYE~TH~ (=roJIy6HHK, rOJIy6HH-
;n;HHeHHe. o:a). CoopY)l{eHHe, B KOTOPOM CO;n;ep)l{aT
rOJIO<l>AH. I1peccoBaHHoe rrpH3MaTH- H pa3BoASlT rOJIy6eH; B yca;n;e6HoM
rOJIJIAH,n:CKMM IIOTOJIOK. KOH- qeCKOe CTeKJIO C BbICOKHM cBeTopacrrpe- cTPoHTeJIhCTBe Hepe;n;KO HMeJIO BH;n;
CTPYKn:HSI rrepeKpbITHSI H3 KOPOTKHX ;n;eJIeHHeM, rrpHMeHSlBmeecSI B a6aJICypax SlpycHoro Kpymoro 06"beMa Ha BhICOKOH
B3aHMHO rrO;n;;n;ep)l{HBalOlQHX 6pYCK06 (1) H 3arrOJIHeHHSIX rrpoeMoB.
(1), YJIO)l{eHHblx TO rrapaJIJIeJIbHO CTe-
HaM rrOMelQeHHSI, TO rro;n; yrJIOM 45° K

rOJIYEA~ OXP A. TeMHo-cHHSISI 3eM-


JISlHaSl KpacKa, rrpHMeHSlBmaSlcSI B Ma- rOJIh,n: -<I> APEA. IIOJIO)l{eHHaSI rroBepx
JISlpHhIX pa60Tax. rpYHToBKH MaCJISlHaSl KpacKa, K KOTOPOH
(rroKa OHa He 3aCOXJIa) rrpHKJIaAhIBalOT
rOJIJIAH,n:CKMM CIIOCOE O,n:E)K- rOJIYEEJIh. KaqeJIH.
JIHCTOqKH cycaJIhHOrO 30JIOTa rrpH 30JIO-
,n:hI OTKOCOB. IIO;n;BO;n;Hoe yKperrJIe- rOJIYEEIJ;. 1 CBeTJIO-roJIy6aSl KpaCKa. 'leHHH Ha OJIH<pe (HarrpHMep, Kp06eJlb).
HHe HaKJIOHHOrO 3eMJISlHOrO 6epera 2 (=ropHaSI roJIy6aSI, ropHaSl CHHh).
ropH30HTaJIbHbIMH pSl;n;aMH paUluH, rOJIhK. PYKOMOHHHK.
CHHHH KpaCHTeJIh C rnApaToM OKHCH
KOTopble HMelOT B rrOrrepe'lHHKe ;n;o MeAH H yrJIeKHCJIhIM KaJIhn:HeM B OCHO- rOJIhKEJIh. rOJlOpe6epc.
qeTBepTH <PYTa H yrrHpalOTcSI KOMJISlMH B Be. 3 qeThlpexrpaHHhIH CTOJI6HK Ha
rOJIhIJ;-IJ;EMEHT. CTpOHTeJIbHhIH
6eper, a MeTJIaMH 06palQeHbI B Bo;n;y.
MaTepHaJI H3 n:eMeHTa C ;n;peBeCHhIM
rOJIJIAH,n:CKMM TMII. mampo6Ka. 3arrOJIHHTeJIeM (CTPY)l{KH, OlIHJIKH).
rOJIOBHOE COOP~HME. r~­ rOJIhIJ;IJ;EMEHTHA5I KPOBJI5I.
pOTexHwiecKoe YCTPOHCTBO, HarrpaBJISI- IIOKphITHe H3 HeCKOJIhKHX CJIOeB 6y-
IOlQee BOAY caMOTeKOM H3 peKH B OPOCH- MarH HJIH KapToHa, YJIO)l{eHHhlx 1I0
TeJIbHbIH KaHaJI. ClIJIOmHOH olIaJIy6Ke H CKJIeeHHhIX
rOJIOBHOE YKPEIIJIEHME. <l>op- COCTaBOM, B KOTOPOM rJIaBHhIM KOMrro-
HeHTOM CJIY)l{HT KaMeHHoyrOJIbHaSI CMO-
TH<pHKaO:HoHHoe coopY)l{eHHe ;n;JISI 3a-
lQHTbI MOCTa, Y3Koro rrpoxoAa B peJIb- JIa. YKJIOH TaKoro lIOKPhITHSI HeBeJIHK
e<pe MeCTHOCTH H T. II.
(1:20+1:50).
rOJI5IHIl(MHA. Pe3HbIe HJIH TOqeHhIe
rOJIOBOJIOMKA. Ca;n;OBo-rrapKoBoe
MOrHJIe HJIH rrpH Aopore, 3aBepmeHHhIii: H3;n;eJIHSI H3 ;n;epeBa, lQerrHOH TOBap.
rnMHaCTHqeCKOe coopY)l{eHHe C ;n;epe-
HKOHOH rro;n; ;n;BYCKaTHhIM rroKphITHeM.
BSlHHbIM BaJIOM Me)l{;IJ;y ;n;ByMSl cToHKaMH, rOHOT. 1 (=lIJIaxa, IIJIaCTHHa). IIoJIO-
4 rOJl6el{. 5 IIIHpoKaSl JIaBKa, HaphI ;n;JISI
HMelOlQHM Ha TOpn:ax TpeyrOJIbHbIe BHHa lIPOAOJIbHO paCKOJIOToro 6pe6Ha. 2
cnaHhSl.
Ha60HKH C rrapaJIJIeJIbHbIMH BepeBKaMH IIOJIeHO ;n;JISI paClQelIJIeHHSI Ha JIyqHHbI.
OT yrJIOB; ;n;JISI BbIIIOJIHeHHSI cnopTHBHbIX rOJIYEEHKM (=rOJIy6KH, rOJIy6O:hI).
rOHOThE. KpOBeJIhHaSl ;n;paHh.
ynpa)l{HeHHH Ha;n;O npoHTH B;n;OJIb BaJIa, Bna;n;HHhI B KHpnHqHOH KJlaOKe Ha
orrHpaSlcb Ha HH)I{HHe BepeBKH H ;n;ep- pe6pax OTKOCOB B rrpoeMax, 06pa30BaH- rOHT. KpOBeJIbHbIH MaTepHaJI B BH;n;e
)I{aCb PYKOH 3a BepxHIOIO. HhIe rrpM BhIKJIa;n;Ke Tynhlx yrJIOB CTaH- AepeBSlHHhIX KJIHHOBH;n;HhIX ;n;OlQeqeK C

-47-
r rOHXOH - rOPOA'iATbiA nORC 48

npOp;OJIhHhIM na30M Ha cTopoHe, npoTH- rOPKA. 1 IlHpaMHp;aJIhHaSI ama:HCepKa ro PO,o:EQ (= ropop;oK). 1 He6oJIhIIIOM
BOnOJIO)KHOM oCTpmo. P;JISI p;oporoM nocyp;hI. 2 Cy)KaIOIQHMCSI HaCeJIeHHhIM rryHKT, o6HeceHHhIM mbl-
KBepxy He6oJIhillOM KOMOP; HJIH 61OpO C HOM P;JISI 3aIQHThI. 2 BoraToe ceJIO C
rOHXOH. BepxHHM RpyC 6YP;P;HMCKOro
BhI}1;BH)KHhIMH SIIQHKaMH HJIH p;Bep~aMH HeCKOJIhKHMJf ~epKBaMH. 3 He60JIhillaSI
xpaMa C rrHpaMHp;aJIhHOM KOMrro3H~eM.
B HeCKOJIhKO srpYCOB. KpenOCTHaSI 6aIIIHSI. 4 QepKoBHaSI orpa-
rOHqAPhl. rOpIIIKH H3 060)K)KeHHOM }1;a. 5 (=¢ecmoH). rOpOObl (1).
rOPHA5I MEllhHI1QA. PYP;HHK P;JISI
rJIHHhI, a TaK)Ke KepaMH'IeCKHe Tpy6KH
}1;06hIlJH nycToM nopop;hI, KOTOPOM rOPO,o:I1HA. OTrOpO)KeHHhIM KOJIh-
H KOHYChI P;JISI KJIap;KH C80008 H rrepero-
3anOJIHSlIOT BhIpa60TaHHhle nop;3eMHhIe SIMJf OTceK B XJIeBy.
pOP;OK, o6JIerlJaIOIQHe KOHCTPYK~HIO.
nOJIOCTH.
rOPO,o:I1HKA. llecHoe KJIa}1;6HIQe IIpH
rop. rJIHHo6HTHaSI rrelJh B KpecThSIH- rOPHA5I CI1Hh. rO/ly6eu, (2). ceBepHoM PYCCKOM p;epeBHe.
CKOM )KHJIHIQe KOMH-nepMSIKoB.
rOPHA5I CMOllA. AC¢allbm. rOPO,o:I1:rn;E. OCTaTKH oKpY)KeHHOrO
rOPBYIIIKI1. BhInYKJIhIe lJaCTH 6pe- BaJIaMH H PBOM p;peBHero nOCeJIeHHSI.
BeHlJaT01l: CTeHhI, KOTophIe npep;CTOHT rOPHBEPK. BacTHoHHhIM CPPOHT C
CKOJIOTh TorropOM rrpH ee OTeCKe. P;BYMSI KPhIJIhSIMH (anO/leMeHmaMu) , rOPO,o:KI1. 1 IlJIOCKHe cTyneHlJaThIe
BhI}1;BHHYThIM B CTOPOHY rrpoTHBHHKa KpoHUlmeuHbl nop; KapHU3oM, pacIIIHpSI-
rOPBhillEK (=20p6bl/lb (2). Pa3p;eJISI-
nepe}1; rJIaBHhIM 8a110M (1) Kpenocmu. IOIQHeCSI KBepxy BP;OJIh rroBepxHocTH
IOIQHM CTeKJIa B OKOHHOM nepenJIeTe cpacap;a. 2 Hapaau,bl C CPHryPHhIM CHJIy-
6pycOI' (1) IIIHPHHOM 3-3,5 CM, coep;H- 3TOM, rrpe}1;Ha3HalJeHHhle }1;JISI KapHuao8
HeHHhIM C BHeIIIHeM }1;epeBSIHHOM 06BSI3- nelJeM.
KOM paMhI rrpH rrOMOIQH IIIHrrOB.
rOPo,o:HI1QA. rOpOOHR (1, 2, 3).
rOPBhillh. 1 (=a6arrOJIOK, 60JIOHOK,
ropo,o:H5I. 1 3anOJIHeHHhIM 3eMJIeM
rop6HHa, rop6HHHHK, rop6YIIIHHa, rop-
HJIH KaMHSIMH cpy6 }1;JISI KpenocmHblx
6hIJIhHHK, 3a60JIOHKa, KpaIOxa, 06anoJI,
CTeH HJIH MOCTOBhIX orrop. -2 qaCTh }1;epe-
060JIOHOK). KpaMHSISI O{)CKa (1) 6pe8Ha
BSIHHoro MOCTa Me)K}1;y 6blKaMU (2).
rrpH ero npO}1;OJIhHOM paCnHJIKe, coxpa-
3 lIpRc/lo p;epeBSIHHoM CTeHhI HJIH HHOM
HHBIIIaSI BhIIIYKJIOM Op;Hy 113 CTOpOH.
Orpap;hI. 4 IlOP;BOP;HaSI C6aR. 5 IlOP;BOP;-
2 rOp6bl/leK.
HhIM cpy6. 63a6op (1) H3 CnJIOlJeHHhIX
rOPEllhE<l>. CKYJIhIITypHoe npoH3Be- BepTHKaJIhHhIX 6pe8eH.
p;eHHe C CPOHOM, H3 KOToporo 11306pa- rOPHEE MECTO (=ropHHM npe-
rOPO,o:KOBhII1 llEMEX. Ilpop;oJIro-
)KeHHhIe cpHryphI BhIcTyrraIOT 60JIee lJeM CTOJI). B03BhlIIIeHHoe Cep;aJIHIQe Y BOC-
BaThle p;OIQelJKH P;JISI Kp08e/lb, HMe-
Ha nOJIOBHHY cBoero 06'heMa. TOlJHOM CTeHhI a/lmapR (1), 3a npecmo-
IOIQHe Ha HH)KHeM KOHI~e, cY)KaIOIQeMCSI
/10M, npep;Ha3HalJeHHOe }1;JISI apXHepeSI H
rOPEllhE<l>HA5I OIlYIIIKA. OrrYIII- K Cepe}1;IfHe, clfMMeTPlflJHhIe npSIMo-
cpJIaHKHpOBaHHoe conpecmO/lUR.Mu.
Ka B neU3a:HCHOM napKe, Ha KpaIO KOTO- yrOJIhHhIe yCTyrrhI.
pOM OT}1;eJIhHhIe rpyrrrrhI }1;epeBheB BOC- rOPHI1E ,o:BEPI1. KamanemacMa.
rOPO,o:OBOI1 KI1PIlI1Q (=cTeHoBoM
IIpHHHMaIOTCSI 060c06JIeHHO OT OCHOB- rOPHl111 IlPECTOll. rOpHee Mecmo. KlfpnHlJ). OCHOBHOM BIfP; KHpnHlJa B
Horo MaCCHBa 3eJIeHH, HO Henocpep;-
rOPHMQA. 1 COe}1;HHeHHaSI celtR.Mu C rrepHop; KJIaCCIf~1f3Ma.
CTBeHHO npHMhIKaIOT K HeMY.
TenJIhIM )KHJIhIM nOMeIQeHHeM napa}1;- rOPo,o:OK. ropooeu,.
rOPEHKA. 1 IlOMeIQeHHe 'tepoaKa (1) HaSI nOJIOBHHa KpecThSIHcKoro p;OMa,
HJIH C8eme/lKU, B03BhIIIIaIOIQeMCSI Hap; 06hIlJHO HeOTanJIHBaeMaSl, 6e3 nO/lameu rOPO,o:-CA,o:. 3apop;IfBIIIaSIcSI B KOH~e
xopOMaMU HJIH 60raThIM KpeCThSIHCKHM H 2O/l6u,a. 2 Ha6a (1) Ha rJIyxoM noo- XIX B. B AHrJIHH H}1;eaJIhHaSI cxeMa
}1;OMOM. 2 OTp;eJIhHhIM cpy6 C OKHOM Hap; K/leme. He6oJIhIIIoro 2Opooa (2), Ha 30-50 ThIC.
BopOTaMH B HH)KHHM SIPYC KpeCThSIH- lJeJIOBeK, C CPYHKU:lfoHaJIhHhIM 30HHpO-
rOPHI1QA HA CTOllBAX. Pa3Ho- BaHHeM H OnTIfMaJIhHhI~1H YCJIOBHSlMH
CKoro o6opa (2).
BHP;HOCTh KpecThSIHcKoro )KHJIIIIQa, rrpH
IIpO)KHBaHHSI, cpe}1;1f MaCCHBOB 3eJIeHhIX
rOP)I(A (=rop)K, rrepeIIIeeK). 1 Coep;H- KOTOPOM nop; U360u (1, 2) Haxop;HTCSI
HaCa)Kp;eHHM; B POCCHIf peaJIH30~aHa
HSIIOIQaSI KOH~hI ¢/laltK08 H 06paIQeH- He)KHJIOe rrOMeIQeHHe co cToJI6aMH no rJIaBHhIM o6pa30M B }1;alJHhIX rrOCeJIKax:
HaSI BHYTPh KpenocTH ThIJIhHaSI lJaCTh yrJIaM H p;OIQaThIMH CTeHaMH.
IlP03opoBKa nO}1; MOCKBOM, EJIHU:hI-
6acmuoHa, co BXO}1;OM Ha rrepeCelJeHIIH IlapK nop; IleTep6yproM, QapcKHM llec
rOPHhII1 BOCK, rOPHhII1 ,o:E-
JIHHHM coce}1;HHX KypmuH (3). 2 lIa/lucao B Plfre, Cap;-ropop; B BapHaYJIe, nOCeJIKIf
rOTh. AC¢a/lbm.
HJIH mbtH Ha 3ap;HeM cTopoHe 6acmuoHa.
nop; XaphKoBoM, Op;eccoM, BJIap;IfBOCTO-
3 OTKphITaSI cTopoHa YKperrJIeHHSI C ropo,o:. 1 (=zpao (1) HaCeJIeHHhIM
KOM.
He3aMKHYThIM rrJIaHOM. rryHKT, o6HeceHHhIM CTeHOM }1;JISI 3aIQH-
ThI. 2 KpyrrHhIM HeCeJIeHHhIM nyHKT C rOPo,o:QAThIll IlO5IC, <l>PI13.
rOPI130HTAnbHhIE qAChl. COJI-
npOMhIIIIJIeHHhIMH, ToproBhIMH, TpaHc- OpHaMeHTaJIhHml nOJIoca C Bll.CSIlJHMll.
HelJHhIe lJaChI. cryneHlJaThIMIf 3y6u:aMH no HH)KHeMY
rropTHhIMH, a}1;MHHHCTpaTHBHhIMJf CPYHK-
rOPI130HT AnhHhIE qllEHEHI15I. ~HSIMH. 3 Orpa}1;a. KpaIO, KOTophIe MO)KHO BrrlfcaTh B OP;If-
IlpOTSI)KeHHhle ropH30HTaJIhHhIe BhI- HaKOBhle paBH06e}1;peHHhle TpeyrOJIhHIf-
rOPO,o:AMI1 BhIPE3AHO. rOpOObl.
cTyrrhI Ha cpaca}1;e, lJJIeHSIIQHe ero rro KH, rrapaJIJIeJIhHhIe cpaCa}1;HOM rroBepx-
BepTHKaJIH (HarrpHMep, npoMe:JICymo't- rOPO,o:BI1:rn;E. rOpOouU4e. HOCTIf.
HblU KapHU3, nop;OKOHHaSI nO/lo'tKa).
rOPO,o:EHh. YlJaCTOK aa60pa (1) JfJIH
rOPI1:rn;E. BepxHSISI lJaCTh XOpOM HJIH mbtHa Me)Kp;y COCep;HJfMH cToJI6aMJf (CM.
KpecThSIHcKoro oOMa (1). lIpRc/lO).

-48-
r rOPOAbi - rPE6EHb 49

rOPO,I1;hl. 1 OpHaMeHT B BHl\e 3HT3ara 6aMH, npell:Ha3Ha'leHHOe ;r(JISI c60pa cry-


C Oll:lfHaKOBhIMlf rrpSiMoyrOJIbHbIMlf ycry- m:eHHoro paCCOJIa B eMKOCTb rro;r( Rpyca-
rraMlf rro ero HaKJIOHHbIM HarrpaBJISI- MU. 2 BaIIIeHHbIH OXJIall:HTeJIb BOll:bI
lOm:lfM. 2 OpHaMeHT lf3 lIOJIYKpyrnblx aTMoc<pePHbIM B03;r(YXOM.
BbIeMOK C 3y6'1aTbIM KpaeM.
rp A,I1;MID:E. ropoouU{e.
rOPO,I1;hBA. 1 Orpall:a lf3 roPlf30H- rp A,I1;IIITOK. rHOMOH.
TaJIbHbIX x<epll:eH, KOHn;bI KOTOPbIX
3ax<aTbI rrapaMlf KOJIbeB. 2 IIJIeTeHb lfJIH rPA,I1;)I(A (=rpa)KIJ:, rpaX<ll:b). 1 CTOH-
3a6op (2) ;r(JISI JIOBJIH PbI6bI B peKe JIH60 JIO, XJIeB. 20rpa;r(a.
03epe. rp A)l(EHME. CTPoeHHe.
rOPOID:AThIE rB03,I1;M. rB03;r(H co rp AM. Xap'leBHSI.
IllJISIrrKOH B BHl\e ropOIlllfHbI, CKperrJISI- rOCIIMTAJIh. 1 Cnn;lfoHapHaSl JIe-
'1e6HHn;a (rJIaBHbIM 06pa30M Il:JISI BoeH- rp AH,Il;. KaMeHHbIH HJIH KHprrH'IHbIH
IOm:He B CJIIOIl:SlHOH OKOH'tUHe Y3KHe
HbIX). 2 rOCmUHUl4a (1, 2), cmpaH- pe3epByap Il:JISI OXJIaX<;r(eHHS! cycJIa Ha
rrOJIOCbI JlCecmu C ;r(epeBSlHHbIM KapKa-
HonpuUMHblU OOM, 6ozaoeJtbHR (B BHHoKypeHHoM 3aBOll:e.
COM.
XVIII B.). rp AHEHA5I KOHXA. Kopo6oBblU
rOPCKA5I M3BA. CeBepOKaBKa3CKoe CBOO, rrJIaBHO nepeXOIl:Slm:HH B rrepeKpbI-
rOCTMHA5I. KOMHan ;r(JISI rrpHeMa
OIl:HOKaMepHoe HJIH Il:BYXKaMepHoe THe H3 Tpex HJIH IIS!TH JtomKOB, KOTopble
rOCTeH If ceMeHHbIX Topx<eCTB.
X<lfJIHm:e C rrJIOCKOH HJIlf rrOJIOrOH ;r(By-
CMbIKalOTCSI KpaSlMH B BepTHKaJIbHbIX
CKaTHOH 3eMJISIHOH KpblUleu. rOCTMHEIJ;. BOJIbiliaSl Il:opora. rrJIOCKOCTSIX.
rOPtIAHKA. rO~apHaSI Il:bIMOBaSi rOCTMHMIJ;A. 1 ,I1;OM C Me6JIlfpOBaH- rp AHI1TOJI. pepMamUH C BbITHCHeH-
TPy6a Ha KpeCTbSlHCKOH rrOCTpOHKe, HbIMlf KOMHaTaMlf Il:JISI BpeMeHHoro rrpo- HbIMlf BbIIIYKJIbIMlf Y30paMH.
COCTOSlm:aSI H3 pSIll:a Hall:eTbIX Il:pyr Ha )KlfBaHlfSi rrpHe3)Klfx. 2 BOJIbHHn;a.
3 rOCmUHel4. rPAHh. CTOJI6 C 3apy6KoH, OTMe'la-
Il:pyra COCYIl:OB 6e3 Il:Ha.
IOm:HH rpaHHn;y BJIall:eHHH.
rOPIIIEtIHA5I KJIA,I1;KA. KJtaOKa, B rOCTMHhIll .D:BOP. Kopnyc HJIlf
rpyrrrra rrocTpoeK BMeCTe C rrpHJIera- rPA<I><I>MTM. Czpaq)(pumo.
KOTOPOH pSlll:bI KHplm'leH '1epe;r(YIOTCSI C
JIex<a'lHMH HJIH CTOSl'lHMlf KepaMH'IeC- lOm:eH TeppHTopHeH, rrpell:Ha3Ha'leHHble rPA<I>hE (=n;HpOBKa). XYll:ox<eCTBeH-
KHMH Tpy6KaMH (B <popMe n;HJIlfH;r(pa Il:JISI xpaHeHlfSi H rrpoll:a)Klf TOBapoB, - HaSl 06pa6oTKa napKema (1) TOHKHMH
HJIlf yce'leHHoro KOHYca), o6JIera- KaK npaBHJIO, rOTOBbIX H3Il:eJIHH, a He )KeJI06KaMH HJIH 60P031l:KaMH, KOTopble
IOm:HMH KOHCTPYKn;HIO' CblpbSl (cp.: TopWBble pRObl). 3arrOJIHSlJIHCb '1epHbIM BapoM JIH60
BCTaBKaMH H3 «'1epHoro» ll:epeBa.
rOPIIIEtIHhIll CBO,I1; (=roPiliKOBbIH
CBOIl:). KPlfBOJIHHeHHOe rrepeKpbITlfe lf3 rPA<I>h5I. 3arny6JIeHHhIH KOHTypHhIH
rrycTOTeJIbIX KJIHHOBHIl:HbIX KHprrH'IeH, PHCYHOK, npon;aparraHHbIH no JIeBKacy
KepaMH'IeCKHX Tpy60K HJIlf rrOJIbIX KOHY- HJIH IIITYKaTypKe (Il:JISI rrpell:CToSlm:eH
COB. MOHYMeHTaJIbHOH pocrrHcH, pHcoBaHHoH
rOCTMHhIll P5I.D:. TopWBble pRObl. HMHTan;HH KHprrH'IHOH KJtaoKu HJIH
KaMeHHblX 6JIOKOB; pa3MeTKa M03aH'I-
rOCY,I1;APEB OPEJI. KneHMo Ha KlfP-
Horo Mom:eHHSI rrOJIa H T. rr.).
rrH'IaX C rOCYll:apCTBeHHbIX 3aBO;r(OB,
HMelOm:ee BHIl: ;r(ByrJIaBoro -OPJIa. rPEBEHh. 1 BepxHSlSI rrJIom:all:Ka nJIO-
rOTWIECKA5I KJIA,I1;KA. Bepc1Jl;0- THHbI. 2 MeTaJIJIH'IeCKaSI HJIH ;r(epeBSlH-
rOPhI (=aMeplfKaHcKHe ropbI, PyccKHe BaR KJtaOKa. HaSI Kpyx<eBHaSl nOJIOca, rrO;r(HHMalOm:a-
rOPbI). ATTpaKI(HOH B BHll:e KPYTbIX SlCSI Hall: CBOHM OCHOBaHHeM (HarrpHMep,
rOT<I>CKMll. CmpeJtb'tamblu.
crrycKoB H nOIl:"beMOB, rro KOTOPbIM
HecYTcSI caHH. rOYBBAXTA. raynmBaxma.

rO<l>Phl. IIapaJIJIeJIbHble )KeJI06KH,


3anOJIHSlIOm:He ;r(eKopaTHBHYIO BCTaBKY
Ha <pacall:e HJIH B HHTepbepe.

rp A,I1;. 1 ropoo (1), YKperrJIeHHOe rroce-


JIeHHe co MHox<eCTBOM 1l:0MOB, Coell:H-
HeHHblX YJIHn;aMH. 2 Kpenocmb. 3 BaA
(1), OKpyx<alOm:HH wpOO HJIH ero '1aCTb.
4 CTeHa, orpall:a.
rPA,I1;E)I(. 3a6op (1), orpall:a.
B 3aBepIIIeHlfH KpOBJtU). 3 JIHHHSI nepe-
rpA,I1;EIJ;. 3d.MOK (1), KperrocTb. Ce'leHHS! rroBepxHocTH 6pycmBepa HJIH
zJtacuca C BHYTpeHHeH KPYTOCTblO'
rPA,I1;MHA. OroPOIl:, Call:. 4 CBoHcTBeHHoe rr031l:HeMY KJIaCCHn;H3MY
rPA,I1;MPH5I (=rpa;r(Hp). 1 MHoroSipyc- ll:eKOpaTHBHoe 3aBepIIIeHHe rrpSlMo-
Hoe coopyx<eHHe H3 OTKpbITbIX co Bcex yrOJIbHoro OKHa rrepeMbI'IKOH H3 KJIHH-
CTOPOH ll:epeBSlHHbIX rrO;r(MOCTeH C )KeJIO- '1aTbIX KaMHeH, BblcTyrralOm:Hx OIl:HH H3-

-49-
r rPEsnSl - rVnAHKA 50

no,q IWyroro. 5 (=IIInyHT). BhICTYn IOW;HX nOllY6a1t B 6a3e KOIlOHHbl C yrnoM rPYH,UBEPK. Y CTpOHCTBO Ha cTon6o-
B,qonh KpaSl OOCKU (1) ruIH 6pyca, BBO,qH- nIlUHma rro,q HeH. 2 rpUrjJOH. BhIX onopax, HarrpaBnSIlOw;ee BO,qy B
Mhm B na3 Toro }Ke CeqeHHSI, ,qnSI CIma- }Keno6 BO,qSIHOH MenhHHD;hI.
rPM<I>OH. KphmaThIH neB C ronoBoH
qJl:BaHHSI ,qepeBIDIHoH KOHCTpYKIQlH.
opna. rpYHTOBbIE OBOM. 060H, Ha KOTO-
6 Coe,qHHeHHe B3aHMHOneprreH,qHKY-
phle rrepe,q rreqaTaHheM Y30POB HaHO-
nSlpHhIX 6pycbe6 (1) rrpSlMoyronhHhIMH
CHTCSI cnOH o,qHOD;BeTHOH KpaCKH.
ruIH KocoyronhHhIMH BhIeMKaMH C rrnOT-
HOH no,qroHKoH ,qpyr K ,qpyry. rpYHTOBbIM CAPAM. HaBec Ha
CTOJI6ax, rro,q KOTOPhIM BhIClUKeHhI rrno-
rPEBll5l. 3eMnSlHaSI HaChIrrh ,qnSl ,qo-
,qOBhle ,qepeBhSl; Ha 3HMY rrpOCBeThI
porn Ha KpalO BOAoeMa HnH Ha TorrKOM
Me~ CTOJI6aMH 3aIIIHBalOTCSI AJISI
MeCTe, YKperrneHHaSI XBOPOCTOM, rjJamu-
YTerrneHHSI OOCKaMU (1).
HaMU nH60 TeCOM.
rpOBMIII;E. 1 Kna,q6Hw;e. 2 Mormra.
rpYTITIA)K. TIoMew;eHHe, B KOTOPOM
rPEBEHb. Ax<yPHaSI rronoca, rro,qHH-
rpOBll5l. 1 POB BOKPyr KaMeHHoH or- co6HpalOTcSI oaCCa}KHphI rrepeA BhI,qa-
MalOW;aSICSI OT KOHbKa KP06IlU.
paAhI. 2 Mow;eHHe zpe6llu. qeH 11M 6ara}Ka.
rPEBHM HAllMqHMKA. BornYThIe
rPOBE ,ll;E<I>llEKTOP. HerrOABH}KHaSI rp5I,ll;A. 1 (=rpSl,qKa, BopoHeu;). ,ll;Be
CKaThI pa30pBaHHOro rjJpoHmoHa, 3a-
fjJIl10ZapKa H3 Ayro06pa3HhIx }Kene3HhIX rrepeKJIa,qHHhI Ha,q liellOM (1) PYCCKOU
BepIIIalOw;ero HaltUliHUK.
rronoc, coeAHHeHHhlX KOHu;aMH Ha ne'tu, rrpe,qHa3HaqeHHhIe ,qJISI. CyIIIKH
rPEqECKMM BAIT. 3XUH. OAHOM ypOBHe H 06pa3ylOW;HX BeepHoe APOB. 2 (=rp~Ka). ropH30wranhHaSI
nOKphlTHe ,qhIMOBOH Tpy6hI. }Kep,qh Me~y ,qBYMSI CTeHaMH. 3 I.J;BeT-
rPEqECKMM KPECT. qeThIpexKoHe-
HHK.
qHhIH KpecT C OAHHaKOBhIMH ropH30H- rpOMOBbIM 3HAK. ,ll;eKopaTHBHhiH
TanhHhIMH H BepTHKanhHhIMH KOIill;aMH, MOTHB Sl3hReCKoro rrpoHcxo~eHHSI, B rp5I,ll;KA. 1 rpRoa (1, 2). 2 IIolla6oli-
CTOPOHhI KOTOPhIX rrapannenhHhI. BRAe Kpyra C IIIeCTHnerreCTKOBOH HUK (1). 3 OrropHhIH 6pyc ,qJISI nOllameu
poaemKOU BHYTpH; xapaKTepeH ,qnSI (2) Ha,q BXO,qHOH ,qBephlO ua6bl. 4 Olien
rPMBOBM,ll;HA5I rllABA. rlla6a B
. c»aca,qHOH ,qepeBSlHHOH pe3h6hI Ha pyc- AnSI 3b16KU. 5 CryoeHh rrpHcTaBHoH
BHAe IIIapoBoro CerMeHTa, 3HaqHTenhHO
CKHX ua6ax (1). neCTHHD;hI. 6 Bepe30BaSI oocKa (1) AnH-
MeHhIIIe rronycc»ephI.
HOH OKono 2-x Ca}KeHeH rrpH TOJIID;HHe
rpOT. TIapKoBoe coopY}KeHHe, CHMBO-
3 BepIIIKa H IIIHpHHe 7 -10 BepIIIKoB.
nH3HpYIOw;ee rrpHpo,qHYIO rrew;epy H
YKpaIIIeHHoe BHyTpH paKOBHHaMH, MOp- rP5I3EBA5I KYXlUI. TIoMew;eHHe AnSI
CKHMH KaMHSlMH H T. n. rroAroToBKH JIeqe6HOH rpSl3H K Me,qH-
D;HHCKHM rrpou;eAypaM.
rYBA. BepxHSISI qaCTh KOPUHfjJCKOU
Kanumellu, rrpHMhlKalOW;aSI K a6aKe.
rPMBOBM,ll;HOE TIEPEKPbITME.
Be36anoqHOe }Kene306eToHHoe rrepe- rYBKA. TIPoc»HnHpOBaHHaSI peHKa,
KphITHe Ha orropax C Ha,qKonOHHhIMH 3aKphIBalOW;aSI w;enh Me~ CTBOPKaMH
rrnHTaMH B BRAe orrpOKHHYTOH yceqeH- B rrpoeMe H IIpH6HTaSI K OAHOH H3 HHX.
HOH IIHpaMH,qhI.
rpOTECK. CnO}KHhIH opHaMeHT, rrpH-
rPMBA (=3arpHBoK, OrpHBOK). 06- qyAJIHBO BIIJIeTalOID;HH B paCTHTeJIhHhIe
IIIHBKa crranhHoro HnH caHHoro OAe- H reoMeTpHqeCKHe MOTHBhl c»HrypKH
SIna 06'hSIphlO, aTnaCOM HnH Tac»ToH, nlO,qeH H }KII:BOTHhIX.
oKail:MJIeHHaSI ranYHoM, HHDrAa yKpa- rpYBA (=rpy6Ka, rpYHKa). 1 He60JIh-
IIIeHHaSI }Ke~yroM H ,qparou;eHHhIMH
IIIaSI neqKa AnSI OTorrneHHSI H pa30rpeBa
KaMHSIMH.
rrHW;H, 06hIqHO coe,qHHeHHaSI C PYCCKOU rYBOBMHA. He6onhIIIoe ceneHHe,
rPM3AMnb. O,qHoD;BeTHaSI pocrrHch, nelib/O. 2 rOllllaHocKaR nettb. 3 Tpy6a ycaob6a, ua6a (1).
HMHTHPyroW;aSI 6apellberjJ HJIH apxHTeK- PYCCKOU neliu.
rYBHO. ['yMHO.
TYPHhIH ,qeKop.
rpY,ll;HA5I BbICOTA. 1 YqHThIBae-
ryrAllA. BepeBOqHhle KaqeJIH.
rpM,ll;HMU;A, rpM,ll;H5I. 1 TIoMew;e- MhlH: B c»0PTHc»HKau;HOHHOM cTpOHTeJIh-
HHe ,qJISI TeJIOXpaHHTeJIeH KHSl3S1. 2 TIpH- CTBe ypoBeHh rrpHKJIa,qKH PY}KhSl K rrneqy rY,ll;KM (=ryTKH). TOqeHhIe 6a1tRCUHbi
eMHhIH 3an B KHSI}KeCKHX XOPOMax. CTpeJIKa cpe,qHero pOCTa (rrpH cTpeJIh6e ( C KpyrJIhIM CeqeHHeM Ha Bcex ypOBHSIX).
CTOSI - 4,5 c»YTa, C KOJIeHa - 3 c»YTa,
rPMllb5l)K. Ca,qoBo-rrapKoBoe coopy- rY3bIPM. ConoMeHHhIe CHOIIHKH ,qnSl
CHASI - 2 c»yTa, JIe}Ka - 1 c»YT). 2 Pa3-
}KeHHe C peIIIeTqaThIMH CTeHKaMH. KP06IlU.
HHu;a B YPOBHSlX Me}KAY 6aHKemoM H
rPMH,ll;A. Bpe6Ho AJIHHOH 6-7 Ca}Ke- zpe6HeM (3) 6pycm6epa. rYllAMTIA (=ryJIOHTa). KBa,qpaTHoe
HeH (12,8-14,9 M) C rrOrrepeqHHKOM KHpIIHqHOe OCHOBaHHe AnSI oqara
rpY,ll;b 3AB05l. TIepeAHSlSI qaCTh py,q-
B 3-4 BepIIIKa rro BepXHeMY oTpy6y. rrocpe,qH py6JIeHOH /Opmbl 3arra,qHhlx
HJl:qHOro aa60R (1), rrpo,qBHralOW;aSIcSI
6ypSlT.
rPMH-3BEH. TaK Ha3hlBaeMoe 3eJIe- Brrepe,q rro Mepe Bhrpa60TKH ropHOH
Hoe ,qepeBO AJISI rrapKeTHhIX pa60T. rrOpOAhI. rYllAMTA. Oqar B u;eHTpe Tpa,qH-
D;HOHHoro 6ypgTCKOro }KII:nHw;a.
rPM<I>. 1 ,ll;eKopaTHBHhIH MOTHB B BH- rpY,ll;b TIEqM. TIepeAHSISI qaCTh HH}K-

Ae OCTpOKOHeqHhIX nHCTheB, coe,qHHSI- Hero 06'heMa IIIaXTHOH rreqH. rYllAHKA. rOllllaHOCKaR nelib.

-50-
r ryncJ)APIi - rIOPEH'tA 51

rYJI<pAPB. rYJlbfjJap6. rYPT. 1 YTOJlIIJ:eHMe cBooa, BblcTyrra-


lOIIJ:ee pe6poM no ero BHeIIIHeH MnM BHy-
rYJIhBI1UA. llooKJ!em, nOp;bI36lUl;a.
TPeHHeH nOBepxHocTM M cooTBeTcTBY-
rYJIhBl1mE. OTKpbITaH npOTH)KeHHaH lOIIJ:ee ero HanpaBnHIOIIJ:eH JlM60 ,LIMarO-
nJlOIIJ:a,LIKa, npMMbIKalOIIJ:aH K 3,L1aHMIO. HaJlbHoMY CeQeHUIO nepeKpbITMH.
2 IIpoMeJICymO'1HbiU KapHU3 rrpocToro
rYJIh<pAPB (=ryJlbcpap6a, rYJlbT-
CeQeHMH M MaJlOrO BbIHoca. 3 TIpocTaH
cpapT, rYJlcpap6, rYHcpap6, ryTJlb-
,LIepeBHHHaH MJlM IIITYKaTypHaH OKaH-
cpap6). 1 KpacKa ,LIJIH 30JlOqeHMH.
TOBKa npoeMa.
2 MaCJlHHaH rpYHToBKa M3 BapeHoro
Macna M KpoHa, KOTOPOH nOKpblBalOT rYP3M .IJ,)KIO. TIpOCTOpHbIH ynbQCKMH
npe,LIMeT nepe,LI ero 30JlOqeHMeM. OOM (1).

rYJI5II1:, rYJI5II1:-rOPO.IJ,. 1 llO,LIBM)K- fYCAK. JIeKaJlbHblH MJlM TecaHbIH KMp-


Hoe YKpenJleHMe M3 npope3aHHbIX 60H- nMQ C ZYCbKOM B npocpMne.
HMIJ:aMM ,LIepeBHHHblx IIJ:MTOB Ha KOJleCaX
fYCEK (=ryceHoK). BbITHHYTblH no
ropM30HTaJlM HaBuCalOIIJ:MH npocpMJlb C
YMepeHHbIM M3rM60M, B KOTOPOM Bepx-
HHH QaCTb BorHYTaH, a HM)KHHH - BbIIIy-
KJlaH.

MJlM caHHbIX nOJl03bHX. 2 llO,LIBM)KHOH


,LIepeBHHHbIH ropop;oK, CJle,LIYIOIIJ:MH B
0603e 3a BoHcKaMM. 3 KpbITble caHM C
60UHU/{aMU B CTeHKax.
rYChKOBA5I KPOBJI5I. 1130mYTaH y
rYJI5IHhE. TIPOryJlOqHaH aJlJleH B OCHOBaHMH Kp06J1H C npocpMneM B BHl.\e
npe,LIMeCTbe, cpJlaHKMpOBaHHaH 60nee o6pamHolO zycbKa.
Y3KMMM aJIJleHMM.
,fYTA. CTeKonbHbIH 3aBO,LI.
rYMEHHI1K. rYMHO.
rYTKl1. ryOKU.
rYMEHHI1UA. qacTb KpeCTbHHCKOH
ycaob6bl, pacrronO)KeHHaH 3a u360u (1), fYTJIh<l> APB. rYJlbfjJap6.
OBOPOM M KOHIOIIIHeH M 06HeCeHHaH rYTThI (=rYTbI). Kanne06pa3Hble BbI-
M3rOpO,LIblO. cTynbI B BMp;e yceQeHHbIX KOHYCOB
rYMEHUhI, rYMEHhE. rYMHO. HJlM yceQeHHbIX ImpaMM,LIOK, npHMbIKa-
IOIIJ:Me cpe30M K HH)KHeH nOBepxHocTH
rYMJIA. rYMHO B KpecTbHHcKOH MymyJlbl, BblcTyna B HaJlU'1HUKe H T. n.
ycaob6e KOMM-3blpHH.
rY3H (=,LIY). 3epHoxpaHHnMIIJ:e B Qep-
rYMHO (=racMH, ryMeHHMK, rYMeHIJ:bI, KeccKoH ycaob6e.
rYMeHbe). qacTb KpecTbHHcKOH ycaob-
6bl, 060c06J1eHHaH OT OCTaJlbHbIX ee rIOPEHqA. TIapa,LIHOe nOMeIIJ:eHMe B
CTPOeHMH M npe,LIHa3HaqeHHaH ,LIJIH npo- CeJlbCKOM )KMJlMIIJ:e TaTap-MMIIIapeH.
CYIIIKM 3epHoBoro xne6a M 06MOJlOTa.

ryp. rJlMH06MTHaH ne% B YP;MYPTCKOH


U36e (1).

rYP.IJ,l1c. TIpMMeHHBIillIHcH B apOqHblX


M 6anOqHblX nepeKpbITMHX nycTOTeJlbIH
KMpnMQ ,LIJlMHOH p;o MeTpa, C npHMo-
yrOJlbHMKOM JlM60 TPaneIJ:MeH B CeQeHMM
M O,LIHMM MnM HeCKonbKMMM npO,LIOnb-
HbIMM KaHanaMM BHYTpM.

rYPI1I1: (=rypeH, ryPMH, K€Kypa, Map,


TeMHbIH MaHK). OCTPOBepxaH rpy,LIa
KaMHH-nnMTHHKa, coopY)KeHHaH Ha
6epery Benoro MOpH ,LInH npep;ynpe)Kp;e-
HMH MOpeXO,LIOB 0 MeJlM MnM MHOM
rrO,LIBO,LIHOMrrpeIIHTcTBMM.

-51-
,ll;ABBEPTA H rIOTEHA IIJIHTA. ,ll;APY. YJIb'ICKHH IIIaMaHCKHH CTOJI6. ,ll;BOMHA5I IIEPEMbI'llKA. CO'IeTa-
IIepeKpbITHe H3 KHpnH'IeH, YJIO>KeHHbIX HHe llJIOCKOH HJIH H30rHYTOH nepe-
,ll;AIJ;AH. BypgTCKHH 6Y)l;)l;HHCKHH MO-
Ha ~eMeHTHOM paCTBope no >KeJIe3HOMY MbI'IKH npoeMa C pU3zpyao'tHOu apKou
HacTbIpb.
OCHOBaHHIO, C YCHJIeHHeM >KeJIe3HbIMH HenOCpe)l;CTBeHHO Ha)]; HeH.
npYTKaMH KpyrJIOro Ce'IeHIDI. ,ll;BEPHA5I rOITOBKA. KHonKa H3
6POH3bI, Me)l;H, CTeKJIa, q,apq,opa HJIH
,ll;AKKA. OPO'IcKHii: Jla6U3 (3) B rJIY-
)l;epeBa, OTKPbIBalO~aB U{elwJlay HJIH
6HHe TaHrH, B KOTOPOM xpaHSIT 3anaCbI
Bpe3HoH aaMOK (3).
e)l;bI H OXOTHH'Ibe cHapIDKeHHe.
,ll;AITITAP yPACA. Ypaca )l;JISI PSl)l;OBbIX ,ll;BEPHHIJ;A. IIopTbepa B )l;BepHOM
'IJIeHOB MHOrO'IHCJIeHHOH ceMbH. npoeMe.

.a;AIT yP AXAnAP. Ypaca )l;JIB xpaHe- ,ll;BEPHOM rn03,ll;b. rB03)l;b )l;JIHHOH


,ll;BOMHA5I IIO,ll;PE3KA. IIoapea/Ca.
HIDI )l;OMaIIIHero cKap6a H npO>KHBaHIDI 7-9 CM.
,ll;BOMHA5I CAlIA. 1 Cana, 3~~eH­
'IeJISl)l;H. ,ll;BEPHOM OKITA,ll;. Tpane~eBH)l;HaSl
HaB C )l;Byx CTOPOH napaJIJIeJIbHbIMH 6py-
,ll;AMACK. CTpyii:'IaTbIH y30p Ha Me- Kpene>KHaB KOHCTPy~IDI B PY)l;HHKe, B
cmeepaMu. 2 Cana, orpaHH'IeHHaB
TaJIJIe, nOJIyqeHHbIH TPaBJIeHHeM 'Iepe3 KOTOPOH Ka>K)l;aB nepeKJIa)];HHa OIllI-
)l;BYMSI pRJl:aMH )l;BOHHbIX mypoe.
KaHaBKH B BOCKOBOM nOKpbITHH. paeTcSI Ha )l;Be cmouxu.
,ll;BOMHOM CBO,ll;. IIepeKpbITHe H3
,ll;AMBA (=3eMJIBHOH MOCT). 3eMJISlHaB ,ll;BOEHKA. ,ll;Ba cpy6a, Coe)l;HHeHHbIe )l;Byx KpHBOJIHHeHHbIX 060JIO'IeK, nOMe-
HaCbIllb C )l;OpOrOH nOBepxy ,3a~H~a­ ceHR.Mu. ~eHHbIX O)l;Ha Ha)l; )l;PyroH H pa3)l;eJIeH-
lO~aB MeCTHOCTb OT pa3JIHBa BO)l;bI JIH60
,ll;BOEPE3. P,U2JlufjJ. HbIX Y3KHM B03)l;yrnHbIM. npocTPaH-
pa3)l;eJISIIO~aB BO)l;OeMbI.
CTBOM.
,ll;AHTHKITbl. p'eHmuKYJlbt. ,ll;BOECTEHHbIM CPYB. KOHCTpYK-
,ll;BOMHOM TEHAITb. TeHaJlb C TPe-
~ H3 )l;Byx npO)l;OJIbHbIX H )l;BYX none-
MSI OCTPOyroJIbiIbIMH BbIcTynaMH B CTO-
,ll;APArH. P,Op02U. pe'IHbIX Py6JIeHbIX CTeH, 6e3 BHYTPeH-
pOHY npoTHBHHKa.
HeH CTeHbI.
,ll;APHH ,ll;AHH. IIJIo~a)l;Ka nepe)l;
,ll;BOM~. KpecTbBHcKoe >KHJIH~e,
umoaHOM. ,ll;BOETEC (=)l;BYTec). KpOeeJlbHbte
06'be)l;HHSIIO~ee )l;Be U36bt (1) nO)l; CaMO- .
,ll;APOXPAHHTEITbHHIJ;A. YCTa- rn03)l;H )l;JIHHOH 10-14 CM, cnoc06HbIe
CTOSlTeJIbHbIMH nOKpbITHSIMH.
HOBJIeHIIbIH Ha npecmoJle 30JIOTOH HJIH npOIIIHBaTb )l;Ba CJIOSI aoc01c (1).
cepe6pSIHbIH KOB'Ier )l;JISI TaK Ha3bIBae- ,ll;BOKPOBHHK. 3)l;aHHe B )l;Ba Rpyca.
,ll;BOE'llEITbHA~ IIE'llb. IIe'Ib H3
MbIX CBSlTbIX )l;apOB, ynoTpe6JISleMbIX ,ll;BOP. 1 IIpHMbIKalO~aB K )l;OMY He3a-
)l;Byx 'IaCTeH, Ka>K)l;aB H3 KOTOPbIX HMeeT
npH 60rOCJIy>KeHHH. CTPoeHHaB 'IaCTb 3eMJIeBJIa)];eHIDI.
OT)l;eJIbHYIO TonKY.
,ll;'APCETA IIE'llb. MHoroq,yH~o­ 2 IIpHMbIKalO~aB K >KHJIOH U36e X03S1H-
HaJIbHaB KYXOHHaB llJIHTa C BbITSl>KHbIM ,ll;BOMHA5I XHPAH,ll;OITb. ,ll;BYX'b- CTBeHHaB nocTPoHKa, CBSl3aHHaB C HaBe-
YCTPOHCTBOM, pa3)l;eJIbHbIMH ne'IHbIMH SlPYCHbIH q,OHTaH, coe)l;HHSlIO~Hii: BbICO- COM H aa6opoM (1). 3 KpecTbSIHcKoe
IIIKaq,aMH )l;JISI TYIIIeHIDI oBo~eH, >Ka- KYIO BepTHKaJIbHYIO BO)l;OMeTHYIO Tpy6y 3eMJIeBJIa)l;eHHe. 4 Ka3eHHoe HJIH 06~e­
peHbSl MSIca H T. )l;., C BepTeJIOM H 3y6- C 60JIee HH3KOH KOJIb~eBOH, Ha KOTOPOH CTBeHHoe 3AaHHe JIH60 yqpe>K)l;eHHe
'IaTOH nO)l;BeCKOH KOTJIa, n03BOJIBIO~eH paBHoMepHo pacnOJIO>KeHbI oTBepcTIDI (MoHeTHbIH )l;BOP, 20cmUHbtU aeop H
06eCne'IHTb HarpeB HY>KHOH CHJIbI. )l;JISI BbI6poca BO)l;bI. AP.). 5 O)l;HH H3 npoMexyTO'IHbIX KOJIb-

52

-52-
ABOPEU - AEHH1Kynbl 53

u;eBhIX rrOSICOB B MeJIhHHqHOM )KepHOBe. JJ:BYXMAPIIIEBA5I JIECTHHIJ;A. iOru;aSICSI OT T. H. JlCUSOnUC1lbIX KpacoK


6 PYOltblU 080p. JIecTHHu;a, pa3~eJIeHHaSI O~HOM rrJIoIu;a~­ Herrp03paqHOCThiO KpaCOqHOrO CJIOSI H
KOM. MeHhIIIeR HHTeHCHBHOCThiO TOHa; OCHO-
JJ:BOPEIJ;. 1 MOHYMeHTaJIhHOe rrpe~­
BOM )l;JISI TaKoR pocrrHcH MoryT CJIY)KHTh
CTaBHTeJIhHOe 3~aHHe, rrpHHa~JIe)KaIu;ee JJ:BYXI10JJ:KOCHA5I CHCTEMA.
MeJIKOrrOpHcTaSI IIITYKaTypKa, MeTaJIJI,
JIHU;Y H3 BhICIIIHX CJIOeB 06Iu;ecTBa H KOHCTPYKU;HSI ~epeBSIHHhlX cjJepM, rrpH
XOJICT, KapToH, 6YMara.
rrpe~Ha3HaqeHHOe, B qaCTHOCTH, ~JISI KOTOPOM nool<ocbl, Cxo~SIIu;HecSI BHH3Y B
TOp)KeCTBeHHhIX rrpHeMoB. 2 KpyrrHoe O~HOM TOqKe, rro~IIHpaiOT pa3HhIe JJ:EJIEHEQ. YKopOqeHHaSI COCHOBaSI
06Iu;ecTBeHHoe 3~aHHe, IjJYHKn;HSI KOTO- yqaCTKH ropH30HTaJIhHOM 6aJIKH. oocKa (1).
poro BhIpa)KeHa B Ha3BaHHH (HarrpHMep,
JJ:BYXPACKOCHA5I CHCTEMA. JJ:EJIOBA5I JJ:oporA. IIpe~Ha3HaqeH­
JJ:Bopeu; IIpaBocy~HSI). 3 IIyme80u 080-
KOHCTPYKU;HSI ~epeBSIHHhIX MOCTOB, B HaSI )l;JISI npaKTHqeCKHX nepeB030K aJIJIeSI
peu,. 4 3a~HHM 080P KpecThSIHcKOM
cjJepMax KOTOPhIX rrepeceKaiOTcSI Ha- HJIH ~opora, nepeceKaiOru;aSI napK JIH60
YC~h6hI, rrpe~Ha3HaqeHHhlM ~JISI CKOTa.
KJIOHHhIe 6pyCbR (1). ca~ no KpaTqaHIIIeMY paCCT05lHHiO.
5 XYTOP, o6oco6JIeHHaSI ycaob6a.
6 3eMJIe~eJIhqeCKOe HJIH CKOTOBO~qeC­ JJ:BYXP5IJJ:HA5I CB5I3b. PyccKoe Kpe- JJ:EJIOPMA CTPOI1HJIA. ApOqHaSI
Koe X03SIMCTBO MOHaCThIpSI. CTh5IHCKOe )KHJIHIu;e, KOTopoe COCTOHT KOHCTPYKU;HSI H3 KOPOTKHX OOCOK (1),
H3 ~ByX rrpHMhIKaiOru;Hx )l;pyr K ~pyry nOCTaBJIeHHhIX Ha pe6po H CnJIOqeHHhIX
JJ:BOPHIUE. 1 (=~BopoBHIu;e). MecTo, rrocTpoeK (U36a H X03SIHcTBeHHhIM osop) C nOMoru;hiO IwuJteu Topu;aMH no HOp-
r~e HaXO~HJIHCh 080P HJIH KpyrrHoe rro~ rrapaJIJIeJIhHhIMH ~BycKaTHhIMH MaJIH K 06pa3YiOru;eR.
3~aHHe. 2 IIo080pbe. 3 IIpHcTpoMKa K
KP08JtRMU.
JJ:EJIbHHIJ;A. MacTepcKaSI.
OOMY·
JJ:BYXCTOPOHKA. jJ8yxzpaHKa.
,I:(BOPOBA5I KPEIIb. JJ:epeBSIHHhIe JJ:EJIb<l>HHA. QepKoBHhIM CBeTHJIhHHK
KOHCTPYKU;HH, yKperrJISIiOIu;He PY0ltbIU JJ:BYIJ;BETHA5I TKAHb. MaTepHSl, C YKpaIIIeHHeM.
080p. CTOPOHhI KOTOPOM HMeiOT pa3HhIM IJ;BeT.
JJ:EMHrOP)J( (=noJIynepeIIIeeK). yqa-
JJ:BOPOBHIUE. jJ80puU{e (1). JJ:BYIIIJI5II1HbIl1:(60JIT, rno3~h). CTOK lOPJICU OT cjJJtaltKa ~o u;eHTPa
IIpe~Ha3HaqeHHhll{ ~JISI 3aKJIerrOqHhIX 6acmuoHa.
JJ:BOPOBOE MECTO. He3acTPOeH- coe~HHeHHM.
JJ:EMHJIIOH (=nOJIYMecSIU;). I10JIyKpy-
HhIM HJIH MaJI03aCTpoeHHhIM yqaCTOK
JJ:EAMEYJIATOPl1J1:. TaJtepeR (1), rJIoe HmI rro~KoBoo6pa3Hoe B nJIaHe
3eMJIH cpe~H ropo~cKHX 3~aHHM.
om6aiOIu;aSI aJITapHhIM BhIcTyrr 3arra~HO­ 060pOHHTeJIhHOe coopY)KeHHe, B03Be-
JJ:B05IKOBbIITYKJIbIl1: CBOJJ:. I1e- xpHCTHaHCKoro xpaMa.
peKphITHe rrpSIMoyrOJIhHOrO yqaCTKa,
,UEEAPKAJJ:EP. 1 KPhIThIH 3aJt Ha~
HMeiOIu;ee ~yroo6pa3HhIe CeqeHHSI pa3- )KeJIe3HO~OpO)KHhIMH rrYTSIMH H rreppo-
HOM KpHBH3HhI B rrpO~OJIhHOM H rrorre- HaMH. 2 CY~HO, cJIY)Karu;ee rrJIaByqeM
peqHOM HanpaBJIeHHSIx. rrpHcTaHhiO.
JJ:BYJJ:hIMOK. Tpy6a, B KOTOPYiO BhI- JJ:EBCTBEHHHK. )J(eHcKHM MOHa-
~eHHoe nepe~ 6acmUOHOM HJIH Kypmu-
Be~eHhI ~hIMOBhIe KaHaJIhI OT pa3HhIx CThlph.
rreqeM. HOU (3) ~JI5I 3aIu;HThI pBa HJIH XO~OB
JJ:EB5ITEPHK. Epe8Ho )l;JIHHOM 9 ca)Ke- coo6ru;eHHSI Me~y KpenOCThiO H OKpy-
JJ:BY)J(HJIhHA5I H3EA (=~By)KHpHaSI HeR. )KaiOIu;eR MeCTHOCThiO; rrOCTeneHHO
H36a). lfa6a (1) C ~ByMSl )KHJIhIMH na- TPaHcljJopMHPOBaJIOCh B pa8eJtUIt.
)KaMH, 060rpeBaeMhI.MH rreqaMH. JJ:ErA. 3arJIy6JIeHHaSI B 3eMJIiO 3HMHSISI
KOMHaTa U;axypcKoro )KHJIHIqa. JJ:EMOJIHQHOHHA5I CHCTEMA.
JJ:BYCBETHhIH (=B ~Ba cBeTa). COBoKynHocTh MHHHhIX KaHaJIOB,
JJ:ErA)J(EMAH. 3arrHpaiOIu;HMcSI XO)l;,
06'beM C ~ByMSI ropH30HTaJIhHhIMH P5l- n03BOJI5IiOIu;aSI B30pBaTh KaKYiO-JIH60
rro KOTOPOMY MO)KHO He3aMeTHO rrpoHTH
~aMH OKOH, He pa3~eJIeHHhIMH B HH- qaCTh YKpeIIJIeHHSI B CJIyqae ee 3aXBaTa
H3 O~HOro pSI)l;a KOMHaT B ~pyroH (Ha-
Tephepe nepeKphITHeM. npOTHBHHKOM.
rrpHMep, Ha )l;pyroM 3Ta)Ke).
JJ:BYCTOJIIIHE. THrr rrOMeru;eHHSI JJ:EHJJ:PAPHH. TeppHTopHSI, Ha KOTO-
JJ:ErOHA CHCTEMA. )l(eJIe306eToH-
(xpaM, mpaneaHaR, naJtama) , B KOTO- POM BhICa)KeHhI B OTKPhIThIM rpyHT pa3-
HaSI KOHCTPYKn;HSI C BOJIHHCTOH apMamy-
POM rrpOCTpaHCTBO paCqJIeHeHO ~ByMSl Hoo6pa3Hhle ~peBeCHhIe paCTeHHSI, 30-
pou (2) Me~y IIIThIpSIMH B TOJIIu;e
CTOJIrraMH, rrO~~ep)KHBaiOIu;HMH CBO~qa­ HaJIhHO CHCTeMaTH3HpOBaHHhIe B Hayq-
6emolta.
.Toe rrepeKphITHe. HhIX HJIH 3CTeTHqeCKHX u;eJISIX .
JJ:EJJ:. C8emeu, ..
JJ:EHHHK. 1 3aKphlBaeMoe )l;Bepu;eM
JJ:BYCTOPOHH5I5I I10JJ:PE3KA.
JJ:EKAJIbKOMAHH5I (=MeTaxpoMo- npocTopHoe cmoUJto (1) B KOHiOIIIHe
IIoopeaKa.
THrrHSl). H306pa)KeHHe Ha 6YMare, rrpe~­ HJIH Ha CKOTHOM ~Bope, npe~Ha3HaqeH­
JJ:BYTABP. MeTaJIJIHqeCKaSI 6aJIKa C Ha3HaqeHHOe ~JISI rrepeHoca Ha )l;pyryiO Hoe ~JISI 6ecrrpHBSI3Horo CO~ep)KaHHSI
CeqeHHeM B B~e PHMCKOM e~HHHU;hI, - C rroBepxHocTh (HarrpHMep, ~JISI HMHTaU;HH JIOIIIa~H, HOBopo~eHHoro TeJIeHKa H

~ByCTOpOHHHMH rrOrrepeqHhIMH OTCeq- npO)KHJIOK MpaMopa H ~peBecHhlx BOJIO- T. )l;. 2 OTKPhIThIH cBepxy oropO)KeH-
KaMH y KOHU;OB OCHOBHOM CTOMKH. KOH, - B OT)l;eJIKe HHTephepoB, BhIBec- HhIM yqaCTOK CKOTHOro ~Bopa, npe~Ha3-
Kax H T. )l;.) - rro crroco6y, H306peTeH- HaqeHHhIM ~JISI npe6hIBaHHSI CKOTa B
JJ:BYTEC. jJ80emec. HOMY B 1830-e rr. PYCCKHM cKYJIhrrTOpOM ~HeBHoe BpeMSI.

A. II. Tepe6eHeBhIM (1815-1859).


JJ:BYXrp AHKA ( =)l;BYXCTopOHKa). JJ:EHTHKYJIbI (=~aHTHKJIhI, 3y6qH-
Epyc (1) C ~ByMSI rrapaJIJIeJIhHhIMH )l;JIHH- JJ:EKOPATHBHhIE KPACKII. Pa3Ho- KH). PacnOJIO)KeHHhIe C He3HaqHTeJIh-
HhIMH cTopoHaMH. BH~HOCTh JlCU80nUCU KellMa, OTJIHqa- HhIMH npOMe)KYTKaMH no ropH30HTaJIH,

-53-
AEHUE - AHOPAMA 54

nOITOrOH ~yre HITH HaKITOHHOH ITHHHH yKrra~KOH iJepHa no CnHpaJIH, )KeJIo6a CKOM )KHJIH~e IIIHpOKa51 ~epeB5IHHa5I
O~HHaKOBhIe np5lMoyrOIThHhIe BhIcTynhI, KOTOPOH MoryT BHe3anHO 3anOJIH5IThC5I rrOJIKa ~JI5I CyH~yKOB, MaTPan:eB H o~e5lJI.
nO~~ep)KHBalO~He KapHua ITH60 CKaTJ-' BO~OH H3 CKPhITOro pe3epByapa.
.D:)KhIHrhIQ KhI3. BOHJIO'IHhIH KO-
ppOHmOHa.
.D:EPHYXA. .D:epeB5IHHhIH )KepHOB ~JI5I Bep, 3aKph1BalO~HH rrOCTeJIH Ha rrOJI-
06~HPKH KpyrrhI. Ke B~OJIh 3a~HeH CTeHhl B Ka6ap~HHcKOM
HJIH 6aJIKapCKOM )KHJIH~e .
.D:EPHYiliKA. 3eM/lRHKa, KphlTa51 oep-
HOM. .D:3AIIIIA.D:3 (=~3anrra3, 3arrrra~3).
Ha3eMHhlH HJIH rrOJIyrro~3eMHhlH oce-
.D:ECIO.D:EIIOPT (=cyrrpanopT). llaHHO THHCKHH CKAen.
Ha~ ~BepblO.
.D:3YAP. OceTHHcKoe CB5ITHJIH~e, CBSI-
.D:EHUE (=nO~60H). /{ocKa (1), oKaHM- .D:EOITKA. /{ocKa (1) IIIHPHHOH 10 3aHHoe C KYJIhTOM MeCTHoro 60)KeCT-
IT5IBIIIa5I cBepxy HITH CHH3Y ppua (JI060- ~IOHMOB.
Ba- rroKpOBHTeJI5I ayITa.
8aR oocKa, ppua08aR oocKa, KpacHaR
oocKa, nJlamoK) Ha rJIaBHOM q,aca~e .D:ETEHhIIII. 1 .D:o~aThIH cpy6 C rrec- .D:3YC. IIIHpoKaSI JIaBKa B~OJIh CTeH B
~epeB5IHHOH KpeCTh5lHCKOH ua6bt (1). KOM Ha ~He KO/lOOl4a (1), O'IH~alO~HM y~MYPTCKOH ua6e (1).
BO~y. 2 (=TapeJIKa). LJacTb 8bIOUlKU,
.D:EIIO. 3~aHHe, B KOTOPOM c06paHhI ,3aKphIBaeMa5I KOJInaKOM. .D:I1ArOHAJIhHA5I rPAHh. Ka~a5I
3arraChI HJIH YCTpoHcTBa onpe~eJIeHHOrO H3 'IeTblpex Y3KHX rpaHeH 80CbMUJlOm-
Ha3Ha'IeHHSI (KapTorpaq,H'IeCKHe MaTe- .D:ETI1HEU. 1 (=~HeIIIHHH rpa~). K08020 c800a B rrp5lMoyrOJIhHOM rrOMe-
PHaJIhI, npO~OBOJIhCTBHe, BoeHHoe CHa- YKpeIIJIeHHa51 ~eHTPaJIbHaSI 'IaCTh ~peB­ ~eHHH, pa3~eJI5IIO~HX IIIHpoKHe /lOmKU
p5l)KeHHe, npoTHBOnO)KapHhle cpe~cTBa, HepyccKoro 2Opooa (1, 2). 2 JIaph Ha~ Ha~ OCHOBHhlMH CTeHaMH.

TpaHCnOpTHOe o6opYAoBaHlie). 5IMOH ~JI5I CTOKa CMOJIbI.

.D:EPEEHh. Ha6a (1) MeJIbHHKa. .D:E<I>EH3HI1. B3aHMHo 060poHSIeMhle


YKperrJIeHIl:SI .
.D:EPEEEHh. IIo~co6Hoe nOMe~eHHe B
HH)KHeM 3Ta)Ke XOpOM . .D:E<I> I1JIA,D:hI. IIJIOCKOCTh, rrpoxo~5I-
.D:EPEB5IHHA5I MA3AHKA. IIo- ~a51 'Iepe3 caMhle BhICOKHe TO'IKH yKpe- .D:I1AKOHCKI1E .D:BEPI1. IO)KHhIe
CTpOHKa C 06MaaKou CTeH rro HX ~e- nJIeHH5I. p;BepH UKOHocmaca.
peB5IHHOH rroBepxHocTH - KapKacy, a .D:E<I>I1JIE,. Y3Ka5I HaChIllh HJIH MOCT .D:I1BAHHA5I. IIoMe~eHHe B 6oraToM
TaK)Ke n/laCmUHaM, OOCKaM (1) H 6pe8- 'Iepe3 60JIOTO HJIH HHyIO HenpHcTyrrHYIO ~OMe, 06CTaBJIeHHOe ~HBaHaMH B~OJIb
HaM B 3anOJIHeHlI.H ero npOCBeTOB. MeCTHOCTh . CTeH H npe~Ha3Ha'IeHHOe ~J151 6eceA.
.D:EPMATI1H (=rpaHHTOJI, rpaHH- .D:E<I>I1JII1POBAHI1E. B03Be~eHHe .D:l1rJII1 <I> (= ~Boepe3). CXO~HbIH C
TOITh). 1 3aMeH51IO~a51 KO)KY 06HBO'IHa5I pa3JIH'IHhIX q,OpTHq,HKa~HoHHhIX mpUZ/lUpOM rrOBTOp5lIO~HHC5I 3JIeMeHT
xJIon'IaTo6YMa)KHa51 TKaHh, rrOKphITa5I coopY)KeHUH (HachIllH, BhlCOKHe 6py- oopu'tecK02O ppuaa, Ha JIH~eBOH CTO-
MacTHKoH, KOTOPa51 BKJIIO'IaeT B ce651 cm8epbl, mpa8epcbl U rrp.) AJI5I 3a~HThI pOHe HMeIO~HH BHA AByX BepTHKaIThHhlX
pacTBop ~eJIJIIOJI03hI, KacTopoBoe pac08 YKperrJIeHHSI Hero BHYTpeHHOCTH BhIcTynoB C )KeJI06KOM Me~y HHMH.
MaCITO H rrHrMeHT. 2 CypporaT Kay'IyKa OT BhICTpeJIOB npOTHBHHKa.
.D:I1KACTEPI15I. IIo~'IHHeHHoe enap-
HITH KO)KH, BKrrIO'IaIO~HH B ce6SI cepHH-
CTYIO CyphMy, OKHCh )KeJIe3a, cepy, rJIH- .D:E<I>JIEKTOP. BblcTyrralO~aSI Ha~
XHaJIbHOMY apxHepeIO ~yxoBHoe ynpaB-
JIeHHe, 3aHHMaBIIIeeC5I cy~e6HhlMH
H03eM, ac6ecT, cepHHcTbili ~HHK, yrJIe- Kp08/leU BeHTHJISIIIHOHHa5I Tpy6a, y
~eJIaMH B OTHOIIJeHHH cBSI~eHHOCJIy)KH­
KHCJIhIH aMMoHHH H ~p. KOTOPOH Bce 'IaCTH HerrO~BU)KHbI, a BHe-
IIIHee oTBepcTHe HaKJIOHeHO BHH3, 'ITO TeJIeH H IIepKOBHOCJIY)KHTeJIeH.
.D:EPHI1HA. KBa~paTHhIH ITH60 rrp5lMO-
06eCne'IHBaeT T5Iry npH ITI060M HarrpaB- .D:I1KA5I KPACKA. UIapa.
yrOIThHhIH KyCOK oepHa, ynoTpe6IT5I-
JIeHUU BeTpa.
eMoro ~JISI 3a~HThI 3eMIT5IHhIX CKJIOHOB .D:I1KAPHbIE CJIOI1. BO/lX08CKUU ua-
OT OChIllaHH5I; pacnpocTpaHeHHble pa3- .D:EPH. rYCTO 3apOCIllHH TpaBOH Bepx- 8ecmHRK.
MephI AepHHHhI - 0,5 apIIIHHa B AJIHHY, HHH CJIOH rrO'IBhI, B KOTOPOM TeCHO
.D:I1KI1E KAMHI1. Ey/lbt:J/CHUK B rre'I-
6 BepIllKoB B IIIHPHHY H 2-3 BepIIIKa B neperrJIeTeHHhJe KOpHH H KopHeBH~a
c03AaIOT no~o6He rpy6oro BOHJIOKa. Ke-KaMeHKe.
TOJI~HHy.

.D:I1KI1H KAMEHb (=nOITeBOH Ka-


.D:EPHOBA5I O.D:mK.D:A. 3a~HTHOe .D:)KA.D:)l(. IIoJIKa B KOMH-nepM51~KOH
MeHb). CepblH MeJIK03epHHcThlH rpaHHT
nOKphlTHe oepHOM 3eMJI5IHhIX CKJIOHOB, ua6e (1). H3 oKpecTHocTeH COpTaBaJIhI.
COCT05l~ee H3 ropH30HTaITbHhlX pSI~OB
.D:)l(ATMA (=xaJIyaH). HaBec Ha CTOJI-
npSIMoyrOITbHblX oepHuH, YJIO)KeHHbIX .D:I1KI1H UBET. CepaSI oKpacKa.
6ax no maBHoMY q,acaAY Kapa'iaeB-
TpaBoH BHH3 HarroA06He KHpnH'IHOH .D:I1HAC. OrHeynopHhlH KHpnH'I H3
CKoro ~OMa.
K/laOKU (c HeCOBrraAeHHeM BepTHKaITb- 3epeH KpynHOMOJIOTOrO KBapIIa, CB5I-
HhIX CThIKOB B coceAHHx p5lAax) JIH60 H3 .D:)l(I1E. 3HMH5I5I 5IKYTCKa5I IOpma C Kap-
3aHHhlX He60JIhIIIHM KOJIH'IeCTBOM H3Be-
KBa~paTHhlx AepHHH, pa3Me~eHHhlx KaCOM H3 qeTblpex HJIH BOChMH CTOIT6oB,
CTH IIITH rITHHbI.
nJIaIIIM5I no CKrrOHY, TpaBoH BBepx; B Ha KOTophle onHpaeTC5I qeThlpexyroITb-
060HX BapHaHTax Ka)K~aSI ~epHHHa Kpe- Ha5I 6peBeH'IaTa51 paMa, nO~~ep)KHBa­ .D:I1HrE3. HU2ea.
nHTC5I K rpyHTy TpeMSI HJIH 'IeThlpbMSI lO~a5I HaK.JIOHHhJe )Kepp;H CTeH C rJIHH5I-
.D:110P AMA. 1 IIaHopaMHoe H306pa)Ke-
CIIHIIaMH. HOH 06MaaKou.
HHe, 06'he~HH5IIO~ee He3aMKHYThlH Bor-
.D:EPHOBA5I YJII1TKA. .D:eKopaTHB- .D:)l(hIHrbILJ. 3aKpenITeHHa5I Ha cepe- HYThlH B nJIaHe )KHBOnHCHhIH 3aAHHK H
Hoe napKOBoe coopY)KeHHe H3 3eMITH C ~HHe BblCOThl 3a~HeH CTeHhl B Kapa'iaeB- nepe~HHH nITaH, KOTOPhlH 3anOJIHeH

-54-
A AlllnnA31110H - AOCKA 55

OO'beMHhIMH qmrypaMH, npe~MeTaMH, ,n:OJIbfAY3. J(onnwya. )J,OPHqECKHM OP,Il,EP. O~HH H3 oc-


coopY)KeHIDIMH, IIOB03KaMH H T. ~. HOBHhIX apxHTeKTypHhIX opoep06, ~JIH
2 IIaHopaMa C )KI{BOIIHCHhIM 3a~HHKOM ,n:OJIbMEH. ,n:OHcTOpHqeCKOe IIorpe- KOToporo xapaKTepHhI CY)KaIOll\He-
Ha IIp03pa'lHoH OCHOBe, qepe3 KOTOpyIO 6aJIhHOe coopY)KeHHe H3 BepTHKaJIhHhIX
(B H300pa)KeHHH OKOH, JIYHhI H T. II.) KaMeHHhlX IIJIHT, HaKphIThIX ropH30H-
IIpOHCXO~HT He3aMeTHru! IIO~CBeTKa TaJIhHOH IIJIHToM.
TpeXMepHoro IIepe~Hero IIJIaHa.

,n:HIIJIA3HOH. ,n:BOHHOH pmlJIh C KJIa-


BHaTypoH Ha ~BYX CTOPOHax.

,n:HCKAHT. 3aa60HHblU KonOKon.

)J,JIHHHHK. 1 Epe6Ho, 6pyc (1) HJIH


oocKa (1), YJIO)KeHHhle B~OJIh cTpoe-
HIDI. 2 (=)Kep~HHK). JIecoMaTepHaJI ~JIH
,n:OM. 1 )l(HJIHll\e (COBOKYIIHOCTh )KH-
IIIeCTOB. 3 Pa3Mep B ~JIHHY.
JIhIX H He)KHJIhIX IIoMell\eHHM B O~HOM
,n:HEBHbIE qACbl. PyccKue 'WCbl. 3~aHHH). 2 HMeHHe. 3 QeHTp ~epKoB­
HOH BOTqHHhI (HalIpHMep: ~OM CB. Eoro-
)J,HEllIHHM fPM. J(emuHeu,.
pO~H~hI). 4 TOproBhIH KOMIIJIeKC.
CH KBepxy KaHlIenUp06allHble KonOHHbl
,n:OEOP. Pe3epBHoe paCIIIHpeHHe 3JIe-
,Il,OMAHHK. llpolIHTaHHhIH Heq)ThIO 6e3 6aa, 3aBepIIIeHHhle 3XUHOM H a6a-
MeHTOB U{um060W napKema, OOJIerqa-
rJIHHHCThIM CJIaHe~, YlIoTpeOJISIBIIIHMCSI KOM, a TaK)Ke ¢pua C MemOnaMU H mpu-
IOll\ee HX YlIoTpeOJIeHHe oe3 IIpe~BapH­
Ha H3rOTOBJIeHHe cmoneUlHUl{, IIO~O­ znu¢aMu.
TeJIhHOrO paCqeTa IIO~ IIJIOll\a,n;h IIOMe-
KOHHHKOB H T. ~.
ll\eHIDI H II03BOJIHIOll\ee TOqHO IIo~ro­ ,Il,OPH. 1 OCh, BOKpyr KOTOPOH Bpa-
HHTh TaKHe Il\HThI rryTeM qaCTHqHOM ,Il,OM EO)l(HM (=~OM foclIo~eHh). ll\aIOTCH rrOJIOBHHKH ,n;BepHOH IIeTJIH.
IIO~pe3KH Ha MeCTe yKJIa~KH. QepKoBh. 2 KpyrJIhIH HJIH qeThlpexrpaHHhIH
CTep)KeHh ~BepHoH pyqKH, IIOBOpaqH-
,Il,OfA. IIypxa. ,Il,OM BEKA. fp06, MOrMJIa.
BaIOll\HH U{eKonoy HJIH IIepeMell\aIO-
,Il,030PHbIM IIYTb. 'Y3KHH IIpOXO~ ,Il,OM BCEX CKOPE5IIUHX. CYMac- Il\HH 3a,n;BH)KKY.
Me~y cTeHKoM aCKapna H 6pycm6epoM, IIIe,n;IIIHM ~OM.
,Il,OPHOBA KPOBJI5I. llJIocKaH Kpbl-
IIpe,n;Ha3HaqeHHhIM ,n;JIH OOOpOHhI IIpH-
,n:OM fOCIIO,n:EHb. J(OM EoJICuu. uta H3 CMeCH rJIHHhI, IIeCKa, CMOJIhI,
KphIToro rryTH H rpeoHH znacuca, a
,n;y60BOH KOPhI, a TaK)Ke Mxa, MHKHHhI,
TaK)Ke ~JIH pa3Mell\eHHH qaCOBhlX ~030- ,Il,OM-,Il,BOP. XapaKTepHoe P;JIH Pyc-
KOCTPH~hI, KopoBheH IIIepcTH HJIH ~py­
POB B HOqHOe BpeMH. CKoro CeBepa KpeCThHHCKoe )KHJIHll\e C
rHX M~J:rKHX MaTepHaJIOB.
IIpHMoyro.TIhHhIM IIJIaHOM, 06'be~HHH­
,n:OM,Il,Y C3Pf3T3. PH,n; KOHOBH3eH Ha
IOll\ee U36y (1), cellu H KphIThIH X03HH- ,n:OPOfA. Cpe,n;IDIH IIOJIoca neqHoro
.,.MeCTe, r~e HKYThI OTMeqaIOT IIpa3~HHK
cTBeHHhIH 060P (2) B ~Ba Hpyca. nooa, IIO KOTOPOH ~BH)KeTCH JIOlIaTa IIpH
hIChIaX.
BhIIIeqKe xJIe6a.
,,Il,C>K. CoopY)KeHHe ,n;JIH IIOJIHOrO BHe-
,n:OPOfH (=~aparH). 1 lloJIocaTaH
IIIHero OCMOTPa H peMOHTa KOpaOJIeH.
(pe)Ke KJIeTqaTaH) TKaHh BOCTOqHOro
,Il,OKHMACTWIECKA5I JIAMllA. IIpOHCXO~eHHH, HHor~a C 30JIOThIM H

OCBeTlITeJIhHhIH IIPHOOp, II03BOJIH- cepe6pHHhIM IIIHTheM, - cTpYHqaThIMH


IOll\HH O~HOBpeMeHHO KHIIHTHTh Ha HeM Y30paMH, H306pa)KeHHHMH ,n;epeBheB H
BO~Y· TpaB. 2 llapaJIJIeJIhHhle rrOJIOChI Ha TKa-
HH. 3 llapaJIJIeJIhHhle )KeJIOOKH.
,,Il,OJI. llIHpOKHH )KeJIoo.
,Il,OPOfHJIbHbIM. llIeJIKOBhIH.
',Il,OJIEE)l(A. IIpHMoyroJIhHoe meaoo
,Il,OM HOqJIEfA. HO'lJleJICHbIU OOM.
(1), BhI,n;OJIOJIeHHOe B O,n;HOM 6pe6He ~JIH ,n:OPO)l(KA. 1 ,Il,JIHHHhIH IIOJIOBHK H3
IIJIOTHoro CKpelIJIeHIDI C IIIHIIOM ~pyroro ,Il,OMOBHIUE. 1 BpeMeHHoe )KHJIOe IIeHhKH, OOhlqHO YKpaIIIeHHhIH pa3Ho-
opeBHa. coopY)KeHHe (6nuHoaJIC, aeMnRHlW, 6a- ~BeTHhIMH IIOlIepeqHhIMH IIOJIOCaMH.
paK), OOhIqHO IIpH 3eMJIHHhIX pa60Tax. 2 lloJIoca Ha TKaHH, OTJIHqaIOll\aHCH IIO
,n: OJIf APb. IInacmuHa.
211pHTOH. ~BeTy OT <poHa.
,n:OJIfA5I ,n:PAHb. J(paHKa ~JIHHOH
,n:OMOBbIM PbIHOK. MecTo IIpO- ,Il,OPO)l(HHK. Eazem, IIP0<pHJIHpoBaH-
OKOJIO 5 M.
,n;a)KH rOTOBhIX ,n;epeBHHHhIX cpy606. HhIH p;epeBHHHhIH KapHU3.
,n:OJI)l(E5I (=~OJI)Kh). llpo~oJIhHaH BhI-
,Il,OM TPY,n:OJIIOEH5I. EJIarOTBOpH- ,n:OPO)l(HOE IIOJIOTHO. 1l0JIoca
eMKa B 6pe611e.
TeJIhHhIM IIpHIOT, B KOTOPOM rrpeCTape- 3eMJIH, IIpe,n;Ha3HaqeHHaH P;JIH IIpOe3~a.
,n:OJI)l(HHA. IInacmuHa. JIhle H HeMOll\Hhle BhIIIOJIHHJIH HeCJIO)K-
,Il,OPTYAP (=p;opToap). 0611\ru! ClIaJIh-
Hhle paOOThI.
,Il,OJIHK (=MeJIKHM ,n;OJI). )l(eJIOOOK. IDI B naHCUOHe. (1).
,Il,OP. KpOBeJIhHhle ,n;Oll\eqKH H3 p;peBe-
,Il,OJIJIfAY3 (=,n;OJIJIhraY3, ~OJIhray3). CHHhI XBOMHhIX rropo,n;, P;JIHHOH ,n;o ca)Ke-
,n:OPYEKA. llpHcTpoeHHhIH HJIH Hap;-
llcHXHaTpl{qecKaH OOJIhHH~a. cTpoeHHhIH cpy6.
HH, TOJIll\HHOH P;O 1/8 p;IOHMa H IIIHPHHOH
,n:OJIOHb. YTpaMooBaHHoe pOBHoe 3-4 BepIIIKa; ynoTpe6JIHJIHCh TaK)Ke Ha ,n:OCKA. 1 BhIIIHJIeHHru! HJIH BhITecaH-
MeCTO ~JISI MOJIOThOhI, TOK. YCTPOHCTBO OpaHU'lHbIX 3a60poB. HaH H3 ~epeBa p;JIHHHaH nnacmUHa,

-55-
~ocnEWHSI - ~blMHOE OKHO 56

IIIJlpJlHa KOTOPOR HaMHOrO 60JIhIIIe TOJI- )lPEBECHbII1: UEMEHT. CMech Aer- KJlaOKe rre'lJl, 'lepe3 KOTOPhIH TerrnhIH
rn;JlHhI, COCTaBmnOrn;eH OT 3/8 BepIIIKa TSI, KaMeHHoyrOJIhHOH CMOJIhI JI cephI, B03AYX nonaAaeT BHyTph nOMern;eHHSl.
11.0 3 BepIIIKoB. 2 IIpSiMoyroJIhHaSi Ka- CKJIeHBaIOrn;aSI CJIOJl B ApeBecHo-n;eMeHT- 3 OTBepCTJle B OKOHHOH paMe, nporryc-
MeHHaSI JlJIJI MeTaJIJIJI'leCKaSI nJIJlTa C HOR KpOBJIe. KaIOrn;ee CBe)KHH B03AYX B KOMHaTY·
TeKCTOM, BMYpoBaHHaSI B cTeHY. 3 Coe-
)lPEBO)lEJIAHME. IIJIoTHJI'lHoe CTO- )lbIBA. OrropHbIH CTOJI6 AJISI KOJIOAe3-
AJlHeHHaSI BJlHTaMJI C AepeBSIHHoH OCHO-
JISipHOe HCKYCCTBO. HOro JlCypa6JlR.
BOR nOnOBJlHa ABepHoR JlnJl OKOHHOR
zuapftUpftOU nem.tlu. )lPEH. Tpy6a (mJlHSlHaSI, KaMeHHaSI )lbIJIM. ,aOCKU (1) TOJIrn;JlHOH 10 CM,
JIJl60 lI.epeBSIHHaSI) HJIJI rrOll.3eMHhIR JlCrrOJIh3yeMhle AJISI cpy60B )KJIJIhIX
)lOCIIEIIIlUI. IIPOJl3BOACTBeHHoe no-
KaHaJI (H3 KaMeHHhIX rrnHT, KJlprrJl'la, nOCTpoeK Ha IOro-3arraAe POCCJlH
Mern;eHJle JlJIJI 3AaHJle.
fjJaUtuft, XBopocTa, )KepAeH JlJIJI OOCOK (06hI'lHO C YCTaHOBKOH Ha pe6po H npJl-
)lOCQATbII1: PYCT. ,aoU{amblu pycm. (1) Jl3 ApeBecHHhI CMOJIHCThlX nopoA) na30BKOH CeAJIOM).
AJISI oTBoAa rrO'lBeHHhIX BOA. )lbIMAPb. He JlMeIOrn;aSI 3aCJIOHKJI
)lOXO)lHAH YCA)lbBA. MMeHJle, B
KOTOPOM Ha3Ha'leHJle H rpynnHpoBKa )lPEHA)K. Y CTPORCTBO AJISI oTBoAa BhICOKaSI H IIIJlPOKaSI AhIMOBaSI Tpy6a
coopY)KeHHR, a TaK)Ke Y'laCTKOB TeppJl- H36hITO'lHhIX rpYHTOBhIX BOA. ceBepo-KaBKa3cKoro )KJIJIJlrn:a, CnJIeTeH-
TOpHH onpeAeJISIIOTCSI He 3CTeTH'leC- HaSI Jl3 rrpYTbeB JI 06Ma3aHHaSi rJIJlHOH;
)lPEHMHA. ,apaHKa. BHYTPJl nepeceKaeTcSI rrepeKJIa,QJlHOH C
KHMH C006pa)KeHHSlMH, a nOTpe6HO-
CTSIMH TOBapHoro npOH3BOACTBa. )lPMH. 1 KphIThIH KpecTbSlHcKHR 060P u:enhIO AJISI rroABecKJI KOTJIa.
(2). 2 )lepeBSIHHbIR HaBec Ha KpecThSIH- )lbIMBOJIOK. 1 OTBepCTJle B BepxHeu
)lOXO)lHbII1: )lOM. ,aOM (1) C KBapTH-
CKOM o6ope (1, 2). 'laCTH CTeH KYPHOU U36bl, 'lepe3 KOTO-
paMJI H OTAeJIhHhIMJI KOMHaTaMJI, cAa-
poe BbIXOAHT' ne'lHOH AhIM. 2 )lorn;aTaSi
BaeMhIMJI B HaeM. )lPOBMHA (=lI.pa6J1Ha). IIpJlcTaBHaSI
AhIMOBaSI Tpy6a. 3 (=60pOB). JIe)Ka'lJlH
)lO:W;ATA5I CBA5I. TIpeAHa3Ha'leHHaSi AepeBSIHHaSI JIeCTHJln;a.
AbIMOBOH KaHaJI Ha 'leplI.aKe.
AJISI B6HsaHHSl B rpYHT CJIa60H HJIH cpeA-
)lCKA. 1,aocKa (1).2 IIJIOCKaSI maAKaSi
HeH TBepAocTH Y3KaSI AepeBSIHHaSI C6aR C )lbIM HA BbIOIIIKY. Pa3Mern;eHHe
rroBepxHocTh AepeBa, MeTaJIJIa JIJl60
rpe6HeM TpeyrOJIhHOrO Ce'leHHSI. BhIOIIIKH Ha rryTJI AhIMa cBepxy.
KaMHSI, rrpeAHa3Ha'leHHaSI AJISI )KJlBOrrHC-
)lO:W;ATOE )KEJIE30. JIHcToBoe HbIX JlJI,JI pe3Hblx Jl306pa)KeHJlH. )lbIMHMK. 1 )lepeBSIHHaSI AhIMOBaSI
KOBaHoe )KeJIe30 AmI Kp06eJlb. Tpy6a Hall. Kp06Jleu. 2 OTBepCTJle AJISI
)lY. ryaft.
BhIxoAa rre'lHOrO AhIMa B nOTOJIKe HJIJI
)lO:W;ATbIE )lBEPM. Ha60pHhle ABep- CTeHe KYPftOU U36bl. 3 KypftaR U36a.
)lYB)lA. JIaMaJlCTCKJlH OTIIIeJIhHJI'le-
Hhle nOJIOTHJlrn;a H3 HeCKOJIhKHX MeTaJI- 4 )leKopaTHBHoe 3aBepIIIeHHe AhIMOBOR
CKJlR MOHacTblpb, Crren;HaJIJl3J1pOBaH-
JIJI'leCKHX JIHCTOB, Ha CThlKax KOTOPhlX Tpy6hI Ha)l; Kp06Jleu.
HbIH Ha c03epu:aTeJIbHOM rrOABJI)KHH'le-
peIIIeTKa H3 )KeJIe3HhIX nOJIOc.
CTBe.
)lO:W;ATbII1: PYCT (=AOC'laThIH PyCT).
)lYBOBbII1: KMPIIMQ. MaCCJlBHble
. PYCT B BHAe HerrpephIBHhlX ropH30H-
ily60Bhle 6pYCKU (1) AJISI nOJIa, HaCTJI-
TaJIhHhIX rrOJIOC, IIIJlpJlHa KOTOPhIX He
JIaeMhle Ha rroAocHoBY Jl3 rreCKa.
HaMHoro rrpeBocxoAHT rrpocBeThI Me~y
HJlMJI (Me~ypYCThSI). )lyrAH. JIaMaJlcTcKJlH xpaM.

)lPAHKA (=ApaHHn;hl). 1 MaTepJlaJI )lY)lKA. 1 IIIaXTa AJISI A06hI'lJl PYAbI.


AJISI Kp06eJlb AepeBeHcKHX CTPoeHHH, 2 BbICOKaSi Y3KaSI nOJlYKOJlOftfta B ApeB-
JlMeIOrn;JlH BHA O'leHh AJIJlHHhIX KOJIOThIX HepyccKoM 301l.'leCTBe.
COCHOBhIX AOrn;e'leK (06hI'lHO AJIJlHOH 11.0
)lYJI3. Pe3Hoe 3aBepIIIeHHe npJlrrOAHSI-
Ca)KeHH H IIIHPHHOH 11.0 'leThlpex sePIII-
TOro yrJIa B Jl30rHYToH Kp06Jle 6YAAHH-
KOB); no KpblUte pacnOJIaraeTCSI ropH-
CKoro KYJIbTOBOro coopY)KeHJlSI.
30HTaJIhHhlMH pSIAaMJI C HanycKoM JI
CKperrJISIeTCSI C o6peUtemKOu ftaZeJlRMU )lYMII-BAI1:TEP. CTOJIHK C TPeMSI
JlJIH rB03ASIMH. 2 COcHoBhle Jly'lJlHhI, KpyrJIbIMH cmOJleUtftuu,aMU Ha 06rn;eH
AJISI 06J1BKJI CTeH rroA IIITyKarypKy. cToHKe rro JlX n;eHTpy.

)lP AHhE. KOJIOThle COCHOBhle AOCKJI )lYTMK. )leq,eKTHhIH rrY3hlp'laTbIH


(6oJIee rpy6hle JI AeIIIeBhle, 'leM rrJlJle- 6yropoK Ha"oIIITYKaTypeHHoH rroBepx-
Hhle). HOCTJI.
)lYXOBA5I IIEQb. OTOIlJlTeJIhHbIH )lbIMHMUA. 1 )lepeBSIHHaSI Tpy6a Ha):\
)lP AIIMPOBKA. 06HBKa CTeH HJIJI
npJl60p, BKJIIO'laIOrn;JlH B ce6SI Tpy6y, Kp06JleU, npeAHa3Ha'leHHaSI AJISI YAaJIe-
Me6eJIJlMaTepJleR. KOTOPaSI OAHJlM OTKpbIThIM KOHn;OM HJlSI AhIMa Jl3 'lepAa'lHorO rrpOCTPaH-
)lPAIIPM. CKJIaA'laThIH 3aHaBec B COrrpJlKaCaeTcSI C BHeIIIHHM B03AYXOM, cTBa, - 06hI'lHO HaXOAJlJIaCb HaAoTBep-
ABepHoM npoeMe Uftmepbepa. 3aTeM rrepexoAHT B CrrJlpaJIh nocpeAJI CTHeM B rrOTOJIKe u36bl. 2 KOrrTJlJIhHSl.
TOnJIHBHHKa H 3aKaH'lHBaeTCSI ApyrHM 3 )lepeBHSI.
)lPEBECHO-UEMEHTHA5I KPOB- OTKpbIThIM KOHn;OM B rrOMern;eHJIJI (co-
JUI. TIoKphITJle H3 'leThlpex JlJIH 60JIee )lbIMHOE OKRO. He60JIhIIIOe ropH-
ceAHeM JIJl60 Ha APyroM 3Ta)Ke).
CJIOeB 6YMarJl, CKJIeeHHhIX Me)KAY C060H 30HTaJIhHOe OKHO B BepXHeH 'laCTH Kyp-
Ope6eCftbLM u,eMeftmOM (cp.: rOJlbU,u,e- )lYIIIHMK. 1 BeHTJlJISIn;JlOHHhIH KaHaJI ftOU U36bl, npeAHa3Ha'leHHOe II.nSI BhI-
MeftmftaR Kp06JlR). B CTeHe JlJIJI rrepeKphITJlJI. 2 KaHaJI B XOAa rre'lHOrO AhIMa.

-56-
A AbiMOBHHK - AlOnEH 57

,lJ;hIMOBHMK (=pa3AeJIKa). llepexoA-


HOH KaHaJI Me)!(AY IIe'lblO H AbIMOBOH
Tpy60H.

,lJ;hIMOBOll KAHAJI. ,l.(bl.MOXOO.

,lJ;hIMOfAPHA5I llEqh. OTOnHTeJIb-


Hoe YCTPOHCTBO, B KOTOPOM C)!(HraIOTCSI
MeJIb'laHIUHe roplO'IHe 'IaCTHn;bI, nonaB-
IUHe B }l;bIM.

,lJ;hIMOOEOPOThI. llocJIeAOBaTeJIbHO
CBSI3aHHhle napaJIJIeJIbHbIe KaHaJIbI BHY-
TJilIl ne'lH, no KOTOPbIM 3aMe}l;JIeHHO
npOXOAHT ropSI'IHH AbIM, OT}l;aBaSI TenJIO
nOMeru;eHIISIM.

,lJ;hIMOOTBO,lJ;. MeTaJIJIH'leCKaSI
BCTaBKa B Bepx AbIMOBOH Tpy6bI HJIH
)!(eJIe3HaSI nOBopOTHaSI HacaAKa Ha Hee
(pAlozaplCa), 3aru;tlru;alOru;He BbIXOA
AbIMa OT OCa}l;KOB H BeTpa.

,lJ;hIMOXO,lJ; (=AbIMOBOH KaHaJI). Ka-


HaJI }l;JISI OTBO}l;a AblMa 113 TonKH.

,UbIM llO,lJ; BbIOlliKY. Pa3Meru;eHHe


6blOUlKU Ha nYTH }l;bIMa CHH3Y.

,UhIHhKA. lliapOBH}l;HOe paCIUHpeHHe


nocpeAH He60JIbIUOH ApeBHepYCCKOH

1C0JlOHHbi HJIH nOJlYKOJlOHHbl, 06bI'IHO


pa3AeJIeHHOe Ha BepTHKaJIbHbIe }l;OJIbKH.

,UbIXJIO. BOJlOIC080e OKHO.

,lJ;h5IKOHHMK. llpHMbIKalOru;ee C lOra


K OCHOBHOMY 06'beMY aJlmapR nOMeru;e-
HHe, B KOTOPOM xpaHSITCSI 06JIa'leHHSI
CBRru;eHHOCJIY)!(HTeJIeH H 3anaCHaR n;ep-
KOBHaSI YTBapb.

,lJ;h5IKOHCKME BPATA. IO)!(HbIH


BXO}l; B aJlmapb 'Iepe3 UKOHocmac.

,lJ;33BMP. BOHJIO'lHbIH Bepx TYSHHCKOH


IOpmbl.

,lJ;IOfEPJIMK. 1 06Ma3aHHbIH rJIHHOH


rpH30HTaJIbHbIH nJIeTeHb Ha}l; OTKPbI-
TbIM O'larOM BHYTpH 1C0Ula, 3aru;Hru;a-
IOru;HH KPblUlY OT B03ropaHHSI. 2 HaCTHJI
113 6pe6eH HJIII )!(ep}l;eH, HrpalOru;HH pOJIb
nOJlameu (1, 2) B Kapa'laeBCKOM }l;OMe C
rrpHcTeHHbIM O'larOM.

,UIOllMOBKA. llIeJle8ICa TOJIru;HHOH


1 }l;IOHM.
,UIOJIEH. HaHaHcKHH IUaMaHHcTcKHH
H}l;OJI C KBaApaTHoH HJIH llRTHyrOJIbHOH
rOJIOBOH, BbICe'leHHbIH 113 KaMHR HJIH
Bblpy6JIeHHbIH H3 }l;epeBa B Ky60BH}l;HbIX
<popMax.

-57-
EBH5I. 3epHOCYIllHJIKa. EJIYM, EJIYHMUA. IIoMocT H3 cBaH H
)l(ep):leH, IIpe):lHa3HaqeHHhIH ):IJISI CYIllKH
EBPEMCKMM KPECT. AllmOl-lUe6
phI6hI H CHaCTeH.
KpeCm.
EMBOJI. XO):l, YJIHI.\a.
ErMIlETCKMM KPECT. <pHrypa B
BH):Ie 6YKBhI «T», ):IOIIOJIHeHHaSI cBepxy EHAOBA. 1 BIIa):llIHa Me)l():IY BhIIIY-
KOJIhU;oM, KOTOpOe IIpHMhIKaeT K CThIKY KJIhIMII IIoBepxHocTSIMH Kp06/1U. 2 OT-
BepTHKaJIH C rOpH30HTaJIhlO. KphITaSI qaCTh X03SIHcTBeHHoro o6opa
(1) B PYCCKOH KpecThSIHcKOH ycaob6e,
EAMHOPOr. K.rteiiMo rocY):lapCTBeH-
3aKphIBaBIllaSIcSI Ha 3HMY ):IepeBSIHHhIM
HhIX 3aBO):lOB Ha KHpIIHqaX XVII B.
lI\HTOM HJIH COJIOMOH.
E3 (= 33). qacTOKOJI HJIH IIJIeTeHh, IIe- EHIIEJIbEC. KpaCllblU ylO/I B KOMH-
perOpa)l(HBalOlI\HH peKy Ha BCIO IllHpH- IIepMSII.\KOH U36e (1).
Hy H IIpeIISITCTBYIOlI\HH ):IBH)I(eHHIO PhI-
6hI IIpOTHB TeqeHHSI. EHYB IIEJIbEC. KpaCllblU ylO/I B U36e
(1) KOMII-3hlpSIH.
EIIAHqA (=cKlIp):la). KpYTaSI qeThI-
pexcKaTHaSI Kp06/1Jl C roplI30HTaJIhHhIM
pe6poM HaBepxy.
EP YPbIHAbIK. 3eMJISIHhle HaphI B
6aIllKHpcKOM )l(IIJIHlI\e.

EKATEPMHMHCKME MMJIM. B03- EM. IIpocTpaHcTBo 6aIllKIIpcKOH U36bl


Be):leHHhie B 1784 r. K IIYTeIllecTBHIO (1,2).
EKaTepHHhI II B KphIM KaMeHHhIe
):IOpO)l(Hhle 3HaKH B BH):\e HH)I(HeH qaCTH EKMbIC IIEJIbECA KEPKA. H36a-
TocKaHcKoH KO/lOllllbl Ha nOcmaMellme, Kpecm06UK Y KOMH-3hlpSIH.
OXBaqeHHOH IllecTHrpaHHoH MyifJmou. EKYCMUY. EaHSI B COCTaBe ):I33H-6Y):I-
EJIAM. 1 KOCJlK, ):IBepHaSI npUmO/lOKa. ):IlIHCKOro xpaMoBoro KOMIIJIeKca.
2 IIopor B ):IBepHOM IIpoeMe. 3 KphITaSI EPMUYKM. IIplIeMHaSI B SIIIOHCKOM
za/lepeJl. qaHHOM na6U11bOlle (1, 2).
EJIEYT C3pr3T3. YCTaHOBJIeHHaSI Ha EPllI. AJIHHHhIH )l(eJIe3HhIH HJIH MeA-
SIKYTCKOH MOrHJIe KOHOBSI3h, IIpHHa):lJIe- HhIH rB03):1h C 3a3y6plIHaMH, YCHJIHBa-
)l(aBIllaSI IIOKOHHHKY. 1OlI\IIMII ero CI.\eIIJIeHlIe C ):IpeBeCIIHOH
EJIOBqMK. <PJIar, BhIMIIeJI. IIJIII IIHhIM MaTeplIanOM.

ETEPMCb IIOCOA3. rJIyxoe


KPhIJIhI.\O KOMII-IIepMSII.\KOrO KpeCThSIH-
CKOro oOMa (1, 2).

58

-58-
)KAEhIY. PaCIIHlTM arrrrJIHKaTHBHblM )KAPOBOli KAHAn. BblTHHYTaH qeHHbIMII. CTeHaMII. II. IIOJIOM H3 .!\epeBHH-
OpHaMeHTOM BOHJIOqHaH HJIH CYKOHHaH rrOJIOCTb BO BHYTpeHHeH CTeHe 3):1aHHH, HblX nllacmuH, rrJIOTHO Ha6HBaeMblR
3aHaBeCb, 3aKpblBalOll\M rrOJIKH B 6aJI- pacIIpocTPaHHIOll\M B):IOJIb rrOMell\eHHjJ Ka6aHaMH - rrpHMoyrOJIbHblMH 6JIOKa-
KapCKOM )l{HJIHll\e. B03):1YX rrOCJIe ero rrporpeBa KallopucjJe- MH JIb):la.
PO.M.
)KAKOEOBCKA5I TYMEA. HH)l{HHH )KEMqY)KHMK. CBoHcTBeHHblH uo-
qaCTb 1<:aI-tHellUp06aHHOU
KOllOHHbl C )KrYT. ApxHTeKTypHoe YKpaIIIeHHe C HU'leCKO.MY H KOPUHcjJCKO.MY opoepaM
6aaou, HCIIOJIb3yeMaH B KaqeCTBe noc- KOCOH rrope3KoR MJIH HaKJIOHHblMH apxHTeKTypHblH ):IeKOp B BH):Ie Herrpe-
maMeHma ):IJIH He60JIbillOR CKYJIbIITypbl, rrapaJIJIeJIbHblMH nOIlY6a11UKaMU, Harro- PblBHOro pH):\a KpyrJIblX HJIH OBaJIbHblX
Ba3bl H T. II. MHHalOll\ee BepeBKY.

)KAITO. BepXHHR KOHe~ rpOMOOTBO):la. )KEAEIIOM. IIJIoll\a):lKa ):IJIH O):lHO-


HMeHHoR Hrpbl B Mjlq paKeTKaMH.
)KAnh. 1 MOrMJIa. 2 EOJIbHH~a.
)KEITE. qeqeHCKHR ):IOM-XJIeB, rrepe-
)KAnhHHK. 1 ITecHoe KJIa):\6Hll\e,
KpblTblH IIOJICHbt.M C6000.M H3 KaMeHHblX 6yc, pa3):1eJIeHHblX ):IHcKaMH, rrJIOCKOCTb
Ha KOTOPOM XOPOHMJIH caMoy6HR~ H
rrJIHT. KOTOPblX rreprreH):lHKYJIHpHa rroBepxHo-
MepTBOpO)l{):leHHblX ):IeTeH. 2 MOrHJIa.
CTH CTeHbI.
3 IIorocT. 3 BOJICeOO.MKa. :)KEJIE3HEHME. OT):IeJIKa 6eToHHoro
rrOJIa rrYTeM pa3rJIa)l{HBaHHH H 3aTHpa- )KEHhCKOIIOITHE. )KeHcKHR t.tep-
)KAnI03H. CTaBHH,
HM )l{eJIe3HOR TepKoH TOHKoro CJIOH mOl, rrOMell\eHM ):IJIjJ )l{eHrn;HH.
rrOMell\eHHe OT BHeiliHero CBeTa, 3HOH H
pacTBopa, COCTOjJll\ero H3 IIOpTJIaH):l-
rrocTopoHHHX B3rM):IOB, HO rrporrycKa- )KEP ABUhl. CTOJI6bl rroBopoTHoro
~eMeHTa H IIeCKa.·
IOll\M B03):1YX q_epe3 qaCTble roPH30H- MexaHH3Ma Y rrO):lbeMHoro MOCTa.
TaJIbHble ll\eJIH Me)l{):IY HaKJIOHHblMH )KEITE3HOAOPO)KHhIli MArA-
IIJIaHKaMH. 3MH. CKJIa):l HHBeHTapH H MaTepHaJIOB )KEPAEBOli EAPAK. IIpHMoyroJIb-
)];JIH peMoHTa )l{eJIe3HO):lOpO)l{HOrO IIYTH. Hoe MJIH KpyrJIOe B rrJIaHe IIOMern;eHHe C
)KAM5IT. Maxlla.
HaKJIOHHblMH CTeHKaMH H3 ropH30H-
)KEJIE3H5IK. IIepe)l{)l{eHHblH TeMHO-
)KAPAMHhEPKA. XY):IO)l{eCTBeHHo TaJIbHbIX )l{ep):leH, IIpHCblIlaHHblMH CHa-
KpacHblH KHprrHq ):IJIH KllaoKu l1oKolleu H
ocpopMJIeHHaH eMKOCTb ):IJIjJ ~BeTOB, PY)l{H 3eMJIeH ):IJIH YTeIIJIeHHjJ; BBepxy
CTeH B IIO):lBaJIax.
HMelOll\M BH):I Hll\HKa, KOP3HHbl, ama- CTeHKH CXO):lHTCH B TOqKY HJIH JIHHHIO.
JlCepKU, 20pKU (1) JIH60 CTOJIHKa, Y )KEJIE30-AC<I>AnhT. AccjJallbm C )KEPITO. Ycmbe.
KOToporo Ha MeCTe CmOlleutHul1bl C):Ie- MeTaJIJIHqeCKOR ap.Mamypou (2), rrpHMe-
JIaHa BbIeMKa ):IJISI IIOCa):lKH KOMHaTHbIX HSlBIIIHRCSI Ha Py6e)l{e XIX-XX BB. B )KEPHOB-yrOJI. YroJI Y ):IBepH B ua6e
~BeTOB. Tex qaCTHX 3)];aHII.R, KOTopbIe IIO):lBep- (1, 2) HH)l{eropO):lCKoro KpajJ ..
)l{eHbI pa3pYIIIII.TeJIbHoMY ):IeRCTBlI.1O
)KEPTBEHHHK. IIpHMblKalOrn;ee C
BJIarll. II.JIH e):lKII.X Bell\eCTB.
ceBepa K OCHOBHOMY aIImapHO.MY (1)
)KEITOEKM. KaHHelllopbt. 06beMY rrOMern;eHHe, B KOTOPOM cOBep-
IIIaeTCjJ HaqaJIO mnyprHH.
)KEJIOEqATA5I qEPEIIMUA. T.Jepe-
nUl1a, KP06I1R, 11.3 KOTOPOH rrpe):lCTaB- )KEPTBMIIIE. KanuU{e.
JISleT C060R pSl):l IIapaJIJIeJIbHblX c60p-
)KECTh. MgrKoe JIHCTOBOe )l{eJIe30
HbIX )l{eJI060B OT KapHuaa )];0 BO):lOCTOKa
BblCOKoro KaqeCTBa, rroKpblToe TOHKHM
rro):l CBeCOM KpblutU.
CJIOeM OJIOBa (0,005+0,25 MM); yrro-
)KEITYA0K. PaCIIOJIO)l{eHHbIR B HIDK- TpeOJIHeTcjJ, B qaCTHOCTH, KaK Kp06e./l,b-
HeR qaCTII. lIeoHuKa cpy6 C rrpoKoHoIIa- HbtU MaTepHaJI.

-59-
)I{ )l{ETE - )l{Y~KM 60

)l(ETE (=napHhle MOJIhI). BhlcTyna- )KHKOBHHA (=)KYKoBHHa) .. <I>Hryp- )l(HTHbIM )J,BOP (=)KIfTHOM ;rIBOp,
IOIn;He B Mope napaJIJIeJIhHhle OaM6bt, Haa ;rIBepHaa nem.tlR, BhITaHYTruI no- 3anaCHbIH npOBHaHTCKHH Mara3HH).
orpa)l{):\alOIn;He OT HaHOCOB BXO;rlHOH nepeK ;rIBepHoro nOJIOTHHIn;a. rpynna CTpoeHHH, B KOTOPhIX xpaHH-
KaHaJI B nopT. JIHCh 3anaChi xJIe6a.

)KEK. CTOJI B Y;rIMypTCKOH U36e (1, 2). )KHTbE. )l{lfJIOH 3Ta)K.

)KECTKHM BAlI. IIoJw'lKa C 3aKpy- )l(H5IITbI. BhlrHYTaa nOnepe'lHaa 6aJI-


Ka, nO;rl;rlep)KlfBalOIn;ruI .Mamuu,y (1) B
rneHHhIMH roPH30HTaJIhHhIMH pe6paMH.
6aJIKapCKOM )KIfJIHIn;e.
)KECTKHM KAEITYK. Ka6IlY'lOK C )KHITKA. )J,eKopaTHBHhIH noaCOK IIIH-
PHHOH OT 2 ;riO 5 MM, HCnOJIHeHHhIH B )KOITH ITECTHHUA. ITecTHHI~a C
BepTHKaJIhHhIM BepxHHM Y'laCTKoM.
TeXHHKe uHKpycmau,uu HJIH uHmapcuu ;rIepeBaHHhIMH cTyneHSlMH, CKperrJIeH-
)KECTKHM llOITYBAlI. IIoJtO'lKa co Ha H3;r1eJIHH H3 ;rIepeBa, MeTaJIJIa H T. ;rI. HhIMH 60JITaMH C MeTaJIJIHlJeCKHM Hecy-
cKpyrJIeHHhIM HIDKHHM pe6poM. J:IUlM KapKacoM.
)l(HPA. KY3HHI~a B a6a3HHcKoM ceJIe-
)K)K.EHMI 3EITEHA5I 3EMIT5I. Ko- HHH. )l(YK. rOpH30HTaJIhHruI 'laCTh 3aKJIa;rl-
pH'lHeBruI KpacKa, rrOJIY'leHHaa rrYTeM HOH OKOHHOH paMhI, npllJIeralOIn;ruI K
)l(HPAH)J,OITb (=6YKeT). EOJIhIIIOH nO;rlOKOHHHKY·
06)K1fra 3elle1tOU 3e.MIlU.
;rIeKOpHpoBaHHhIH nO;rlCBe'lHHK Ha He-
CKOJIhKO CBe'leH, 06hI'lHO YCTaHaBJIH- )KYKOBHHA. 1 )KuKoBuHa. 2 BhIllY-
)K)KEHMI KOCTb. "llepHaa KpacKa C
BaBIIIHHca Ha zepuooHe. KJIaa cTopoHa lOp6blllR (1). 3 0630JI,
KpacHoBaThIM OTTeHKOM, rrOJIyqaeMruI B
TyrroM KaHT 6pyca HJIH OTecaHHoro 6peB-
pe3YJIhTaTe o6yrJIHBaHHSI KOCTH.
Ha. 4 3 a60JIOHb , OCTaBJIeHHruI Ha pe6-
)KHBA5I EECE)J,KA. rpyrrrra ;rIepeBh- pax 6pyca. 5 Bna;rlHHa Me)l{):\y BeHu,aMU
eB, KpOHhI KOTOPhIX 06pa3ylOT rrO;rl06He 6peBeH.
CBooa Ha;rl Ca;rIOBOH CKaMheH.
)KYllA. 1 )J,peBHeCJIaBaHCKoe CeJIeHHe.
)KHBA5I 3AllPY)J,A. llpHchIIIaHHruI 2 PY;rlHHK.
3eMJIeH 3anpY;rla H3 cBe)Kecpy6JIeHHhIX )KYPABEU. 1 Ka)l{):\hIH H3 KPHBOJIH-
KOJIheB H XBopocTa, rrpeIISITcTBylOIn;ruI HeHHblX 3JIeMeHTOB KapKaca BHYTPH
06pYIIIeHHIO CKJIOHOB oBpara. ~epKoBHoH lllaBbt. 2 Pbl'lar KOJIO;rle3-

)KMBA5I 3A[~HT A. ITecoHaCa)l{):\eHHSI Horo JlCypaBIlR.


B;rIOJIh )KeJIe3HO;rlOpO)KHOrO rryTH, 3aIn;H-
In;alOIn;HeerO OT 3aHOCOB.

)l(HBMI H3rOPO)J,b. Y3KruI H rYCTaa


rrOJIoca nOCa;rlOK O;rlHHaKOBoM BhICOThI
)KHPA<I>A. ACHMMeTpH'lHOe cpopTe-
(KycTapHHKH HJIH ;rIepeBha) B;rIOJIh
nHaHO C BepTHKaJIhHhIMH cTpYHaMH (BhI-
;rIOpOrH IIJIH BOKpyr nOJIa, ca;rla, oropo;rla nycKaJIOCh BeHcKmi cpa6pHKoM BaxTJIa H
JIH60 HHoro CeJIhCKOX03aHcTBeHHoro EJIeMepa C 1804 no 1830 rr.).
yrO;rlha, nperpa)l{):\alOIn;ruI ;rIOcTyn JIIO)l;aM
H )KIfBOTHhIM, a TaK)Ke 3aJ:IUlIn;alOIn;aa OT
BeTPa H 3aHOCOB.

)KHBOM MOCT. )J,epeBaHHblH MOCT Ha


llJIaBalOIn;HX 6peBHax. )l(YPABITb. 3aKperrJIeHHaa Ha OCH
)Kep;rlb ;rIJIa nO;rl'beMa TSl)KeCTeH (HanpH-
)l(HBOllHCHbIE KPACKH. Pa3HO- Mep, BO;rlhI H3 KOlloou,a (1).
BH;rIHOCTh JlCUBOnUCU Kei1.Ma, npe;rlHa3Ha-
'leHHruI ;rIJIa CTeHonHCH no ;rIBYXCJIOHHOH
IIITYKaTypKe; xapaKTepH3yeTca 60JIh-
IIIOM apKocThlO WJeTa H MaToBoH no-
BepXHOCThlO nOCJIe YMepeHHoro CPHK-
cHpoBaHHSI pacTBopHMhIM KaJIHeBbIM
CTeKJIOM C nOMOIn;hlO rryJIbBepH3aTopa.

)KHBOllHCb KEMMA (= MHHepaJIh-


Hrul )KHBOnHch). MOHYMeHTaJIhHruI
CHJIHKaTHaa )KHBOnHCh, KOTopaa OCTaB- )KHPHbIM KAMEHb (=cTeaTHT, )KY"llKA. "llacTh 3aKJIa;rlHOH paMhI,
JIaeT OTKphIThIMH nophI B KaMeHHoM TaJIhK). KpeMHeKHCJIaa COJIh MarHe3HH, BhlcTynalOIn;aa H3 KaMeHHoH 3aKJIa;rlKH.
KJIa;rlKe. HCnOJIh3yeMruI npH H3rOTOBJIeHHH o60eB
)KY"llKH. lloBTOpalOIn;HHCa B ;rIpeBHe-
6eJIoro H ;rIPyrHx CBeTJIbIX KOJIepoB.
PYCCKOM cpaCa;rlHOM cppH3e ;rIeKOpaTHB-
)KH)J,KOE CTEKITO. BooRHoe cme-
)l(HTHHUA. 1 A.M6ap (1) C 3epHoBhIM HhIH MOTHB (pannopm) , COCTaBJIeHHhlM
KilO.
XJIe60M HJIH MYKOH. 2 MeCTO ;rIJIa CKJIa- H3 TPeyrOJIbHbIX Bna;rlHH, nepeMhI'lKH
)l(H)J,OBCKA5I CMOITA, )l(H)J,OB- ;rIHpOBaHHa (KJIa;rlOBaa, aM6ap (1), .Maza- Me)K;rIy KOTOPblMH o6pa3ylOT rrO;rl06He
CKHM KITEM. AcrjJaJtbm. 3UH, IIIKacp). 6YKBbI «)K».

-60-
3ABEf. CTyneH'laThIH nOBopoT JIeCT- 1 HaBllcalO~1UI H8):I KpenocTHoH cTeHoH 3ABIITEPbE. 3a6op (1) C HaBeCOM
HllqbI. ):IepeBHHHIUI mIO~a):lKa, C KOTOPOH ):IJIH 3a~I CKOTa OT HenorO):lhI.
c6paChIBaJIH Ha npOTHBHHKa 6peBHa, a
3ABEfYllKA. XrreB ):IJIH HrHHT. 3ABO,lJ;. 1 I1poMhIIUJIeHHOe npe):lnpll-
TaK}Ke nOJIIIBaJIII ero KHllHTKOM II roPH-
}[THe. 2 I1pe):lnpHHTHe no pa3Be):leErnUO
3ABE)I{}fAA CfYI1EHb. CryneHh Ha '1eH CMOJIOH. 2 Cf)opnoCT, nepe):lOBaSl
nOpO):lHCThIX xmBOTHhIX. 3 MaCTepcKIUI
3aKpyrneHIIII JIeCTHlln:hI, IIMelO~1UI pac- ICpenocmb.
B KyneqeCKOH HJIII Me~aHCKOH ycaob6e.
nnq>eHHe TPanen:ueBH):\HOH npocmynu
KO BHemHeH cTopoHe. 3AB03H5L I1pllcTPoeHHoe K Q.M6apy
KphITOe nOMe~eHHe ):IJIR TeJIer II caHeH.

3ABOP, 3ABOPA. 1 3acoB ):IJIR BOpOT.


2 }Kep):lh, COe):lIlHHIO~1UI KOJIhR B orpa-
):Ie. 3 m.llaz6aYM.
3ABMPKA. I1eperopO):lKa 113 OOCOK
3ABOPOTH5L 3aKJI8):IHOH 3anop BO-
(1), 3anOJIHHIO~ npocTPaHcTBo Me}K-
pOT.
):Iy 6pYCbR.MU (1).
3ABOPQATA5l fOPO,lJ;bBA. Orpa):la
3ABOH. 1 MeCTo pa3pa60ToK B PY):l- 3ABOQEHb. BOKOBIUI npHCTPOHKa K
113 roP"30HTaJIhHhIX }Kep):leH.
HilKe IIJIII maXTe. 2 (=3a60HKa). KOJIhH OOMY (HanpHMep, npHMhIKalO~ ¢.IlU-
IIJIII C6au, 3a6HThle B pH):I nonepeK peIOl. 2e.llb). 3AB5l3EHME. TlOphMa.
3ABOJIOHKA. rOp6bt.ltb. 3ABYTOBKA (=3a6YTKa). QaCTh CTe- 3AfATKA, 3AfATb. 1 XrreB. 2I1po-
HhI, 3anOJIHHIO~1UI npocTPaHCTBo CTPaHCTBO Me}K):ly mIeTHHMH, YCTJIaHHOe
3ABOP. 1 ,lJ;epeBHHHIUI IIJIII KaMeHHIUI
Me}K):ly KHpnHqaMH IIJIH KaMeHHhIMH COJIOMOH. 3 3HMHHS1 06,MQaKa ua6bt (1)
orpa):la (06h1'lHO rJIYXIUI H BhIme qeJIO-
6JIOKaMII mw;eBhIX nOBepxHocTeH. HaB030M C COJIOMOH. 4 llieTeHh C HaBe-
BeqeCKOrO pocTa) BOKpyr KaKOH-JIH60
Tepp"Top"". 2 B03Be):leHHOe B peKe 3ABAJI. 3e.M.1lRHICa C KphImeH. COM, KphIThIM COJIOMOH.

npllcnoc06JIeHlle ):IJIH JIOBJIII PhI6hI.
3ABAJIMHKA (=3aBaJIHHa). 3aKpe- 3AfJIYllMHA. 1 IIoocmyneHolC ):Iepe-
3ABOPAJIO.3a6opo.ll. mieHHIUI C 60KOB HeBhICOKaH 3eMJIHHIUI BHHHOH JIeCTHHqbI, npll6HBaeMhm K 3y6-
HaChIlIh, npHMhIKalO~1UI cHapyxm K CTe- qaThIM memU6Q.M. 2 BepTIIKaJIhHIUI
3ABOPKA. ,lJ;o~aTIUI neperopO):lKa B HaM ua6bt. ):IO~aTIUI nOBepXHocTh, coe):\HHRlO~1I.!I
ua6e, 3aKpemIeHHIUI B rop"30HTaJIhHhIX _----.:Il9~~~ cryneH'laThIe no.llICu B 6aHe. 3 PacCTo-
na3ax BepXHeH II HIIX<HeH 6aJIOK. HHHe Me}K):ly ):IBYMR Kopo6ICQ.MU B O):lHOM
3ABOPHMK. 1 (=HaKaTHHK, 3aMeT- OKOHHOM npoeMe.
HHK). Bpe6Ha ):IJIHHOH OT 4 ):10 6,5 Mil 3ArPMBOK. rpu6a.
npll ):IHaMeTPe OT 11 ):10 15,5 CM; yno-
TPe6JIHIOTCH Ha aa60Pbt (1) H XOJIO):lHhIe 3ArP5l,lJ;KA. }Kep):lh no BepXHeMY
nOCTPoHKH. 2 ,lJ;y60Bhle mIaIIIKH ):IJIHHOH KpalO PYCCICOU neliU, nOMoralO~1UI B30-
3 apmHHa (2,1 M) H TOJI~OH 1,5-2 3ABETPME. I1pHCTaHh. 6paThCR Ha JIe}KaHKY.
BepIlIKa (6-8,9 CM), ynOTPe6JIHeMhle Ha 3ABEPTKA. 1 BepxHHH CThIK BepTH- 3AfY30K. BOKOBIUI rpaHh '1eThIpeX-
H3ropO):lH. 3 EJIOBhIe }Kep):lll ):IJIHHOH KaJIhHhIX ):IhIMOBhIX KaHaJIOB 20.ll.llaHo-· CKaTHOH KP06.1lU.
5 apmHH (3,5 M) II TOJI~OH 2 BepmKa CICOU neliU. 2 I1oBOpaqIlBalO~CH Ha
(8,9 CM). 3AfYH. CaUHUIC.
rn03):1e ):IepeBHHHhIH 6pyCOl(' IIJIII }KeJIe3-
3ABOPOJI (=3a60PaJIo, 3a6paJIo, HIUI nJIaCTHHKa ):IJIH 3anupaHHH ):IBepeH 3A.lJ:BOPHA5l M3BA. He60JIhmlUl
3a60poJIa, 3a6paJIa, 06JIaM, 06JIOM). JIII60 CTaBeHh. ua6a (1) B 38):1HeH qaCTH KpecThHHcKoro

81

-61-
3 3AABOPH5I 3AnOM 62

060pa (1, 2), npeAHa3HaqeHHaSl AJISI 3AKJIAAHA}! rOJIOBKA. M3Ha- 3AKPEIIJIEHHhIH rB03Ab. 3aep-
cOAepX<llHIDI MOJIOAOrO CKOTa JIH60 AJIH qaJIhHOe pacIIIHpeHHe Ha Ko~e uteHHbtU z6oaob.
CTUpKH, nOCHAeJIOK H T. A. CTepX<HSIaaKAemcu.
3AKPECTOBbE. YrJlOBOH nOHHX<eH-
3A,[(BOPlUI. AaJIhHHSl H3 napaJIJIeJIh- 3AKJIAAHA~ AOCKA. 3aJIox<eHHaSI HhIH yqaCTOK qeThIpeXCTOJIIIHoro TCpec-
HhlX yJIH~ B AepeBHe. B OCHOBaHHe 3AaHHSI oocTCa (2) co cBeAe- m06oTCyno.!lbHolO xPa.Ma C npHMOyrOJlh-
HHSlMH 0 BpeMeHH coopyxeHHSI H JIH~aX, HhIM IIJIaHOM.
3A,[(BOPOK. 1 3aAHHH 060P (1, 2)
npHCYTCTBoBaBmux npH 3aKJIaAKe.
KpeCThSlHcKOH ycaob6bt, 06'heAHHSIIO- 3AKPOB. IIoKpoB, 3aBeca.
I.QHii XJIeBJ>I H aaTCymbt. 2 J(60p (1, 2) 3AKJIA,[(HOH BPYC. AepeBHHHhIH 3AKPOH. 1 Cma6HR. 2. CoeAHHeHHe
KpeCThSlHcKoH ycaob6bt, OTAeJIeHHhIH OT 1I0AOKOHHHK, 3aKJIaAhIBaeMhIH B KaMeH- napaJIJleJlhHhIX OOCOTC (1), n.!IaCmUH HJIH
ua6bt (1) AepeBeHcKoH yJI~eH. 3 HaBec UYIO CTeHY HJIH Bpy6aeMhm B AepeBSlH- oepHuH, npH KOTOPOM KpaH: O,AHOrO H3
,AJISI CKOTa. 4 KpaHHHSI 3aAHHSI yJIH~a B HhIe cmouTCu, KOTophIe orpaHHqHBalOT 3THX 3J1eMeHTOB nepeKphIBaeTcSI coceA-
CeJIeHHH. npoeM. HHM - 6J1aroAapSl cpe3y HJIH crylleHhKe
3A,[(BOPbE. 1 HaBec AJISI CKOTa B 3AKJIA,[(HOH KPECT. KpecT C HaA- Ha CThIKe.
3aAHeH qaCTH KpecThSlHcKoro o6opa (1). ITHChlO, 3aBepmaBmHH CTpOHTeJIhHhIe 3AKPOM. OTceK, B KOTOPhIH CChIIIalOT
2 AepeBeHcKHe 3ao6opTCu. JIeca npH B03Be,AeHHH 3,AaHHSl. 3epHoBoH XJIe6 BUYTpH a.M6apa (1).
3A,[(EU. He60JIhmOH npupy6 K ceHJt.M, 3AKJIAAOQHbIH KAMEHb. 3AKYT. 1 TeIlJlhIH 3HMHuH: XJleB AJiSI
HMelOI.QHii nOAc06HO-x03S1HCTBeHHoe 1 KpYIIHhm KaMeHh (06hJqHO yrJIOBOH), MeJIKoro CKOTa. 2 IIoMe~eHHe AJiSI
3HaqeHHe. Topx<eCTBeHHO 3aKJIaAhIBaeMhIH B OCHO- c06aK Ha IIcapHe. 3 QYJIaH, oTropox<eH-
3A,[(MHKA. J(ocTCa (1), 3aBepmalO~aSI BaHHe 06~eCTBeHHoro coopyxeHHSI. HaSI KJIaAOBaSI.
CllHHKY AHBaHa. 2 HuX<HuH: x<epHoB B MeJIhHUqHhIX
3AJI, 3AJIA (=caJla). 06mupHoe
1I0CTaBax.
3A,[(~ M3BA. 3aAHHe nOMe~eHHSI 1I0Me~eHHe B X<HJIOM AOMe HJlH 06~e­
B KpecThSlHcKoH ua6e (1), npeAHa3Ha- 3AKJIA,[(JfOH KPIOQOK. OTpe30K CTBeHHOM 3AaHHH, npeAHa3HaqeHHOe
qeHHhIe nOA X<HJIhe 6aTpaKOB H xpaHH- x<eCTKOH npOBOJIOKH C ~eIIJISlIO~ AJiSI Topx<ecTBa HJIH HHhIX c06paHHH
JIH~e AOMamHeH YTBapH.
H3m60M Ha Ko~e, 3aKpellJIeHHhIH Ha 60JlhmOrO KOJluqeCTBa JlIOAeH.
CTBOpKe OKHa, qT06hI ee He 3aXJIOnUYJI
3A,I1;OK,3acnuHTCa. 3AJIABHHA. JIa6a (1).
BeTep.
3A,[(OprA. IIepHJIh~a, 1I0MoralO~e 3AJIABHHK. AJIHHHaSl CKaMhSl BAOJlh
3AKJIEII. 3anop BOpOT. CTeHhI B ua6e (2).
B306paThCH Ha JIeX<aHKY PYCCTCOU ne'lu.
3AKJIEIIHOH BOJIT. IIporry~eHHhm 3AJIABOK. 1 PYHOYTC (1), z.!IyXQR
3A,[(OPOrA. IIOllepeqHaSI CTeHKa C qepe3 AepeBo 60JIT, 3aOCTpeHHhm KO- .!Ia6TCa C 1I0A'heMHOH KphImKoH, B Kpe-
OTBepCTHeM ycmbR, OTAeJISlIO~aSI B pyc- He~ KOToporo 3aruyT HJIH paCKJIellaH
CThSlHCKOH ua6e {I, 2) HJIH B npuxo:HCeu.
CTCOU ne'lu ee OCHOBHoe npocTpaHCTBo AJISI npoquocTH Hepa3'heMHOrO KpeIlJle- 2 3aJIox<eHHoe rnyxoH OOCTCOU (1) HJIH
.OT uteCmTCa. HHSI. pemeTKoH IIPOCTPaHCTBO 1I0A JlaBKOH, B
3AE3)K11:H ,[(BOP, 3AE3)KMH KOTOPOM KyphI HecYT H BhICHX<HBaJOT
3AKJIEIIHOH KAMEHb. 3a.MTC66blU
AOM. lIocmoMbtu 060P, lOcmuHul¥l SI~a. 3 ,[(JIHHHhm H HH3KuH: mKa¢ B Kpe-
TCa.MeHb.
(1) npH Aopore. CThSlHCKOH ua6e (2), npHMhIKalO~H K
3AKJIETb. 3aAHHH OTceK pa3AeJIeH- CTeHe HJIH K neperopoAKe Y nequ. 4 JIaB-
3AE30K. IIeperOpaX<HBalO~H peKY Ka, BhITHuyTaSI BAOJlh CTeHhI OT lIeqH H
HOH HaABoe TC.!Iemu JIH60 BTOPaSI KJIeTh
IIJIeTeHh C BepmaMH AJISI JIOB,lIH PhI6hI. 3aMeHSlIO~aSI CTOJI AJiSI CTpHIlHH. 5 IIpH-
1I03aAH lIepBoH.
3AEPIIIEHHhIH rn03Ab (=3aKpe- JlaBOK - AJIHHHhm rJIyxoH CTOJI co
3AKJIEII. 3allop ABepH HJIH OKHa. mKa¢qHKaMH. 6 3anaoHR (2).
IIJIeHHhIH m03Ah). rB03,Ah AJIHHOH
15-20 CM, HMelO~H Ha CTBOJIe qaCThle 3AKJIEIIKA. Hepa3'heMHOe KpeIlJle- 3AJIOBHMK. OrpaHuqeHHoe HH3KHMH
3a3y6pHHhI, 1I0BhImalO~e C~ellJIeHHe C HHe ABYX MeTaJIJIuqeCKUX JIHCTOB HJIH CTeHKaMH npocTpaHC1itI0 HaA lIepeKphI-
OOCTCOU (1), 6pe6HoM H T. A. 1I0JIOC ~HHApuqeCKHM CTepX<HeM C THeM zQ./Iepeu (1) Y BxoAa B AepeBSlHHhIH
3AE30K. 3ae30TC. ymupeHHSIMH (roJIOBKaMH)' Ha KO~ax, a.M6ap (1, 2).
nJlOTHO npHJIeralO~MH K CKpeIIJIHMhIM
3A3AAOPOrA. Y3Koe IIpocTpaHCTBO nOBepXHOCTHM nOCJIe YAapoB MOJlOTOM.
MeX<.AY neqblO H cTeHoH.
3AKJIYHbE. MeCTo 3a TC.!IYHeu HJIH
3A3BOHHhIH KOJIOKOJI, 3A-
PUlOU B PYCCKOH AepeBHe.
3BOHqMK (=AHCKaHT, MaJIhIH KOJIO-
KOJI). TOHKOrOJIOChIH KOJIOKOJI (BecoM 3AKOJI. QacToKoJi H3 nJleTHeH,
OT 10 ¢YHTOB AO 6 nyAOB), 3BOHOM KOTO- KOJIheB H xBopoCTa, B03BeAeHHhIH
poro HaqUHaeTCSI 6JIaroBecT, C03hIBa- 1I0llepeK peKH H npelISlTCTBYIO~H ABH-
1OI.QHii OKpeCTHhlX npuxox<aH Ha ~ep­ x<eHHIO PhI6hI BBepx 110 TeqeHHIO; HHO-
KOBUYIO CJIyx6y. rAa cHa6x<aeTCSI phI60JIOBe~HMH

3AMMKA. 1 3eMJIH B HeAaBHeM npom- YCTpOHCTBaMH.


JIOM 6ecx03HhIe, a Teneph 3aHSIThIe 3AJIOrH. rOpH30HTaJIhHhIe PSIAhI KHp-
3AKOMAPA. IIoJlYKpyrJloe HJIH TCU./Ie- nuqHOH TC.!IaOTCU, pa3AeJleHHhle mupo-
AJISI ceJIhCKOX03HH:CTBeHHOH 06pa60TKH.
6uoHoe 3aBepmeHHe npRCe.!l ~epKoB­
21136a (1) Ha TaKHX 3eMJISIX. ' KHMH nOJIOCaMH pacTBopa.
Horo 3AaHHSI, npHMepHo cooTBeTcTBY-
3AKAMAPA. 3aTCO.Mapa. lO~ee KpHBH3He 3aKphIBaeMoro c6ooa. 3AJIOM. HHma.

-62-
3 3Al1Y&HMUA - 3ACEKA 63

3AJIYBHHUA. I1oMem;eHUe 3a nepe- 3) unu OOCOK (1), UMelOm;ee BHYTPU 3AI1EqEK. Y3Koe rrpOCTpaHCTBO
rOpOAKOH B ua6e (2). YCTY" nu60 BbleMKY. 3 YCTPOii:CTBO AJIJI Me~ cTeHoii: U ne'lblO.
3anupaHUJI C nOMOm;blO KnIO'Ia. 4 CJIoii:
3AJIhHhHi XPAM. D;epKoBHoe 3Aa- 3AI1HJIEHOK. ,lJ;JIHHHruI nnOCKaJI CTO-
BOAOHerrpOHun;aeMoii: rnUHbI, rrpeUJIT-
HUe, B KOTOPOM BbICOKoe U rrpoCTopHoe pOHa lop6bl/lR (1).
CTBYIOm;uii: rrpoCa'lUBauulO BOAbI 'Iepe3
nOMem;eHUe xPaMa UMeeT nepeKpbITIDI
Teno n.aomUHbl UJIU ADO rrpYAa. 3AI1J1ABh.3anaHb.
rrpuMepHo Ha OAHOM ypoBHe.
3AMIIIEHHK, 3AMIIIEHKA. CTPoe- 3AI1llEqHKH. rOpH30HTanbHbIe BbI-
3AMA3KA. BJI3KruI CMeCb U3 oTMY-
Hue C 6peBeH'laTbIMU CTeHaMU, npOKO- CTY"bI, CUMMeTPU'lHO npUMbIKaIOm;ue
'IeHHOrO Mena U onucpbI, 3aKpennJI-
HOna'leHHbIMU MXOM. U3BHe K OCHOBaHUIO Ayru unu zqunZ¥Z B
lOm;ruI CTeKna B OKOHHbIX nepenneTax.
6p08Ke.
3AMET. 1 3a6op (1) U3 ropu30HTanb- 3AMhIKAIOmMI rOnOBKA.
3AI1llEqHA5I APKA. ApKa HaA yr-
HbIX OOCOK (1), 3aKpenneHHbIX KOH~a­ IIInJIUKa aaKllenKU, 06pa3yeMruI U3 ee
ny6neHueM B CTeHe.
~JIHHAPU'leCKoro KOH~a YAapaMU MO-
MO B na3ax BepTuKanbHbIx cTOn6oB (aa-
n.aom). 2 (=3aMeTKa). I1onepe'IHruI nOTa: 3AI1llEqHHK. KapHua B nRme apKU,
}l{ene3HruI nOJIoca AnJI 3anupaHUJI OKHa UMnocm (1).
3AMhIqKA. 3anupalOm;ee YCTPOH-
JIu60 ABepu. CTBO. 3AI1ll0T, 3AI1ll6TA. 1 rJIYXOH aa-
3AMETHHA. )I{epAb AJIJI u3ropoAu. 60p (1) U3 ropu30HTanhHbIX nOJIy6pe-
3AMHTHHA. HanonOBUUY 3arny6-
BeH, n.aacmUH unu OOCOK (1), BCTaBJIeH-
3AMETKA. 3curem (2). JIeHHOe B 3eMJIlO ropU30HTanbHoe
6peaHo C npOAOJIhHbIM na30M, B KOTO-
3AMETHHK. 3a60pHDK. phIii: BCTaBJIJIeTCJI HU}I{HJIJI U3 OOCOIC (1)
3AMET. He60nbwruI AepeBJIllHruI Kpe- CTeHbI B XOJIOAHOM cTPoeHuu.
nocmb C 6peBeH'laTOH npRcllo80U orpa- 3AM5ITHHhl. HU}l{Hue ropH30HTaJIh-
Aoii: U3 ropu30HTanbHbIx n.aacmUH, HbIe 6pYCbR B aan.aome (uHorAa onupa-
3aKpenneHHbIX B na3ax CTOJI60B. IOTCJI Ha cmYllbR). HbIX CBOUMO Koun;aMO B na3bI cmoeK.
'3AMETOM. Cnooo6 B03BeAeHUJI Aepe- 3AOKOHHHK, 3AOKOHOK. CTaB-
2 1IlIomuHa. 3 BCTaBJIeHHbIH B JIMY
BJIHHbIX CTeH U3 BepTUKanbHbIx }l{epAeii: HJI. _ cpy6, B KOTOPbIH cMonoKypbI c06upalOT
(B KpecThJIHCKHX nocTPoiiKax). CMOlly.
3AIIA,J:(H5I. 1 I1oA'beMHruI KpbIwKa
3AI1JIhIBH. CKpenneHHbIe Me~y
3AMK6BA5I I1PHTECKA. BbI- HaJlJIa30M B nOAnOJI. 2 (=3anaBoK).
C060H nnaByque pJIAbI 6peaeH, 3am;um;a-
KnaAKa KaMeHHhIX 6JIOKOB B OAHOii: I1oA'beMHaJI cmOlleUlHUZ¥Z HaA npoxo-
lOm;ue OT YAapoB (j 6eper cYAa, KOTopbIe
nnOCKOCTU 6e3 rrpocBeToB 6JIarOAapJI AOM B npunaBKe ..
CHOCUT Te'leHUe.
TO'lHOii: nOArOHKe KpaeB no JIOMaHbIM
3AI1AJIYBKA. 3anOJIHeHUe npo- 3AI10JIhE. 1 CmpRnHou IC)'m. 2 ,lJ;0-
cTPaHcTBa HaA Hepa~paMu caooa KHp- m;aTbIii: non B caMoH Tennoii: 'IacTU ua-
nU'lOM UJIH MenKUM KaMHeM.
6bl (1, 2) - Y CTeHbI, 06pam;eHHoH KO
3AI1AHh (=3anJIaBb, 3anOH, 3a- oaopy (2).
nOHb). D;enb U3 6peaeH, BhITJIHYTaJI 3AI10H, 3AI10Hh. 3anaHb.
nonepeK peKH AnJI 3aAep}I{KH neca,
CnnaBJIJIeMOrO POCCbIUblO. 3AI1I1AA3. p,aannaoa.
3AMKOBhIH KAMEHh (=3aM6K,
KnIO'I, 3aKneUHOH KaMeHb). KnHH'laThIH 3AI1PECTOJIhHhHi KPECT. KpecT
3AIIAC. I1pocBeT Me~y BepXHUM
KaMeHb B BepwHHe apKu, a TaK}l{e HMO- Ha AJIUHHOH AepeBJIHHOH PYKOJITKe,
6pyCOM KOCRKa U aeH~oM AepeBJIHHOH
THPYIOm;uii: ero aneMeHT nocpeAHHe KOTOPhIH BO BpeMJI peJIUm03HhIX rrpo-
CTeHbI, COCTaBJIJIIOID;UH OKono 1/10
nepeMbNKH HaJlU'lHUKa unu npoeMa. ~eccuH BbIHOCUTCJI H3 a/lmapR (1), rAe B
BbICOTbI rrpoeMa U 3anOJIHJIeMbIH nOCJIe
06bI'IHOe BpeMJI CTOUT y ero BOCTO'lHOH
OKOH'laTeJIhHOH OCaAKH CTeH MXOM,
CTeHbI, 3a npecmolloM.
neHbKOH UJIU naKneH.
3APO,lJ;. 1 Cywuno AJIJI CHonOB. 2 Oro-
3AI1ACHAA. CKnaA, aM6ap (1, 2, 3). pO}l{eHHOe MeCTO AJIJI CTora.
3AIIACHOH KOJIO,lJ;ED;. YnY'Iwa- 3APYB. 1 3acelCa. 2 Cpy6 AJIJI PbI6HOro
lOm;ruI060rpeB nOMem;eHUJI B03AYWHaJI caolCa (1). 3 YKpenneHUe 6epera caa-
KaMepa co CTeHKaMU U3 nUCTOBoro RMU.
}l{eJIe3a, nOMem;eHHaJI Me~y oblMoo6o-
pomaMu 201IIIaHocKou ne'lU H 3anOJIHJI- 3ACA)l(EHhE. rapHU30HHaJI TlOpbMa.
eMaJI K;OMHaTHbIM B03AYXOM, KOTOPbIH 3ACBETKA. JIyquHa AJIJI OCBem;eHUJI
BXOAUT u3-nOA ne'lu U BbIUycKaeTCJI unu pacTonKH.
3AMOK. 1 Kpenocmb cpeoAana unH BBepxy 'Iepe3 0YUlHUK (2).
YCaAe6HOe coop~eHUe B npApa}l{aHUe 3ACE,lJ;KA. CTOHKa-rrpunaBoK AJIJI
eii:. 2 (=3aMoK AJIJI rrpetTynHuKoB, 3AI1ACHhIli ,lJ;BOP. 3AaHUe C BHy- rrpOAa}I{H BOAKH B Ka6aKe.
TlOpeMHbIii: 3llMOK). KpYDHruI TlOpbMa TPeHHuM oaopoM (1), npeAHa3Ha'leHHoe
3ACEKA. I1pocTeii:mee 060pOHUTeJIb-
(HanpUMep, BYTbIPCKHii: 3. B MocKBe, AnJI xpaueHUJI npOAOBOJIhCTBeHHbIX npu-
Hoe coopY}l{eHUe H3 HaAPy6JIeHHbIX
JIUTOBCKHH 3. B I1eTep6ypre). naCOB (HarrpUMep, xne6a U COJIH).
AepeBbeB, 06pam;eHHbIX BepwuuaMU B
3AMOK. 1 3aMK6ablU KaMeHb. 2 Coe- 3AIIACHhIH I1POBHAHTCKHH CTOPOny HerrpUJITenJI U YJIO}l{eHHbIX APyr
AUHeHue ABYX 6pycbea (1), 6pycKoa (1, MArA3HH. )/(umHblu oaop. Ha APyra KpeCT006pa3HO.

-63-
3 3ACE"IHASI "lEPTA - 3BOHMK 64

3ACElJHAJI QEPTA. CHCTeMa 060- 3AlBOP. 1 Kenbx, TeMHHn;a, TIOpbMa. 3AXO,Il;. 1 Y3KHH npOXOIl;. 2 TYDHK.
pOHHTenbHbIX COOp}')KeHHH npoTHB 2 (=BTynKa). CTaBUX. 3 TIpHcnoc06ne- 3 Yron. 4 XneB. 5 (=MOTbillbHbIH 3a-
KOqeBHHKOB Ha IOX<HOH H IOro-BOCTOq- HHe Anx 3anopa CTaBeHb. 4 IIJ;HT, nepe- XOIl;). OTXO;)Kee MeCTO, y60pHruI.
HOH oKpaHHax PyCCKOro rocYAapcTBa B KPbIBaIO~ npOXOIl; BOll;bl qepe3 rHAPO-
3AQETI. AHKep.
XVI-XVII BB., BKnIO'faBmruI B ce6x TeXHHqeCKOe coopY;)KeHHe.
3aceKU, 6a.tlb! (1), pBbI H qaCTOKOnbI, C 3AQETIA. KOHTponbHO-CTOp0;)KeBOH
Hcnonb30BaHHeM eCTeCTBeHHbIX npe- 3AlBOPhl. illHpoKHe Il;BepH co CKnaA-
nyHKT, Ha KOTOPOM oCTaHaunHBaIOT
HblMH nonOTHH~aMH.
rpaA· nOB03KH Il;nx npoBepKH.
3ACJIYTI. CTon6. 3ATHH. 1 TInO~aAKa Il;nx apTRnnepH- 3AQETIKA. JIenHoe RnH pe3Hoe YKpa-
CTOB H cTpenKoB H3 p}')KeH, npRnera- meHHe Ha CTblKe apxHTeKTYPHbIX ll;eTa-
3ACOB. 1 3aIl;BHX<HOH 3anop Il;nx
IO~ruI K BuyTpeHHeH cTopoHe Kpeno- neH, HanpHMep, alpap (1) .
.BOPOT, KanHTOK, ABepeH, OKOH.
cmHbtX CTeH. 2 IIJ;HTOK, orp~HBa­
2 AHKep BUYTpHCTeHHOH KpeneX<HOH IO~ CBeT OT CBeqH RnH JIaMllbI (CM.
3AQEKA (=3aqOKa)./I(eKoltoa.
C6R3U (1), npony~eHHbIH CKB03b oTBep- A6a:JICyp). 3Am;A,Il;A. 3KpaH nepell; KaMUHOM.
CTHe Ha ee KOHn;e H npHJIeraIOID;HH K
BHeIIIHeH nOBepXHoCTH CTeHbI. 3ATHPKA. Pa3rna;JKHBaHHe H36bITOq- 3Am;ETIhI. 3aKnaAHbIe KpIO%X Anx
HOro pacTBopa H3 W606 KltaOKU no HauecKH BOPOTHblX CTBOpOK.
3ACOBKA. ,Il;epeBXHHbIH Bblcryn- ItU"4e6ou n06epxHocmu KHpllHqeH.
mM, 06eCneqHBaIO~ nnOTHoe coeAH- 3Am;EBEHKH. TIpoMe;)KYTOqHbIH
HeHHe ABYX OOCOK (1). 3ATHillHHK. He60nbmoe yeAHHeH- CJIOH B OCHOBaHHH KaMeHHoro nona,
Hoe coopY;)KeHHe Ha 6epery: 6eceoKa COCTOllID;HH H3 6emoHa C MenKHMH
3ACOKA (=3aCOqHHa). 3aKpyrneH- (1), OXOTHHqHH manam, CTOpO;)KKa. KaMemKaMH.
HblH CKOC OOCKU (1), nOKpbITbIH KOpOH.
3ATKAHHE. Bpycm6ep. 3AIIJ;ErrKA. 1 ,Il;BepHoH 3anop, KOTO-
3ACOQHHA. 3acoKa. pbIH COCTOHT H3 KpIOqKa, npHKpenneH-
3ATOTI. TOnOqHOe oTBepcTHe neqH. Horo K KOCRKY, H KOJIbn;a Ha Il;BepHoM
3ACTIHHKA (=3all;oK). CUHHKa Il;HBa-
3AThIHhE. BHYTpeHHoCTb YKpenne- nonOTH~e. 2 BXOIl;HOH 3anop B BRAe
Ha,cKaMbH,KpeCJIa,cTYJIa.
HHX. nQBopOTHOH nnaCTHHKH, ;)KeCTKO coell;H-
3ACTABA. 1 MecTo B'be3ll;a B zopoo HeHHOH C BHeIIIHeH pyqKOH Ha nOIl;BH;)K-
(1,2) H BbIe3Aa H3 Hero. 23arpaAHTeJIb- 3AT5DKKA. 1 rOpH30HTanbHbIH 6pyc, HOH CTBopKe ABepH H 3arraAaIO~eH 3a
CTxrnBaIO~ HHX<HHe KOHD;b1 cmpo- BbIcTyn Ha KOCRKe JIH60 HenOABHX<HOH
HbIH CTOpO;)KeBOH nOCT Ha rpaHHn;e
zopooa (1, 2), pernoHa, rOCYAapCTBa. nUltbHbtX HOl. 2 CTep;)KeHb, BocnpHHH- CTBopKe.
MaIO~ pacnop B C600ax H apKax
3 mltaz6aYM ARlI BpeMeHHoH 3aAepxarn 3BEPHHEQ. OTBell;eHHruI ARX OXOTbI
(06bNHO Ha ypoBHe ax nRm).
B nYTH. qaCTb neUaa:JICHOlO napKa, npope3aHHruI
3ACTABKA. 1 CTOpO;)KeBOH 3arpaAH- 3AYCEHKA,3AYCEHOK.10CTpruI cneD;HanbHblMH npoceKaMH.
TenbHblH nOCT Ha Aopore. 2 T6opKa. KpoMKa TecaHoro KaMUX. 2 (=3ayceHH-
3BE3,Il;HAA .8APTA. 06cepBaTOpHX.
n;a). 3aruyrbIH OCTpoKOHeqHbIH OT~en
3ACTABHAA ,Il;BEPh. IIJ;HT, 3aKpbl- ;)Kene3HOH nonOCbl (06blqHO B pemeTKax 3BE3,Il;QAThIH CBO,Il;. C600, COCTau-
BaIO~HH ABepHoH npoeM 6e3 HauecKH C BTopocreneHHblx OKOH). 3 MeHbmruI neHHbIH H3 fljITH H 60nee paCna.tly6oK,
nOMO~bIO nemeltb. JIH60 cpell;UjJjJ rpaub KHpnHqa (CM. KOTopble CXOIl;XTCX BepXHHM OCTpHeM B
Tb!'lOK. JIO:JICOK). OIl;UY TOqKY·
3ACTEHOK. 1 ManbIH npRAen B xpa-
Me. 2 TIoMe~eHHe Il;JIX AOnpOCOB H 3AXAB. 1 H3nOMaHHbIH B nnaHe npo-
nbITOK. 3 PacnOnO;)KeHHruI 3a TennHn;eH XOIl; CKB03b KpenocmHYIO cTeuy. 2 YKpe-
npOxnaAHruI TeMHruI KOMHaTa, B KOTO- nneHHe, Bblll;BHHYToe nepell; Kpe.MlteM
pyIO BpeMeHHo nOMe~aIOT paCTeHHX HnH OemuH"4eM B CTOPOHY npoTHBHHKa.
AJIX CMeHbI pe)l{HMa. 4 TIoceneHHe B 3 CKnall;CKruI npHcTpoHKa K pUle HJIH
HeCKonbKO OO.M06 (1).
3ACTOJIhHAA (=3aTparre3HruI).
1 KOMHaTa, B KOTOPOH BMeCTe 06eAanH
ABopoBble. 2 06~ruI CTonOBruI B roCTH-
HHn;e.
3ACTPEX, 3ACTPEXA, 3ACTPE-
illHHA. 1 HHX<HHii npoAonbHbIH 6pyc
KP06ItU, Ha KOTOPblH OImpaeTClI TeC.
2 BHYTpeUHjJjJ CTopOHa KpruI KPOBltU,
HaBHcaIO~ero HaA CTeHoH. 3 BOAOTeq-
HbIH ;)Ken06 B OCHOBaHHH KP06ItU.
3ACYJIAH. JIeTHee CKOTOBOAqeCKOe
;JKHRH~e 3a6aiiKanbCKHX 6ypXT. 3BOH. 1 Hpyc KOItOKOltbHU, HMeIO~
apKu RnH npXMoyronbHbIe npoeMbl ARX
3AChITIKA (=cMa3Ka). 3anonHeHHe KOJIOKOnOB. 2 KOMnneKT KOJIOKOJIOB Ha
Me~3TaX<HbIX nepeKpbITHii CTpOH- 3AXJIOTIKA. 1/I(eKoltoa, 3aCOB, Il;Bep-
OAHOH 360HHUI{e RnH KOItOKO.ll.bHe.
TenbHblM MYCOPOM, 06naAaIO~HM HH3- . HOH 3anop. 2 ,Il;Bepn;a HJIH OKOHHruI
KOH TennonpoBoll;HOCTbIO~ CTBopKa Ha nemltRX. 3BOHHK. ,Il;BepHoH KOJIOKOnbqHK.

-64-
3 3BOHHIU",A - 3HMHSlSI lI,EPKOBb 65

3BOHHMIJ;A. ApXHTeKTYPHOe COOPY- 3EMJIEBM1HhH1: KAMEHh. CTPOH- 3EPKAJIhHOE CTEKJIO. IIJIocKoe


)KeHHe ]:IJIll nOABeCKH KOJIOKOJIOB, He TeJIhHhIU MaTepHaJI B BHAe 6JIOKOB, JIHCTOBOe CTeKJIO BhICOKOH rrp03paqFjO-
HMelOll\ee 6aIIIHe06pa3Horo 06JIHKa, KOTophle H3rOTOBJIllIOTCll nYTeM CTH, nOJIHpoBaHHOe C 06eHX CTOPOH;
HJIH CTeHKa Toro )Ke Ha3HaqeHHlI (cp. Ha6HBKH YBJIa)KHeHHOU )KHPHOH 3eMJIH C 06hNHall TOJIll\HHa - OT 6 AO 9 MM.
KOJlOKOJlbHR). rJIHHOH H Py6JIeHOH COJIOMOH B npllMO-
3EPKAJIhHhIll METAJIJI. Pa3HO-
yrOJIhHYIO CPOPMY.
BH]:IHOCTh HHKeJIeBhIX CnJIaBOB, 06JIaAa-
3EMJI5I. 1 <l>OH MaTepHH C BhIIIIHBKOU lOll\all nOBhIIIIeHHOH cnoc06HOCThlO K
JIH60 TKaHhIM PHCYHKOM HJIH Y30pOM. rrOJIHpOBKe.
2 OCHoBa 6apxaTa, HaA KOTOPOH nO]:lHH-
3EPKAJIhHhIll CBO,I:(. IIepeKphITHe
MaeTCll BOpC. 3 MOHOTOHHhIH CPOH Ha
C 06IIIHpHOH ropH30HTaJIhHOH nOBepx-
JIHn;eBOH cTopoHe uapa314a.
HOCThlO, coeAHHeHHOH co CTeHaMH nJIaB-
3EMJI5IHA5I CEPA, 3EMJI5IHA5I HhIM H3rn60M (CM. JIaoyza).
CMOJIA. Ac(jJaJlbm.

3EMJI5IHKA. BhIKonaHHoe B 3eMJIe


)KHJlHll\e, Kp06J1R KOTOPOro (H3 COJIOMhI
HJIH XBopocTa) TaK)Ke 3aCbmaHa 3eMJIeH
JIH60 CAeJIaHa H3 oeplla.
KOMnaKTHoe 3EPIJ;AJIO. YCTaHaBJIHBaBIIIallCll Ha
CTOJIaX B npHCYTCTBeHHhIX MeCTax Bep-
MeTpHqeCKH llfJdJ:>Jl'lJ1'bnJ~.l'l THKaJIhHall TPexrpaHHall nPH3Ma C TeK-
)KeHHOe nJIOTHO noca~KtjlflHl'IMH AepeBb- CTOM n;apCKHX YKa30B (Ha rpaHlIX) H ABY-
SIMH, KOTopble KpOHaMH, rJIaBhIM OPJIOM (HaBepxy).
06pa3Yll nOA06He
3ETOBOE )KEJIE30. MeTaJIJIHqeC-
,",,,,,.,,,,an. KpaCKa, Kall 6aJIKa, KOTopall HMeeT B CeqeHHH
pacnaAa rop- 3EMJI5IHOE IIOJIOTHO. IIoBepx- CTOHKY C rrOJIOqKaMH, OTXOAllll\HMH OT
HOCTh 3eMJIllHOH HaChIIIH, npeAHa3Ha- ee KOHn;OB B npoTHBOnOJIO)KHhIX Ha-
qeHHall AJIll YKJIaAKH AOpO)KHOro no- rrpaBJIeHHllx.

3eJIeHb, KphITHll. 3MAPATXAHA (=3HllpaTxaHa) rJIaB-


3eJIeHb, ~HKOBall Hoe nOMell\eHHe AJIll MOJIllll\HXCll B Me-
3EMJI5IHOll rOPO,I:(. 1 rOpOAcKoe
'femu.
YKpenJIeHHe, OCHOBY KOToporo COCTaB-
OTTeHKa AJIll
JIlleT 3eMJIllHOH BaJI (1). 2 qacTh ApeBHe- 3Mr3ArM. TpaHIIIeH MaJIOH IIIHpHHhI,
COCTaBY - OKHCh' C nOAMeChlO
PYCCKOro 2Opooa (2), orpaHHqeHHall nepeXOAllll\He OAHa B APyryIO nOA
nmaTa HJIH CMeCh H 6ep- OCTphIM yrJIOM.
TaKHM YKpenJIeHHeM.
JIHHCKOH JIa3ypH C XPOMOM,
)KeJIThIM Ka]:lMHeM n;HHKOBOH 3EMJI5IHOll ,I:(ErOTh. ACpaJlbm. 3M,I:(. CTeHa.
)KeJIThlO) ; H3YMVYA- 3MJIhBEPrJIET (= 3HJIh6eprJIHT).
3EMJI5IHOll MOCT.l1.aM6a.
Hall 3eJIeHh, JIOKOMOtH1BHlllI 3eJIeHh, 1 YnoTpe6JIlleMhIH npH H3rOTOBJIeHHH
IIIeJIKOBall 3eJIeHh. 3EMCKA5I BOJIhHMIJ;A, 3EM- 6hICTPOcoxHYll\eH 3aMa3KH H KpacoK AJIll
CKA5I illKOJIA. MeAHn;HHCKOe JIH60 OTAeJIOqHhIX pa60T nopoIIIoK. 2 II060q-
3EJIEHA5I OXPA. Hf:m:)O'lIHailI 3eJIe- yqe6HOe yqpe)KAeHHe, C03AaHHoe H
Hall KpaCKa, nyTeM 06pa- H:!>IH npoAYKT BhIIIJIaBKH cepe6pa H3
cpHHaHcHpyeMoe Ha cpeAcTBa 3eMCTBa - CBHHn;OBhIX PYA. 3 BJIeCTllll\HH )KeJITO-
60TKH )KeJITOIi OXPhI Kp,omlHo1ii: COJIhlO,
opraHa MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHlI OpaH)KeBhIH nopomoK C KpynHOqeIIIYH-
COJIlIHOH KHCJIOTOU H Kyno-
(c 1864 r.). qaTOH CTPYKTypOH.
pOCOM.
3EMCKA5I M3BA. ,I:(peBHepyccKoe 3MMHMll IIEPEIIJIET. OKOHHall pa-
3EJIEHOE ,I:(EPEBO IIpeAHa3HaqeH-
aAMHHHcTpaTHBHoe 3AaHHe, B KOTOPOM Ma 6e3 CTBOPOK H OTKphIBaIOll\eHCll
ApeBeCHHa COBepIIIaJICll CYA H HCnOJIHlIJIHCh HaKa3a- (jJPaMYzu.
HHlI no npHroBopaM.
3MMHMll CA,I:(. Cal:( H3 AeKopaTHB-
3EPKAJIO. 1 rJIaAKall nOBepxHocTh, HhIX pacTeHHH, YCTpoeHHhIH B 3aKphI-
3EJIEHOE HHTeHCHBHO OTpa)KalOll\all CBeTOBhIe TOM nOMell\eHHH.
HJIH TenJIOBhIe JIyqH. 2 BepxHlIlI ropH-
3MMHMIJ;A. 1 H36a (1) 6e3 TPy6hI H
30HTaJIhHall ~acTh 3epKaJlbl1020 c6ooa.
UKOlIocmaCOB H T. A. ceHeu, nocTpoeHHall 3a X03llHcTBeHHhIM
3 IIoJIe nOTOJIOqHOro nJla(jJoHa, orpa-
OBOPOM KpecThllHcKOH ycaob6bt HJIH
. 3eJIe- HHqeHHOe npocpHJIHpOBaHHoH (06hIqHO
C60KY OT Hero; 06hlqHO 3arJIy6JIllJIaCh B
IIITYKaTypHoH) paMKoH. 4 OrpaHHqeH-
3eMJIIO Ha 0,7-1,25 M. 2 (= 3HMoBhe).
HhIH IIITYKaTypHoH paMKoH KpynHhIH
H36a (1), B KOTOPOH cOnpOBO)K):laBIIIHe
yqaCTOK CTeHOK B HHTephepe. 5 HaH60-
0603 no 3HMHeH Aopore AO)KH]:IaJIHCh
JIee 06IIIHPHhIH yqaCTOK Ha JIHn;eBOH
BCKPhITHlI peK.
3EJIEHhIM cTopoHe neqH HJIH KaMUHa. 6 IIoJIe
PocnHCh KpynHoH ABepHoH pUJleHKU (1). 7 Ilo- 3MMH5I5I IJ;EPKOBh (= TenJIall n;ep-
MpaMOp. BepXHocTh BOAoeMa. KOBh). OTanJIHBaeMhIH xpaM, B KOTO-

-65-
3 3111MOBKA - 3b1M3A 66

POM MO)J{HO COBepIIIaTb 60roCJIY)J{emBi B 30JIOTO JIMCTOBOE. OqeHb TOH- 3YET.JATA5I APKA. ApKa (1), no BHY-
3HMHee BpeMSI rO):la. KHe JIHCTKH BbICOKOKaqeCTBeHHoro TpeHHeH nOBepxHocTH KOTOPOH paBHo-
30JIOTa (06blqHO 93-H np06b1), npell;Ha3- MepHo pacnOJIo)J{eHbI ·ocTpoyrOJIbHble
3MMOBKA. H36a B 3a):lHeH qaCTH Kpe-
HaqeHHble ):IJI}! 30JIOqeHIDI 6azem06, BblcTynbI.
CTMIHCKOH ycaob6bl, npe):lHa3HaqeHHruI
Me6eJIH, UKOHocmaC06 H T. n.
):IJUI cO):lep)J{aHIDI CKOTa, a HHOr):la H ):IJI}!
)J{HJIb}!. 30JIOTbIE BOPOTA. YKpaIIIeHHble
30JIOTOM rJIaBHble BopoTa Il;peBHepyc-
3MMOBHMK, 3MMOBbE. 1 H36a (1)
CKOro wpooa (1).
):IJI}! BpeMeHHoro npo)J{HBaHIDI nYTHHKoB
B JIecy HJIH CTenH 3HMOH (cp.: 3~lM­ 30JIbHMK (= nO):l):lYBaJIo). 1 C06Hpa-
HUUP (2). 2 []ocmORJlbiU 060P B 6e3JIIO):I- IOW;ruI 30JIY H neneJI qaCTb TOnOqHOrO
HOH MeCTHOCTH. 3 OXOTHHqb}! H36YIIIKa npocTpaHcTBa, pacnOJIo)J{eHHa}! nOll;
B rJIy6HHe JIeca. 4 I1acTYIIIecKruI XH)J{HHa KOJlOCHUK060U peIIIeTKoH OTOnHTeJIb- 3YBT.JATA5I TETMBA. HaKJIOHHruI
B CTenH. 5 KYXH}! HJIH JlIOOCKaR, B03Be- HbIX YCTPOHCTB. 2 BbIIl;BH)J{HOH npoTH- onopa JIeCTHHIl,bI, HMeIOw;a51 no Bepx-
):IeHHble B cTopoHe OT ):Ipymx nocTPoeK BeHb nO):l KOJlOCHUKaMU (1) PYCCKOU HeMY KpaIO 3y6QaTble Bblpe3bI, K KOTO-
ycaob6bl. neliU, B KOTOPblH nona):laeT 30JIa BO pbIM npH6HBaIOTC5I npocmynu H noo-
BpeM}! TonKH. cmynel-lKu.
3MMOrOPbE. I10CeJIeHHe HeHMYW;Hx
H ce30HHbIX pa60qHx. 30HAEK. I1apycHoe nOKpbITHe ):IJI}! 3YET.JATbIll IIII1MHrAJIET. 3anH-
3aW;HTbI OT COJIHIl,a, TeHT. paIOW;HH OKHO MexaHH3M, B KOTOPOM
3MMC. CTbIK OOCOK (1) B 06mu6Ke. IIIeCTepeHKa npH PYK05lTKe CMew;aeT
30HT. 1 MeTaJIJIHqeCKHH HaBec, - BepTHKaJIhHble 3anopHble CTep)J{HH, a
3MHKBEPK. mmOJlbl-lR, B KOTOPOH
06blqHO Ha a)J{ypHblx KOHCOJlRX, C ¢PU- TaK)J{e nOnepeQHYIO 3a):lBH)J{KY ):IJI5I
HaKanJIHBaIOT HacbIw;eHHblH COJIbIO pac-
30M (2) JIH60 no030poM (1) no nepHMeT- ynJIOTHeHH5I CTbIKa.
TBOP H3 rpYHTa, qT06bI 3aTeM BbIIIy-
py, - Ha):l BXO):lOM, npOe3):10M BO ):IBOP,
CTHTb ero B CneIl,HaJIbHbIH pe3epByap.
6aJIKOHOM HJIH KuomOM (1). 2 A6a- 3YET.JMKM. J(el-lmUKYJlbl.
3MIJ,-OPT, 3MIJ,OPT. HH3KHH mmpeK :JICyp (1).
3YJIA. KypHJIbHHIl,a Ha TeppHTopHH
B PY):lHHKe, npe):lHa3HaqeHHblH 6Y):l):lHHCKOro MOHaCTblp5l.
pa60TbI CHIl;}!. 30HTMQHbIll CBOA. COCTaBJIeH-
HblH H3 OIl;HHaKOBblX JlOmK06 C600 Hall;
3M5IP ATXAHA. 3uapamxal-la. nOMew;eHHeM C nJIaHOM B BH,I~e rrpaBHJI!=,-
3JIATOKPOBHbIll. 3JIaTOrnaBbIH, Horo BbIIIYKJIOrO MHoroyrOJIbHHKa.
3JIaTOBepXHH. 300JIOnf1IECKMll CAA. 1 (= 3Be-
3MEMHA5I KPOBb. KpaCHTeJIb TeM- pHHeIl,). 06IIIHPHbIH yqaCTOK B JIecw-
HO-MaJIHHOBOro Il,BeTa, ynoTpe6JI}!B- CTOH MeCTHOCTH, Ha KOTOPOM pa3BOIl;}!T
IIIHHC}! TIpH JIaKHpOBKe, a TaK)J{e rrpH 3BepeH ):IJI}! OXOTbI JIH60 OT):IeJI}!IOT XHW;-
OKpaCKe ane6acTpoBoro ):IeKOpa B HH- HHKOB orpa):lOH OT nOJIeH H HHblX
Tepbepe H T. ):I. oKpecTHocTeH. 2 I1apK, B KOTOPOM
cO):lep)J{aTC5I pa3Ho06pa3Hble )J{HBOTHble
3HAMEHHOE KOI1ME. 3HaM5I, npa- ):IJI5I ll;eMOHCTpaIl,HH ny6JIHKe, a TaK)J{e B
nop. HayqHblX Il,eJI5IX.
30EHMHA. MeJIbHHqHOe BO):l5lHOe KO- 3001l>OP. CPpU3 (1), YKpaIIIeHHbIH
JIeco nOOOm6el-ll-lOW 60R (2). H306paMeHIDIMH )J{HBOTHbIX (06b1qHO
3bIEKA. JIIOJIbKa, nO):lBeCHruI KOJIbI-
30JIOTA5I HABOAKA. ApeBHepyc- peJIbe<pHhIMH).
6eJIh B KpeCTh5lHCKOH ua6e (2).
CKruI TeXHHKa HCnOJlHeHH5I HKOH C 30JIO- 30PE. Pa3HOBH):IHOCTb <paCOHHoro )J{e-
TblM PHCYHKOM Ha 6apxaTHCTO-QepHOM 3bIM3A, 3bIMC. Kapl-lua.
JIe3a, ynoTpe6JI5IBIIIa5lC5I KaK 6aJIKH B
<poHe Me):lHOH OCHOBbI; ynoTpe6JIeHa B npoe3)J{eH QaCTH MOCTOB (HanpHMep,
KJIeHMaX C060PHbIX BpaT B HOBrOpO):le, AJIeKCaHll;pOBCKHH MOCT Qepe3 BOJIry,
CY3Il;aJIe, KocTpoMe, AJIeKCaH):IpOBe; KpeCTOBCKHH 6uaoyK B MOCKBe).
OCHOBaHa Ha rpaBepHoM npOTpaBJIlma-
HHH JIaKOBOro nOKpbITH5I, Il;JI5I HaHece- 30<l>OP. 300¢op.
HH}! pHcYHKa coell;HHeHHeM pTyTH C 30-
3P A T.JOK. KpY)J{OK B Il,eHTpe 60JllOmbl,
JIOTOM.
K KOTOPOMY CX0Il;HTC5I CnHpaJIb.
30JIOTOE CET.JEHME (= 30JIOTOe
ll;eJIeHHe). I1ponopIl,IDI, npH KOTOPOH 3YE, 3YEOM. Coell;HHeHHe gByX 6pe-
MeHbIIIHH H3 ):IByX oTpe3KoB OTHOCHTC5I K 6el-l HJIH 6pycbe6 (1) rryTeM Bpy6KH cTy-
60JIbIIIeMY, KaK 60JIbIIIHH K HX cyMMe; neHQaTOrO KOHIl,a B BbleMKY, TOQHO
npHMepHo cooTBeTcTByeT 8:13, HJIH cooTBeTcTBYIOW;YIO eMY no <popMe.
0,61803398875 ...
3YEIJ,bI (= MepJIOHbI). 3aBepIIIaIOW;He
30JIOTOll JIMCTEJIb. I1030JIOQeH- KpenOCTHYIO cTeHY H pa3):1eJIeHHble
Hble 6pYCKU (1) ):IJI5I 30JIOTblX paM, H3ro- He60JIbIIIHMH rrpocBeTaMH O):lHHaKOBble
TOBJIeHHble H3 cyxoro ):IepeBa 6e3 cyq- BblcTynbI B BepTHKaJIhHOH nJIOCKOCTH,
KOB H npO<pHJIHpoBaHHble MaIIIHHHbIM 3aW;Hw;aBume cTPeJIKOB OT HenpIDITeJIb-
cnoc060M. CKoro OrH5I HJIH CTpeJI.

-66-
MACIIMC (= S1CnHC). Acnuo. ~eHHe B ~epeBBHHoM KpecTbSIHcKOM M3BECTHHK. OC~O'lHaSI ropHaSI rro-
oOMe (1). 3 BHYTpeHHee nOMe~eHHe B po~a, rro XHMH'ieCKOMY COCTaBY - yrJIe-
MBAH EJIKMH. Ka6aK.
~eBHepyccKoM ~epeBBHHoM 080pije (1). KHCJIbIH KaJIbU;HH CaC0 3; yrroTpe6JISI-
MBEPHh. KpOBeJIbHaSI opaH1ca (1), 4 .IJ;peBHepyccKaSI Kaun;eJIBpHSl (IIoCOJIb- eTCH KaK 06JIHn;OBO'lHblH MaTepHaJI (Ha-
~ena. CKaSI H36a, BoeBo~cKaSI H36a H T. ~.). npHMep, B U;OKOJISlX), ~JISI H3rOTOBJIeHHSI
KapHuaHbtX rrJIHT, 6JIOKOB rro~ noocma-
MrJIMIJ;A. mno1llca, CKpellJUIIO~aSI ~e­ M3EH5IK. IIpHro~HbIH ~JISI )I(HJIoro
8a, rrpOMeX{)'TO'lHbIX 6JIOKOB B CTBOJIax
peBHHHble IqUTbI H3 OOCOlC (1). CTpoeHHB XBOHHblH CTpoeBoH JIec, He
KOJlOHH, pe3HbIX ~eTaJIeH apXHTeKTyp-
MeHee 6 BeplllKoB B nOnepe'lHHKe.
MrJIA. 1 BepTHKaJIbHOe 6pe8Ho, YCH- Horo y6paHcTBa, rrO~OKOHHHKOB, cTyrre-
JIHBalO~ee cTeHY H3 roPH30HTaJIbHblX M3EOQMHA. 1 EOKoBaSi no~nopKa. HeH, TporyapHblx rrJIHT, a TaK)l(e KaK
6pe8eH. 2 IIIIrnJIb. 2 YCTOH MOCTa. 6ym ~JIH <py~aMeHTOB.

MrJIMu;A. 1 rOpH30HTaJIbHaB )l(ep~b B M3BECTKOBO-IIECQAHhIH KMP- M3BECTh. OKHCb KaJIb~ CaO


orp~e. 2 )l(ep~b, npH)l(HMalO~aSl COJIO- IIJfq. M3rOTOBJIeHHbIH pyqHbIM HJIH (= HerailieHaB H3BeCTb) HJIH TIf):\paT
MeHHYIO KP08J11O. MaIlIHHHbIM cnoco6oM KHpllH'i H3 CMeCH OKHCH KaJIbU;HS1 Ca( OH)2 (= railieHaB
H3BeCTH C neCKOM (HHor~a H C KpacHTe- H3BecTb); 6JIaro~apSi crroco6Hocm TBep-
MrJIY. 3CKHMoccKoe )I(HJIH~e H3 6JIo-
JIBMH - ~JISI ~eKopaTHBHoro a<p<peKTa); ~eTb npH rrOrJIOIu;eHHH yrJIeKHCJIOTbI H3
KOB O'leHb llJIOTHOrO CHera.
no npO'iHOCTH yCTynaJI 06b1'lHOMY KHp- B03~a railieHaB H3BeCTb B CMeCH Crrec-
MrPMmE. MecTo MaCCOBbIX 3peJI~. nH'Iy Ha 20% H npHMeHSlJICSI B KJI~Ke KOM H BO~OH o6pa3yeT CTPOHTeJIbHbIH
BbIIIIe U;OKOJIH, TaK KaK Mor BllHTbIBaTb pacTBop.
M.IJ;OJIhHMu;A. 5I3bNecKuH XpaM.
BJIary H3 3eMJIH.
M.IJ;hIM. rYMHO npH KpecTbSlHcKOH M3BO.IJ;. 1 POB. 2 C800. 3 BapHaHT
M3BECTKOBO-IIECQAHhIE CTE- H306pa)l(eHHB, OTJIH'lalOII.I;HHCSI OT npo-
ycaob6e 60raTbIX Map~eB.
HhI. Ha6HBHble HecropaeMble CTeHbI H3 Tomrra.
ME3YMTCKMH CBO.IJ;. COMKHymbtU CbIPOH CMeCH H3BeCTH H neCKa, o6JIa~a­
IO~He 60JIbiliOH npO'iHOCTblO H ~OJIro­ M3rAP. 1 KHpllH'i OT pa360pKH cTapblx
C800, pe6pa KOToporo onupalOTcSI Ha
Be'lHOCTblO npH ~eIlIeBH3He, npocToTe H rre'leH. 2 t[epenuija H3 rrepe)l()l(eHHOH
CTblKH BOCbMH pacnQJIy60K (1, 2) no
6blcTPoTe BbIllOJIHeHHB (He~ocTaToK - rJIHHbI.
yrJIaM KB~paTHoro nOMe~eHHB.
~JIHTeJIbHOe BblCblxaHHe: ~JIB )l(HJIbIX
M3rOJIOBAiliEK. B320Jl08auteK.
nOMe~eHltil: - He MeHee ro~a).
M3rOPO.IJ;A. 1 OKOJIHu;a. 2 rpaHHn;a
M3BECTKOBhIH AJIEEACTP. IIo-
CJI060~bI.
JIynp03pa'lHbIH KpHCTaJIJIH'leCKHH H3-
BeCTKOBblH IIIIIaT, ynoTPe6JISlBIIIItil:cSI M3EKPhIH (= H3eKp, 3eKpbIH). rOJIy-
~JISI YKpameHltil:. 60H, 6HPI030BbIH.
M)I(E IIO.IJ; KOJIOKOJIhI. THn u;ep- M3BECTKOBhIH KPOH. .IJ;eIlIeBaB
M3JIYQMHA (= HaKamHa). IIo~rropa
KOBHoro 3~aHHB, Y KOToporo H~ OCHOB- )l(eJITaSi KpaCKa, npHMeHSIeMaB B MaJIBp-
rro~ o6peutemKou TSI)I(eJIOH Kp08J1U Ha
HbIM npocTpaHCTBOM (nepe~ UKOHocma- HbIX pa60Tax Ha KJIeeBOH OCHOBe H npH
CmpOnUJIbHbtX H02ax C 60JIbIlIHMH
COM) B03Be~eH RpyC 380Ha. H3rOTOBJIeHHH 060eB.
HHTepBaJIaMH.
M3EA. 1 KpeCTbBHcKHH )I(HJIOH OOM M3BECTKOBhIH IIIIIAT (= JIerKHH M3MIOJIA3. IIJIIO~.
B CeJIbCKOH MeCTHOCTH (KaK npaBHJIO, IIIIIaT, nOJIeBOH I1InaT). IIOPOiliOK KpH-
~epeBSlHHbIH; pe)l(e - B XIX H Ha'l. CTaJIJIH'leCKOH yrJIeKHCJIOH· H3Becm, M30EKA. 1 He60JIbillaB ua6a (1).
XX B. - KHPllH'iHblH). 2 (= HCTo6Ka, ynOTPe6JIBeMbIH B KJIeeBbIX nOKpacKax 2 C8emeJlKa, 20peHKa (1) H~ OCHOBHbIM
HCTollKa). )l(HJIoe ·OTallJIHBaeMOe nOMe- BMeCTO MeJIa. 06'beMOM ~epeBBHHoro ~OMa.

67

-67-
III 11130rHYTASI TETIllBA - MCKYCCTBEHHASI KO>KA 68

H30rHYTAA TETI1BA. KOpOTIrnH HHBAJIH,lJ;HbIH ,lJ;OM. I1PHIOT, B03- aumHOMY opOepa.M opHaMeHTaJIhHhIH
H30I'H)'ThIH K)'COK p;epeBa, COep;HIDI- Bep;eHHhIH Ha cpe~CTBa rocy~apcTBa, P;JISI MOTHB C paBHOMepHhIM pa3MelQeHHeM
IO~ CMe)KHhIe MapUlU Ha 1I0BOpOTe rrpecTapeJIhIX 3aCJIyxeHHhIx COJI~aT, a 3JIJIHlICO~OB B 06paMJIeHHSIX.
p;epeBSlHHOH JIeCTHHQhI. TaK)I{e'''~JISI lIoTepSIBIIIHx Ha BoeHHOH
CJIY)K6e ~.¥~oclloc06HOCTh; <PYHKQHO-
H30JIHPYIOIIJ;AA CTEHA. I1epero- HaJIhHO 6JIH3KHH 60ra~eJIhHe, HHOrna
pOp;Ka TOJI~OH 6 'tem6epmb KUpnU'ta
BKJlIO'IaJI (B cpe~HeH '1aCTH) 3aJI BOHH-
HJIH 6 nOltKUpnU'ta, B03Bep;eHHruI lIapaJI-
CKOH CJIaBhI H yCbtna.rtbHU/{y.
JIeJIhHO OCHOBHOH CTeHe, '1T06hI rrpellilT-
CTBOBaTh IIpOHHKHOBeHHIO B 1I0MelQe- HH,lJ;HrO (= HHp;Hr). CHHHii KpacH- HOHHqECKHH OP,lJ;EP. O~HH H3
HHe ChIpOCTH, III)'Ma, TeMIIepaTypHhIX H TeJIh paCTHTeJIhHOrO rrpOHCXO)l{)l;eHIDl, OCHOBHhIX apXHTeKTypHhIX opoep06,
MeXaHH'leCKHX KOJIe6aHHH. YlloTPe6JISIBIIIHHCSI ~JISI oKpacKH TKaHeH ~JISI KOToporo xapaKTepHhI KOltOHHbt C

H CHTQelle'laTaHIDI, a TaK)l{e B MaJISIPHOM 6aaa.Mu, YBeH'laHHhIe KanUmeltblO C


H3PA3El(. KepaMH'leCKHH 3JIeMeHT ~eJIe, B Bo~opacTBopHMhIX 1I0KpacKax H llJIaBHO COe~eHHhIMH Me)l{)l;y C060H
YKpaIIIeHIDI HJIH 06JIHQOBKH CTeH JIH60 xy~O)KeCTBeHHhIX ~eKOpaTHBHhIX pa60- KpyIIHhIMH 3aBHTKaMH-60ltlOma.MU.
lIe'leH, HMelOlQHH Ha ThillhHOH CTOpOHe Tax.
Kop06'1aThIH BhICTYII p;mI CQeIIJIeHIDI C
KltaOKOU. HlDKEHEPHOE ,lJ;EI1O. PaclloJIo-
)KeHHhIH B YKPhITHH MH B JIecy CKJlap;
HKOHA MYCHHCKOrO ,lJ;EJIA. HHcTPYMeHToB, rrpHHap;JIe)I{HOCTeH H
HKOHa B TeXHHKe MoaaUKU. MaTepHaJIOB ~JISI HH)I{eHepHhIx pa60T 110
HKOHHqECKAA CTATY~. KOIIIDI YKpellJIeHHIO 1I03HQHH; COCTOHT H3 rJIaB-
CO CKYJIhllTyphI (06hI'IHO B ry )Ke BeJIH- HOro H. ,lJ;. (MH HH)l{eHepHOro lIapKa),
'lHHY). paCIIOJIO)KeHHOrO B 10-12 BepcTax OT
OCa)l{)l;aeMOH Kpenocmu rrpOTHBHHKa H
HKOHHHK. 1 I1OJIO'lKa, Ha KOTOPOH co~ep)KaIQero rrpHCIIOC06JIeHIDI P;JISI
CTOSIT HKOHhI (HarrpHMep, B KpacHoM OCap;hI (BKJlIO'IruI H cpe~cTBa CBSI3H), a
yzlty ua6bt (1). 2 Kuom (2). TaK)l{e '1aCTHhIX MH rrpoMeXYTO'lHhIX
~eIlO, pacrrpe~eJIeHHhIX 110 OT~eJIhHhIM
HKOHOCTAC (= HKoHocTaB). lI1pe-
Y'lacTKaM OCap;hI H cHa6)KaeMhIX H3
rpap;a, OTp;eJISIlOlQruI OCHOBHoe rrpo-
UH:JICeHepHOzo napKa. HOHHQECKO-ATTI1qECKAA BA-
crpaHCTBO rrpaBOCJIaBHOrO xpaMa OT
a.rtmapR (1) H BKJlIO'IalOlQaSI B ce6SI 3A. ,lJ;BYX"hsrpyCHruI 6aaa KOltOHHbt
HlDKEHEPHbIH I1APK. l(eHTPaJIh-
HKOHhI B p;Ba H 60JIee RPYC06. 2 Kuom MH nUltRCmpbt, HMelOIQruI B Ce'leHHH
HruI '1aCTh UH:JICeHepHOzo oeno.
(2), IIpHMhIKalO~ K IIpocTeHKY MH ~Be CKO/iUU, pa3~eJIeHHhle ~ByMSI nolty-
CTOJIrry B uHmepbepe xpaMa. HHKPYCTAl(~. Bpe3aHHhIe B <pOH 6a.rta.MU.
H306paxeHHe HJIH OpHaMeHT, KOTophIe
HKE 3Hrr3 (= lIapHopT). BaIIIKHp- HI1ETEP. 060c06JIeHHOe coopyxe-
COCTaBJIeHhI H3 CMhIKalOlQHXCSI 6e3 3a30-
CKruI nRmUCmeHHaR ua6a. HHe.
pOB <pHrypHhIX IIJIOCKOCTHhIX 3JIeMeH-
HJIEM. I1oCeJIeHHe-ycaob6a MapHHQeB TOB, pa3JIH'lHhIX 110 QBery, <paKrype, HPrH ,lJ,bEP. BXO~HruI '1aCTh aJITaH-
('1epeMHcoB). MaTepHaJIY· CKOii: KOHH'IeCKoii: IOpmbt.

HJIHTOH. illeJIKOBhIH IIJIaT, B KOTO- HHTAPCHATYPA. HHKpycma/iUR H3 HPH,[(APHH. MOHocao C rrpe06JIap;a-


phIH 3aBepHYT aHmUMUHC Ha npecmolte. lIepJIaMYTPa H p;epeBa. HHeM HpHCOB.

HJIJIIOMHHATOP. qyryHHruI peIIIeT- HHTAPCH~. HHKpycma/iUR H3 KYCO'l- HPHMOR H30rHYTruI Kpbtuta B SIIIOH-
'1aTaSI paMa Hap; npURMKOM, BMOHTHpO- KOB p;epeBa, HeO~HHaKOBhIX 110 QBery H CKOH apXHTeKType.
BaHHruI B TPOTyap 3aIlOp;JIHQO C HHM. TeKCTYpe. HPHC-fPHH. TeMHO-3eJIeHruI KpaCKa C
~'1eHKH H. 3allOJIHeHhI rOJIy60BaThIMH HHTeHCHBHhIM QBeTOM.
HHTEPKOJIYMHHH. HHTepBaJI Me)K-
CTeKJISIHHhIMH IIpH3MaMH, KorophIe rrpo- ~ COce~HHMH KOltOHHaMU JIH60 nU.flR- HPXOBAA KO)I(A. 3aMIIIa.
rrycKalOT CBeT B rrpHSIMOK H 1I0p;BaJIhHOe cmpa.MU B O~HOM p~y.
1I0MelQeHHe. HCM, HCA,lJ;A, HCMbI, HCMb.
HHTEPbEP. BHYTPeHHee rrpOCTPaH- ~ TOproBruI IIPHCTaHh C IIpH6pe)I{HhIM
HJIOY,lJ;EP)I(ATEJIb (= HaHOcoyp;ep- CTBO 3~aHIDI, OTp;eJIhHOrO 1I0MeIQeHIDI 1I0CeJIKOM. 2 ToproBruI YJIHQa, paHOH
)KaTeJIh). I1JIeTeHOe 1I0llepe'lHOe 3arpa- MH rpyllllhI lIoMelQeHHii (HarrpHMep, 6aaapa (1).
)I{)l;eHHe B pYCJIe peKH, YCKopSIIOIQee KBapTHphI).
OTJIO)KeHHe HJIa Ha OTBep;eHHOM P;JISI HCKOPHHK. I1pHeIIoco6JIeHHe y lIe-
3Toro Y'laCTKe. HHTPA,[(OC. BHYTPeHHSISI lIoBepx- '1H, 3aIQHIQalOIQee 1I0JI H CTeHY OT lIa-
HOCTh c600a MH apKu. ~alOlQHX HCKp.
HMI1OCT. 1 BCTaBKa Me)l{)l;y nRmou
apKu H ee OIlOPOH, rrpO<pHJIHpoBaHHruI HHTPO'[(Yl(EHTbI. PacTeHIDI, BhIpa- HCKPbl. KopoTKHe lIapaJIJIeJIhHhIe
Harrop;o6He aHma6lteMeHma MH KapHu- lQeHHhIe B rpYHTe 3a rrpe~eJIaMH apeaJIa IIITPHXH B meKcmype.
aa. 2 I1ollepe'IHhIH 6pyc B OKOHHOM HX rrpHpOP;HOro pacrrpocTPaHeHIDl.
HCKYCCTBEHHAA ,lJ;OCKA. p,ocKa
lIepeIIJIeTe, OTp;eJISIIOIQHH CTBOPKH OT (1) 03 ~eBeCHhIX OIIHJIOK, CBSI3aHHhIX
HH<I>Y30PHbIH KHPI1HQ. 06JIer-
HeIlOp;BH)I{HOH l/Jpa.MYzu. 3 BepTHKaJIh-
'1e~HhIii: KHpIIH'I C IIYCTOTaMH BHYTPH.
HruI CTOHKa B paMe, pa3~eJISIIOlQruI OKOH-
HhIH lIepeIIJIeT HJIH ~BepHhIe 1I0JIOT- MOHMKA (= OBhI). CBOHCTBeHHhIH HCKYCCTBEHHAA KO)KA. MMHTH-
HHlQa Ha 60JIee Y3KHe '1acm. UOHU'teCKOMY, KOPUHl/JCKOMY H KOMno- PYlOlQHe KOXY TKaHh MH KapTOH, rrpo-

-68-
""CKYCCTBEHHOE nPEnSlTCTB""E - AblPA3bnyn 69

nHTaHHble KayqYKOM, rYTTanepqeH, MTAJIMIHCKMll IIAPK. TeppaCHhIH


OJIHcj:>OH, aC(jJaJlbmOM II. .n;p.; Hcnonh30- peZYJlRpHblU rrapK co cKynhrrTypaMH.
BanaCh .n;ml 06HBKH CTeH II. Me6enH (CM.
MTAJIh5IHCKOE OKHO (= BeHe-
J!epMamWt).
~HaHCKoe OKHO, rranna.n;HeBO OKHO,
MCKYCCTBEHHOE IIPEIUITCT- rrgTHKono.n;Hoe OKHO, Cepnll.aHO, TPOH-
BME. 060pOHHTenhHoe coopy)!{eHHe Hoe OKHO). TpeXqaCTHOe OKHO C 60nee
IlIHpIl.HOH He MeHee 2 Ca)!{eHeH, B03Be- IlIHPOKOH cpe.n;HeH qaCThIO (06hIqHO
.n;eHHoe B 50-300 IlIarax nepe.n; yKpe- apO'lHOU, BblIlIe 60KOBhIX npgMoyronh-
nneHHhIMH rr03H~IDIMH II. rrpe.n;Ha3HaqeH- HhIX - T. H. nOJlYOKOH).
Hoe .n;ml 3a.n;ep)!{KH HenpHgTenhCKoro
MTOAH. HaHaHCKHH rrorpe6anhHhIH
HacTynneHlI.g; MO)!{eT 6hITh H3rOTOB-
IlIanalli 11.3 TOHKHX )!{ep.n;eH, coopy)!{eH-
neHO 11.3 3eMnH (pOB, 60Jl'lbR R.Ma,
HhIH B6nH311. )!{lI.nHI~a.
aClcapnHaR Mil. KOHmpaCl(apnHaR CTeH-
Ka), BO.n;bI (BO.n;gHOH pOB, 3anpy.n;a), MTOOK. HaomaH.
.n;epeBa (naJlucao, utmypMcjJaJl, KOnhg B
MY,IJ;EllCKA5I CMOJIA. AccjJaJlbm.
IlIaXMaTHOM nopg.n;Ke, pozamKU, 3aceKU,
60pOHhI KBepxy 3y6hgMH), rrpOBonOKH MqIOll. CnanhlJg B HoraHCKOM oOMe
(ceTh, rreTnH-CMKH), )!{ene3a (peIlIeTKa, (1,2).
utmypMcjJaJl).
llAr,IJ;YH. YnhqCKHH IlIanalli .n;ng po-
MCKYCCTBEHHOE COOPY)KE- )!{eHH~hI.

HME. Coopy)!{eHlI.e rrpH rrepeCeqeHHH


llAOTAH (= HTOOK). IIoMHHanhHhIH
.n;oPO)!{Horo nonOTHa C BO.n;HOH rrperpa- HaHaHcKHH IlIanalli C rrOnOTHgHhIM
.n;OH, pe3KHM rrOHH)!{eHlI.eM penhecj:>a,
nOKphITll.eM rro KapKacy 11.3 BhIrHYThIX
BCTpeqHOH .n;OpOroH II. T . .n;. Pa3HOBII..n;HO- )!{ep.n;eH).
CTII. M. C.: MOCT - B qaCTHOCTH, 6uaoYK,
nyTenpoBo.n;, 3cmaKaoa (1) - Tpy6a HnH IlOPT. IIepe.n;HII.H .n;BOp ycaob6bl TaTap-
nOTOK rro.n; HaChIIIhIO, TYHHenh, npoTH- MHlIIapeH, BKnIOqaIO~H xmnOH (JOM (1)
Boo6BanhHag ZaJlepeR (3), noonopnaR II. Ha.n;BopHhIe X03gHCTBeHHhIe rrocTpoHKH.
cmenKa, 6btCmpomoK II. .n;p.
llbIPA3bIIYJI. IIo.fwmu (1) C .n;epe-
MCKYCCTBEHHbIll MPAMOP. OT- BgHHhIM H3ronOBheM, B y.n;MypTCKOH
ITInHcj:>oBaHHhIH rHrrc, o6pa6oTaHHhIH U36e (1).
KBaC~aMH II. CMeIlIaHHblH C MHHepanh-
HblMII. KpaCKaMII..
MCIIAHCKMll MEJI. TanhK, yrro-
TPe6ngeMhIH .n;ng oKpacKH o6oeB, a
TaK)!{e KaK COCTaBHag qaCTh pg.n;a Ma-
ngpHhIX KpacoK.

MCIIO,IJ;HME CEHM (= rro.n;ceHlI.e).


5Ipyc B OCHOBaHII.H .n;epeBgHHhIX ceHeu.

MCIIO,IJ;HMl(A. IIO.n;hI36H~a, HH)!{HHH


RpyC KJlemU (1).

MCTEEKA. 1 IIooKJlem, rro.n;hI3611.~a.


2 Kna.n;oBag C pyqHhIMH )!{epHOBaMII.,
B KpeCThgHCKOH U36e (1).

MCTOEKA. H36a (2).

MCTOIIKA. 1 H36a (2).2 (= rro.n;Bono-


Ka, qep.n;aK). qep.n;aqHOe rrpocTpaHcTBo
Me)!{,!l;y rrOTOnOqHhIM HaKaTOM II. KP06-
Jleu u36bl (1). 3 IIocTpoHKa .n;ng MhIThg,
6~, Jla3HR (1).

MCTOIIH5I. ,IJ;epeBgHHag KpeCThgH-


CKag rrocTpoHKa .n;ng rOTOBKH nH~H.

MCTPYE. Cpy6.

MTAJIb5IHCKME CTPOIIMJIA
(= 06hIKHoBeHHhIe cTponHna). KOH-
CTPy~ID1 11.3 coe.n;HHeHHhIX 3aTg)!{KOH
CmpOnUJIbHblX Hoi, KOTophIe rro.n;.n;ep-
)!{lI.BaIOTCg nOOKOCa.MU C yrropoM B BII.Cg-
qyIO 6a6KY.

-69-
KABAHllHK. PacrrpOCTPaHeHHIUI B peHHhIM H3rn6oM, B KOTOPOM BepXHIDI TeJlhHOe coopY)i{eHHe C 6oeeou nIlow,ao-
rrepHOA MOAepHa o6mru;oBO'fHaSI Kepa- '1aCTh BhIITyKJIIUI, a HIDKHSlSl - BorHYTIUI. KOU, rrpHTIOAHSlTOH H~ CTeHaMH 6J1H-
MH'IeCKaSI rrnHTKa, B rrporroplVfSlX nHl\e- )i{aHIIIerO 6acmuoHa.
BOH CTOPOHhI HMHTHPYIOm:aSI KHprrH'l.
KABJIHKOJIbI. BOJllOmbl KOPUHq,-
KABEJIbHbIH MOCT. BHCSI'IHH MOCT CKOU KanUmeJlU, rrOMep)l{lfBaIOm:He
Ha rrpOBOnO'lHhIX TPocax .. yrJlhI ee a6aKu.

KABHHET. 1 KOMHaTa B KBapTHpe, KA.,[()KAJIH. YJlh'lCKHe CTOJl6hI, K


rrpeAHa3Ha'leHHaSI AnSI HHAHBHAyanhHhIX KOTOPhIM rrpHBSI3hIBalOT MeABeAeH.
3aHSlTHH YMcTBeHHhIM TPYAOM. 2 Crre-
KA,!J;HJIbHAA IIEl.J:b. IIe'lh, rrpHcno-
QHanhHO o6opYAoBaHHoe AnSI 3aHSlTHH
C06J1eHHIUI K BocKypeHHIO 6J1aroBoHHH B
orrpeAeJIeHHoro rrpOCPHJISI rroMem:eHHe B
nOMem:eHHH.
Y'le6HoM 3aBeAeHHH. 3 CrreQHanhHo KABPHOJIb. H30rnYTIUI Me6eJIhHIUI
o6opYAoBaHHoe rroMem:eHHe AnSI rrpH- HO)i{Ka, - 06hI'IHO B BHAe JIanhI )l{lfBOT- KA,IJ;YQE,H. )l(e3JI MepKYPHSl, CHMMe-
eMa 60JIhHhIX. 4 IIoMem:eHHe B y'lpe- Horo C KOITSlMH HJIH C KonhITOM BHH3y. TPH'IHO 06BHThIH ABYMSI 3MeRMH H
)l{AeHHH, rrpeAHa3Ha'leHHOe AnSI cnY)i{e6- 3aBePIIIeHHhm rrapoH KphInhIIIIeK.
HhIX Aen AOn)I{HOCTHOro nHl\a (B '1aCTHO-
CTH,AnSI rrpHeMa rroceTHTeneH). 5 KOM-
rrneK,T Me6enH Ami Ka6UHema (1, 4).
6 IIHchMeHHhm CTon C HaACTPOH:KOH,
3arrOJIHeHHOH SIm;H'IKaMH H rronOCTSlMH C

KABA. 0pO'lCKOe neTHee )I{HJlHm:e C


rrpSlMoyronhHhIM rrnaHOM, CTeHaMH H3
eJIOBOH KOphI no BepTHKanhHoMY 6pe-
BeH'laToMY KapKacy H ABycKaTHoH Kpbl- KA3AHJIbIK, KA3AH ~K. Aut RK.
uteu. KA3APMA. 1 IIpHcrroco6J1eHHoe AJiR
KABAJIbEP. PacnOJlO)i{eHHOe BHYTPH 060pOHhI 3AaHHe, B KOTOPOM )l{lfByr
Kpenocmu BcnOMOraTeJlhHOe 060POHH-
ABepQaMH (cp.: BlOpO). 7 (= Ka6HHeT B
6ocKeme). Y'IaCTOK pezyJlRpHOZO rrap-
Ka, orpaHH'IeHHhIH CTeHKaMH H3 CTPH-
)i{eHhIX ):ICpeBheB (HHorAa BKJIIO'Ian B
ce6SI 6eceoKY, cKynhrrTYPY, 6acceHH).

KABH~. Yrny6neHHIUI B 3eMJIIO rnH-


HSlHIUI rre'lKa, B Ky6aHCKHX CTaHHQax.
COJlAaThI BOHCKOBOH '1aCTH. 2 ,!J;opeBo-
KABJIYlJOK. BhITSIHYThIH rro ropH- JlIOQHOHHOe 3AaHHe AnSI pa6o'lero
30HTanH HaBHcawm:HH npoqlHJIh C yMe- o6m:e)l{lfTHSl, pacnOJIO)i{eHHOe rrpH npo-

70

-70-
K KA3EMAT - KAnEnnA 71

MbIIIIJIeHHOM npe):lnpIDITIHI. 3 /(OM (1) KAJIAH1:JA. ,IJ,03opHaSI BbIlliKa }:IJISI KAMHH JIEEPEHA. JIe6pella KaMllU.
npH TpaHcnOpTHOIl: MarHcTPaJIH, B KOTO- Ha6JIIO}:IeHHSI 3a npH6JIH)KeHHeM npoTHB-
KAMOPKA. I1oMeIl\eHHe pSI}:IOM co
POM npmKHBalOT ):IOpO)KHbIe pa60qHe H HHKa HJIH 3a B03HHKHOBeHHeM nO)KapoB. CBOOOM.
CJIY)KaIl\He, OTBeqalOIl\He 3a HcnpaB-
KAJIEBKA. 1 (= 6poBKa). HeCJIO)KHa5I
HOCTb nYTH. KAMI1EIIIEBOE ,IJ,EPEBO (= CHHHH
rrpOCPHJIHpOBKa KpaSI OOCKU (1), BKJllO-
CaH}:IaJI). ,IJ,peBecHHa, oTBap KOTOPOH
qalOIl\a5I nOJlYBaJl. 2 (= BaroHKa).
HaHOCHJIH nJIOCKHMH M5IrKHMH KHCTSIMH
/(ocKa (1) MJIH 6pYCOK (1) C TaKOll npo-
Ha KJIeHOBbIe qaCTH Me6eJIH, qT06bI
CPHJIHPOBKOll .
HMHTHpOBaTb rrpO)KHJIKH, CBollcTBeH-
KAJIOPH<I>EP. OTOnHTeJIbHOe YCTPOll- HbIe meKcmype naJIHCaH):Ipa, opexa H
KA3EMAT. 1 CBO):lqaTOe KaMeHHoe CTBO, 060rpeBalOl.l\ee B03}:1yx B nOMel.l\e- ,n;pyrHx u;eHHbIX nopo):l.
coopY)KeHne nO):l KpenocTHbIM BMOM HIDIX 6JIarO):lapSI ero conpHKocHoBeHHIO
KAH. HapbI, npHMbIKalOIl\He K BHYT-
(1), npe):lHa3HaqeHHOe ):IJISI YKPbITHSI OT peHHHM CTeHaM )KHJIHIl\a Y KopeHHbIx
HaBeCHoro 06CTpeJIa H ):IJISI xpaHeHIDI HapO}:lOB BOCTOqHOll CH6HpH.

KAHAIIE. ,IJ,HBaHqHK C npHnO):lHSITbIM


H3rOJIOBbeM.

KAH,IJ,EM. Kap/{ep.

co CTeHKaMH Tpy6 HJIH HHbIX KaHaJIOB, KAH,IJ,EJI5IEP. KpynHbIll CTOHqHll CBe-


no KOTOPblM npOXO):lSIT rOpHqHe ra3, nap THJIbHHK, HHOr}:la C pa3BeTBneHIDIMH }:IJIH
JIH60 BO):la. CBeqeH.

KAJITA. I1pHMoyronbHoe B IIJIaHe


3BeHKHllcKoe )KHJIHl.l\e H3 6peBell, BHY-
TPH KOToporo YCTPoeHbI HapbI Ha IIIHpO-
KOM Obl.MOXOOe, npOXO):lHBIIIeM no nepH-
MeTPY OT neqH Y }:IBepH.
60enpHIIaCOB. 2 CBO):lqaTOe nOMeIl\eHHe KAMEHHQA. )KMJIOH OO,M (1) H3 KHP-
):IJISI oc060 onaCHblX npecTynHHKoB, B nHqa MJIH KaMHSI Ha IOrO-3ana):le POCCHH.
TlOpbMe HJIH Kpenocmu.
KAMEHKA. I1e% 6e3 Ow,toxooa,
KA3EHKA. 1 I1eperOpO}:lKa, OT}:IeJISI- KynoJIo06pa3Ho CJIO)KeHHaH H3 KaMHell
lOIl\aSI KYXOHHYIO qaCTb U36bl (1) OT ee Ha rJIHHSIHOM pacTBope.
qHCTOll nOJIOBHHbI. 2 IIOMel.l\eHHe ):IJI5I
xpaHeHIDI ):IeHer H ):IOKYMeHToB, B ):IpeB- KAMEHHhIM KAPTOH (= KapToH-
HepyccKoM npHKa3e. 3 BCTpoeHHbIll B nbep). IIanbe-Mallie C 60JIbIIIHM KOJIH-
cTeHY CTOJISIpHbIll IIIKacp H3 JIHnOBblX qeCTBOM MHHepaJIbHbIX ):I06aBOK (Ha-
OOCOK (1), B KOTOPOM XpaHHJIH }:Iopome npHMep, MeJI, u;eMeHT), npHMeHSIBIIIeecH
BeIl\H. 4 Ka31w (1). }:InH H3roToBneHHSI MeJIKHX apxHTeKTYp-
HbIX YKpaIIIeHHll.
KA3EHHhIM KHPI1H1:J. EpYCKOBbIll
KHpnHq C pa3MepaMH 6 x 3 x 15 BepIIIKoB, KAMEHHhIM MEiliOK (= 6JIOIIIHH- KAH,IJ,HJIO. 1 HanOJIbHbIll nO):lCBeq-
HJIH 267x133x67 MM, pacnpocTpaHeH- u;a). Y 3Koe BepTHKaJIbHOe nOMel.l\eHHe C HHK nepe}:l HKOHOll. 2 QepKOBHa5I JIaM-
HbIll Ha npaBax CTaH}:IapTHOro B PYCCKOM BepxHHM na30M H rnyxHMH CTeHKaMH, na}:la C eJIeeM.
cTPoHTeJIbCTBe C 1847 no 1927 r. npe}:lHa3HaqeHHOe }:InH Y3HHKa.
KAHHEJIHPOBAHHhIM.
KA3HA. 1 (= Ka3eHKa (4). 1:JYJIaH B KAMEPA OT,IJ,hIXA. I10BblIIIeHHbIll TbIH KalllleJllOpaMu.
ceHRX PYCCKOll U36bl (1), OrpaHHqeHHbIll ():IO nonYTopa MeTPOB) yqaCTOK KaHaJIH-
3aU;HOHHoro TOHHeJIH, - Me)K):IY 60JIee KAHHEJIIOPhI (= Bpe3bI, )KeJI06KH).
neperOpO):lKoll. 2 KyxoHHaSI qaCTb B
HH3KHX yqaCTKOB ():IO 60 M B CTOpOHbI). IIapaJIJIeJIbHbIe )KeJI06KH Ha nOBepxHo-
u36e (1) TaTap-MHIIIapell.
CTH CTBOJIa KOJlOllllbl HJIH nUJIRCmpbl
KAMrH. EOJIbIIIa5I 3CKHMOCCKa5I 3eM- KAMHH. I1pHcTeHHaH neqb C OTKPbI- (BepTHKaJIbHbIe K.) JIH60 Ha nOBepxHo-
JISIHKa Ha HeCKOJIbKO pop;cTBeHHblx TblM TOIIJIHBHHKOM, He HMelOIl\a5I Obl.MO- CTH mopa (ropH30HTaJIbHbIe K.).
ceMeHcTB. o6opomOB.
KAHOH. I1aHHXH):IHbIll CTOJIHK B u;epK-
KAMPO. raJlepeu (1) no nepHMeTpy BH, Ha KOTOPbIH CTaBHTCH rp06 C nOKoll-
SInOHCKoro xpaMoBoro KOMnJIeKca. HHKOM.

KAJIA. KaBKa3CKa5I 60eBa5I 6aUlllR H3 KAI1. HapocT Ha }:IepeBe, B pHcYHKe


KaMHSI. cpe3a HanOMHHalOIl\HH MpaMop.

KAJIAK KhICThIPrhIC. IIpHKpe- KAI1AK. CmaBllU (1) Ha OKHax Horallc-


nJIeHHble K CTeHe B 6aIIIKHpcKOH U36e Koro ):IOMa.
(1) nepeKJIa):lHHbI }:IJISI xpaHeHIDI JIO)KeK
KAIIEJIJIA. KaTOJIHqeCKa5I MJIH aHrJIH-
H HO)Kell.
KaHCKaH 'taCOBllR (1), B03Be):leHHa5I 060-
KAJIAHA. YJIbqCKHll OOM (1) C ):IBY- C06JIeHHO JIH60 BKJIlOqeHHaH B 06beM
cKaTHoll KpblUleu. xpaMa.

-71-
K KAnlllTAJlbHASI CTEHA - KATOnlll~ECKIllM KPECT 72

KAIUfTAJIbHA5I CTEHA. CTCHa CT B cc6a 06WHpHOC 3aMKHYTOC npo- 3aKpY'lCHHhIMH KP(u{MH H BKJIJO'IaJO~H:iI:
3):1aHIHI, BOCnpHHHMaJO~(u{ HarpY3KY OT CTpaHCTBO nOA OTKphlThIM Hc60M - ):IJIa no ~CHTpy 6e1t3eJlb C HHH~HaJIaMH BJIa-
KOHCTpYK~H BCPXHCro 3Ta)Ka H ncpc- OT):IhIXa BhJO'IHhIX )KHBOTHhIX, OKPY)KCH- ):ICJIh~a HMCHHa.
KphITHH. HOC MHOrO'lHCJICHHhIMH CKJIa):laMH H
KOMHaTaMH ):IJIa HO'IJICra COnpOBO)K):la-
KAnHT AJIbHbIM rE3EHK. Hc HMC-
JO~HX KapaBaH.
JO~(u{ BhIXO):la Ha nOBCpXHOCTh BCPTH-
KaJIhH(u{ HJIH HaKJIOHH(u{ WaXTa, COC):IH- KAP AKAMH. 1 Pa3ABH)KH(u{ BHYTpCH-
IDIJO~(u{ ):IBa lfJIH HCCKOJIhKO roPH30H- Haa ncpcropO):lKa B anOHCKOM oOMe (1).
TOB B PY):IHHKC. 2 CnCI\HaJIhH(U{ nJIOTH(u{ 6YMara
(06hI'IHO npOMaCJICHH(u{), 3aMCIDIJO~(u{
KAIIHTEJIb. BCH'IaJO~HH 3JICMCHT OCTCKJICHIfC B TaKoH ncpcropoAKc.
IWJlOHHbl HJIH nUIUlcmpbl, OTJIH'Ia-
KAPIJ;EP (= KaH):Ic:iI:). IIoMc~cHHc ):IJIa
JO~HHca OT cc OCHOBHOH '1aCTH 60JICC KAPA-KAPilibI bI3EA. IIpaMoyroJIh-
BpcMcHHoro O):lHHO'IHOrO 3aTO'lCHHa
CJIO)KHOH CPOPMOH H 60JIhWCH WHpHHOH. HOC CCJIhCKOC )KHJIH~C TaTap-MHwapCH,
npOBHHlfBwHXca apccTaHToB (B TJOPh-
B KOTOPOM ):IBC ua6bl (1) pa3):1CJICHhI
MC) lfJIH y'la~HXca (B Y'lC6HOM 3aBC):IC-
CeHR.MU.
HHH).

KAP AJI,ll,bI A5IrbI. HH3KHH wKacp'lHK


co CTBOpKaMH B OCHOBaHHH CTonhl
nOCTCJIhHhIX npHHa):IJIC)KHOCTCH B 6aw-
KHPCKOM )KHJIH~C.

KAPA-XA<I>Y. C/JpoHmoH C H30my-


ThIMH CKaTaMH B anOHCKOH apXHTCKTYPC
(06h1'1HO KYJIhTOBOH HJIH ):IBOp~OBOH).

KAIIHmE (= )KCPTBH~C). CJIaBaH- KAPE. KOMnOHOBKa apXlfTcKryPHhlx

CKH}I a3hI'ICCKHH xpaM. 06'bCMOB BOKpyr npaMoyrOJIhHoro npo-


CTpaHCTBa.
KACATKHH XBOCT. CIC060POOeHb.
KAIIJIH. IIpHJIcraJO~c K CTCHC ):ICKO-
paTHBHhIC TpcyrOJIhHhIC nO):lBCCKH B KAPHATH,ll,A. )KCHCK(u{ cTaTya, nOA-
KACKA,ll,. MHorocrynCH'IaTOC KaMCH-
BH):IC npH3M lfJIH YCC'ICHHhIX KOHYCOB, B ):ICp)KHBaJO~(u{ apxHTcKryPHhI:iI: Bhl-
HOC COOPY)KCHHC C MCJIKHMH npOMC~­
OCHOBaHlm mpUlJlurjJa JIH60 MOOYJlb- cTyn.
TO'lHhIMH 6accc:il:HaMH Ha nYTH BO,o;O-
OHa. TOKa B napKC, HMHTHpyJO~CC meppac-
KAPHH3. 1 IIpOTa)KCHHhIH BhlcTyn,
3aBcpwaJO~H:iI: CTCHY JIH60 '1JICIDI~H:iI:
HblU BO):lona):l.
KAIIJIHIJ;A. 1 Hc6oJIhW(U{ KYJIhTOBaa
nocTpoHKa (B OTJIH'IHC OT ltaC06eH cc Ha RPYCbl HJIH 3Ta)KH. 2BcH'IaJO~(u{ KACKA,ll,HbIE IIPY,ll,bI. CHcTcMa
MO)KCT HMCTh aJlmapb). 2 060c06JICH- '1aCTh aHma6J1eMeHma. npY):IOB, pacnOJIO)KCHHhIX Ha pa3Hhix
HOC Hc60JIhWOC nOMc~cHHC ):IJIa ypoBHax H 06'bC):IHHCHHhlX CKB03HhIM
KAPHH30JIb. TKaHh AJIa 060CB C
MOJIHTB H PCJIHrH03HhIX 06Pa):IOB, BXO- TC'ICHHCM BO):lhi.
BhIWHBKO:il:.
):Ia~cc B COCTaB KaTOJIH'ICCKOrO xpaMa
KACCETA. KeccoH.
HJIH rp~aHCKoro 3):1aHHa Ha JOro- KAPT A. 1 CKOTHhI:iI: ):IBOp B KPCCTMIH-
3ana):lC POCCHH. CKOH ycaob6e KOMH-3hlpaH H KOMH-ncp- KAC 3M. EawKHpcK(U{ ua6a, CnO)KCH-
KAIIOHHP. <l>opTHqmKa~HoHHOC CO- MaKOB. 2 Yp3a. 3 HaKJIa):IHaa nJIaCTHHKa H(u{ H3 oepHa (1).
OpY)KCHlfC ):IJIa npO):lOJIhHOrO 06CTpCJIa B nemJle, YKPCllJICHH(u{ Ha CTBOPKC ):IBC-
pH.
KATAJIA)J(HA5I. 1 (= KaTaJI3)KKa).
KpenocmHOlO pBa B ):IBYX npOTHBono-
ApccTaHTcKoc nOMC~CHliC npH nOJIK-
JIO)KHhIX HanpaBJICHHax.
KAPT A 3M. rJIHH06HTHaa 6awKHp- ~HH. 2 (= TaKCJIa)KH(u{). CKJIa):l ):IJIa CHa-
CK(u{ nOCTpoHKa. CTCH.

KAPTHHA. ,ll,Ba JIHCTa KPOBCJIhHOro KATAJIbHA5I rOPA. IIapKoBoc

)KCJIC3a, nJIOTHO COC):IHHCHHhIX MC)K):IY COOPY)KCHHC C naHOYCOM ):IJIa cnycKa Ha


C060H. caHax.

KATAIIETACMA (= ropHHC ):IBCpH).


KAPTOH-IIbEP. KaMeHltblU KapmOH.
3aHaBCC uKoHocmacoM, pa3):1CJIa-
3a
KAPTOHbEPKA. JO~ £4apcKue 6pama H npecmoJl.
KAIICOJIb (= nO):lOBaa JIC~a):lh). KBa-
ApaTHhIH TOHKHH KHpnH'I ):IJIa BhICTHJIKH 6YMar.
KATAPAKTA. repca.
nC'IHOrO nooa.
KAPTY3HA5I EYMArA. IIpocMo- KATA<I>AJIK. B03BhIWCHHC B ~CpKBH,
KAIIbI. ,ll,BCPh HoraHCKOH /Opmbl, CO- JICHH(u{ 6YMara ):IJIa rH):IpOH30JIa~H, Ha KOTOPOC CTaBaT rp06 npH OTnCBa-
CToa~(U{ H3 OAHOH HJIH ):IBYX YKpaWCH- pa3):1CJIaJO~aa CJIOH OOCOK (1) B TCCOBOH HHH.
HhIX PC3h60H ):ICPCBaHHhIX CTBOPOK Ha ICp06J1e.
KATOK. ,ll,cpcBaHHhIH: nOMOCT HJIH
UtapHupax.
KAPTYili. l,ll,cKopaTHBHhIH 3JICMCHT B HaphI ):IJIa pa60ThI nopTHoro.
KAP ABAH-CAP AM. EOJIhWOH no- BH):IC ~HTa JIH60 CBHTKa C 3aKpY'lcH-
CmOJUlblU 060P ):IJIa pa3MC~CHlm Ka- HhIMH KP(u{MH. 2 IJ;BCTO'lHhIH: OPHaMCHT KATOJIHqECKHM KPECT. JIamuH-
paBaHHhIX 06030B, KOTOPhIH BKJIJO'Ia- B napmepe (1), HMCJO~H:iI: BH):I CBHTKa C CICUU ICpecm.

-72-
K KATOMAAO - KEPWmtnb 73

KATOMA,IJ;O. Omo 51nOHCKOH no- KBA,IJ;POBbIH PYCf. ,[(eKOpaTHBHruI KEAEll. Coop~eHHe AJI5I ~ B
CTpoihrn, B nepeDJIeTe KOTOPOro MHO- 06pa60TKa CTeHbI npmmyrOJIbHhIMH HorancKoH ycaob6e.
)l{eCTBO H3m60B. 6JIOKaMH, pa3AeJIeHHbIMH roPH30HTaJIb-
HbIMH H BepTHKaJIbHbIMH npO<pHJlHpO- KEHMA )KHBOI1HCb. )Ku8onucb
KATYX. raiiHo. Ke11Ma.
BaHHbIMH )l{eJI06KaMH.
KAY. OCeTHHCKOe )KHJl~e. KEKYPA. rypuu.
KBAHT I1EJIbECA KEPKA. Ih6a-
KAfPEWA. Orp~eHHOe B03BblIIIe- nRmUCmeHOK Y KOMH-3blpD. KEJIAT. KJIeTb-aM6ap (1) B 6aIllKHp-
HHe AJI5I npOnOBeAeH, 06pam;eHH51 K CJIY- KBAPTAJI. 1 qacTb wpooa (2) HJIH CKOH ycaob6e.
IIIaTeJI5IM .
60JIbmOrO ceJIeHH51, orpaHH'IeHHruI KEJIEHHbIH I10P.H,[(OK, KEJIEH-
I"
I
,, nepeceKalODl;HMHCH ymu~aMH, Me)l{lJ;Y HbIH P.HA. CTOpoHa AepeBeHcKoH YJIH-
COCeAHHMH nepeKpeCTKaMH. 2 qacTb
,,f
~I, 3aCTpoeHHaH H36YI11KaMH, B KOTO-
I
JIeCOnapKoBoHTeppHTopHH,orpaH~eH­ pbIX )KHJlH 6blBIIIHe COJIAaThI H OAHHO-
:, HruI npoceKaMH. 3 OTAeJIeHHe ropoA- KHe.
, CKOH nOJIHQHH (B cep. XIX B.).
,, KEJIbH. )I{HJIbIe nOMem;eHH51 AJI5I MO-
,
KBAll. BpeMeHHbIH a6a3HHcKHH cmaH
i (3) AJI5I nacryxoB H CKOTa, KOUt (1).
HaxOB, a TaK)l{e KOpnyC 3TOro Ha3Ha'le-
I, HH51.
, KBEPllJIAr. 1 He HMelOm;HH: Heno- KEHKET. MaCJI5IHruI JIaMIIa, Y KOTOPOH
cpeACTBeHHoro BbIXOAa Ha 3eMHYlO pe3epByap C roplO'IHM pacnOJIO)l{eH Ha
nOBepxHoCTb roPH30HTaJIbHbIH KOPRAOP ypoBHe rOpeJIKH H CB5I3aH C HeH H30rHY-
BHYTPH PYAHHKa HJlH IIIaxTbI, HCnOJIb3Y- TOH TPy6KOH.
eMbIH AJIH BeHTHJI5IQHH H nyTeH TPaHc-
KAfPEJIb. Kepa~ecKHe rJIa3ypoBaH- nopTa Me)l{lJ;y maxTHbiM CTBOJIOM 11
Hble DJIHTKH AJI5I 06JIHQOBKH ne'leH, a MeCTOM pa3pa60TKH nopoAbl. 2I1oA3eM-
TaK)l{e CTeH B He)KHJlbiX nOMem;eHH5IX C HbIH KOPRAOP, coeAHHHlOm;HH: XOAbi H
nOBblIIIeHHoH BJI~OCTblO. KaMepbI nOA 060pOHHTeJIbHbIM yKpe-
KAfPE,[(PAJlbHbIH COEOP. XpaM, B flJTeHHeM.
KOTOPOM coBepIIIaeT 6orOCJIY)I{eHHe
MeCTHblH eDHCKon (enapXHaJIbHbIH ap-
XHepeH).

KAl(YOrn. KopoTKHe KpYrJIbie 6pe6-


Ha nonepeK KOHbKa Kp06J1U B HnOH-
CKOH apXHTeKrype.
KAmArA. lIoo30p (1) no KpalO KEHKOHC. I10CaAKa napKoBbIX
MamUZ4bl (1) B ua6e (1) TaTap-MHWapeH. AepeBbeB B IIIaxMaTHoM nop5lAKe, npH
KBHKYHKC. I10CaAKa AepeBbeB no OTlI:PbITbIX BHH3Y CTBOJIax nOA KpoHaMH..
KAllITA. I1epeKJIa;n;HHa AJI5I OAe)l{lJ;bI B yrJIaM np5IMoyrOJIbHOrO Y'laCTKa H B ero nOACTpH)l{eHHblMH B JIHHHIO.
MapdcKoH ua6e (1). ~eHTPe.
KEHOC. OAHoKaMepHaH KJlemb (1) B
KAIIIhUIK .HK. AUt RK. KrEP. KaJIMbm;KruI peIlleT'IaTO-BOH- YAMypTCKOH KpeCTbDcKoH ycaob6e.
KBA,IJ;P. EJIOK KaMH5I AJI5I <pacaAa, OTe- JIO'lHruI lOpma, Ku6umKa.
KEHOTAfP. HaArp06He, nOA KOTOPblM
caHHbIH Ha JIHQeBOH CTOpoHe BAOJIb KEEJIA. Ku6.1la. HeT MOrHJIbl.
KpaeB, a TaK)l{e C JIH~eBOH nOBepxHo-
CTblO B BRAe nOJloroH 'IeTbIpexrpaHHOH KErEJIbEAH. I1oMem;eHHe, npHcno-. KEHT. KYMbIKcKoe CeJIeHHe.
DHPaMHAbi JlH60 npH3MbI. C06JIeHHOe AJI5I HrpbI B KerJIH H BKJIIO'Ia-: .
lOm;ee B ce651 AOPO)l{KY AJI5I YAapoB KPyn- . KEPErE. 1 (= KepeHe). AJITaHcKruI
KBAW B KPECfOBHHE. THn nap- HbIMH IIIapaMH, a TaK)l{e )l{eJI06 AJI5I HX BOUJIO'lHruI lOpma. 2 ,[(epeB5lHHaH CKJIaA-
KeTHoro Dl;HTa (CM. Iaumo6ou napKem), B03BpaTa K HrpOKY· HruI peIlleTKa B OCTOBe pa360pHOH HO-
B pHcyHKe KOTOporo nOJIe pa3AeJIeHO . raHCKOH lOpmbl.
PaBHOKOHe'lHbIM np5lMbIM KpeCTOM Ha 4
KBaApaTa, COCTaBJIeHHbiX H3 9 MeHbIIIHX, KEPKA. ,[(Byx:n~oe .6peBeH'IaTOe
C 'IepeAOBaHHeM B ?pHeHTaQHH KJlenOK. )KHJlHm;e KOMH-3bIpD, 06bl'1HO COCTaB-
JIeHHOe H3 AByx-rpex cpy606, KOTOpbIe
KBA,IJ;PHfPOJIHH. 3aMKHYTruI <pHry- pa3AeJIeHbl ;n;pyr OT ;n;pyra He60JIbIIIHM
pa, C ABYM5I B3aHMHO nepneHlJ;HKyJI5lp- 3a30pOM.
HblMH OC5IMH CHMMeTPHH, 06pa30BaHHruI
'IeTbIpbM51 nOJIYKp~, KOTopbIe KEPKY I1blTillKEC. )I{HJIoe nOMem;e-
06pam;eHbI BhTTlyY<JTOCThlO Hapy)I{y. HHe B KOMH-nep~KOM KpeCTbDCKOM

,d"-·· oOMe (1) .

KEPllI1MJIb. llHpOKHH AOm;aTbIH

•, "
HaCTHJI B MOKIIIaHcKoH ua6e (1), 3aHHMa-
1Om;HH: DpOCTpaHCTBO OT ne'lH ;0:0 3aAHeH
. , CTeHbi oOMa (1) .

-73-
K KECCOH - KnABlIIl.UIITEPIllYM 74

KECCOH (= KaCCeTa). 3neMeHT PMT- KMITKAPTM. OTKPhIThIH OBOP (1) ~y­ KMlJA, KMlJMAH. TlOphMa.
MM~HOH pa3AenKII BHYTpeHHeH nOBepX- BamCKOH KpecThHHcKOH ycaob6bt.
KMIIIT3. I10nKa B cenhCKOM TaTap-
HOCTM nepeKphITIDI yrny6neHIDIMM reo-
KMMATMM (= KlIMa). ,lJ;eKopMpOBKa CKOM }KII:llMIl\e, Ha KOTOPYIO CKnaAhI-
MeTpM~eCKOH c1JOPMbI.
M30rnyTOH nOBepXHOCTM KapHU3a CTM- BalOT nOCTenM, OAeHna M nYXOBhle no-

~~-- nM30BaHHhIMM nMCThHMM, OBanaMM B AymKM.

~~
06paMneHMHX M T. A., o6pa3ylOIQMMll
KITABECMH. KpynHhIH KnaBMmHhIH
HenpephIBHhIH opHaMeHTanhHhIH PHA.
MY3hIKanhHhIH MHcTpYMeHT C AByMH MnH
KHHMMT C3pr3. 5IKYTcKaH KOHOBH3h TpeMH py~HhIMM KnaBHaTypaMH BHyTpH
AnH KOHH HeBeCThI. OCHOBHoro 06'beMa npHMoyronhHoH
nM60 KphrnoBMAHoH c1JOPMhI.
KMHOBM5I. MOHacThlph C nonHhIM
KEEPEr. IIazpeH. o606Il\eCTBneHMeM co6cTBeHHocTM ero
6paTMM.
KEKMIMbIC I1EITbECA KEPKA.
Ih6a-UlecmucmeHoK y KOMM-3blpHH. KMOCK. 1 ITerKoe caAoBo-napKoBoe
coopY}KeHMe C o6mMBKoH no CTon6MKaM
KEIT,lJ;EKCE. fnMHo6MTHM nnOIl\aAKa KapKaca. 2 EbICTPO B03BOAMMhIH Topro-
nepeA ne%1O B 6amKllpcKoH U36e (1). BhIH MnM MY3hIKanhHhIH naBUJlbOH (1, 3).
KElJrEH TEPE3E. 3aABM}KHaH BHy-
TpeHHHH Cma61tR (1) He6onbmoro OKHa
B Kapa~aeBcKoM oOMe (1).
KMA-KMHf. fMpnHHAbI pa3HOn;BeT-
HhIX 6YMa}KHhIX c1JoHapMKoB AnH MnnlO-
MMHan;MH.

KMAHM3MPOBAHME. AHTMcenTM- KMOT. 1 Yrny6neHMe AnH MKOHhI B CTe-


~eCKaH nponMTKa ApeBecMHhI cyneMoH. He. 2 3acTeKneHHaH paMa-mKacIJ~MK AnH
KMEMTKA. BOHno~Hoe }KII:nMIl\e KpynHoH MKOHhI MnI'li HeCKonhKMX
He60nhmMX HKOH. KITABMKOP,lJ;. KnaBHmHhIH MY3hI-
Ko~eBHMKOB M nonyKo~eBHMKOB (cp.: KanhHhIH HHcTpYMeHT CnpoAonroBaThIM
IOpma).
npHMoyronhHbIM KOpnyCOM Ha HO}KKaX,
KMEITA (= K116nax, Ke6na). EoraTo BHemHe nOXO}KMH Ha CTon C nOAHHToH
AeKopMpoBaHHhIH mKacIJ BHYTPM Me'le- cmoJleUlHuu,eii, YCTaHoBneHHoH BepTH-
mu, B KOTOPOM xpaHMTcH KopaH. KanhHO no OAHOH M3 AnHHHhIX CTOpOH.

KMBOPMM. I1oAAep}KMBaeMaH KOJlOH-


HaMU ceHb HaA npeCmOJlOM, CBHThIM
MCTO~HMKOM M T. n.

KMPH.D:3YMA. KOHCK KPbtUlU B HnOH-


CKOH apxMTeKType.

KMPH.D:3YMA. KOHeK KPbtUlU B HnOH-


CKOH apxHTeKType.
KMPXA (= KHpKa). ITIOTepaHcKIIH
xpaM.

KMCTb. BhlcTynalOIl\HH HM}KHMH KO-


KMMM3. illepcTHHhle BOI1JlOKH, no- Hen; npU'leJlUHbt, YKpameHHh[H CKB03- KITABMQMTEPMYM. KJlaBeCUH C
KphIBalOIl\Me pa36opHYlO HoraHCKYIO HOM pe3h6oM. BepTMKanhHbIM pacnOnO}KeHHeM OCHOB-
IOpmy. HOH ~aCTM M CTPYH.

KM,lJ;AH. IIoouyM HnoHcKoro xpaMa.

KMITEBM,lJ;HbIM. MMelOIl\MH c1JOPMY


nonYKpyra MnM nonYOBana C BHemHMM
3aOCTpeHlIeM HaA cepeAHHOH Ayrn.

KMT. 1 BepeBKa M3 conOMhI, npeAHa3-


Ha~eHHaH AnH BH3K11 conoMeHHoH KPOB-
JlU. 2 Kop3MHa, HanonHeHHaH AOBepxy
3eMneH H BKnIO~eHHM IB 06opoHHTenh-
HYIO orpaAY·
KMTAMCKA5I POmMQA. I10CaAKa
napKoBhIX AepeBheB aM£jJumeampoM.

-74-
K KnAAI4 - KOHKA 75

KJIA,I1;M. fOPH30HTaJIhHhIe 6peBHa, KJIMHKEP. BhICOKOIIPOqHhIH KMpIIJfq KH5I3EBAJI CnEfA (= KHec, KHeCKa,
BKJHOqeHHhIe B KaMeHHYIO HJIH KHpIIWI- ~JIlI Mo~eHHlI ~opor M HaCTMJIKH nOJIOB B KH1I3eK). )Kep~h IIO~ KOHbKOM, pacIIo-
HYIOKJlaaKY, qT06hI IIO~~ep)l{HBaTh rrpoMhIIIIJIeHHhIX 3~aHMlIX. JIO)l{eHHalI B~OJIh Hero H coe~HHlIIO~aH

npOWHbl. BepXHHe KO~I CmpOnUJIbHblX HOl.


KJIMHlJATAJI KJIA,I1;KA. IIepe-
KJIA,I1;KA. KHPIIHqH JlH60 KaMHH, coe- MhIqKa rrpoeMa MJIM HMIIIM, CJIO)l{eHHaH KOEhIDKA. IIpoMe)l{YToqHhlH 6pYCOK
~HHeHHhIe Me~y C060H B OIIpe~eJIeH­ H3 TPaIIe~eBM~HhIX 6JIOKOB, Y3KHH (1), coe~HHlIIO~HH ~epeBlIHHhIe 3JIe-
HOM IIOp~Ke C IIOMO~hIO CB1I3YIO~ero Tope~ KOTOPhIX o6pa~eH K IIpoeMY. MeHThI (cTyrreHH, KpOBeJIhHhIH TeC,
paCTBOpa. ~BepHYIO Kopo6KY) C OCHOBHOH KOH-
KJIMHlJATAJI KPOBJIH. KpYToe ~e­
cTpy~eH CTeH (B TOM qMCJIe KaMeH-
KJIA,D;h. JIa.Ba (1). peBlIHHoe nOKphITMe Ha ~Ba CKaTa.
HhIX) HJIH cmponUJI.
KJIAT. Au6ap (1) B MapHil:cKoH Kpe- t KOf. 1 ApKaaa, IIO~~ep)l{HBaIO~aH
CThlIHCKOH ycaab6e.
IIJIOCKYIO KPOBJlIO qeqeHcKoro )l{MJIM~a.

KJIEMMO. PeJIhecpHhIH OTTHCK YCJIOB-


2 IIIapHHpHalI KO)l{aHalI CB1I3Ka B peIIIeT-
qaTOM KapKace TYBHHCKOH IOpmbl.
Horo 3HaKa (qa~e 6YKBeHHoro, pe)l{e
H306pa3HTeJIhHO-CHMBOJIJfqeCKOrO HJIH KOrAnA-3CMK. PaCIIIHTalI KOIIIMa,
~CPPOBOro) Ha KHpIIHqaX HJIH MeTaJIJIH- 3aKphIBaIO~alI BXO~ B HoraHcKYIO IOpmy
qeCKHX H3~emrnx. ~JIlI MOJIO~O)l{eHOB.

KJIEIIMK. IIpOCPHJIHpOBaHHhIH KHP- KO,D;3EMH. ,D;OM cBlI~eHHOCJIy)l{HTe­


IIHq ~JIlI KapHU3a, HMeIO~HH B CeqeHHH JIeH lIIIOHCKoro xpaMa.
qeTBepTh BaJla (2) H nOJlo'lKy.
KO,D;O. XpaM IIpoIIoBe~H (O~HO H3 3~a­
KJIETKA. rOpoaftR (1, 2, 3). HHH B aHCaM6JIe nocTpoeK lIIIOHCKoro
6Y~~HHCKOro MOHacThlplI).
KJIETHMK. TOHKHH JIec ~JIlI B03Be~e­
HHlI HeOTaIIJIHBaeMhIX IIocTpoeK. K03ETKA. ,D;HBaHiJ:HK ~JIlI ~BOHX.

KJIETCKAJI ~PKOBh. ,D;epeBlIHHhIH KJIMHlJATbIM PYCT. 1 XapaKTepHoe


~JIS! KJIaCCM~H3Ma cTYIIeHqaTOe peJIhecp-
xpaM C IIplIMOyroJIhHhIM Cpy60M B OCHO-
Be KOMII03H~HH H npO.::TeHIIIHM BapHaH- Hoe 3aBepIIIeHHe rrpoeMa HJIH HHIIIH
TParre~HeBH~HhIM 3aMK06btM KaMHeM,
TOM IIOKphITHlI.
KOTOPhIH cpJIaHKHpYIOT KJIH~aThIe KaM-
HH MeHhIIIeH BhICOThI (cp.: BeepHblU
JaMOK). 2 M3JIOM IIOJIOC aOUfamow
pycma Ha~ rrpoeMoM HJIH HHIIIeH IIO HOP- K03En. Ea6Ka.
MaJIH (<<IIO~ IIplIMhIM YrJIOM») K HH)l{-
HeMY KpaIO.
K63nhI. ,D;epeBlIHHalI KOHCTPY~lI H3
qeThIpex HaKJIOHHhIX HO)l{eK, coe~HHeH­
KJIMPOC (= KPhIJIOC). MecTo ~JIlI IIeB- HhIX 6pYCbRMU (1) HJIH aOCKaMU (1);
qHX BO BpeMlI 6orOCJIY)l{eHHlI, pacnoJIo- CJIY)l{HT OIIOPOH ~JIlI HaCTMJIa B JIerKHX
)l{eHHOe Ha COJlee, IIepe~ cpJIaHrOM UKO- MOCTax, a TaK)l{e IIpH cTpOHTeJIhHhIX
Hocmaca. pa6oTax.

KJIOCTEP-fEBEnhEE. COMKHymblu
cBoa.
KJIETh. 1 He6oJIhIIIa» ~epeBlIHHalI
CKJIa~CKaH IIOcTpoHKa C IIplIMoyrOJIh- KJIOTMK. IIIap Ha BepxHeM Ko~e
HhIM llJIaHOM. 2 KJIa~OBaH IIpH U36e (1). cpJIarIIITOKa, HMeIO~HH BHyTpH IIIKHB
HJIH POJIHK ~JIlI IIO~'heMa cpJIara.
KJIEYX. KYP»THHK.
KJIYMEA. 1 D:BeTHHK npaBMJIhHOH
KJIElJAHhE. BeTBH H ~BeThI, KOTO- reOMeTPHqeCKOH CPOpMhI, 06hIqHO
phIMH K rrpa3~HHKY COIIIecTBHlI CBlIToro BKJIIOqeHHhIH B KOMn03M~HIO napmepa
,D;yxa H TpOH~hIHY ~HIO YKpaIIIaIOT (1). 2 fpYIIIIa ~epeBheB H KycTapHHKoB
UHmepbep B ~epKBax H )l{HJIH~ax. Ha IIOJIlIHe B neUaaJICHOM napKe.

KJIEIUM. YKpenJIeHHe BO pBy IIepe~ KJIYIUI. OT~eJIhHOe cTpoemie MJIH


KypmuHou (3). rrpHCTPoHKa K 06UHY, IIpe~Ha3HaqeHHhle
~JIlI MOJIOTh6hI H xpaHeHHlI XJIe6a. K03yn5I. KOpOTKalI KpecThlIHCKaH
KJIEIIAHAH EAnKA. EaJIKa, CKJIe- CKaMhlI H3 KycKa ~epeBa, CyqhlI KOTO-
IIaHHaH H3 JIMCTOBOro )l{eJIe3a. KJIIOI.J. 1 3aMKOBbiU KaMeHb. 2 Kpe-
poro CJIY)l{aT HO)l{KaMH.
IIe)l{HhIH IIIHII Ha HM)l{HeH IIoBepxHocTM
KJIEIIKM. O~HHaKoBhIe IIplIMOyroJIh- '1epenuu,bt. KOMH. COKpOBH~HH~a B BOCTOqHOH
HhIe ~O~eqKH H3 TBep~hIx IIOpO~ ~epe­ qaCTH ~33H-6Y~~HHcKoro xpaMoBoro
KJIIOlJEBMHA. JIU'IUHa.
Ba, COCTaBJIlIIO~Me JIH~eBYIO IIoBepx- KOMIIJIeKca.
HOCTh napKema. KJI5IlJYfA. CTOpO)l{eBalI BhlIIIKa B
KOMKA. 06oco6JIeHHhIH OT U36bl (1)
llJIO~OBOM ca~y.
KJIMMATPOH. OpaltJlCepeR C HCKYC- a60p (1), 3aH»ThIH maJIamaMH ~JIlI
CTBeHHhIM KJIHMaTOM. KHEC (= KHecKa). KHR3eBaR C.!lelQ. JIIO~eH H CKOTa.

-75-
K KOKOWHIIIK - KOHIilK 76

KOKOIlIHHK. IIOXO)l{JIlI Ha He60JIh- KonOMEH. OKOJIlIn;a, nplIJIeralOIlI,aSl KOMIIAPTHMEHT. IIOBTOpSlIOIlI,lIH-


IIIYIO 3a1W.Mapy ,l\eKOpaTlIBHhIH 3JIe- TeppliToplISl, OKo/tomOl( (5). C.Sl KpynHhIH 3JIeMeHT KOMn03Hn;HH, -
MeHT. 3a KOTOPhIM HeT CBO,l\'1aTOH KOH- HanpliMep, Ka)K,llhIH 1I3 napmepo8 (1)
KOnOHHA. ApxlITeKTYPHhIH 3JIe-
BOKpyr 6acceHHa B pe2y/tRpHO.M napKe.
MeHT, lIrpalOIlI,lIH POJIh onopHoro
cToJI6a MIl nO,l\pa)KaIOIlI,lIH eMY. KOMII03HTHbIH OPAEP (= PHM-
CKHH op,l\ep). IIPOH3BO,l\HhIH OT K.o-
KOnOHHAAA. PlITMlI'IeCKliH pSI,l\
PUHPCK.o20 H u.oHu'teCK.o20 apxHTeKTYp-
KO/tOHH, HecyIlI,lIX 06Il1,ee rop1l30HTaJIh-
HbTl1 opoep. OTJIlI'IaIOIIIHHCSl OC060H
Hoe nepeKphITlie.
CTPYKIl,lIl1, COOTBeTCTBYIOIlI,eH BHeIlI- KOJIOCHHKH. 1 PeIlIeTKlI 1I3 )KeJIe3-
HeMY KOHTYPY K.; lIMeeT lIOJIyn;lIpKYJIh- HhIX npYTheB B TonKe ne'lll, - ,l\JISl
HYIO, TPeXn;eHTPOBYIO, KUIle8UOHYlO npliToKa B03,l\yxa II YCTPaHeHlISl 30JIhI.
JI1I60 ~yroJIhHYIO <P0PMY. 2 )l(ep,l\R ,l\JISI CHonOB B 06UHe.
KOKCOBOH 3AMOK. COe,l\lIHeHlIe KOnOCH5IK. )l(ecTKoe TpaBSlHRcToe
6pe8eH B TOpen; C nOMOIll,hlO n;lIJIlIH,l\plI- pacTeHlIe ,l\JISl YKpenJISlIOIlI,eH 06Ca,l\KlI
'1eCKOrO BhlcTyna no npO,l\OJIhHOH OCli II 8aJt.o8 (1).
COOTBeTCTBYIOIlI,erO eMY yrny6JIeHIDL
KOnOCCAITbHbIH OPAEP. BO/tb-
KOnOBPAT. CTOSl'lliH BaJI ,l\JISl lUOU opoep.
nO,l\'heMa TSl)KeCTeH.
KOnOTOBKA (= KOJIOTYIIIa). He-
KOnOAEU. 1 BhIPhIThIH B rpYHTe II
60JIhiliaSl BO,l\.SlHaSI MeJIhHlIn;a C KOJIeCOM
3aIll,llIll,eHHhIH OT 06BaJIa BepTlIKaJIhHhIH
Ha BepTlIKaJIhHOH OCli.
KaHaJI ,l\JISl ,l\06hIBaHlISl BO,l\hT. a TaK)Ke
KOnIIAK. qeThrpeXCKaTHoe nOKphI-
TIle C BepTlIKaJIhHOH OChlO CliMMeTPlili II nhIIIIHOCThlO; ero xapaKTepHhIH 3JIe-
KpYT1I3HOH He 60JIee 45°. MeHT - l<anume.ffb C '1eThIphM.Sl Kpyn-
HhIMlI 6o/tlOmaMU (KaK B 1I0HIf'leCKOM
KOM. IIpocTpaHcTBo 3a ne'lhlO B KOMH- op,l\epe), HO C BepTlIKaJIhHhIM n;HJIHH,l\-
nepM.Sln;KOH ua6e (1), lICnOJIh3yeMoe no,l\ pll'leCKliM .Sl,l\POM (KaKB KOPllH<pCKOM
KyxHlO. op,l\epe), KOTopoe oKpY)KalOT aKaHm.o-
KOMA. MaJIeHhKlIH na8U1lb.oH (1) ,l\JISI 8bte JIIfCThSl B ,l\BYX ypOBHSlX .
.SlnOHCKHX '1aHHhIX n;epeMoHliH. KOMII03HUH5I qEPHH. qepHaSl
KOMAKA. K.oHla. MaCJISlHaSl KpacKa ,l\JISI MaJISIpHhIX pa6oT,
n060'lHhIH rrpO,l\YKT rrpll rrp01l3BO,l\CTBe
coopY)KeHlIe Ha,l\ HliM. 2 3arJIy6JIeHHOe KOMEnb. 1 KaMUH. 2 Bpe6Ho ,l\JIliHOH 6epJIlfHCKOH JIa3ypli (SIpKo-clIHeH
npocTPaHcTBo ,l\JISl KOHKpeTHhIx TeXHlI- 12 Ca)KeHeH. KpacKIf C e,l\Ba 3aMeTHhIM 3eJIeHOBaThIM
'1ecKHX n;eJIeH (MlIHHhIH KOJIO,l\en;, PY,l\- oTTeHKoM).
KOMMEPqECKHH 3AIT. IIoMeIll,e-
HlIe ,l\JISI npliBlIJIernpOBaHHhIx noceTlITe- KOM5IrA. BhI,l\OJI6JIeHHOe 6pe8Ho ,l\JISI
JIeH pecTopaHa lIJIli mpaKmupa. KOpMJIeHlISl CKOTa (CM. Hc/tu).
KOMHATA-CEHct>. IIoMeIll,eHRe 6e3 KOHAK (= KOHaK rreIlI). KOMHaTa ,l\JI.Sl
OKOH, npe,l\Ha3Ha'leHHOe ,l\JISl xpaHeHlISl nplfeMa rocTeH, B HoraHCKOM ,l\OMe.
oc060 Ba)KHhIX ,l\OKYMeHToB, 60JIhililiX
CYMM ,l\eHer, ,l\parOn;eHHhIx MeTaJIJIOB R KOHAO. rJIaBHhIH xpaM B SlnOHCKOM
lIHhIX n;eHHocTeH. 6Y,l\,l\lIHCKOM MOHaCThlpe.

KOMOA. BlI,l\ Me6eJIlI, npe,l\Ha3Ha'leH- .KOHrA (= KOMaKa). rJIlfH0611THaSI


HhIH ,l\JISI xpaHeHlISl 6eJIhSl II lIHhIX BeIll,eH ne'lh B MapllHcKoH ua6e (1, 2).
B 60JIhIlIRX BhI,l\BR)KHhIX SIIlI,lIKax. KOHEK. 1 BepxHSlSl roPlf30HTaJIh
Kp08/tU. 2 rOp1l30HTaJIhHOe 6pe8Ho,
nplf)KlfMalOIlI,ee BepXHlfe KOHn;hI Teca B
Kpo8/te.

HlI'IHhIH KOJIO,l\en;, CMOTPOBOH KOJIO-


,l\en;). 3 BepTlIKaJIhHhIH Obt.M080U KaHa/t
B ne'lli.
KOnOAKA IIPHCTYTIHAA. JIpu-
cmyn. KOHHK. KOPOTKaSI II IIIIfPOKaSI JIaBKa
KOnOKOnbH5I. EaIlIHe06pa3Hoe co- OT BXO,l\a B ua6y (1) ,l\0 ee yrJIa, lIHOr,l\a
opY)KeHlle C KOJIOKOJIaMH B apKax Bepx- YKpaIlIeHHaSI C TOpn;a pe3HhIM 1I306pa-
Hero Rpyca (cp.: 380HHUl(a). KOMOPA. A.M6ap (1), KJIa,l\OBaSI. )KeHlIeM KOHCKOH rOJIOBbL

-76-
K KOHKOPC - KOP06'iATblH 3AMOK 77

KOHKOPC. PacrrpeAemlTeJIhHhIH 3aJI KOHTP<I>OPC. lloiJnopnaR CmeHlCa, KOP,D;OH. llpoMeJICymOItnblU Kapnua


AJI5I rraCCa)KHpOB B KpyrrHoM TpaHCrrOpT- rrpHMhIKaIO~a5I rrO}l; rrp5IMhIM HJIH o606~eHHoro npoepHJI5I C 60JIhIIIHM
HOM 3}l;aHHH. TyrrhlM yrJIOM K CTpOHTeJIhHOMY 06beMY BhIHOCOM.
}l;JI5I rrOBhIIIIeHH5I ero rrpO'lHOCTH H
KOHHbIM ,D;BOP. qacTh ycaiJe6nou KOPEIJ;. lleKJte6annbiu RU{UK.
YCTOH'IHBOCTH.
TeppHTOpHH, 06be}l;HH5IIO~a5I 3arOHhl H
rrOMe~eHH5I AJI5I JIOrrIaAeH, a TaK)Ke KOPEiliKOBA5I KPhIIIIA. CeBepo-
rrOCTpOHKH }l;JI5I 3KHrr3)l{eH. KaBKa3CKa5I COJIOMeHHalI Kp06J1R C
YKJIa}l;KOH CHorrOB KOMeJIhKaMH BBepx.

KOPHH. YJIh'lCKHH }l;OMHK }l;JIlI rroH-


MaHHoro Me}l;Be}l;5I.

KOPHH<I>CKHM OP,D;EP. HaH60JIee


YTOH'IeHHhIH Cpe}l;H apxHTeKTypHhlX
opiJepo6, }l;JI5I KOToporo xapaKTepHbl
KOHHbIM 3ABO,D;. X035IHCTBeHHhnr H35I~Hhle KanneJlUp06annbie KOJlOnnbl C

KOMrrJIeKC }l;JI5I pa3Be}l;eHH5I JIOIlla}l;eH. KOHTP3CKAPII. I1CKYCCTBeHHoe


KOHCHCTOPIHI. ErrapXHClJIhHOe 3eMJI5IHOe npeIIlITcTBHe, OT}l;eJIeHHOe OT
060pOHlIIO~HXClI pBOM H 06pa~eHHoe K
yrrpaBJIeHHe.
HHM rrO'lTH OTBeCHhTM BhTCOKHM OTKO-
KOHCOJIb. 1 BhlcTYrraIO~a5I H3 CTeHhl
orropa. 2 CTOJI Ha }l;Byx orropax, BhICTy-
naIO~HH H3 CTeHhl H 06hl'lHO npHMhlKa-
IO~HH K 60JIhllIOMY 3epKaJIy OT caMoro
nOJIa.

KOH<I>HPMAIJ;H5I.
npoeKTa BepXOBHOH BJIaCThIO.

KOHXA. C60iJ B BH}l;e '1eTBepTH cepephI


(cp.: rpanenaR Koma).
KOHCTAHTHHOB KPECT. KpecT C 6a3aMU, 3aBepIIIeHHhle KanUmeJlblO C
BoceMhIO O}l;HHaKOBhIMH KOHIl,aMH, paB- KOHhKOBbIM rYPT. IIpoepHJIHPO- aKanm06blMU JIHCThlIMH B Tpex ypOBHlIX
HOMepHo paCXO}l;5I~HMHC5I OT Il,eHTpa. BaHHa5I H }l;eKOpHpOBaHHalI OT}l;eJIKa H BoceMhIO He60JIhIIIHMH 60Jl1OmaMU
pe6pa Kp06J1U H3 Il,HHKa, )KeCTH HJIH Ha}l; HHMH.
KOHTOPKA. He60JIhllIOH no rrJIO- )KeJIe3a.
~a}l;H BhICOKHH CTOJI C HaKJIOHHOH cmo- KOPKA, KOPKA3h. Y}l;MypTcKoe
Jleumuu,eu, Ha KOTOPOH rrHllIyT CT05I. KOIIAHh. KonaHalI lIMa }l;JIlI c06Hpa- KpeCTh5IHCKOe )KHJIH~e, 06be}l;HH5I-
HH5I AO)l{}l;eBOH BO}l;hI. IO~ee ua6y (1) H XOJIO}l;HhIe cenu.
KOHTP-BAHKET. HachIIIHoe coopy-
)KeHHe H3 YTpaM60BaHHoro KaMH5I HJIH KOIIbITqATA5I PEIIIETKA. Ky6o- KOPOBKA. ,D;epeB5IHHa5I paMa, y}l;ep-
rpaBH5I, KOTopoe YKperrJI5IeT OCHOBaHHe )KHBaIO~a5I OKOHHhIH rreperrJIeT HJIH
6amaR peUlemKa.
OaM6bl, B03Be}l;eHHOH Ha CKJIOHe, H npe- }l;BepHOe nOJTOTHH~e.
IUITcTByeT ee CnOJI3aHHIO no OTKOCy. KOPABEMKA. Kopo6bR (2).
KOPOBOBA5I APKA, KOPOBO-
KOHTPBAJIAIJ;HOHHA5I JIHHI15I. KOPABEJIbHbU1 MArA3I1H. IIpH- BbIM CBO,D;. KPHBOJIHHeHHOe rrepe-
HerrpephIBHa5I JIHHHlI nOJIeBhIX yKpe- 6pe)KHOe CKJIa}l;CKOe nOMe~eHHe, B KphITHe C JIe)Ka'lHM nOJIyoBaJIOM B ce'le-
nJIeHHH, KOTOpa5I 06pa~eHa K u,uma- KOTOPOM XpaH5ITClI 3anaCHhle 3JIeMeHThI HHH.
iJeJlu H orpaHH'IHBaeT C BHYTpeHHeH CTO- Kopa6eJIhHhlX MaIIIHH, MexaHH3MOB H
HHhlx.cHCTeM.
POHhl }l;yro06pa3HYIO nOJIocy, 3aH5ITYIO
BOHcKaMH (cp.: QupKYM6aJlau,uonnaR KOP,D;ErAP,D;115I. IIocTpoHKa }l;JI5I }l;e-
JlUnuR). )KypHOro KapaYJIa, y Bbe3}l;a B ropO}l;
KOHTP-rAP,D;. <l>opTHepHKall,HOHHOe HJIH KOMnJTeKC nocTpoeK.
coopY)KeHHe rrepe}l; rJIaBHhlM 6aJIOM (1)
Kpenocmu, 3a~H~aIO~ee 3cKapnny1O
cTeHKY OT apTHJTJTepHHCKoro 06CTpeJTa
HenpHlITeJI5I .
KOHTPHAJII1QHHK. 3aBepIIIeHHhlH
caniJpuKoM HJIH pponmonoM naJlUItnUK,
npHMhIKaIOlIl,HH no rrepHMeTpy K peJTh-
eepHoMY 06paMJIeHHIO rrpoeMa.
KOHTPPEJIbE<I>. PeJIheep, 3arJIy6JIeH- KOPOBQAThIM 3AMOK. HaKJI~­
HhIH B nJIOCKOCTh epoHa. HOH 3aMOK (3) Ha }l;BepH.

-77-
K KOP06~ATbiM CBOA - KPA66b1 78

KOPO.ollATbIM CBO,a:. Kopo606btU HanpaBneHhI K CTeHaM no):\ yrnoM B 45° H HMelOIIIee BhICOTY He MeHee Tpex ~HaMe­
(MHorof\eH'rpOBhIH) C600 nH60 O~HO­ 06'he~HIDIIOTcH B KOHf\eHTpHqeCKHe TPOB 6pe6Ha B cpy6e.
lIeHTPOBhIH f\HpKynhHhIH. KBa~paThI.

KOCAJI llETBEPTb. TIpe~Ha3HaqeH­


HhIH ~nH npHMhIKaHHH paMhI BepTHKanh-
HbIH yCTyn B K.flaOKe npoeMa, o6pa3y-
IOIIIHH B nnaHe TynoH yron.
KOCOM .oOM. MaulUKY.flu.

KOPO.oMI. 1 ,a:epeBHHHaH cjJU.fleH1.(,a- KOCOYfOJIbHbIM MEAH,a:P.


maR OT~enKa KaMeHHhIX OTKOCOB B MeaHOp, y KOToporo Bce 3neMeHThI, KOTAH. CapaH HnH HaBec ~nH oBell,
OKOHHhIX H ~BepHhIX npoeMax. 2 (=KO- KpOMe npo~onhHhIX, HaKnOHeHhI K HHM pacnOnO)KeHHhIH B f\eHTPe HoraHCKoro
pa6eHKa, Kpa6HH, Kpa6Hlla). JIy6HHOH no~ yrnoM 60° H 06hlqHO HanpaBneHbI 6aaa (1).
napef\ lInH CyH~yqOK C oKpyrnhIMH CTeH- cneBa CHH3Y BnpaBo BBepx. KOTEJIbHbIM CBO,a:. COMKHymblu
KaMH H KphImKoH Ha nem.flRX. .
KOCOYPbl. HaKnOHHhle MeTannHqCC- C600.
KOPOBMM ,a:BOPEIJ;. CKOTHhIH ~BOp. KHC HnH )Kcnc306cTOHHhIC 6anKH, Ha KOTTE,a:)K. O~HoKBapTHpHhIH 3aro-
KOTOPhIX 3aKpcnncHhI cTyneHH neCT-
KOPOMMHA. KpecThHHcKHH OOM- pO~HhIH OC06HRK (KaK npaBMJIO, ~Byx-
HHqHOrO MapUla.
060P KOMH-3hIpHH. 3T~hIii:).
KOCTEJI. KaTOnHqeCKHH xpaM, cpe~H KOcI> P. 1 3aKphITaH KaMeHHaH la.flepeR
KOPOTIllATbIM CBO,a:. Kopo61.(,a-
npHXO)KaH KOToporo npeo6na~alOT
mbtU C600. (2) B CYXOM KpenocTHoM pBy. 2 KaMeH-
nonHKH. HaH la.flepeR (2) B 3eMnHHOH TonIIIe 6py-
KOPOT. JIeTHHH KyxHH B 6amKHpcKoH cm6epa, coopY)KeHHaH ~nH ero CPPOH-
KOCTEP. ,a:onroBpeMeHHoe 060POHH-
KpecThHHcKOH ycaob6e. TanhHoH 060pOHbI. 3 (c 1900 r.) Kaae-
TenhHoe coopY)KeHHe B BH~e 6aUlHu (1,
KOPYHA. llHPOKHH llHTHyronhHHK 3) lInH u,umaoe.flu BHyTpH ropO~CKOH Mam (1) Ha H3nOMe KpenocTHoro pBa,
lInH MHoroyronhHHK C BorHYThIMH CKa- orpa~hI (Ha PYCH - B XIV-XVI BB.). o6paIIIeHHoM K npoTHBHHKy; npe~Ha3-
TaMH nH60 OCTPhIMH H ~nHHHhIMH Hena- HaqeH ~nH o6cTpena pBa B O~HOM HnH
KOCTPOM TIOKPbITME. ApXaHqHaH il;BYX HanpaBneHHHx.
pannenbHbIMH BhlcTynaMH, 3aBepma-
Kp06.flR B BH~C qCThIpexrpaHHoH llHpa-
IOIIIHH Ha.!lU1.(,HUK.
MH)J;bI H3 6peBCHqaThIX 6eHu,06, npo~on­ KOIJ;. KOHycoo6pa3Hoe )KHnHIIIe ail;bI-
)KaIOIIIHX C nOCTeneHHhIM YMeHhmeHHCM rOB.
BeHllhI cpy6a.
KOll. 1 BpeMeHHOe" )KHn!,IIIe ceBepo-
KOCTbIJlEK. fB03~h, Y KOTOPOro KaBKa3CKHX nacTyxoB, coe~HHeHHoe C
KOHell, npoTHBOnOnO)KHhIH OCTPHIO, 3arOHOM ~nH CKOTa. 2 Cpy6 H3 TonCThlX
3arHYT H He HMeeT mnHnKH. 6pe6eH, HMCIOIIIHH BBepxy 3eMJIHHYIO
KPbIUlY, a BHYTPH - 3eMnHHYIO ne)KaH-
KOCThlJlb. 1 OqeHh ToncThIH rB03~h
KY; B03BO~lInCH npH BpcMeHHoH CTOHHKe
KOPbITHbIM CBO,a:. COMKHymblu npHMoyronhHoro CeqeHHH, HMCIOIIIHH
CKOTa Ha CeBepHoM KaBKa3e.
C600 C mHpoKHM nnOCKHM yqaCTKOM B mnHnKY C CHnhHbIM BhIHOCOM B O~Hy
BepmHHe. CTOPOHY. 2 HCBhICOKaH )KenC3HaH Tpy6a KOllEJIb. KpecThHHcKoe )KHnHIIIe Ha
T -o6pa3HoH CPOpMbI ~nH OTBo~a ~bIMa PYCCKOM CeBepe, B nnaHe 6nH3Koe KBa-
KOPbITOO.oP A3HOE )KEJIE30.
Ha~ HecropaeMoH Kp06.fleU, nOXO)KaH Ha ~paTY H 06'he~HHHIOIIIee no~ o6IIIeH
m6e.fl.flep co cKpyrneHHHMH no BHYTpeH-
Bepx apxHepeHcKoro nocoxa. ,a:hIM CKaTHOH KpoBneii: ua6y (1) H ~BYX'hHPYC­
HHM yrnaM H KOHllaM.
BhIXO~HT qepe3 TOPllbI BhlrHYTOH KBep- HhlH X03mCTBeHHhIH 060P (2).
KOP5IK. IIeK.!le6aHHblu RU{UK. xy nOnepeqHHhI, H 3TOMY He MemalOT HH
~O~b, HH CHCr.
KOCAJI AM.oP A3YPA. EouHuu,a, OCh
KOTOPOH He o6pa3yeT npHMoro yrna C KOCTblJlbKOBA5I PYllKA. ilOBO-
BHemHeii: nnOCKOCThlO KpenocmHou POTHaH ~BepHaH pyqKa C BhlcTynoM B
CTeHhI lInH 6pycm6epa. O~HY CTOpOHy OT OCH.

KPA.o.obl. CBoHcTBeHHhlc rOTHqCCKOH


apxHTeKTYpc pe3HhIe KaMeHHhIe yKpa-
mCHHH B BH~e CTHnH30BaHHoro IIBcTKa

KOCT5IHOE CTEKJIO. A.!le6acmpo-


60e CmeK.flO.
KOC5IK. BepTHKanhHaH cToHKa ~Bep­
HOH Kopo6KU.

KOCA5I KJIMKA. CTpYKTypa KHP- KOC5ImATOE OKHO (=KpacHoe


IIJiqHOrO Kopo6oBoro HnH .flY'tK06020 OKHO). 3anonHeHHoe 3aCTCKneHHhIM
c6ooa, B KOTOPOM Bce pHiI;bI K.flaOKU nepenneToM OKHO il;epeBHHHoro ~OMa,

-78-
K KPA6~HUA - KPOBEnbHOE OKHO 79

HJIH CBepHYTOrO JIHCTa CJIO)KHOH CPOp- KPECTIIJIbHMIJ;A. 1 KyrreJIh. 2 IIpu- KPEmATbIM IIJIAH 3.!l:AHM5I.
MhI, pa3MeIl\eHHhIe Ha KPYThIX cKaTax oeJl, B KOTOPOM cOBepliialOT KpeIl\eHHe. IIJIaH B BHAe HaJIO)KeHHhIX APyr Ha
HJIH 3aOCTpeHHhIX 3JIeMeHTax cpacaAa. APyra PaBHOKOHeqHOrO KpeCTa H KBa-
KPECTOBA5I (=MOJIeHHa5I). KOMHaTa
ApaTa HeCKOJIhKO MeHhllIHX ra6apHToB
B 6oraToM AOMe, HCrrOJIh3yeMaH KaK
(rrpH rrapaJIJIeJIhHOCTH CTOPOH H COBrra-
AOMallIHHH u;epKOBh.
AeHHH Bcex oceH cHMMeTPHH).
KPECTOBA5I KJIA.!l:KA. KHprrHqHa5I
KPEmAThIM CBO.!l:. COMKHymblu
KJlaOKa, B KOTOPOH mbl1fKOBble pHAhI
ceoo, KpecToo6pa3Ho rrepeCeqeHHhIH
qepeAYIOTcH C JlOJICKOBbLMU, a BepTH-
qepe3 cepeAHHy JlOmKOB (1) Kopo6o-
KaJIH UlBOB B JIO)KKOBhIX PHAax COBrra-
BbLMU .HJIH rrOJIyU;HpKyJIhHhIMH CBOOaMU.
AalOT Qepe3 TpH pHAa.

KPAEMMIJ;A, KPAEM5I. Kopo6bR KPECTOBA5I UEPKOBb . .!l:oMoBaH


(2). u;epKoBh.

KP ACHA5I .!l:OCKA. JIo6oBaR oocKa. KPECTOBMK (=KpecToBhIH AOM).


H36a (1), cpy6 KOTOPOH rreperopO)KeH
KP ACHA5I JIMHM5I. IIJIaHHpoBoqHa5I rrepeCeqeHHeM AByX KamfTaJIhHhIX CTeH.
rpaHHu;a 3acTpaHBaeMhIX TeppHTopHH, KPMBOJIMHEMHbIM MEAH.!l:P. Ee-
3a KOTOPYIO He AOJI)KHhI BhIcTyrraTh zyU{aR BOJlHa.
CTpoeHHH. KPMBOIIIEMHA CMCTEMA. KOH-
KPACHOE .!l:EPEBO (=aKa)KY, aMa- CTpyKU;HH MeTaJIJIHqeCKHX C60pHhIX
paHT, aMapaHTOBO AepeBO). IO)KHoaMe- MOCTOB, B cpepMhI KOTOPOH BXOAHT paB-
pHKaHCKoe AepeBO C H3HIl\HhIM PHCYH- Ho6eApeHHhIe TpeyroJIhHHKH, o6paIl\eH-
KOM rrpO)KHJIOK B KpaCHOBaTOH ApeBeCH- HhIe BepllIHHaMH K cpJIaHraM MOCTa, a y
He, yrroTpe6JIHBIIIeHCH B AoporHX CTO- ero cepeAHHhI o6pa3ylOIl\He pOM6 C Bep-
JIHPHhIX pa60Tax (HarrpHMep, AJIH H3ro- THKaJIhHOH AHarOHaJIhlO.
TOBJIeHHH Me6eJIH u;eJIHKOM H3 K. .!l:. KPECTOBOKYIIOJIbHbIM XPAM. KPMH . .!l:peBHepyccKHH AeKopaTHBHhIH
JIH60 B BHAe rrOBepXHOCTHoro HaKJIeH- qeThIpeXCTOJIrrHOe u;epKoBHoe 3AaHHe C MOTHB B BHAe JIHJIHH.
Horo CJIOH - Uln01W). rrOHH)KeHHhIMH yrJIOBhIMH qaCTHMH,
KPACHOE OKHO. KOCRU{amoe OKHO. ITOAQepKHBalOIl\HMH (KaK B HHTepbepe,
TaK H rrpH BHAe cHapY)KH) u;eHTpaJIbHbIH
KPACHbIE BPATA. IIapaAHhle ABe- rrJIaHHpOBOqHhIH KpecT.
pH, BeAYIl\He H3 npumBopa (1) B OCHOB-
Hoe rrOMeIl\eHHe xpaMa. KPECTOBbIM CBO.!l:. IIepeKphITHe
rrpHMoyrOJIhHOH HqeHKH, COCTOHIl\ee H3
KP ACHbIM CA.!l:. BUCR1fUU cao. qeThIpex paCnaJly60K (1) H rrepeAalOIl\ee
KP ACHbIM TEC. 06pe3HhIe XOPOlliO HarpY3KY Ha ymoBhTe OITOPhI.
oCTpyraHHhIe OOCKU (1) Ha JIHu;eBOH
ITOBepXHocTH TeCOBOH KPOBJlU, HepeAKo KPMIITA. IIoA3eMHoe HJIH rrOJlyrroA-
C pOM6HqeCKHMH YAJIHHeHHhIMH BhICTY- 3eMHoe CBOO1famOe rrOMeIl\eHHe rroA
rraMH HH)Ke KapHU3a. KYJIhTOBhIM 3AaHHeM.
KPACHbIM yrOJI (= 60JIhllIOH yroJI,
BepxHHH yroJI). IIapaAHhIH yrOJI B U36e KPECTOUBET. CBoHcTBeHHoe roTHKe
(1), pacrrOJIO)KeHHhIH ITO AHarOHaJIH OT AeKopaTHBHoe 3aBepllIeHHe BUMnepza,
rreqH; B 3TOM yrJIy HaXOAHJIHCh HKOHa H nUHaKJlR, cjJJlepOHa HJIH 6allIeHKH CKYJIh-
JIaMrraAa HaA BCTpoeHHhIMH JIaBKaMH nTypHhIM H306pa)KeHHeM U;BeTKa C Kpe-
BAOJIh KpaeB rrpHMoyrOJIhHOrO CTOJIa. cToo6pa3HhIMH OTBeTBJIeHHHMH rro ro-
KPAIIIEHMHA. rpy60TKaHhIH OKpa- pH30HTaJIH.
lIIeHHhIH XOJICT KYCTapHoro rrpOH3BOA-
CTBa, KOTOPhIH HCrrOJIh30BaJIH Ha rro-
KphIBaJIa, CKaTepTH, 3aHaBeCH B He6o-
raTOM )KHJIHIl\e.

KP AIOXA. rOp6blJlb. KPOBATb. BHyTpeHHHH npHcTyrroK K


BhICOKOMY aa6opoJly (1), rr03BOJIHBIIIHH
KPEMJIb. Y KperrJIeHHaH u;eHTpaJIbHa5I
060pOHHBIIIHMdt BeCTH 06CTpeJI rroBepx
QaCTh ApeBHepYCCKoro wpooa (2). CTeHhI.
KPEMHMK. KpeMJlb.
KPOBEJIbHA5I CB5I3b. KapKac Kpbl-
KPEIIOCTUA. He60JIhllIaH Kpenocmb UlU, o6DeAHHHlOll~HH cmponuJla, o6pe-
C HeCJIO)KHblM rrJIaHOM. UlemKY H JleUJlu.

KPEIIOCTb. .!l:OJIrOBpeMeHHoe yKpe- KPOBEJIbHOE OKHO. OKHO AJIH


rrJIeHHe, o6HeceHHoe 3aMKHYToH orpa- OCBeIl\eHHH qepAaKa, rrpope3alOIl\ee
AOH. KPECT «TAY». AHmOHueB Kpecm. KPblUlY (cp.: BbtnYCKHoe OKHO).

-79-
K KPOBnSl - KYHAK-TMPMArA 80

KPOB.IDI. BepXHuH cnOH KpbtJ.UU. KPY)I(AJIO. 1 Ka6aK. 2 ,QepeBjlHHag lOm;ag KUI/,eauOHOe ce'leHHe C pacwupe-
KpHBOJIHHeHHag onopa ,a;JIg BLIKJIa,a;KH HHeM Ha,a; OCHOBaHHeM.
KPOM. 1 aemuHelf (1).2 llapL, 60JIL- caooa.
WOHg~K.
KPhDK. JIamuHcKuu Kpecm.
KPOHBEPK. BcnOMOraTeJILHOe yKpe-
UJIeHHe, B03Be.a;eHHoe nepe.a; OCHOBHLIM KPhmOc. KAupoc.
CPPOHTOM Kpenocmu. KPhITAH ,QOPOfA. 02u6HllR oopo2a.

KPhIIIIA. KOHCTPYKD;IfjI, 3aBepWa-


lOm;ag 3,a;aHHe H 3a~m;alOm;ag ero OT
OCa,a;KOB, neperpeBa H nepeoXJIa}I{,ll;e- KYBhIIIIKA. ,QpeBHepYCCKHH KOH-
HHj(. CTPYKTHBHo-,a;eKOpaTHBHLIH 3JIeMeHT B
BH,a;e MaCCHBHoro KOPOTKOro cToJI6a C
KCHCT. Pa36HTLIH nepe,a; ,a;OMOM
UJIaBHLIM pacnmpeHHeM WI. BLlwe·
He60JILWOH UJIOCKHH ca,a; C '1eTIrnM oce- OCHOBaHHSI.
BLIM nOCTpoeHHeM, pa3,a;eJIeHHLIH Ha
rrpjIMOyroJILHHKH, C rrpe06JIa,a;aHHeM
2a30HOa H 6opolOpoa.
KYA (=KYaJIa). KYJILTOBag nocTPOHKa
B y,a;MYPTCKOH. KpeCTLjlHCKOH. ycaob6e,
HMelOm;ag BH,a; KpLITOro cpy6a 6e3 OKOH,
KPOHDITEI1H. Xy.a;O}l{eCTBeHHO B KOTOPOM pg.a;OM C O'larOM XpaHHJIHCL
ocpopMJIeHHag KOHCOAb (1). po,a;oBLIe H ceMeooLIe CBwrLIHH.
KYBAKA 33EM. KYXOHHag JIaBKa,
KYA)KE. Ka6ap,a;HHcKoe JIH60 '1epKeC- B,a;eJIaHHag B CTeHY MOp,a;OBCKO-3P3j1H-
CKoe CeJIeHHe B BH,a;e He60JILWOH CKOH ua6bt (1).
rpynnLI ycaoe6, pacnOJIO}l{eHHLIX 6~3 KYBAKCA. llonapcKHH maJIaw, KpLI-
peryJIgpHoH UJIaHHpoBKH H oKp~eH­ TLIH KOPOH HJIH wKypaMH.
HLIX UJIeTHeM HJIH KaHaBoH.
KYBAC. llonapcKHH '1YM, KPLITLIH
KYBOBATAHBA3A,KYBOBATAH
XOJICTOM HJIH OJIeHLHMH IIIKypaMH no
KAIIHTEnh. IIo cpopMe 6JIH3Kag
KapKacy H3 weCTOB.
Ky6y, Ha Ka}I{,ll;ylO H3 OTKpLITLIX rpaHeH
KOTOPO!;,O HaJIO}l{eHO nOJIYKPY}I{He, KYBPclJAC. He60JILWOe 060POHH-
06pam;eHHoe BepWHHoH ,a;ym K CTBOJIY TeJILHOe coop~eHHe C ,a;ByMj( ¢acaMu
KOAOHHbt. no,a; yrJIOM, BKJIIO'IaeMOe BMeCTe C paae-
KPOHIIlTEl1HhIl1 IIAPYC. nAOCKUU
AUHa.MU B aHaeAony.
napyc.
KYrEllhBllAY. fOJIy6ag KpacKa .a;ng
KPOCC. IIoMem;eHHe B COCTaBe TeJIe-
CPOHHOH HJIH TeJIerpacpHoH CTaHQHH,. 060eB.
06'be.a;HHj(IOm;ee KO~I Bcex rrpOBO.a;OB KY,Q. ,QBYXKaMepHag ,a;epeBjlHHag ua6a
CBg3H. (1) y MOPABLI-MoKillaH.
KPYfJIA5I CKYllhIITYPA. CKYJIL- KY,QO. 1 Kyo. 2 Cpy6 C HaBHcalOm;eH
nTYPHoe rrpOH3Be.a;eHHe, He rrpHMLIKa- Ha TOp~e ABycKaTHOH KpoaAeu, HCnOJIL-
lOm;ee K CPOHY .. 3yeMLIH MapHH~aMH JIeTOM no,a; KyxHIO
KYEOBATAH PEIIIETKA (=Ky6'1a- HJIH }I{HJILe.
KPYrllbII1 ,QOM. 1 Py6JIeHHLIH H3 Tag peweTKa, KOnLIT'IaTag peweTKa).
6peaeH KBa.a;paTHLIH KpeCTLjlHCKHH OOM ,QpeBHepYCCKag peweTKa H3 BOJIHHCTLIX KYllAKH. noocmaaa.
(1) 6e3 nepepy6oa, no,a; '1eTLIpeXcKaT- KpyrJILIX rrpYTKOB, 'pannopm KOTOPOH KYllHChl. fpynnLI ,a;epeBLeB HJIH
HOH KPbtJ.UeU. 2 KBa,a;paTHbIH B nnaHe KYCTapHHKoB, pa3Mem;eHHLIe napaJI-
JIeJILHO Apyr .a;pyry H C03.a;alO~e MHOro-
UJIaHOBYIO nepcneKTHBy.

KYllYAP. Y3KHH npoxo,a; Me}l{,ll;y nOMe-


m;eHIfjIMH HJIH nOTaOOag JIeCTHH~a, coe-
,a;HHj(IOm;ag }l{HJILle KOMHaTLI.

KYM. AM6ap (1) B ycaob6e KOMH-


3LIpgH.

6JIH30K BepTHKaJILHOMY pOM6y, HO co KYMOfATA XH,Q3HKH. ~pyCHag


. ceBepOKaBKa3CKHii OOM (1) C nOMem;eHH- cKpyrJIeHHLIMH 60KOBLIMH yrJIaMH H CHCTeMa KpeCT006pa3HO nepeceKa-
gMH, pacnOJIO}l{eHHLIMH B ,a;Ba pg.a;a no KUI/,eaUOHbt.MU 3aOCTPeHHj(MH BBepxy H IOm;uxCg KpoHJ.UmeuHoa B gnOHCKHX
OTHOWeHHIO K cpacail;Y, H BXO,a;OM '1epe3 BHH3y. nocTPoHKax.
yrJIOBOe nOMem;eHHe.
KYBOBATOE IIOKPhITHE. KpoaA/l KYHAK-THPMArA. BaIIIKHpCKag
KPYrllbII1 CBO,Q. Koma. C 'IeTLIpLMj( BLmyKJILIMH CKaTaMH, HMe- IOpma AJIg npHeMa rocTeH.

-80-
K KYHAK·YH - KIOH 81

KYHAK·YI1. LIHCTaSI nOJIOBHHa OIl:HO- KYPHIJ;bl. ITpHKpenJIeHHhle K CJlezaM KYIllI1 0 PT. ABoHHaSI 6arnKJipCKaSI
KaMepHOrO 6arnKHpCKOrO )[(HJIHII\a, KpbllUU TOHKHe )Kep):lH C KPIOKOM Ha u36a (1) c CeHR.MU rrocpegHHe.
npell:Ha3Ha'leHHaSI II:JISI npFteMa rocTeH. HH)KHeM KOHlI,e, nO):lgep)KHBaIOII\eM
KY~A. CeHb, Ulamep (1), 6eceoKa (1,
BOII:OTe"IHhIH nomOK (1) B OCHOBaHHH
KYHAIJ;KA5I. ITapall:HaSI KOMHaTa B 3,4).
CBeCOB TecoBoH KPOBJlU.
ceBepoKaBKa3cKoM oOMe (1, 2), npell:-
KY3E)K3. BopOTa B orpall:e 'lepKeC-
Ha3Ha'leHHaSI II:JI.s! npHeMa rOCTeH, a
CKOH ycaob6bl.
TaK)Ke II:JISI npe6hIBaHHSI MY)KCKOH 'laCTH
ceMhH. KbIP KAEArbl. ITOJIeBhle BopOTa,
3aKpbIBaIOII\He BXOA B nOCeJIeHHe TaTap-
KYITOIT. 1 CBOO, nOBepxHocTh KOTO- KYPHA5I H3EA. lf36a (2), OTanJIH- MHillapeH.
poro o6pa30BaHa BpaII\eHHeM KPI1BOH BaeMaSI 6e3 Tpy6hl, B CBSI3H C'leM B Bepx-
BOKpyr BepTHKaJIH. 2 CcpepOHII:HaSI, K3EAK. OKOHHhIe cmaBHU (1) B 'lep-
HeH 'laCTH CTeH geJIaIOTCSI Y3KHe ropH-
3JIJIHnCOHII:HaSI HJIH rpaHeHaSI KPOBJlR, KeCCKOM oOMe (1).
30HTaJIhHhle OKHa gJISI BhIxoga ghIMa.
no CHJIyny 6J1H3KaSI KynOJly (1).
KYPTHHA. 1 B cagoBo-napKoBoM K3KbIP3 (=y3). CKOTHhIH gBOP B 'lep-
KYPA. ABOP 6arnKHpcKoH ycaob6bl. HCKyccTBe - KOMnaKTuaSI o6oco6JIeH- KeccKoH ycaob6e.

KYPA (=MHlI,yrypa). 5InoHcKaSI )KHT- HaSI rpynna 0Il:HOpogHhIX HaCa)KgeHHH. K3IT3rYH3. KpaHHSISI rrpHcTpoHKa-
HHlI,a Ha CBaSIX, npHnOIl:HSITaSI Hall: 3eM- 2 06JIO)KeHHaSI oepHoM rpSIII:Ka C lI,BeTa- KJIagoBaSI B 'lepKeCCKoM oOMe (1, 2).
JIeiL MH. 3 B CPOpTHcpHKall,HH - y'laCTOK Kpe-
nOCTHoro Orpa)KIJ:eHHSI CTeHOH HJIH K3P3H. HaHaHcKHH CKJlen B BHlI:e BphI-
KYPAHTbl. KpynHhle 'laChl, COeIl:HHeH- Toro B 3eMJIIO 60JIhrnOrO II:OMa C rrOJIUOH
Hhle C MY3hlKaJIhHhIM MexaHH3MOM, o6cTaHoBKoH H nOJIKaMH, Ha KOTOPhIX
KOTOPhlH HCnOJIHSIeT MeJIOII:IHO 'lepe3 nOCTaBJIeHhI rpo6bI C nOKoHHHKaMH
onpell:eJIeHHhle npOMe)KYTKH BpeMeHH egHHoro ceMeHcTBa HJIH Bcero CeJIeHIDI.
(HanpHMep, 'lepe3 'leTBepTh 'laca).
KIOI1T. BpeMeHHoe JIOnapCKoe )KH-
KyprAH. HaChIITHOH 3eMJISIHOH XOJIM C JIHII\e B BHge QeThlpexrpaHHoH yceQeH-
norpe6aJIhHOH KaMepOH BHYTpH. HOH nHpaMH):IhI H3 OOCOK (1), )Kep):leH
HJIH Wp6blJlR (1), nOKphITOe cBepxy
KYPAOHEP. ITapall:HhIH OBOP (1) BaJlOM (1), coegHHSIIOII\HH gBa 6acmuo- 3eMJIeil:.
nepell: ycall:e6HhiM II:OMOM, OBOPI10M (1, Ha. 4 ITpSIMoyrOJIhHaSI B nJiaHe rpynna
2, 3) HJIH OC06HRKOM, OrpaHH'leHHhIH C K6apmaJI06 (1), OrpaHHqeHIIa5I Ha no- KIOH. HoraHCKoe CeJIeHHe, COCTOSIII\ee.
60KOB PJlU2eJlR.MU (1) HJIH KPhIJIhSIMH rrepeQHhlX cTopoHax crrYCKaMH K peKe. H3 HeCKOJIhKHX rpynrr Ku6umoK; Ka)KgaSI
3Toro 3I1:aHHSI, a Cnepell:H - CKB03HOH rpyrrrra BKJIIO'laeT 40-60 KJi6HTOK H
OrpaIl:OH. KYPYK. rOpH30HTaJIhHhIH rneCT gJISI OTCTOHT OT COCell:HHX Ha OIl:HY-II:Be Bep-
pa3BeCKH HapSIII:HOH oge)KghI Hall: KpO- CThI.
BaThIO rJIaBhl ceMhH B KapaQaeBCKOM
oOMe (1).
KYPYK KI1I1H3. BOHJIOK, YKparneH-
HhIH annJIHKall,HSIMH H3 cyKHa; BhIBelllH-
BaJiCSI Ha KypyKe.

KypqA. MecTo gJISI co6pauHH MY)KQHH


B KBapmaJle (1) (MaXJla, )KaMSIT) JIaKC-
Koro CeJIeHHSI.

KYTAH. CToSIHKa naCTYXOB Ha 3HMHHX


KYPEHb. EaJlazait (1) ):IJISI npOlI:a)KH
cenepoKaBKa3cKHx rracT6HII\ax.
BapeHoH HJIH ne'leUOH nHII\H.
KYTAHA5£ MEEEITb ( =CJIerraSI
KYPHITbHHIJ;A. Ba30H (2), B lI,eHTpe
Me6eJIh). MSIrKaSI Me6eJIh, y KOTOPOH
KOToporo HaX0II:HTCSIeMKOCTh C 6JIaro-
gepeBSIHHaSI OCHOBa rrOJIHOCThIO 3a-
BOHHSIMH - II:JISI pacnpocTpaHeHHSI apo-
KphITa 06HBKOH.
MaTa B nOMeII\eHHH.
KYYIll. 1 EarnKHpcKHH KOHW{eCKHH
rnaJIarn, KPhIThIH KOpOH. 2 rJIHH06HT-
Hhle cTyrreHhKJi nepeg O'larOM B Kapa-
QaeBCKOM )KHJIHII\e.

KYIIIETKA. AHBaU'lHK gJISI JIe)KaHHSI,


HHOrll:a C nOJIOrHM H3rOJIOBheM.

-81-
JIAEA3. 1 lloMeru:eHHe ,qmI TOprOBJIH JIArM. rOpH30HTaJIhHhle 6pyCbR (1) B rrOJIh3yeMhIe rnaBHhIM o6pa30M B llJI-
3epHOM IfJIH MYKOH. 2 ,UepeBHHHhIH KOHCTPYKII;lIHx. JIIOMHHaU;IIHX.
HaBec Ha CToHKax. 3 CH6HPCKHH CBaH-
JIArThI XAM. MY)!(CKaH (JIeBaH) rrOJIO- JIAHTEPHA. JIamepHa.
HhIH aM6ap (1, 2).
BHHa oceTHHCKoro )!(lIJIHru:a.
JIAIIA. Kperre)!(HhIH qeThIpexrpaHHhIH
JIArYHA. JI;nYH3.
BhIcTyrr Ha KOHu;e 6peBHa HJIII 6pyca (1)
JIA,UEMHA5f MEJIbHMl(A. IlJIaBY- rro ero OCH, BhITecaHHhIH rro CTporOH
qaH Bo,qHHaH MeJIhHIIu;a. pa3MeTKe Ha HerrpaBHJIhHhIe qeThIpex-
JIA3H5f. 1 llocTpoHKa ,qJIH MhIThH, yrOJIhHHKH ,qJIH rrpOqHOrO Cu;errJIeHHH
6aHH. 2 CrrycK B rro,qIlOJIhe 1I3-rro,q 3JIeMeHTOB B yrnax cpy6a.
wJl64a (1, 2). 3 TOJICTaH oocKa (1) C
JIAllJIAT. CaHOpa.
Bpy6KaMH, 3aMeHHIOru:aH JIeCTHHU;y (cp.:
BCXOOHR, rBapouR (2). JIAIIOHE. lloJIKa rro,q rrOTOJIKOM MOp-
JIAKMYC. TypHuca. ,qOBCKOH u36bl (1).

JIAKIIIbIH. 3aKperrJIeHHaH BepxHIIM JIAPEl(. llp5lMoyroJIhHaH B rrJIaHe llIKa-


JIAEMPMHT (=6JIy)!(,qaIOru:HH ca,q,
KOHU;OM Ha rrepeKJIa,qIlHe BHyTpll Obl- TYJIKa ,qJIH xpaHeHH5I u;eHHocTeH, yKpa-
JIaBHpHH<j:J). Y qaCTOK co CrreU;HaJIhHO
MapR u;errh C KOTJIOM (Ka3aHoM) Ha,q oqa- llIeHHaH HaKJIa,qHoH JIH60 rnyxoH pe3h-
3arrYTaHHhlMH rrpoxo,qaMH Me)!(,qy CTPH-
rOM B HoraHCKOM ,qOMe. 60H, HHKpycTaII;HeH llJIH pocrrllchlO.
)!(eHOH rrJIOTHOH 3eJIeHhIO (HarrpHMep,
JIaBpa, rpa6a, JIHrrhI) BHyTpH rrapKa. JIAMEPEKEH. TH)!(eJIaH rrOrrepeqHaH
,qparrllpOBKa Ha,q BepXHeH qaCThlO rrpoe-
JIAEMq. JIaBKa B,qOJIh CTeHhl B KOMH-
Ma, HHor,qa YKpallIaeMaH peCmOHaMU
rrepMHU;KOH U36e (1).
(1), BhIllIIIBKOH, arrrrJIIIKaU;lIeH.
JIABA. 1 (=KJIa,qh). JIerKHe ,qepeBHH-
Hhle MOCTKH qepe3 pyqeH HJIH TOIlKYIO JIAMEPM. 3aru:HTHaH II ,qeKopaTIIBHaH
HIf3HHy. 2 [J0PROOK. 06JIIIU;OBKa CTeH B rrOMeru:eHHHX, c,qe-
JIaHHml 11.3 ,qepeBa, HHor,qa co BKJIlOqe-
JIABATOPMM (=JIaBa6o). KaMeHHml HlIeM 3epKaJI, )!(HBOrrHCH II xy,qO)!(eCT- .
qallIa ,qJIH pHTyaJIhHOrO OMOBeHHH pyK, BeHHOH JIerrKH. JIAPEK. 'uoru:aThIH ,qOMIIK rro,q O,qHO-
oKpy)!(eHHaH HHllIeH B HHTephepe 3U- CKaTHOH KpOBJleU C YKJIOHOM OT JIIIu;e-
JIAMllA,UA. llo,qBellIeHHhIH rrepe,q Bora <j:Jaca,qa.
rra,qHO-XPHCTHaHCKOrO xpaMa.
HKOHOH He6oJIhllIOH cocy,q C cpllTIIJIeM H
JIACTOqKMH XBOCT. 1 <l>opMa 3y6-
JIABMPMH<I>. JIa6upuHm. rOplOqHM MaCJIOM.
40B, - C OCTpOKOHeqHhIM pa3,qBoeHHeM
JIABPA. KpyrrHhIH rrpaBOCJIaBHhlH JIAMllA,UHA5I llEqb. OTOrrHTeJIh- Bepxa OT cepe,qHHhI B CTOPOHhI. 2 CKO-
MOHacThlph C OC06hIMH rrpHBllJIerHH- Hoe YCTPOHCTBO co cTa6HJIhHOH H pery- BopooeHb.
MH, rro,qqHHHBllIHHCH Herrocpe,qcTBeHHo JIHpyeMoH TerrJIOOT,qaqeH 6JIaro,qapH
rraTpHapxy JIH60 (rrocJIe 1721 r.) CHHO- pe3epByapy, B KOTOPOM yrnH rrOCTe-
,qy. B POCCIIH lIX 6hIJIO qeThIpe: KHeBo- . rreHHO pa3)!(HraeT rapHqHH B03,qyX OT
lleqepcKaH, Tpollu;e-CeprHeBa, AJIeK- paCKaJIeHHhIX yrneH B rapHe; 3TOT B03-
caH,qpo-HeBcKaH, lloqaeBo-Y crreHCKaH. ,qyx rrocTyrraeT qepe3 OTBepCTHH B CTeH-
Kax H ,qHe pe3epByapa.
JIArEPHbIM llOrPEE. lloMeru:eHl1e
,qJIH rrOBTopHora 6pO)!(eHHH rrllBa, Ha JIAMllMOHbI. Pa3HOU;BeTHhIe CTe-
rrHBOBapeHHOM 3aBo,qe. KJIHHHhIe HJIII 6YMu)!(HhIe <j:JOHapH, HC-

82

-82-
n nACb - nEIllA,Qb 83

JIACh. Cpy6ml5l JIenOOI KyxHH 6e3 JIE,IJ,OPE3. Coopy)!(eHlle, 3arJIy6JIeH- JIEHTOqHOE OCTEKJIEHME. Xa-
rrOJIa H rrOTOJIKa B '1YBaillCKOH ycaob6e. Hoe B BO,n;y peKH II 06paIIIeHHoe KJIllHO- paKTepHhle P;JIH KOHCTPYKTHBH3Ma OKHa,
BH,n;HhIM BhlcTyrroM BBepx IIO Te'leHHIO - IIpHMhIKaIOIIIHe O,n;HO K ,n;pyroMY IIO'ITH
JIAT ACThl. HaBec B ycaob6e TeMHH-
,n;JIH 3aIIIllThI OIIOP MOCTa OT yp;apoB 6e3 pa3rpaHH'IHBaIOIIIHX IIpOMe)!(YTKOB
KOBCKHX TaTap-MHillapeH, IIO,n; KOTOPhIM
JIh,n;HH. H 06'he,n;HHeHHhle Ha <paca,n;e B IIPOTH-
xpaHHTCH MeJIKHH CeJIhCKOX03HHCTBeH-
)!(eHHhle rrOJIOChl.
HhIH HHBeHTaph H C6pYH, a TaIOKe CTOHT
BO,n;OIIOHHhle KOJIO,n;hI. JIEHTOqHhIll HAJIMqHMK. He-
rrpephIBHoe 06paMJIeHHe OKHa, HMe-
JIATEPHA (=JIaHTepHa). B03Be,n;eHHaH
IOIIIee JIH~eBYIO rrOBepXHOCTh B e,n;HHOH
Ha,n; CBeTOBhIM OTBepCTHeM B KpblUle
rrJIOCKOCTH.
HJIH KynOJze KpyrJIaH, OBaJIhHaH HJIH
MHororpaHHaH 6ailleHKa C OCTeKJIeHHeM JIEHTOqHhIll PYCT. PycmoBKa He-
OKOH, npeBhIillaIOIIIHM IIO IIJIOIIIa,n;H rrpephIBHhIMH ropH30HTaJIhHhIMH IIOJIO-
IIpOCTeHKH. caMH, 6e3 BepTHKaJIhHhIX JlCeAo6KOB.

JIATMHCKlfH KPECT (=KaTOJIWle- JIEHTOqHhIll <l>YH,IJ,AMEHT. c[JYH-


CKHH KpeCT, KphDK, PHMCKHM KpeCT). OaMeJ.lm, 06pa30BaHHhIH rrpOTH)KeH-
'lleThIpeXKOHe'lHhIH KpeCT C ,n;JIHHHhIM HhIMH Y'laCTKaMH HerrpephIBHOH KAaOKU
KOH~OM B OCHOBaHHl!... B OCHOBaHHH KanumaAbHblX cmeH.

JIAXA. 5IMa ,n;JIH OrRH B ~eHTpe KOM- JIE,IJ,5IHA5I CTAHUM5I. )KeJIe3Ho,n;o- JIEIlHMHA. PeJIhe<pHhle YKpailleHHSI
HaThI ~axypcKoro )!(HJIHIIIa (CM. pew). pO)!(HaH CTaHl\HSI C XpaHHJIllI~eM JIh,n;a apXHTeKTypHhIX coopy)!(eHHH, H3rOTOB-
,n;JIH 3arpY3Kll BarOHOB-JIe,n;HllKoB. JIeHHhle H3 aJIe6aCTpa HJIH 6emOHa.
JIEEPEHA KAMHM. BhICOK03KOHO-
MH'IHhIH HCKYCCTBeHHhlH MaTepHaJI ,n;JIH JIE)KAqA5I CKAMh5I. KpOBeJIhHaH JIECHOH: ,IJ,BOP. CKJIap; P;JIH BpeMeH-
JIeIIHhIX YKpailleHHH H IIJIHT TpoTyapa, CKaMbR C nOOKocaMu B rrpocTpaHcTBe Horo xpaHeHHH JIeCOMaTepllaJIOB P;O HX
COCTOHIIIHH rJIaBHhIM 06pa30M H3 TOJI'Ie- KpbIUlU. rrpOp;a)!(H.
HOro H3BeCTHHKa (CM. rUOpo).
JIECHOH: MAfA3MH. IlOMeIIIeHHe
JIEBA,IJ,A. qacTh JIyra, OTrOpO)!(eHHaH co C'heMHhIMll IIIllTOBhIMll CTeHaMll,
,n;JIH )!(epe6hlX K06hIJIH~ H )!(epe6HT. IIpep;Ha3Ha'IeHHOe ,n;JIH Me,n;JIeHHOH pery-
JIIlpyeMoH CyillKH p;peBeCHHhI.
JIEBAlli. CapaM B MapHMCKOH ycaob6e.
JIECHOll CAP All. B03Bep;eHHoe IIpH
JIEBKAC. fpYHTOBKa H3 CMeCH KJIeH H
3.!lAUHU (1) 3p;aHHe, B KOTOPOM xpa-
MeJIa, IIpHMeHHBillaHCH B HKOHOIIHCH, a JIE)KAqME OKHA M HMllIM. CBeTo-
IlllTCH 3aIIac cTpoeBoro JIeca P;JIH CTPOH-
TaIOKe B CKYJIhIITypHOH H ,n;eKopaTHBHOH BhIe HJIll JIO)!(Hhle npoeMhI IIpHMoyrOJIh-
TeJIhCTBa H peMoHTa Kopa6JIeH.
pe3h6e (HarrpHMep, B peJIhe<pax UKOHO- HOH, BochMHyrOJIhHOH JIH60 OBaJIhHOH
cmaCOB - KaK YTO'lHHIOIIIHH <POPMY <pOPMhl, y KOTOPhIX illHpHHa HBHO JIECOilAPK. EJIaroycTpoeHHhIH JIec-
CJIOH Me)!(,D;y ,n;epeBHHHOli OCHOBOH H 60JIhille BhICOThI. HOM MaCCHB.
II030JIOTOH) .
JIE)KEHh (=reJIeHr). 1 fOp1l30HTaJIh- JIECTHMqHA5I KJIETKA. IloMeIIIe-
JIEfEJIh. fOp1l30HTaJIhHhIH 6pyc (1), HhIH 6pyc (1), CJIy)!(aIIIllH OCHOBaHlleM HHe BhICOTOH B p;Ba 3Ta)Ka llJIH 6oJIee,
coe,n;HHHIOIIIHH CTpOIIHJIa. ,n;JIH pa3JIll'lHhlX qaCTeH rrocTpoHKll. 3aHHToe JIeCTHH~eH.
2 EpeBHo C oTecKoH TOJIhKO Ha O,n;I1H HJIH JIECTHMqHA5I llIAXTA. CMOTPO-
,n;Ba KaHTa. BOH KOAooeu, (2) rrpH KaHaJI1l3a~HOHHoH
JIEKAJIhHhIH KMPIlMq. KHprrH'I CllCTeMe, llMeIOIIIHH BUHmOBYIO Aecm-
KJIHHOBH,n;HOH, ,n;yro06pa3HoH HJIH HUU,y BP;OJIh CTeH.
YCJIO)!(HeHHOH <pOpMhI, a TaIOKe 6pYCKO- JIETH5I5I UEPKOBh (=XOJIOP;HaH ~ep­
BblU C KPHBOJIHHeHHhIMH Y'IaCTKaMll KOBh). XpaM, He llMeIOIIIllH OTOIIJIeHHH
BHeillHero KOHTypa. H rrOTOMY IIpep;Ha3Ha'IeHHhIH ,n;JISI 60ro-
JIEfEPHOE CTEKJIO. BhIcoKoKa'le- CJIy)!(eHHH TOJIhKO B TerrJIOe BpeMH ro,n;a.
JIEMEKE CMCTEMA. KOHCTPYK~HSI
CTBeHHoe CTeKJIO, 6JI1l3KOe 6eMcKoMY,
,n;epeBSlHHhIX MOCTOB 113 op;llHaKOBhIX JIETYqA5I MhlIIIh. KpOBeAbHoe OKHO
OT KOToporo OTJIH'IaeTCH cIIoc060M
IIPHMOyrOJIhHhIX pepM, B KOTOPhIX pac- IIO,n; rrJIaBHhIM IIOJIOrllM H3r1l6oM -c<tepe-
IIOJIHPOBKH.
KOCbl 06pa3yIOT HaJIO)!(eHHhle p;pyt Ha nU'lHOU rrOBepXHOCTH.
JIE,IJ,HMK. IlPO,n;OBOJIhCTBeHHhIH CKJIa,n;, ,n;pyra pOM6hl.
oXJIa)!(,n;aeMhIH JIh,n;OM.
JIEMEX. KpOBeJIhHhIH MaTepHaJI B
Bllp;e rrpOp;OJIrOBaThIX p;epeBHHHhIX
,n;OlIl,e'leK (Hepe,n;KO C ropo,n;'1aThIM Hll)!(-
HllM KpaeM), paCIIOJIaraIOIIIHXCH ropH-
30HTaJIhHhlMH pH,n;aMH, C HanycKoM
BepXHHX Ha HH)KHlle.
JIEmA,IJ,h (=IIIepa, IIIHpa). TOHKHH
JIEMilAq ( = B03,n;YillHhIH KHprrH'I). KBa,n;paTHhIH KHpIIH'I HJIH KaMeHHhle
KHpIIH'I. H3rOTOBJIeHHhIH H3 rJIHHhI. IlJIHTKH TOH )!(e <pOpMhI, yrrOTPe6JIHB-
IIeCKa, KOHCKoro HaB03a H COJIOMhI JIH60 illllecSI KaK IIOKphITHe IlOJIa HJIH KpO-
OCOKH (cp.: CaMaH). BeJIhHhIH MaTepllaJI.

-83-
n nErKIotM WnAT - nYKOBIot"lHASI rnABA 84

JIEfKHH illIIAT. H3BeCmKOBblU JIOBhIPEK. Tbl'lOK C HaBHCalOm;eH JIOIIACTHASI APKA. ApKa (1), BHy-
umam. HaKJIOHHOH nOBepXHOCTblO, BKJIIOlJ:eH- TpeHHSISI nOBepXHOCTb KOTOPOH COCTaB-
Hbm B np0<pHJIHpOBKY ,!IpeBHepyccKHX JIeHa H3 O,!lHHaKOBbIX ap0lJ:eK.
JIHEPHA. ,ll;onOJIHHTeJIbHruI ftepBlOpa B
ftaAU'lftUKOB, KapftU30B, ijOKo.//,eu;
KpecmoBoM cBooe, COe,!lHIDlIOm;aSl ero
06bIlJ:HO - HenOCpe,!lCTBeHHO no,!l no'//'y-
UleJtblzy C BepmHHoH 60KOBOH apKu.
Ba.//,OM ruIH 'lemBepmftbl.M BaAOM.
JIH3EHA. CJIa60 BbIcT}'IIalOm;ruI H3
nOBepXHoCTH CTeHbI Y3KruI BepTHKaJIb-
JIOf. JIOJICOK (1). 3ayceftOK (3).
HruI nOJIoca Ha BCIO ee BbICOTY. JIOfOM. YKJIa,!lKa O,!lHHaKOBbIX npSIMO-
JIHCKH. IIJIeTeHaSI orpa,!la H3 BeTBeH yrOJIbHbIX 3JIeMeHTOB (KHpnH'IH, oepft,
opemHHKa. MemKH C 3eMJIeH) .r\JIHHHOH CTOPOHOH Ha
JIHn;eBylO nOBepxHocTb CTeHbI HJIH 3eM-
JIHTOBCKHH KPECT. JIomapuftz- JISIHoro BaAa (1).
CKUU Kpecm.
JIO,ll;)KHH. OTKpbITOe Hap~y nOMe- JIOIIATKA. He HMelOIn;H:H 6a3bl H
KAMEHh. m;eHHe C nOTOJIKOM HJIH CBOOOM, OT.r\e- KanUmeAU BepTHKaJIbHbIH JIeHTOqHbm
HCKYCCTBeHHbIH CTpOHTeJIbHbm MaTe- JIeHHOe OT OKpY)KaIOm;ero npOCTPaH- BbICTyn CTeHbI, pa3,!1eJISllOIn;H:H HJIH orpa-
pHaJI, OCHOBY KOToporo COCTaBJISIIOT CTBa C O,!lHOH HJIH pa3HbIX CTOPOH HH'IHBaIO.m;:HH ee nOBepxHocTb.
KpeMHeKHCJIble COJIH, npoTHBO,!leHcTBY- Ko.//,Oftftaoou, apKaoou, napanemoM JIH-
lO.m;:He pa3pYIIIHTeJIbHoMY BJIHSlHHIO JIOTAPHHfCKHH KPECT (=JIHTOB-
60 6aAlOCmpaoou.
BJIarn H B03,!1yxa. CKHH KpecT, SIreJIJIOHCKHH KpecT).
illeCTHKOHe'IHbm KpecT C ,!IByMSl 0.r\HHa-
JIHTOIIOH. IIOCmORftftble 6eJtUJta. KOBbIMH rOPH30HTaJISlMH.
JIHTO<l>AHHH. PeJIbe<pHbIe H306pa- JIOTKOBASI qEPEIIHIJ;A. KpOBeJIb-
)KeHHSI Ha HerJIa3ypoBaHHoM <pap<pope HbIH MaTepHaJI B BH.l\e lJ:eTbIpexyroJIb-
(6ucKBume), npe,!lHa3HalJ:eHHbIe K BOC- HbIX KepaMHlJ:eCKHX nJIaCTHH C 60pTH-
npHSITHIO Ha npocBeT. KaMH no mHpoKHM CTOPOHaM, COCTaBJISI-
JIHIJ;EBASI KJIA,ll;KA. AKKypaTHaSI JIO)I(EMEHT. He60JIbmOH CTpeJIKO- eMbIX Ha KpOBJIe B )KeJI06a OT KOftbKa
KHpllH'IHaSI K.//,aoKa, paCCqHTaHHaSI Ha BbIH HJIH 0py,!lHHHbm OKon. (1) ,!IO CBeca.
BocnpHSITHe Bee eCTeCTBeHHOM BH,!Ie, -
JIO)KHHIJ;A. CnaJIbHSl.
6e3 mTyKarypKH, 06Ma3KU, n06eJIKH,
nOKpaCKH H 06JIHn;OBKH. JIO)KHhIH CBO,ll;. KpHBOJIHHeHHOe
JIHqHHA (=KJIIOlJ:eBHHa). IInacTHHKa nepeKpbITHe, 06pa30BaHHoe roPH30H-
Ha ,!IBepH, OKpY)KalOm;aSI OTBepcTHe .!IJISI TaJIbHbIMH pSl,!laMH KHpllH'Ia, KaMHSI HJIH
KJIIOlJ:a. ,!IepeBa.

JIOB. IJ;epKoBHaSI z.//,aBa. JIO)KOK (=JIor). 1 HaH60JIee BbITSIHY-


JIOTKOBhIH IIOTOJIOK. IIJIocKoe
TaSI, cpe.r\HSISI no BeJIH'IHHe rpaHb 6pyc-'
JIOBAHh. ,ll;eKopaTHBHoe nO,!lBbIme- ,!IepeBSlHHoe nepeKpbITHe C HaKJIOH-
KOBOlO KUpnU'la. 2 Ka)K,!Ibm H3 KOPOT-
HHe ftaAU'lftUKa. HbIMH nOBepxHocTXMH no KpaSIM.
KHX napaJIJIeJIbHbIX JlCe.//,o6KoB.
JIOBHK. IIOJIYKpyrJIbIH KHpnH'IHbIH JIO)KqAThIH ,ll;EKOP. O,!lHHaKOBbIe JIOTKOBhIH CBO,ll;. CBOO, COCTO-
BbIcryn Ha,!I npoeMoM B oKp~alOm;eH SIlI\HH H3 JtomKOB (1), C nepe.r\aqeH pac-
ero HHme, paCClJ:HTaHHbIH Ha nnOTHoe napaJIJIeJIbHbIe BbleMKH nOJIYKpyrJIOrO nopa Ha CTeHbI.
npHMbIKaHHe npSlMoyrOJIbHOH paMbI. Ce'leHHSI, C 3aKpyrJIeHHSlMH B qeTBepTb
c<pepbl Ha KOun;ax. JIOTOK. 1 PaBH06e,!lpeHHblH TpeyroJIb-
HblH yqacToK n;HJIHH,!IpH'IeCKOH nOBepx-

g
i ~ ~i , HOCTH, OnHpalOIn;H:HCX Ha rOpH30HTaJIb.
2 )KeJI06 .r\JISI CTOKa HJIH CCbmaHHSI.
JIOKOMOTHBHASI 3EJIEHh. 3e'//'e- 3 KOpbITn;e.
JIY3f. IInOCKHH mTYKarypHhm BhICTyn
JIOBHOE MECTO. 1 B03BblmeHHe, C JIOKOTKH. fOPH30HTaJIbHaSI o6pe- Ha CThIKe CTeHhI H nOTOJIKa.
KOToporo OrJIamaJIH n;apcKHe YKa3b1 H
06pam;aJIHCb K Hapo,!ly. 2 MeCTO Ha nno- JIY3fA. 1 CKB03HOH BepTHKaJIbHbIH
m;a,!lH, npe,!lHa3Ha'leHHOe ,!IJISI ny6JIHq- JIOMBAP,ll;. YlJ:pe)K,l\eHHe, B KOTOPOM UlOB '1epe3 pSl,!lbI 1CJI,aOKu. 2 OCa,!IKa
HbIX Ka3HeH. 3a nnaTY xpaHSIT JIHqHhIe Be.m;:H HaCeJIe- coopY)KeHHSI B rpynT.
HHSI H npe.r\oCTaBJIXIOT cCY.r\y n0.r\ HX JIYKOBHqHAJI fJIABA. BeHlJ:a-
JIOEOBASI ,ll;OCKA (=KpaCHaSI ,!lOCKa,
3aJIOr.
<PPH30BaSI .r\OCKa, nnaTOK). Pe3HOH IOm;HH 06'beM nocTpoHKH C nnaBHoH
.r\epeBSlHHbIH ppU3 (2) Ha rJIaBHOM <pa- JIOMBEPHhIH CTOJI. CTOJI C npSIMO- KPHBH3HOH CHMMeTpH'IHOrO CHJIY3Ta,
ca.r\e KpecTbSlHcKoro OOMa (1), nOMe- yroJIbHOH cmo.//,eUlftUijeU, 06TSlnyTOH HMelOIn;H:H nOnepe'lHHK nY'lUftbl 60JIhme
m;eHHbIH Ha,!I OKHaMH. CYKHOM, ,!IJISI HrpbI B KapTbI. ero BbICOThI.

-84-
n nynOBHUlE - nlOCTrAY3 85

JIYIIOBMIIJ;E. MeCTO, r,[le 06,[1MpaJUf M


3aKanbIBanM naBIIIMH CKOT.

JIYl.JMCThII1 CBOA. 36e3DliamblU


C60D.

JIYl.JKOBhIM. OrpaHM'IeHHbIH ,[Iyroi1


HaMHOrO MeHbIIIe 1800 •

JI3rYH3 (=narYHa). IIpe,[lHa3HaqeH-


HaR ,[InR HOB06paQHbIX KOMHaTa B 'Iep-
KeCCKOM MnM Ka6ap,[lMHCKOM DOMe (1, 2),
MMelO~aR OT,[IenbHbIH BXO,[l.

JI3rYH3 UhIKY. He6onbIIIa~ Kna,[lO-


BaR B QepKeCCKoM DOMe (1, 2).

JIIOACKAH. IIoMe~eHMe ,[InR npMcny-


rM B nOMe~M'IbeM oOMe (1, 2).

JIIOKAPHA. CBeToBoH npoeM B Ha-


KnOHHOM IInI1 CBO,[l'IaTOM nepeKpbITI1M,
HMelO~MH BepTMKanbHYlO nMIIeBYlO

JIIOJIhKA. Ka'IalO~aRCR KpoBaTb ,[InR


Mna,[leHIIa.
JIIOHET. 1 IIonYKpyrnbIH YQaCTOK CTe-
HbI, Herrocpe,[lCTBeHHo rro,[l Orl16alO~I1M

ee C60DOM. 2 l.JeTblpexcTopoHHee yKpe-


rrneHMe, OTKpbITOe C Tbma, a crrepe-
,[1M 3a~l1~eHHOe 6a.!!aMU (1) 11 pBaMM.

3 BonbIIIoe rronYKpyrnoe OKHO HerrO-


Cpe,[lCTBeHHo Ha,[l rrpRMoyronbHbIM rrpo-
eMOM.
JIIOCTrAY3. IIapKoBbIH na6U.!lbOH B
BM,[Ie KpyrrHoH 6eceoKu (1), 06bI'IHO C
60raTbIM cpaCa,[lHblM )l;eKOpoM.

-85-
\ -

MA. HraHaCaHCKllH: t.tYM. MArIICTPAT. OpraH ropO).jCKoro MAKCYPA. rJIaBHOe MeCTO ).jJISI MO-
caMoyrrpaBJIeHlISI, B03HlfKIIIlIH: II cYIl\e- JIlITBhI B Met.temu, OT).jeJIeHHOe OT ee
MAB30JIEM. MOH)'MeHTaJIhHOe Ha).j- CTBOBaBililfH: B POCClIH:CKOH: lIMrreplili C OCTaJIhHOrO uHmepbepa.
rp06HOe cOOpY)KeHlIe. 1720 rro 1864 r. (B 1727-1743 rr. Ha3hI-
BaJICSIpamYUteu (1). MAKTAE. MycYJIhMaHCKaSI HaqaJIhHaSI
MABPECKA. Apa6eC1Ca.
IIIKOJIa Ha KaBKa3e.
MA,UPACA (=Me).jpece). MycYJIhMaH-
CKaH cpe).jHSISI IIIKOJIa Ha KaBKa3e. MAKTAII. EaIIIKlfpcKaSI MycYJIhMaH-
CKaSI IIIKOJIa.
MA3AHKA. He6oJIhiliOe cTpoeHlIe C
rJIlfH06l1THbIMli CTeHaMIf rrplf ).jepeBSIH- MAJIA5I KY,UO. He60JIhillaSI oTropo-
HOM KapKace. )KeHHaSI qaCTh JIeTHeH: KyxHlI (CM.
K yoo ), rrOqllTaBillaSICSI MecTorrpe6hIBa-
MA3P ACA. EaIIIKlIpcKaSI MycYJIhMaH-
HlieM ).jyxa-xpaHlITeJISI ceMhlf.
CKaSI IIIKOJIa.

MAM,UAH. 1 rJIaBHaSI rrJIOIl\a).jh B Kpyrr- MAJIA5I KYHAUKA5I. IIapa).jHaSI


HOM IO)KHO-PYCCKOM CeJIeHlIli (Harrplf- KOMHaTa B 6oraToM ceBepoKaBKa3cKoM
Mep, B Ka3aqheH: cTaHlIn:e). 2 JIropHhIH: oOMe (1, 2), rrpe).jHa3HaqeHHaSI ).jJISI rrplf-
rrpliTOH. 3 5IMa ).jJISI BhlrOHKIf ).jerTSI. eMa 6JIlI3KlIX pO).jcTBeHHHKoB X03SIeB.

MAMMYJI (=o6e3hSIHa, o6e3hSIHKa). MAJI OPYH. Bay.


YKperrJIeHHaSI Ha rrOrrepeqHhIX rrporOHax MAJIO, MAJIY. IIoqeTHoe MeCTO B
<jJlIrypHaSI CTOH:Ka, rro).j).jep)KlIBaIOIl\aSI Tpa).jlll\llOHHOM )KlIJIHIl\e BOCTOqHOClI-
BepXHlIH: (KOHbKOBblU) 6pyc (1) B Kpbl- 6HPCKIfX Hapo).joB.
Ute ceBepoKaBKa3cKoro oOMa (1);
Hepe).jKo IfMeeT BlI).j o606Il\eHHOlf CPll- MAJIYXA (=MaJI 3H:3). YTerrJIeHHhIH:
rypKlI qeJIOBeKa. ).jOMHK ).jJISI HOBOpO)K).jeHHhIX TeJISIT HJIli
SIrHSIT B 6aIIIKHpCKOH: ycaob6e.
MAMOJIJIKA. IIOKphIThle rJIa3yphIO
MABPJITAHCKA5I APKA. JIOOKOBO- KepaMlIqeCKHe H3).jeJIliSI C KpyrrHorropH- MAJIbIM BOCbMEPJIK. BOChMH-
06pa3HaR apKa. CTOH: OCHOBOH:. rpaHHhIH 06'heM, B03Be).jeHHhIH Ha cBooe
t.temBepuKa H CHJIhHO YCTyrraIOIl\HH eMY
MArA3JIH. 1 ToprOBoe 3aBe).jeHHe MAKA,UAM. llIocce yrrpOIl\eHHoH KOH- B rrOrrepeqHHKe.
).jJISI rrpO).ja)KH P03HHQHhIX TOBapoB. CTpYKl\lIli - 6e3 crren:lIaJIhHOrO OCHOBa-
2 (=raMa3eH:, MaHra3eSI). CKJIa).j ).jJISI HliSI H3 KpyrrHoro KaMHSI H 6e3 YKaTKH MAJIbIM KOJIOKOJI. 3a3BoHHblU KO-
rrp0).joBOJIhCTBeHHhlx 3arraCOB, Kopa- Il\e6HSI B rrOKphITliH. .II0KOJI.
6eJIhHOrO lIMYIl\eCTBa, orHeCTpeJIhHhIX
MAKAPA. YXO.ll3a. MAJIbIM LIJIH. Ammut.tecKuu opoeH.
rrplirracoB II T. ).j.
MAKAPTOBbI BYKETbl. BYKembl MAJIbTJIMCKJIM KPECT. LIeThlpex-
MArAJI. 1 (=MeXJIe). KBapma.ll (1) B
MaKapma. KOHeqHhIH: KpecT C O).jHHaKOBhIMli Bep-
).jareCTaHCKOM CeJIeHlIli. 2 KBapma.ll (1),
THKaJIhHhIMli H ropll30HTaJIhHhIMH KOH-
3aCeJIeHHhIH ropcKllMli eBpeSIMli B KaB- MAKAAC. EaJIKlI B rroKphITlili HoraHC-
n:aMH, CTOPOHhI KOTOPhIX pacxo).jSITCSI OT
Ka3CKOM wpooe (2). Koro oOMa (1).
n:eHrpa.
MAr,UAJIJIHJIHCKJIE OEIUJIHbI. MAKOBJIUA. <PopMa n:epKoBHoH 2Jla-
MAJI 3M3. MaJlyxa.
IIpliIOThI ).jJISI pacKaSIBIIIlIXcSI rra).jIIIHX Bbl, 6JIlI3KaSI .IIYKOBUt.tHOU, HO MeHee
)KeHIl\lIH, CYIl\eCTBOBaBililie B POCCHli C BhIcTyrraIOIl\aSI B CTOPOHhI Ha).j 6apa6a- MAMBA-,UYrAH (=MaM6Y-).jyraH,
1863 r. HOM B ee OCHOBaHlili. aKrra-AyraH). JIaMaHcTCKHH xpaM-IIIKO-

86

-86-
M MAHrA3ESl - MAWIilKymt 87

na, B KOTOPOM npenO}];alOT TH6eTCKYlO MAP. rypuu. MACKA (=MaCKapOH). BKJIIO'IeHHOe B


Me}];H.qHHy. apxlfTeKTypHhIH }];eKOp CKYJIhnTypHoe
MAPEIJJJ;O. Pa3HOBH}l;HOCTh HCKyC-
lf306pa)KeHlfe JIhBlfHOH MOP}];hI, JIHn;a
MAHrA3EH. Maw3UfI (2). CTBeHHoro MpaMopa (nmca, o6pa6oTaH-
'1eJIOBeKa, cpaBHa, rH}l;phI If T. n.
Horo KBaCn;aMH), - nmhhI }];nSl o6nH-
MAH,lJ,OPJIA. BepTHKanhHhIH MHH}];a-, n;OBKH CTeH B nOMeru;eHHSlX.
neBH}];HhIH HHM6 BOKpyr POCTOBhIX
qmryp XpHcTa H BoropO}];Hn;hI (pe)Ke - MAPKETPI1. CTonSlpHaSl M03aU"maR
BOKpyr qmryp HHhIX CBSlThIX). pa60Ta H3 }];epeBa pa3HhIX nopo}]; co cno-
HOBOH KOCThlO, MpaMopoM, MeTaJIJIOM.
MAHE)I(. 3}];aHHe C npOCTopHhIM
3anOM HnH orOpO)KeHHaSl nnoru;a}];Ka, MAPKI13A. MaTep'laThIH HaBec
npe}];Ha3Ha'leHHhle }];nSl BepxoBoH e3}];hI. (06hI'IHO nO}];BH)KHOH) Ha}]; npoeMoM, C
BHenIHeH CTOPOHhI.
MAPMA. KynoJIoo6pa3Hoe 3BeHKHHC-
Koe )KHJIHru;e C KapKacoM H3 BeTBeH
6epe3hI, nOKphIToe 6epecToH.
MAHECMAHOBCKA5I rOPEJIKA. MAPMOP. MpaMop.
BHCSI'IaSI ra30KMHnhHaSl naMna, o6pa-
MAPCEJIhCKA5I QEPEIII1IJ;A. IIpSl- MAChIr. OceTHHCKaSI ycaob6a C Mac-
ru;eHHaSl CBeTHnhHHKOM BHH3.
MoyrOJIhHhIe B nnaHe KepaMH'IeCKHe ClfBHhIMH KaMeHHhIMH CTeHaMH H MHoro-
MAHI1. JIHraTypa H3 TH6eTCKRX 6YKB, nJIHTKH C HepaBHoMepHhIMH npO}];OJIb- 3Ta)KHOH 6aumeu (1).
cHMBonH3HpYIOru;aSl 6Y}];}];HHCKYIO MonH- HhIMH BhIITYKJIOCTSlMH H )KeJI06KaMlf,
MATI1IJ;A (=BopoHen;, 6anaKa, 6anh-
TBy (cp.: BFl3b). HCnOJIh3yeMhle KaK KposeAbliblu MaTe-
Ka). 1 OnopHaSl 6anKa nOTonKa B u36e
plfaJI.
(1) lfJIlf xopoMax. 2 )l(eJIe3HhIH cTep-
)KeHh KBa}];paTHOro Ce'leHlfSl }];JISI no}];-
BeCKH 6AazosecmliuKa.

MATOQHI1K. KpynHaSl JIHTaSI neTJISI


HaBepxy KOJIOKOJIa, '1epe3 KOTOPYIO
rrporrycKaeTcSI Mamu4a (2); 06hI'IHO no
60KaM }];eJIaJIlfCh }];OnOJIHlfTeJIhHhle
neTJIH - yrnH KOJIOKOJIa.

MAPCEJIhCKI1E OB011. IIe'laTHhIe MATCA. 3CK3 3pA3K.


HnH pacnHcaHHhIe MacnSlHhIMH Kpac-
MAY3PJIAT. rOplf30HTaJIhHhIH 6pyc
KaMlf 060lf lf3 JIhHSlHOH JIH60 rnepcTSlHoH
(1) no Bepxy CTeH, BocrrplfHlfMalOru;lfH
TKaHlf.
pacnop CTPOIIlfJI.
MAPTOBCKI1H: IIorPEB. KJIa}];OBaSI
MAXABKA. (JJmozep.
MAHI1IIYJI5IIJ;I10HHA5I. IIoMeru;e- }];nSl ITlfBa.
HHe }];nSl ne'le6HOrO MaCCa)Ka, HH'heKn;HH MAXJIA (=)KaMSlT). KsapmaA (1) B
H nepeBSl30K. MAPill. Y'IaCTOK JIeCTHlfn;hI Me)K}l;y
naKCKOM CeJIeHlfH.
}];ByMSI nnOII\a}];KaMH.
MAHCAP,lJ,A. OTannHBaeMoe )KlfnOe MAXJIE. K6apmaA (1) B Ta6acapaH-
nOMeII\eHlfe no}]; KposAeu, KOTopaSl MACBEPK. CBoHcTBeHHhIH rOTlfKe CKOM ceneHHH.
KpyTO nO}];HlfMaeTCSI OT Kapliuaa, a y pa3BHToH KapKacHhiH opHaMeHT C n;lfp-
KynhHhIM nOCTpoeHHeM Bcex 3JIeMeH- MAXhI1. BbICeJIOK ,[IJISI oxpaHhI 3C-
BepXHero o6pe3a OKOH M. o6pa3yeT
TOB, a TaK)Ke nO}];06HhIe no CJIO)KHOCTH MeJIhHhIX yrO}];lfH OCHOBHoro CeJIeHHSI B
roplf30HTaJIhHhIH nepeJIOM If Bhlrne Hero
y30phI CTlfJISI MO}];epH. ,lJ,arecTaHe.
CTaHOBHTCSI nOJIOroH.
MAillB. TOR nplf a6a3lfHcKOM CeJIeHlflf.

MAIllI1KYJII1 (=KOCOH 60H, HaBeCHhle


60HHlfn;hI). HaBlfcalOru;lfe Ha,[l cTeHOH
YKpenJIeHlfSl HaKJIOHHhle rrpoeMhI, '1epe3
KOTophle BeJIH CTpeJIh6y 11 JIlf-
Jill pacnnaBneHHYIO CMOJIY Ha Oca)K}];a-
IOII\HX.
MAHTEJIET. IIO}];Blf)KHOH ru;HT Ha
KOJIeCaX, lfCnOJIh3yeMhIH }];JISI 3aru;lfThI OT
06CTpeJIa nplf coopY)KeHlflf canbl.

MACI1KOT. )l(eJITaSl KpaCKa.

-87-
M MARK - MMHEPAJlbHAR )l{MBOnMCb 88

MAAK. 1 BalIIHeo6pa3Hoe coopY}I{eHHe MEJIbCEHCA rpOMOOTBO,u. rpo- nO;D;06HbIe HM MaTepHaJIbI HeOpraHH'ieC-


p;ml opHeHTHpoBKH CYP;OB. 2 CBeTJIblH MOOTBO;D; CO MHO}l{eCTBOM pacxop;HW;HX- Koro npoHCXO}l{;JJ;eHHH, C03;D;alO~e B
KHpmf'IHK (npHMoyrOJIbHbIH JIH60 C CH K He6y npOBOJIO'lHbIX nY'lKOB no HaTYPe PHCYHOK Ca;D;OBbIX napmepo6 (1),
lIaCmOttKUHblMU X60CmaMU Ha IIIHpOIrnx rpe6HIO Kp06llU. CO'leTaHCb C U130HHblMU TPaBaMH, ~e­
CTOPOHax) H3 rHnca, aJIe6acTPa, ~e­ TaMH H IIH3KHMH cTPH}I{eHbIMH KycTap-
MEHAXEPM}I. ApXHTeKTypHO
MeHTa JIH60 CTeKJIHHHaH nJIaCTHHKa, IIHKaMH.
O¢OPMJIeHHblH ;D;OM ;D;JIH nTHn;, 06bI'lHO
3aKpenneHHbIe CTPOHTeJIbHbIM paCTBo-
Ha 6epery BO;D;oeMa B napKe. MH3Y~. rJIaBHbIH: 3aJI B }IllOHCKOM
POM Ha nOBepXHOCTH KllaOKU, nepece-
'laHHOM na6U11bOHe (1).
KaH TpeW;HHY, - AJIH KOHTPOJIH 3a AHHa- MEHA)l(EPHbIH <POHTAH. <POHTaH
MHKOH pa3pywalO~ YCHJIHH. C nOJIbIMH CTPYHMH 60JIbmOrO ;D;HaMe- MHKCBOP,uEP. MHOroPSl;D;HaH (pe}l{e
TPa, 6blO~MH 'lepe3 KOJIb~eBbIe npo- rHe3;D;OBaH) nOCa;D;Ka ;D;eKOpaTHBHbIX pac-
MEAH,D;P (= anarpeK). BblTHHYTbIH
pe3H. TeHHH, nO;D;60p KOTOPbIX C03;D;aeT Kap-
opHaMeHT: HenpepbIBHaH JIHHHH C Op;H-
THHY HenpepbIBHoro ~eTeHHH OT paH-
HaKOBbIMH r-06pa3HbIMH H3JIOMaMH. MEH3A. HH}!{HAA 'laCTb aIImapR (2),
HeH BeCHbI ;D;O n03;D;HeH oceHH.
HMelOW;aH BH;D; CTOJIa, ropH30HTaJIbHOrO

1@1i!1(
mKa<l>'lHKa HJIH capKoqJa2a. MMJIH EKATEPMHHHCKHE. EKa-
MEPEXKA. tPpU3 (2) 1'13 He60JIbmHX mepuHuHcKue MUIIU.
KBa;D;paTHbIX Bna;D;HH, B <l>aCa;D;HOM MHJIOBM,u, MHJIOBM,uA. BHAOBaH
;D;eKope ceBepOKaBKa3CKoro }l{HJIHw;a. nJIOw;ap;Ka B BHAe 6eceoKu (1), paCC'lH-
MEPJIOHbl. 1 3y6n;bI KpenocmHou TaHHoH Ha 0630p }l{HBOnHCHbIX naHO-
ME,uPECE. Maopaca.
CTeHbI. 2 Y'laCTKH 6pycm6epa Me}l{;JJ;y paM.
ME,uAJIbOH. BapeJIbe¢ HJIH }l{HBO- 60UHUl1aMU. MHMBAP (=MHH6ap). Kapeopa B
llHCHoe H306pa}l{eHHe B KpyrJIOM JIH60
MECTHbIH IIJIETEHb. CTa~oHap­ Mettemu.
OBaJIbHOM 06paMJIeHHH.
Hbm ¢opTH<I>HKa~HoHHblH nJIeTeHb,
ME,uBE,uKA. BepXH}l}l 'laCTb KP0611U KOJIbH KOToporo 3arny6JIeHbI B rpyHT Ha
Hap; llJIaBHJIbHOH <l>a6pHKOH, npope3aH- apmHH.
HaH no 60KaM OTBepCTHHMH P;JIH BbIxop;a
METAXPOMOTMIIM}I. ll.eKallbKOMa-
AbIMa H napOB.
HUll.
ME,uBEXMI JIAIIA. AKaHT.
METJIAXCKA}I IIJIMTKA. illTY'lHbIH
ME)I(,Il;YPYCfbE. rOpH30HTaJIbHblH MaTepHaJI ;D;JIH HaCTHJIKH nOJIOB, HMe-
npocBeT Me}l{;JJ;Y COce;D;HHMH pycmaMu. 1Ow;HH BH;D; nJIHTOK H3 060}l{}l{eHHOH
npeccoBaHHoH rnHHbI, C oKpameHHbIM
ME3EJIHH. IIOJIyweJIKOBaH TKaHb ;D;JIH
BepXHHM CJIOeM.
3aHaBeceH H 'leXJIOB Ha Me6eJIb.
METOIIbI. BJIH3KHe KBa;D;paTY aJIe-
ME30HET. ll.OM (1) C KBaprnpaMH,
MeHTbI oOpUtteCKo20 PPU3a, 'lepe;D;y-
nOMew;eHHH KOTOPbIX pacnOJIO}l{eHbI B
lO~eCH C mpu2IIuPaMu.
p;ByX HJIH TPex ypOBHHX.
MEXJIE. Mazall (1). MMHAPET. BblCOKaH Y3KaH 6aUtHR, C
ME30HMH (=6e3aHHH, 6e3;D;aHHH). BepmHHbI KOTOPOH npH3bIBaIOT MyCyJIb-
HenOJIHbIH BepxHHil: aTa}l{ Ha;D; Cpe;D;HeH: MEqETb. MycYJIbMaHCKHH xpaM. MaH Ha MOJIHTBY.
'laCTblO oOMa (1), xapaKTepHbIH: ;D;JIH
KJIaCCH~3Ma.
!

MEHEC. IIe'ib B 6amKHpcKoH U36e (1).

MEKJIEP. CIIHpaJIbHO 3arnYTbIH: BBepx


HH}I{HHH KOHen; JIeCTHH'lHOH memU6bl.

MEKTEB. MYCYJIbMaHCKaH peJIHrH03-


HaH mKOJIa.

MEJIKMH ,uOJI. ll.OIlUK. MEPTBA}I rOJIOBA. )l(}l{eHaH oxpa.


MMHBAP. MUM6ap.
MEJIbHMqHbIH PYKAB. illHpOKHH MEPTBbIE MATEPHAJIbI. IIecoK
TeCOBbIH }l{eJIo6, no KOTOPOMY nocTY- pa3HbIX ~BeTOB, aHTpa~T, TOJI'leHble MI1HEPAJIbHAA )l(HBOIII1Cb.
naeT BO;D;a Ha MeJIbIIH'lHOe KOJIeco. ttepenuu,a, CTeKJIO H MpaMop, a TaK}I{e )[(uBonucb Kei1Ma.

-88-
M MIIIHTPOBASI APKA - MYTOBKA 89

MHHTPOBA5I APKA. Mump06aJl pHTMHqeCKH IIOBTOP5lIOTCH OgHH H Te )!(e ~eHTpa lIIeCThIO oguHaKoBhIMU KOH~a­
apKa. I'eOMeTpHqeCKHe <pOPMhI. MU, H3 KOTOPhIX BepxHuH AOrrOJIHeH
He6oJIhllOR rrOJIYKpyrnOIl: cKo6KOH,
MOAYJIhOH. KpOllutmeUH B <popMe
OTqerO BCH <purypa IIpeACTaBJI5IeT C060H
3aBHTKa C aKallm06blM JIHCTOM, noggep-
COBMeIIl,eHHe 6YKB «X» H «P».
)!(HBaIOIIl,HH KapllU3llYlO IIJ1l:!Ty.

MO)KAHKA. 3aJI gJUi npocToHapoghH MOHOCAA. Cag C 5IBHhIM rrpeo6JIaga-


B pecTopaHe HJIH mpaKmupe. HHeM paCTeHHIl: KaKOrO-JIH60 ogHoro
Buga, HarrpUMep, p03apuu (1), cHpeHra-
M03AHKA (=MyCHH). H306pa)!(eHHe, pUIl:, reoprnHapHIl:, upuoapuu.
COCTaBJIeHHOe H3 MHO)!(eCTBa 3JIeMeH-
TOB, 6JIH3KHX gpyr gpyry rro pa3MepaM. MOHhE CBOAhl. OrrHpaIOIIl,HeCH Ha
6aJIKH rrapaJIJIeJIhHhle JlY'lK06bte )!(eJIe-
MOCTOBA5I. 306eToHHhle C600UKU, rrpoHH3aHHhIe
AOpO)!(HOe rroKphlTHe H3 6YJlbiJICHbiX BHyTpH CTep)!(H5IMH apMamypbl (2) rrog
KaMHeR, OKOJIOThIX cBepxy H C 60KOB, rrpHMhIM yrJIOM.
qTO geJIaeT rrpOe3)!(yIO qaCTh 60JIee POB-
MJiIT3CAKH. MOIIl,Hhle KpOl-tutmdt1lbl HOH H cTa6HJIhHoH. MOPfA 33EM (=BeIIIKe3eM). KYXOH-
IIOg KpbluteU 60JIhlIIOrO BhlHOCa B HIIOH- HaH JIaBKa, BgeJIaHHaH B CTeHY MOKIIIaH-
CKOH apxHTeKType. MOKOCH. 5Ipyc B Buge OTKPhITOl! CKOH u36bl (1).
laJlepeu (1) C HaBeCOM 60JIhlIIoro BhIHO-
MHXPAE. MOJJHTBeHHaH HHlIIa B Me'le- ca, 3aBeplIIaIOIIl,uH OCHOBHOH 06'beM MOPTHPHA5I BATAPE5I. ApTHJIJIe-
mu, 06paIIl,eHHa51 B CTOPOHY MeKKH. 5IrrOHCKOH KYJIhTOBOH IIOCTpOHKH. PHHCKaH 6amapeR (1), B 6pycm6epe
KOTOPOH HeT aM6pa3yp (1).
MOJI. BhITHHYToe IIO roPU30HTaJIU
coopy)!(eHUe, 3aIIl,HIIl,aIOIIl,ee aKBaTopuIO MOPTHPHhIH KECCEJIb. Mopmup-
OT CHJIhHhIX BHelIIHHX BOJIH U IIpuMhIKa- llaR 6amapeR.
IOIIl,ee OgHUM KOH~OM K 6epery.
MOCT. BepxHHe CeNU ABYX3Ta)!(HOIl:
u36bl (1), rrpHMhIKaIOIIl,He K KPhITOMY
iJ60py (2) KpeCTh5lHCKOH ycaob6bl.

MOCTOBHHK. raJlbl3b.

MOTbIJIbHhIH 3AXOA. 3axoo.

MHI..(YfYPA. Kypa. MPAMOPHA5I <l>AHEPA. TOHKHe


06JIH~OBOqHhle rrJIHTKH gJIH CTOJIHPHhIX
MHIIIEHh. IIIHpoKaH MeTaJIJIHqeCKaH
pa6oT, H3rOTOBJIeHHhle H3 CMeCH gpe-
lIIaH6a nog IIIJIjiIIKOH rno3gH HJIH
BeCHhIX OrrHJIOK, 6YMa)!(HOH MaCChI H
3aKJJerrKH.
CTOJIHpHOrO KJIeH, C rrOCJIegYIOIIl,eH
MHOfOJIOIlACTHA5I APKA. Ap- rrOJIHpOBKOR.
Ka (1), JIHI~eByIO IIOBepXHOCTh KOTOPOH
MYJIAEH-fEBEJIbBE. COMKJlymbtU
orpaHHqHBaIOT He MeHee Tpex IIepece-
C600, B BeplIIHHe KOToporo KPHBOJIH-
KaIOIIl,HXCH gyr IIpHMepHO ogHHaKoBOH
HeHHhIe rrOBepXHOCTH rrepexogHT B rrpH-
KpHBH3HhI.
MoyrOJIhHYIO rrJIOIIl,agKy.
MHOfOOBJIOMHhIH. HMelOIIl,HH B
MYJIIDPhI. 06JlOMbt.
CeqeHHH MHO)!(eCTBO YCTYIIOB H H3rH6oB.
MYHCA. BaHH B 6alIIKHpCKOH ycaob6e.
MHOfOIIIHIlI..(OBA5I KPOBJI5I.
Kp06JlR, YJIO)!(eHHaH IIO CKaTaM U4unl{o6 MYHqA. BpeBeHqaTaH qYBaIIICKa51
B 3aBeplIIeHHH Bcex rpaHeH cTpOHTeJIh- 6aHH, B03BegeHHaH B CTopone OT Kpe-
Horo 06'beMa. CTh5lHCKOR ycaob6bl.
MOJIEHHA5I. Kpecmo6aR.
MOrOJI yP ACA. Ypaca gJIH maBhI MYP ABJIEHhIH. IlOKphIThIH 3eJIenOH
MOJIOqHOE CTEKJIO. AJle6acmpo-
CeMell:cTBa H rrpHeMa rOCTeM:. lJla3ypblO.
60e CmeKJlO.
MOAYJIh. 1 JIHHeHHhIH pa3Mep, IIpH- MYPABHOE MECTO. ra301l.
MOHACThIPCKHH CBOA. COMKllY-
HHThIH 30gqHM gml paCqeTa 3JIeMeHTOB
mblu C600 CpaCnaJly6KaMU (2) B OCHOBa- MYPh5I. JIaqyra, 3eMJlRllKa.
coopy)!(eHHji HJIH apxHTeKTypHoro KOM-
HUU.
nJIeKCa H 06hlqHO cooTBeTcTBYIOIIl,HIl: MYC(UI. M03auKa.
OgHOMY H3 TaKHX 3JIeMeHTOB. 2 qacT- «MOHAX-MOHAIIIKA» (<<MoHax H
HhIH BapHaHT MOgYJIH (1), CBOIl:CTBeH- MOHaIIIKa»). Bug '1epenU'lHOU KP06JlU, MYCOPHA5I CMA3KA. 3arrOJIHeHUe
HhIH opgepHhIM KOMII03H~HHM H paBHhlli npu KOTOPOR rrOJIOBHHKU yceqeHHOrO rrYCTOT B cTeHax U rrepeKphITUHX CTpOU-
pagHycy CTBOJIa KOJlOllllbl B ero OCHOBa- KOHyca rrorrepeMeHHo YJIO)!(eHhI B roPH- TeJIhHhIM MYCOPOM (CM. 3aCbtnKa).
HHH. 30HTaJIhHhIX p5lgax TO BHH3 BhIrryKJJO- MYTOBKA. IlpOCTeHlIIa51 BOgjiHMl
CThIO, TO BBepx. MeJIhHH~a, B KOTOPOH He6oJIhlIIOe
MOAYJIhHhIH CAA. He6oJIhlIIOH
IIapK HJIH ero <pparMeHT, B IIJIaHHpOBOq- MOHOfPAMMHhIH KPECT. KpecT KOJIeCO H )!(epHOB 3aKpeIIJIeHhI Ha
HOH H 06'beMHOH CTPYKType KOTopoI'o C paBHoMepHo pacxog5lIIl,UMUC5I OT 06IIl,eM BepTHKaJIhHOM BaJIy.

-89-
M MYTynbl - MSI 90

MYTYJIbI. KpYIIHble IIP5IMOyroJIbHble


IIJIHTKH, paBHOMepHO paCIIOJIO)KeHHble
IIO HH)KHeH IIOBepXHOCTH BbIHOCHOrO
3JIeMeHTa B oOpU'teCKOM KapHU3e.

MYIl>TA. MaCCHBHbIH ~eKOpaTHBHbIH


3JIeMeHT KpyrJIOH, KBa~paTHOH HJIH
MHoroyrOJIhHOH CPOPMhI, OXBaTbIBa-
IOIl.\HH CTBOJI KOJlOHHbt JIH60 nUJlR-
cmpbt.

MYIl>TI1POBAHHA5I (KOJlOHHa IUIH


nUJlRCmpa). I1MeIOIl.\a5i llIHpOKHe IIO-
IIepe'lHble BbICTYIIbI (06bI'IHO IIP5IMO-
yrOJIbHble), OXBaTbIBaIOIl.\He~tTBOJI.

MbI3A. 3aropo~HbIH OOM (2) co CJIy-


)Ke6HbIMH IIOcTpoHKaMH, COCTaBJI5IIO-
Il.\HMH o6oco6JIeHHbIH yca~e6HO-X035IH­
cTBeHHbIH KOMIIJIeKC; xapaKTepeH ~JI5I
I1pH6aJITHHCKHX TeppHTopHH.

MbIJIbHA5I (=xOJIO~Ha5I 6aH5I). TIoMe-


Il.\eHHe B 6aHe, IIpe~Ha3Ha'leHHOe ~JI5I
MbITb5I.

MbITA5I CTOPOHA. TIp5IMoyrOJIbHa5I


I1JIOCKa5i cTopoHa KpYIIHoro 6peBHa,
paCIIHJIeHHOrO B~OJIb I10IlOJIaM (CM.
IIJlacmuHa) .

MbITHI1l(A, MbITH5I. 3acmaBa (2),


.Ha KOTOPOH B3bIMaJIH MbIT - IIOlllJIHHY
3a IIPOB03 TOBapoB H I1pOrOH CKOTa.

M3rAPATI. TIorpe6 co CTOJI6oBbIM


KapKacoM, B 6alllKHpcKOH ycaob6e.

MIOrbIPETI. HepeII.

M5I. HeHeU;KHH 'tyM.

-90-
HAEATHblH: KOJIOKOJI. Bcno.!loUl- HAKATIlHA. H3.!1Y'lUHa. HAOKOillEqHMK. MaTepqaTOe no-
HOU KO.!lOKO.!l. KPhIBaJIO Ha KaMeHHhIH nOAOKOHHHK.
HAKJIA,Il;H~ PE3bEA. Pe3HOe Ae-
HAEOP. IJepHbtU no.!l. peBRHHOe YKpaIIIeHHe, He COCTaBJIRIO- HAIIJIABHMI cl>MJIEHKA. ClJU.!IeH-
~ee C npHJIeralO~HM q,OHOM I\eJIhHOrO Ka (1), BCTaBJIeHHaSI oCTPoyrOJIhHhIM
HAEOPHbIH HAJIMqHMK. Ha.!Iu'l-
KYCKa. KpaeM B nM Me~y CKJIeeHHhIX TIJIaCTOB
HUK, Y KOTOpOrO BepTHKaJIH BAOJIh
CTOJIRpHOH ABepH.
rrpOeMa COCTaBJIeHhI H3 q,HryPHhIX 3JIe-
MeHTOB npHMepHO paBHOH BhlCOThI. HAIIOJIbH~ IIEqb. BpeMeHHaSI
neqh, CJIO)l{eHHaSI B nOJIe AJISI o6CJI~­
BaHHR CeJIhX03pa6oT.
HAIIOJIbHbIE qACbl. KpYTIHhIe qa-
HAKJIEHHOH CTOJI. CTOJI, yKpa- ChI B BepTHKaJIhHOM q,YTJIRpe, YCTaHOB-
IIIeHHhIH UHmapcueu. JIeHHhIe Ha nOJIY B UHmepbepe.

HA KOKC. B .!Iany.
HAKOCHOE PEEPO. BhICTynalO~ee
pe6po KP06.!1U npH nepece'leHHH ee CKa-
TOB.
HAJIMqHMK. 06paMJIeHHe npoeMa
HAEOPHbIH IIAPKET. iIapKem (1) HJIH HHIIIH.
H3 He60JIhIIIHX KBaApaTHhIX ~TKOB (co
CTOPOHOH OKOJIO nOJIYMeTpa), COCTaB-
JIeHHhIX H3 60JIee MeJIKHX KBaApaToB,
KOTophIe qepeAYIOTcR B IIIaxMaTHOM
nopRAKe no HanpaBJIeHHIO KJlenOK.
HABECHbIE EOHHMUbl. MaUlu-
Ky.!lU.
HArEJIb. 1 Kpene}I{HhIH CTep)l{eHh,
npony~eHHhIH qepe3 OOCKU (1) HJIH
6pyCbR (1). 2 ,Il;epeBRHHhIH rB03Ah lfJIH
HAJIOH. AHMou.
OOJIT.
HArPA,Il;HOH illIIYHT. 3aKpeTIJIe- HAMA3JIbIK. KOBPHK, KYCOK BOHJIO- HAIIbIDbHMK. 1 Bpyc (1) HaA
HHe TOHKHX AO~eqeK HJIH q,aHephI B Ka, I\HHOBKa HJIH He60JIhIIIaSI IIIKypa ycmbe.M 'lepHOU ne'lU, Ha KOTOPhIH KJIa-
na3ax 6pycbe6 (1), COCTaBJIRIO~ Kap- )l{HBOTHOro B )l{HJIOM GOMe (1) Ka6ap- JIHCh APoBa AJIR CYIIIKH. 2 KOJIna'lOK HaA
Kac napKemHozo U4uma. AHHCKOH JIH60 'IepKeCCKoH ycaGb6bt, JIY'lHHOH B c6em/,fe, co6HpalO~HH Ha
nOACTHJIaBIIIHeCSI BO BpeMS! MOJIHTBhI. ce6SI KonOTh.
HMBPATHA5I KOJIOKOJIbH5I,
HA,Il;BPATHAA UEPKOBb. KYJIhTO- HAMETMCT~ T5IrA. illTYKaTypHaR HAPO,Il;HbIH ,Il;OM. IIpocBeTHTeJIh-
Boe coopY)I{eHHe, B03BeAeHHoe HaA mnl.a 60JIhIIIOrO ce'leHHR (HanpHMep, CKHH KJIy6 AJISI IIIHpOKHX CJIOeB HaCeJIe-
npoe3AoM Ha orpIDKAeHHYIO TeppHTo- Me~y KeCCOHaMu). HHR.
pHIO. HAHOCOY,Il;EP)l(ATEJIb. H.!Ioyoep- HAPTEKC. 3anaAHhIH npumeop B
HA,Il;qEPEIIOK. OX.!IyneHb. 3ICame.!lb. IIIHpHHY I\epKoBHoro 3AaHHR.

91

-91-
H HAPbl>KHHKH - HHWEnbHblA CSlOHTAH 92

HAPbDKHllKll (=OCTPHWKH, OCT- HOW 6pyca H CJIY)J(aUWH orropoH }:InR nnOTHoe pa3Me~eHHe BepTHKanbHbIX
pmKKH). CTyrreHqaThIe rpe6eWKH rro rronoroH qaCTH "1'{)fUIl Bee OCHOBaHHH. 6pi!6eH HJIH )Kep}:leH no }:lyre, COe}:lHHH-
pe6paM conOMeHHOM KP06AU B Ky6aH- IO~eM CTeHKH H3 ropH30HTaJIhHhIX
CKHX CTaHH~ax. 6pycbe6 (1).

HAPbIIlIKllHCKllE <l>OPMbl. APXH- HEOPAMA. IIaHopaMa, II306pa)Ka-


TeKTypHhIe 3neMeHThI H rrpHeMhI, IO~aH uHmepbep nocTpoHKH, BocrrpHHH-
xapaKTepHhIe }:InH T. H. «MOCKOBCKO- MaeMbIM 3pHTeneM II3 ee ~eHTpaJIhHOrO
1'0» HnH «HaphIWKHHCKoro 6apOKKO». rrOMe~eHHH; H306peTeHa B 1827 r.
BKnIOqaIOT B ce6H CHMMeTpHIO Bcex
HAllAJIO CBO,Il,A. HmKHHH rroBepx- HEIIOJIHbIM AHTAEJIEMEHT. AH-
<.jJaCa}:lOB ~epKoBHoro 3}:1aHHH, npYCHble
HOCTh rrepBhIX KaMHeM C600a - Herro- ma6AeMeHm, B KOTOPOM OTCYTcTByeT
KOMrr03H~HH C 60CbMepUKa.MU Ha "lem6e-
Cpe}:lCTBeHHO Ha}:l ero OCHOBaHHeM. apxumpa6.
pUKe, nerreCTKOBhIe rrnaHhI xpaMOB,
HaJlU"lHUKU C pa30p6aH1tbl.M cjJpOHmo- HAmEJIbHllK. 1 PeMKa, 3aKphIBa- HEIIP5IXA. PYCCKaH U36a (1), B KOTO-
HOM Ha}:l aHma6AeMeHmOM, KOAOHHbl C IO~aH CThIK Me)J(}:IY napannenhHhIMH POM pacrrOnO)KeHHe rreqH CJIeBa OT BXO}:la
BHThIMH YKpaweHHHMH CTBona, <.jJHryp- oocKa.Mu (1) HnH 6pyCbJl.MU (1).2 Y3KHM orrpe}:len5!eT rrJIaHHpoBKY , MewaIO~IO
HhIe KpOHlumeUHbl B OCHOBaHHH COCTaB- u3pa3el1, 3aKphIBaIO~HH WOB KHprrHq- rrpRcTb y OKRa.
HhIX HanHqHHKOB, BOChMHrpaHHhIe HOM Kna}:lKH Ha CThIKe rpaReM, 06nH~O­
HEPBIOPbl. CmpeJ1b"lamble apKu H3
OKRa, rrpOXO}:lhI co cpe3aHHhIMH Bepx- BaHHhIX U3pa3l{aMu.
TeCaRhIX KaMHeM, C03}:1aIOuwe KapKac-
HHMH yrnaMH H T. }:I.
HEEO. 1 ,Il,epeBHHHoe rrepeKphITHe Ha}:l HyIO OCHOBY Kpecm060w c600a.
HAP5I,Il,. MaTepqaThIe 3neMef!ThI }:IJIH py6neHhIM 6ocbMepU1w.'>t xpaMa, BHe-
rrpa3}:1HHqHOro y6paHcTBa }:IpeBHepyc-
CKoro HHTephepa: 3aHaBeCH, nOAa60"l-
HUKU (2), HaOKOute"lHUKU, KOBPhI,
rroKpoBhI, HaBonOKH, O}:leHna, rronorH,
cKaTepTH.
HACA. MecTo }:IJIH 06~ecTBeHHhlx
co6paHHH B Ka6ap}:lHHCKOM HnH a}:lhI-
reHcKoM ceneHHHX.

HACA,Il,KA. 1 Spyc (1), coe}:lHHHIO~HM HECOBEPIlIEHHbIM TPllrJIll <1>.


JJ.UlAUcjJ.
BepwHHhI cmoeK. 2 3aMem (1).
HE<I>. 3JIeMeHT rrpocTpaHcTBa 6a3UAu-
HACE,Il,KA. rHe300 (4).
KU, BhITRHYTbIH B}:IOnh ee rnasHoH OCH H
HACJIOHHbIE CTPOIIllJIA. Cmpo- WHe HarrOMHHaIO~ee AomK06blu C600. OrpaHHqeHHhIH C O}:lHOH HnH }:IByx CTO-
2 IIoTonoK nO}:l C6000M. 3 ,Il,epeBHHHoe POH KOAOHHaMU nH60 cTon6aMH.
nUAa C rrpOMe)KYTOqHhIMH onopHhIMH
nepeKphITHe B utmOAbHe.
CmOUKaMU, B03Be}:leHHhIMH Ha BHYTpeH- HEPEII (=MIOrblperr). IIorpe6 B Ma-
HHX cTeHax, c600ax HnH rrOTOnOqHhIX HEBECTA XPllCTOBA. UepKoBh. PlfHCKOH KpeCTbHHCKOM ycaob6e.
6anKax.
HEKPOIIOJIb. ApxHTeKTypHo-XY}:lO- HllrE3 (=}:IHHre3). BHYTpeHH5!5! 3aBa-
)KeCTBeHHO o<.jJopMneHHhIH KOMnneKC nHHKa B 6aWKHpCKOM cenbCKOM oOMe
rrorpe6eHHH C Ha)1;rp06H5!MH. (1).
HEMEUKA5I CllCTEMA. BUCR"lUe Hll,Il,EPJIAH,Il,CKI1M CIIOCOE YK-
cmponUAa C rrO}:lrrOpKaMH, nepneH}:IHKy- PEIIJIEHl15I. <l>opTH<pHKa~OHHaH
JIRpHhIMH cmponUAbHOU HOle, H C CHCTeMa, }:InR KOTOPOH xapaKTepHhI
HACblIIHbIE OEOll. llMHTHpyIO~He HaKnOHHhIMH cmpYHaMU. 06wHpHble, XOTX H Herny6oKHe, pBbl C
5!pKYIO 06HBOqHYIO TKaHh 6YMa)KHhle BO}:lOM.
060H, H3rOTOBneHHhle rrYTeM rrpHrropa- Hll3KllM IIAPTEP. IJapmep (2).
WHBaHH5! I~BeTHoro CYKoHHoro rropowKa
H1130BA5I EAJIKA. AcmpaxaHcKaR
Ha He3acoxwHM PHCYHOK (06hIqHO opHa- HEMEUKA5I YKJIA,Il,KA. CHcTeMa
6aAKa.
MeHTaJIhHhIM) KneeM.
BhICTHnKH wH<.jJepHoH KP06AU rrapaJI-
HllME. CHMBOJI 60)KeCTBeHHocTH,
HATPYCKA. KOBW Ha)1; MeJIhHmHhI- nenhHbIMil pH}:IaMil KBa)1;paTHbIx IIJIHTOK
06hlqHO HMeIO~HH BH}:I 30nOToro }:IHCKa
MH )KepHOBaMH, HarrpaBn5!IOUWH K HHM rro 06peUlemUHaM, COCTaBmIIOIIJ;HM co
3a ronoBoH CBRToro (rro 3arra}:lHOeBpo-
3epHO. CBeCOM KpblUlU yroJI OKono 60°.
rreHcKoM Tpa}:lH~HH - BHJI TOHKoro 30no-
HA YEEr. Apaobl. HEMEUKllM AC<I>AJIbT. LJepHhIH Toro Konh~a Ha}:l ero ronoBoH).
JIaK }:IJI5! MaJIHPHhIX pa60T (B OCHOBe ero
Hll0MOH. BopoTa C II:ByMH cTaTYSlMH
HAYrOJIbHllK. IlIKa<.jJ C TpeyroJIh- - CMeCh ac<.jJaJIhTa H KaMeHHoyronhHoro
60)KeCTB «<cTPa)KH BpaT») rrepe}:l XIIOH-
HhIM rrnaHOM, - }:InH YCTaHOBKH B yrny ry}:lpOHa).
CKHM 6Y}:l}:lHMCKHM xpaMoM.
KOMHaTh!.
HEMEUKllM TllII. CmoA606Ka.
HI1IlIEJIbHbIM <l>OHTAH. <l>oHTaH,
HAYJIOK. IIorrepeqHaH ynH~a ceJIa.
HEMEUKllM YrOJI. KOHCTpyK~H YCTpoeHHhIM B mpeAbRJICHOU HHwe,
HAXJIECTKA. HalwoHHhIM 6pyCOK (1), oKpyrneHHoro yrna B }:IepemlHHOM KOTOPYIO <PJIaHKHPYIOT rrapKoBble
Bpe3aHHbIH B HH)KHHH KOHe~ cmponUAb- coopY)KeHHH, }:ImI KOTOPOH xapaKTepHO rroca}:lKH.

-92-
H HOAbSi - HIOXPEn 93

HO,lJ;b5I. 3HMHHH OXOTHHqHH IIIaJIaIII.

tIOMEP. OT,qenhHaH KOMHaTa B 2OCmU-


Huu,e (1), c,qaBaeMaH nOCTOHnh~aM.

HOMO. ,lJ;epeBHHHaH KOHCOJlb (1) C


npope3HhIM opHaMeHToM, B 6ypSfTCKOH
apXlfTeKType.

HOPMAH,lJ;CKI-Hi. CBO,lJ;. BeepHblu


C60iJ.

HOqnmKHbIM ,lJ;OM (= ,qOM HOqne-


ra). ,lJ;OM, B KOTOPOM 6e,qHHKH 6e3 npH-
CTaHH~a MornH 3a HH3KYIO nnaTY nepe-

HOqeBaTh Ha Hapax; cy~ecTBoBaJlH


TaKHe ,qOMa B POCCHH C 1879 r.

HYEOXYH,lJ;E. IIIKona npH CUHawu.

HYMEP. HOMep.
HbIHny (=hIHny). 3arny6JleHHOe B
3eMJlIO 3CKHMOCCKoe )KHnH~e H3 nnaB-
HHKa (,qepeBo, BhI6poIIIeHHoe MopeM Ha
6eper), KHTOBhIX KOCTeH:, oepHa H KaM-
HeiL
HbIXAC. MecTo il:JlH o6~ecTBeHHhlx
c06paHHH: B oceTHHCKOM ceJlemm.

HbIXAIII. MeCTO il:JlH o6~ecTBeHHbIx


c06paHHH: B 6aJIKapCKOM HnH KapaqaeB-
CKOM CeJIeHHH.
HIOXPEIT. ITorpe6 B qYBaIIIcKoH Kpe-
CThHHCKOH: ycaob6e.

-93-
OBAIIOJI. rOp6bl.flb. OBJIOMbI (=MYJIlOPhI). 3JIeMeHThI OBPATHA5I APKA. ApKa (1, 3), Ayra
apxHTeKTypHhIX npopu.!leu. KOTOPOH 06palll,eHa BhIIIYKJIOCThIO
OBE3b5IHA. Mai1.My.!l.
OBJIOH. fOpH30HTaJIhHhIH rrepeJIOM
OBEJIMCK. BepnlKaJIhHhIH MOHYMeHT
CKaTa B MaHcapAHoH Kp06.!le.
B BHAe OqeHh Y3KOH rrHpaMHAhI (06hlqHO
qeThlpeXrpaHHOH) . OBMA3KA. TOHKOCJIOHHOe rroKphITHe
rroBepxHocTH KHprrHqHOH K.!laOKU
H3BeCTKOBhlM HJIH IIeMeHTHhlM pacTBo-
POM, CKB03h KOTopoe rrpocTyrraeT ee
PHCYHOK.

OI?MAHKA. 06pe3HaR cmamYR.


OBPATHA5I IIMPAMM.IJ:A. ll.!lOCKUU
OBO. IIHpaMHAa H3 KaMHeH H BeTOK, napyc.
coopy)!(eHHruI IIIaMaHHCTaMH 6JIH3 AOPO-
rH, Ha ropHoM rrepeBaJIe, P5IAOM C OBP ATHA5I IIO.IJ:PE3KA. BHA
IIeJIe6HhIM HCTOqHHKOM H T. II. noope3Ku, rrpH KOTOPOM 3arJIy6JIeHa
HH)!(H5I5I qaCTh UJ6a.
OBOJIOHOK. rOp6btJlb.
OBP ATHbIM fYCEK. llpOpU.!lb B
OBOJIOHbE. Bblno.!l3060. BHAe rrepeBepHYToro zycbKa.
OBOqMHA. 1 He3aMOlll,eHHruI rrOJIoca
OB2KOPHbIl1: P5I.IJ:. qacTh phIHKa, B BAOJIh AoporH. 2 IIopyqeHh.
KOTOPOH ToprylOT roTOBOH BapeHOH H
OBPA3HA5I. 1 lla.!lama (1) HJIH KOM-
rreqeHOH IIlUljeH Am! rrpocToHapoAhlL
HaTa co MHO)!(eCTBOM HKOH Ha CTeHax.
OB30JIbHA5I .IJ:OCKA. !l.ocKa (1), Y 2 IIoMelll,eHHe (06hI'IHO MOHacThlp-
KOTOPOH Ka)!(AruI H3 ABYX Y3KHX rrpo- cKoe), B KOTOPOM rrHIIIyT HKOHhI.
AOJIhHhIX CTOPOH cOXpaHHJIa KOpy - 06-
30JI, HJIH 06JIHBHHY. OBPA3I.1,OBbIM IIPOEKT. IIpoeKT
3AaHH5I, rrpeAHa3HaqeHHhIH AJI5I MHoro-
OBJIAM. 1 HarrycK BepxHHx 6eH/,~06 KpaTHoro HCrrOJIh30BaHH5I H peKoMeHAo-
HaA HH)!(HHMH. 2 HaBHCalOlll,a51 B CTO- BaHHhIH IIeHTpaJIhHhIM rocYAapcTBeH'- OBP ATHbIM KABJIyqOK. llpOpU.!lb
POHY rrpoTHBHHKa rrJIOlll,aAKa Ha Aepe- HhIM opraHoM apXJilTeKTypHo-CTPOH- B BHAe rrepeBepHYToro Ka6.!lY'lKa.
B5IHHOH KperrocTHoH CTeHe, HMelOlll,a51 B TeJIhHOrO KOHTPOJI5I.
rrOJIY 60eBYlO lll,eJIh AJl51 AeHcTBHH rrpo-
THB OCa)!(AalOlll,HX B HerrocpeAcTBeHHoH
6JIH30CTH K YKperrJIeHHlO, KOTophle H3-
3a 3TOro HeAocTyrrHhI 06CTpeJIY H3 6ou-
HU!<.
OBJIEfqEHHbIM CBO.IJ:. KaMeHHhIll
C600, BHeIIIH5I5I I10BepXHocTh KOToporo
HMeeT yCTYIIhI, cOKpalll,alOlll,He Bec ero
K.!laOKU B BepxHHx qaCT5IX.

94

-94-
o 06PE3HASI AOCKA - OKTOrOH 95

OBPE3HA5I ,ll;OCKA. ,ll;epeBmHruI OrOJIOBOK. APXUBOJlbm, 06paMJISI- OKAHTOBAHHOE BPEBHO. qac-


iJocKa (1), HMeIOm;ruI no BceH AJIHHe npSl- IOm;uH B'he3}l; B TYHHem, HJIH x<:eJIe3HO- TH'lHO OTecaHHoe 6peBHo, y KOTOPO-
MOyrOJIhHHK B nOnepe'lHOM ce'leHHH. .o;OpOX<:syIO 2aJ1epe1O (3). ro npO}l;OJIhHhIe DJIOCKHe nOJIOChI 'Ie-
pe}l;YIOTcSI C yqacTKaMH npUPO):lHOH Kpy-
OBPE3HAA CTATYH (=06MaHKa, OrPHBOK. rpuBa.
rJIoii: nOBepXHOCTH.
TPOMDJIeH). cl>Hrypa C DJIOCKOCTHhIM
OrY30K. CKB03HOii: U{une~ BBepxy
xmBODHCHhIM H306pIDKeHHeM BH)'TpH OKJIA,ll;HOH BEHEU. HHX<:HHii: BeHe~
enaH'IU, oCBem;aIOm;uH '1epOaK (1).
CHJIY3THOto KOHTypa, - AJISI YCaAe6HhlX cpy6a, COCTaBJIeHHhIH H3 HaH60JIee TOJI-
H ABOpn;OBhIX napKOB, a TaIOKe UHmepb- O,ll;EBAIOID;AA CTEHA. HaKJIOHHruI CThIX H KpenKHX 6peBeH, KOTophle
epOB B 60raThIX iJO.M.aX (1, 2) HJIH n;epK- KaMeHHruI KJlaOKa (06hI'IHO C JIOMaHhIM HMeIOT meaoa (1) ):\JISI cKpenJIeHHSl C
Bax. BepXHHM 06pe30M), npe.o;oxpaHSlIOm;ruI TOpn;OBhIMH WHnaMH B cmyJlbRX (1)
OT 06pyweHHSI CKJIOHhI x<:eJIe3HOAopOX<:- <pYH,o;aMeHTa.
OBPEIIIETKA. YJIox<:eHHhle nonepeK
HOii: BhleMKH.
cmponUJl peHKH, iJOCKU (1), x<:epAH, OHYYH C3pr3T3. KOHOB}!3h SlK)'T-
6pYCbR (1) HJIH MeTaJIJIH'IeCKHe nOJIOChI, O,ll;E)I{,ll;A (=o.o;eX{Aa KpYTocTeH). CKoro WaMaHa.
Ha KOTophle HaCTHJIaeTCSI KPOBJIR. TIoKphITHe 3eMJl}lHhIX CKJIOHOB, 3aIIJ;H-
OHIOJIAAX C3pr3. }lKYTCKruI KOHO-
m;aIOm;ee ox OT 06pyweHHSl H COCTO-
OBXO,ll;HOI1: TPABEPC. TpaBepc (1), BSl3b C Y30paMH.
3aHHMaIOIIJ;HH OCTPoBHoe nOJIox<:eHUe OKOJIOTOK. 1 MeAHIJ;HHCKHH nyHKT
MeX<:AY oru6aIOIIJ;HMH ero C ABYX CTOPOH npH BOHCKOBOH 'IaCTH. 2 TIoApa3.o;e-
pa3BeTBJIeHHSlMH TPaHweH HJIH XOAOB
JIeHHe roPOACKOH nOJIHIJ;HH. 3 Y'IaCTOK
CO06m;eHHSI. x<:eJIe3HOH AoporH C OTHOC}!IIJ;HMHCSI
OBIIIHBKA. 3aKpenJIeHHruI rB03.o;SIMH K HeMY CJIyx<:6aMH. 4 ~IaCTh 2Opooa (2).
060JIO'lKa, 3aIIJ;Hm;arom;ruI HJIH MacKHpy- 5 TIpnropoA.
IOm;ruI OCHOBHOH CTpOHTeJIhHhIH MaTe- OKOJIbHbIH rOPO,ll;. qacTh ApeBHe-
gm;ee H3 oepHa, XBopocTa, DJIeTHB, nJla-
pHaJI B coopyx<:eHHH. PYCCKOro 2Opooa (2), npHMhIKaBWruI K
cmUH, x<:ep):leH, OOCOK (1), fjJawuH,
OBID;E)I{HTEJIbHbII1: MOHA- MeTaJIJIH'leCKoii: ceTKH' MeWKOB C 3eM- ero YKpeDJIeHHoMY SIAPY.
CTbIPb. MOHawecKruI 06HTeJIh, Bce JIeH H T . .o;.
OKOHqHHA. OKOHHhIH nepeDJIeT H3
'IJIeHhI KOTOPOH HaxO.o;SlTCSI Ha 06m;eM
O,ll;EOH. 3.o;aHHe ):IJI}! KOHn;epToB, TaH- Y3KHX nOJIOC (06hI'IHO x<:eJIe3HhIX),
MOHaCThlpcKOM AOBOJIhCTBHH. BCTaBJIeHHhIX KOHn;aMH B AepeBmsyIO
n;eB, 06m;ecTBeHHhIX pa3BJIe'leHHii:.
paMY H CJIyx<:am;ux onopoH .o;JISI KYCO'lKOB
OBbl,ll;EHHAH ~PKOBb. XPaM, O,ll;)l{AK (=oAx<:eK). TIpHcTeHHhIH o'lar
nocTpoeHHhIH 3a OAHH AeHh B 6JIarOAap- Ha rJIHH06HTHOM nOJIY B ceBepOKaB-
HOCTh 3a no6e.o;y, a TaIOKe 3a npeAOTBpa- Ka3CKOM oOMe (1).
m;eHHe HJIH npeKpam;eHUe KaKOrO-JIH6o
6e.o;cTBHSI. O,ll;HOKOJIOK. TIpocTeHillaSi pyccKaSi
U36a (1) B 'IeThIpe CTeHhI.
OBbIKROBEHHbIE CTPOiIMJIA.
HmaJlbRHcKue cmponUJla. O,ll;HOTIO,ll;KOCHAH CHCTEMA.
KOHCTPYKIJ;HSI ):IepeBmHhIX MOCTOB, npH
OBHH. Coopyx<:eHUe AJISI npoCYWKH KOTOpoii: cepe):lHHy KaX{AOrO npo20Ha
CHonOB 3epHoBoro XJIe6a, JIhHa HJIH HJIH nepeBoiJuHbt (1) nO):l):lepX<HBaIOT ):IBa
KOHODJIH TenJIhIM B03.o;YXOM OT ne'lH HJIH nooKoca, Bpy6JIeHHhle O.o;HH B .o;pyroii:.
KOCTpa.
O,ll;HOPE3KA. IIJlacmuHa. CJIIO):IhI, KOTophle 3aKpeDJIeHhI 3aMa3-
OBbI. HOHuKa. KOH H OJIOBmHhIMH 6J1}1IIIKaMH pa3HoH
O,ll;HOCKATHOE OKRO. BbmycK-
<pOPMhI (<<):IekeX<:KH», «peneuKu», «op-
OrHBAIOID;AA JIOTIATKA. BhICTY- HOe OKHO C npBMoyrOJIhHOH JIHIJ;eBQH JlUKU»). .
naIOm;uH H3 KJlaiJKu yrJIOBOH YCTOH B nOBepxHocThIO.
Bu.o;e CMhIKaIOm;OXCSI JlOnamOK Ha <i)JIaH- OKOHqHHHbIH CTAHOK. PaMa
rax COce.o;HOX rpaHeH C1pOHTeJIhHOrO O,ll;PHHA. CnaJIhHB B .o;peBHepyccKoM OKOH'IUHbt, 06HTruI BOMOKOM H cYK-
06'heMa. oOMe (1, 2). HOM.
O,ll;Y. O'lar B aJITaHCKOH KOHH'IeCKOH okOC}lqKA. ,ll;epeBmHOe 06paMJIe-
OrHBHAH ,ll;OPOrA (=KPhITruI AOPO-
ra, 6HH,o;IDK). AJlJleR, HaA KOTOPOH Aepe- IOpme. HUe npoeMa no BceMY nepHMeTPY.
.'
BSlHHhrn peWeT'laThIH KapKac BhlrnyT H O)I{AK. 1 CBeToBoe oTBepcTHe B OKTorOH (=oKTaroH). BOChMH-
3aKpeDJIeH Ha AepeBMIX, 'IT06hI C03.o;aTh nOTOJIKe 6aJIKapCKOro X<:HJIHm;a, O.o;HO- yrOJIhHhIH 06'heM C paBHhIMH rpaHBMH.
Bne'laTJIeHHe AJIHHHOrO CBo.o;a H3 BeTBeH BpeMeHHo CJIYX<:HBwee .o;JISI BhIXo.o;a
H JIHCTheB. ):IhIMa OT O'lara, KOTOPhIH TODHJICSI no-
'IepHoMY (6e3 TPy6hI Hapyx<:y). 2 TIe'l-
OrHHBA. KOPOTKruI BepTHKaJIhHruI
Hrul TPy6a HoraHcKoro OOMa (1).
oocKa (1) C npOXOTJIHBhIM CHJIY3TOM,
CBHcaIOm;ruI OT KOHbKa Ca.M~OBOU O)l{HBA. ,ll;HaroHaJIhHaSi apKa (1) roTH-
KPOBJIU Ha rJIaBHOM fjJacaoe KpeCTMIH- 'IeCKOrO KpecmoBo20 cBooa.
CKOro oOMa (1).
03A,ll;OK. 3HMHSISI U36a (1) C ceHRMU,
OrHHID;E. OTKPhIThrn o'lar nocpe.o;H npHMhIKaIOm;ruI K ):IByx'hSIpyCHOMy OBOPY
ceBepoKaBKa3cKoro iJOMa (1) HJIH ero (2) B COCTaBe oOMa-oBopa HJIH ):IOMa 6py-
o6m;eceMeHHoH KOMHaThI. COM.

-95-
o onSOK - OTCTynKA 96

OJIEOK. IIJIOCKa5I rro~yIIIKa Ha Cll~eHhe 5ITHhI H3-3a HIf3KHX TeMrrepaTYP B03~yxa OCJIE,Ub (=OCJISI~h). CAeza.
~JI5I riOqeTHhlX rOCTeH B 6YP5ITCKOH If rpYHTa, a TaK)J{e He~OCTaTOqHOrO
OCJIOH. CrrHHKa CTYJIa.
roptne H ~JI5I 6y~~HHCKHX MOHaXOB oCBeID;eHH5I.
(JIaM). OCHOBA. IIpO~OJIhHhle HHTH B TKaHH,
OprAH. 'uYXOBOH MY3hIKaJIhHhlH HH-
H3rOTOBJIeHHOH Ha TKaU;KOM CTaHKe.
OJIllBHbIE JIllCTb5I. PHMCKHH CTpYMefIT, COCT05IID;HH H3 MHQ)KeCTBa
BapHaHT aT<GHtna, - co cKpyrJIeHHhlMH ~epeBSlHHhIX HJIH OJIOB5IHHhlX Tpy6, B OCOEH5IK. KOMcpopm6eJIhHhIM OOM
KOHu;aMH JIHCTheB. KOTophle rrocTyrraeT B03)l;yX qepe3 (1) ropO~CKOro Tlirra C HH~HBH~yaJIhHhIM
rrO~)l;yBaJIhHhle MeXH, yrrpaBJI5IeMhle 06JIRKOM, rrpe~Ha3HaqeHHhIM ~JI5I rrpo-
OJIOBEHHllKll. EaJlRCUHbl B cpOpMe
rre~aJI}lMH rro~ HeCKOJIhKHMH KJIaBHaTY- )KHBaHH5I B HeM O~HOH ceMhR.
KyBIIIIIHtIHKa.
paMH.
OCTO)KbE. Orpa~a BOKpyr CTora.
OJIO 5IK. 3C1(3 3U.
oprAHHA5I KPEIIb. 3aID;IfTa OT
OCTPllIIIKll. HapblJlCHUKU.
OJIbIMEAJI. JIaBKa B~OJIh 60KOBOH H 06pYIIIeHHSI B rrO~3eMHhlX KopH~opax
rrepe~HeH CTeH B MapHHCKOH U36e (1). py~HHKOB If IIIaXT, OCHOBY KOTOPOH OCTPOB. 06oc06JIeHHhIH yqaCTOK
06pa3ylOT CtnOUKU, rrOMeID;eHHhle rrOqTH rrapKa, rrpe~Ha3HaqeHHhIM ~JISI ye~RHeH­
OIIACAHllE (=orracaHh). OTKphlTa5I
6e3 rrpOCBeTOB B O~HH, ~Ba HJIH TPH HhIX pa3MhIIIIJIeHHH.
zaJlepeR (1) Ha cToJI6ax, om6alOID;a5I
p5I~a.
u;epKoBh, KOJlOKOJlbHro MH xaTY (B IOro- OCTPOr. 1 ,UpeBHepyccKoe ~epeB5IH­
3arra~HhlX roBopax). OP,UEP. CHCTeMa orrpe~eJIeHHhIX apXH- Hoe YKperrJIeHHe. 2 TlOphMa, OKpY)KeH-
TeKTypHhIX cpOpM B CTporoH nporrop- Ha5I CTeHoH.
OIIEP AIJ,llOHHbIM 3AJI. CaMoe U;HOHaJIhHOH B3aHMOCB5I3H, rrOBhlIIIalO-
KpyrrHoe rroMeID;eHHe B 6aHKe (2) HJIH OCTPO)KKll. HapbIJICHUKU.
ID;aSl Bhlpa3HTeJIhHOCTh KOHCTPYKII.HH
HHOM yqpe)K)l;eHHH, rrpe~Ha3HaqeHHOe
HJIH ee HMHTaU;HH. OTAB. 1 Hepa360pHaSl HoraMCKa}l
~ml ocpopMJIeHH5I ~eHe)KHhIX ~oKyMeH­
Ku6utnKa C 3aKpyrJIeHHhIM BepxoM.
TOB, ToproBhlx HJIH cpHHaHcoBhIX c~e­ OP,UllHAP. COJlutnep.
2 HoraHCKa5I cBa~e6Ha5I IOptna.
JIOK. OP,UllHAPKA. qeThlpexcTeHHa}l U36a
(1) CCeIDIMH, rrepeKphITaSl Ha ~Ba CKaTa. OTKll,UHOE KPbIJIbIJ,O. KPhIJIhU;O
OIIEqEK. KaMeHHoe HJIH ~epeB}lHHOe
rrepe~ BHeIIIHeH JIeCTHHu;eH, He rrpHMhI-
OCHOBaHHe rreqH.
OP,I1;OHAHCrAY3. 3~aHHe KOMeH-
OIIPOKllHYTA5I APKA. ApKa (1, 3), ~aHTcKoroyrrpaBJIeHHSI.
Y KOTOPOH aaMK66blU KaMeHb HH)Ke OPEqE. BOHJIOK, 3aKphIBalOID;HH Bepx-
nRtn; 06hlqHO BhlKJIa~hIBaeTC}I B HH)K-
Hee oTBepcTHe TYBHHCKOH roptnbl.
HeH qaCTH CTeH KaK paazpyaOltHaR.
OPllJIbOH (=YIIIKO). 3aKpymeHHhIH
OIIPOMETHA5I CKAMb5I (=rrepe-
BhlcTyrr, y)l;JIHHSlIOID;HM pac 6aCtnUOHa "II
MeTHa5I CKaMh5I). CKaMh5I C nepeMetnOM.
rr03BOJI5IIOID;HM BeCTH CTpeJIh6y B~OJIh
OIIPOillA. AnpoUl. ero pJlaHKa.

OIIYCKHbIE KOJIO,UIJ,bI. IIycToTe- OPJIllK. cPIfrypHa5I IIIaM6a, 3aKphIBa-


JIhle nUJlOHbl cpy~aMeHTa, 3arrOJIH5I- lOID;a5I rrepeCeqeHHe HJIIi CThlK rrOJIOC Ha
eMhle aa6ytn06KOU rro Mepe rrOCTerreH- )KeJIe3HOM ~BepH IiJIH OKOH'IUfle.
Horo 3arJIy6JIeHH5I B rpyHT H 06hlqHO
OPOH. 1 HaphI B~OJIh CTeH }lKYTCKOM
COe~HH5IeMhle apKaMU (1) B BepxHeH
IOptnbl. 2 HeBhICOKa5I ~epeBSlHHaSl KpO-
qaCTH.
BaTh B 6yp5ITCKO~ IOptne. OTKPbITA5I AMEPA3YPA. IIpe~­
OIIYIIIKA. ,UepeB5IHHhIH nooaop (1) Ha Ha3HaqeHHOe ~JISI CTpeJIh6hI rrOHH)KeHRe
OPTA-EArAHA. IIoqeTHoe MeCTO y
JIaBKe B KpeCTh5IHCKOM HJIH ~peBHepyc­ B KperrocTHoH orpa~e HJIH 6pYCtn6epe,
cpe~HHHoro cToJI6a (CM. CmoJl6 KOpHR)
KOM )J{HJIHID;e. He HMelOID;ee cBepxy rrepeMhlqKH.
B aBapCKOM oOMe (1).
OP AH)KEPE5I. IIOcTpoHKa co CrrJIOIII-
OPYH,UYK. KpoBaTh maBhI ceMhR B OTJIllB. KpYTa5I HaKJIOHHa5I rrJIOCKOCTh
HhIM 3aCTeKJIeHHeM CTeH H rrOTOJIKa,
KapaqaeBCKOM )KRJIRID;e, HMelOID;a5I B~ rroA OKOHHhIM rrpoeMoM, 06paID;eHHa5I
npe~Ha3HaqeHHa}l ~JI}I BhlpaID;HBaHml
~IiBaHa co crrRHKaMR o~HHaKoBoM BHyTph rroMeID;eHRSI.
pacTeHHH, KOTOPhIM rrpIfpo~Hhle yCJIO-
BhlCOThI no TpeM cTopoHaM.
BIf51 ~aHHoH MeCTHOCTH He6JIarOrrpH- OTJIllBHA5I ,UOCKA. JJ.ocKa (1),
OPYC qAJI,UbIIII (=PYCCKRM yroJI). 3aKphIBalOID;aSl BepxHRH 06pe3 KliprrHq-
Cpy6 H3 6pycbe6 (1) 6e3 BhlcTynalOID;Hx Horo IiJIH KaMeHHoro UPKOAR B OCHOBa-
KOHU;0B, pacnpocTpaHHBIIIHHC5I B Hapo~­ HHH ~epeB5IHHhlX CTeH H Bpe3aHHa5I
HOM KapaqaeBCKOM CTpOHTeJIhCTBe rro~ KpaeM B HH)KHHM 6eHeu,.
BJIH}lHHeM PYCCKOM py6KH CTeH 6 Jlany.
'OTOY. IIoMeID;eHHe ~JI5I )KeHaTOro
OPbIH,UbIK. IIOKphITa5I KOIIIMOM rJIH- ChIHa, npHcTpoeHHoe K O):lHOKOMHaT-
Ho6HTHa5I Jle)KaHKa B HoraMCKOM OOMe. HOMY KapaqaeBcKoMY )KHJIHID;y.

OCA,UHbIE ,UOMA. ,UOMa BHyTpH OTPE3HOM EACTllOH. EactnuoH


KperrOCTHOM orpa~hI, B KOTOPhlX )KHByT rrepe~ KyptnUHOU (3).
TOJIhKO BO BpeM5I oca~hI ropo~a.
OTCTYIIKA. CTeHKa B 'Ietn6eptnb
OCA,UHbIM KOJIOKOJI. BCnOJlOUl- KUpnU'Ia, B03Be):leHHa5I rrepe):l ~epeB}lH­
HOU KOAOKOA. HOM cTeHoM HanpoTIiB neqH.

-96-
o OTTOMAHKA - OWAK 97

OTIOMAHKA. IIhIPOKIIJ'i M51rKHM


}:IHBaH C rrO}:lYiliKaMH, He HMelOrn;HM
crrHHKH.
OXAEEHb. 1 IIpe}:lMecThe wpooa (2),
OT}:IeJIeHHOe OT Hero KpenocmHo/1 CTe-
HOM. 2 BHeiliHee KOJIh~O YKperrJIeHHM
}:IpeBHepyccKoro wpooa (2).

OXllYIIEHb (=Ha}:l'IeperrOK, IIIeJIOM,


IIIOJIOM). OrrpoKHHYThIM }:IepeB5IHHhIM
)KeJIo6, 3aKphIBalOrn;HM CThIK TeCHH rro
rpe6HlO ICP08IlU.

OXOK. KaMeJIeK (t.tY8all) B 5IKYTCKOM


IOpme, 3aBepIIIeHHhIM Tpy60M H3 TOHKHX
)Kep}:leM C rJIHH5IHOM 06MaJICou.

OXOTHbII1 P5I)J;. JIaBKH, B KOTOPhIX


rrpO}:lalOT )KHBYIO H 6HTYlO rrTH~Y,
}:IHKYIO H }:IOMaIIIHIOIO.

OIJ;AII, OIJ;EII, OqAII. Ot.ten.

OqAIIHbU1: KOJIOKOJI. Ot.tenHou


ICOIlOICOIl.

OQEJIOK (=oqeJI). lliecmoIC.

OQEJIbE. 1 Iauneu, cpy6a. 2 BepXH5I5I


}:IeKOpaTHBHa5I qaCTh }:IpeBHepyccKoro
HJIH }:IepeB5IHHOrO Hallut.tHUICa. 3 CTeHKa
Ha}:l ycmbeM PyccICou net.tu.

OQEII (=o~arr, o~err, oqarr). IllecT HJIH


)Kep}:lh, rrpHBO}:lHBiliHe B }:IBH)KeHHe cKpe-
rrJIeHHhle C HHMH KOJIOKOJI Ha J80HHuu,e,
KOJIhI6eJIh (JIIOJIhKY) B KpeCTh5IHCKOM
}:lOMe, Be}:lpo rrpH IColloou,e (1) C JlCypa8-
lleM.
OQEIIHOI1 KOJIOKOJI (=BaJIOBOM
KOJIOKOJI, o~errHoH KOJIOKOJI, OqarrHhIM
KOJIOKOJI). KOJIOKOJI, 3aKperrJIeHHhIH Ha
rroBopoTHOM BaJIY H rrpHBO}:lHMhIH B }:IBH-
)KeHHe C rrOMOrn;hlO ot.tena.

OIllAK. )KeJIe3HhIM TpeHO)KHHK Ha}:l


OqarOM B ~eHTpe HoraMcKoM IOpmbl.

-97-
IlABMJIbOH. 1 He60JIbIIIaH napKoBaH pe3Ko BbIrHYTbIMH Y,QJIHHeHHbIMH KOH- rpa}I{,QaHCKaH nOCTpOH:Ka, B KOTOPOH
nocTpoHKa C KVynHbIMH 3aCTeKJIeH- QaMH KpOBe.!lb. OHO 3aHHMaeT rJIaBHOe MeCTO.

IlArPEH (=Ke6per). Ilorpe6 B IlAJIMCA,ll;. 1 (=IIOJIHCa):\) 3arpa}I{.Qe-


ycaob6e KOMH-3bIpHH. HHe H3 3aocTPeHHbIX cBepxy TOJICTbIX
6peBeH ):IJIHHOH ,QO TPex MeTpoB, BpbI-
IlA,ll;YrA (=na,Q,Qyra, nO):l):lyra). Co-
TbIX B 3eMJIIO npHMepHO Ha TpeTb .QJIHHbI
npH)KeHHe Me}I{,Qy cTeHoH H ropH30H-
TaJIbHOH 'IaCTbIO nepeKpbITHH, 06bI'IHO
HMeIOIQee B Ce'leHHH 'IeTBepTb OKPY)K-
HOCTH (CM. 3epKQ./lbHblU CBOO).

IlAET. HaBec B ycaob6e cepra'lcKHX


TaTap-MHIIIapeH, nO):l KOTOPbIM xpa-
HbIMH npOeMaMH. 2 qacTb KpYIIHoro HHTCH MeJIKHH CeJIbCKOX03HHcTBeHHbIH
OBOPl{OB020 3):1aHHH, 3aBepIIIeHHaH 060- HHBeHTapb H C6pYH, a TaK)Ke CTOHT
BO):lOIIOHHbIe KOJIO):lbI.

IlA)I(EBbIE ,ll;OCKM. j{OCKU (1) C IIa-


3aMH no ,QJIHHHbIM Y3KHM cTopoHaM, -
):IJIH IIJIOTHOH npHroHKH ,Qpyr K ,Qpyry.

IlA)KMJIMHA. IlpH)KHMHOH 6pyc (1),


YJIO)KeHHbIH no KpaIO MOCTa Ha
HaCTHJIKY H3 OOCOK (1), n.!laCmUH HJIH
)Kep):leH.
C06JIeHHOH KpOB.!leu. 3 O):lHO H3 3):1aHHH,
IlA3YllIHbII1: CBO,ll;. IIo.!lyl{upKy.!lb-
COCTaBAAIOIQHX BbICTaBO'lHbIH KOM-
HblU CBOO C paCnQ./ly6KaMU (2). (O,QHO BIIJIOTHYIO K ):IPyroMY) H CnJIO'leH-
nJIeKC.
HbIX IIOnepe'lHbIMH 6pYCbRMU (1).
IlAMCHA5I OKOHqMHA. OKOHHbIH
IlArO,ll;A. EY):l,QRHCKOe MeMOpHaJIhHOe 2 qacTOKOJI H3 6peBeH, 3aIQHIQaIO~
IIepeIIJIeT C pbI6bHM rry3bIpeM BMeCTO
coopY)KeHHe B BH):Ie 6aulHu (1), 06b1'1HO 3eMJIHHOH CKJIOH OT 01l0JI3HeH H OCbIIIa-
CJIIO,QbI HJIH CTeKJIa.
MHOroHpYCHOH, HJIH naBU.!lbOHa (1), C HR». 3 Tpe.!lbR:JICHllR H3ropo,Qb 110 KpaIO
IlAKrAY3. CKJIa,Q TOBapoB HJIH 3aIIa- 60cKema (1). 4 JIerKHH CKB03HOH 3a-
COB (06bI'IHO IIpH )KeJIe3HO,QopO)KHOH 60p (1) H3 peeK.
CTaHlJ,HH JIH60 TaMQ)KHe).
IlAJIMCA,ll;HMK. OrOpO)KeHHbIH ca-
IlAJIAC. ,ll;BYCTOPOHHHH rpy60TKaHbIH ,QHK nepe):l OOMOM (1, 2).
KOBep 6e3 Bopca.
IIAJIJIA,ll;MEBO OKRO. Hma.!lbRH-
IlAJIATA. 1 KpYIIHoe cBoo'tamoe CKoe OKHO.
IIOMeIQeHHe (06bI'IHO 6eCCTOJIIIHOe HJIH
C O,QHHM CTOJIIIOM B QeHTpe) B ,QpeBHe- IIAJIJIA,ll;MEBbI CTPOIlMJIA. BHCH-
PYCCKOH KaMeHHoH IIOcTpoHKe. 2 3):1a- '1He cmponU.!la, BKJIIO'IaIOIQHe B ce6H
HHe, B KOTOPOM TaKoe IIOMeIQeHHe ):IBe CmpOnU.!lbHble H02U H ):IBe 6a6Ku,
HrpaeT rJIaBHYIO POJIb.

IlAJIATKA. He60JIbIIIOe 6eCCTOJIIIHOe


nOMeIQeHHe, IIepeKpbIToe CBOOOM, HJIH

98

-98-
n nAnTYXIII - nHAT 99

KOTOPhIMH COe~HIDIIOTCli KOHIIhI IIpO- lIAPI10PT. HKe 3U1I3. ypOBH5I 3eMJIll (= Hll3KllH napTep) llJIH
Me)l{YTO'IHOrO PU2eIlR H HH)l{Hllll COCTaB- Ha HeCKOJIhKO cTyneHeH Bhlme (=BhICO-
Hall aamRJICKa (1), IIpHMeIDIJIHCh HTaJIh- lIAPKET (=lIapKe, mTy'IHhIH 1I0JI). KllH napTep).
llHCKHM apxHTeKTopoM A~pea lIaJIJIa- 1 lIoJI, BhICTJIaHHhIH He60JIhmHMH
~OIIIe'IKaMH HJIH nJIOTHO no~ornaHHhIMH lIAPTEP-EPO,D;PM. Epoopu.
~HO (1508-1580 rr.).
qmrypHhIMH KycO'IKaMH ~epeBa pa3Hhlx lIAPTMKYJI5IPHOE CTPOEHME.
lIAJITYXM. )l(ep~H ~JISI cymKH PhI6hI. nopo~. 2 KphIToe orpa)l{~eHHOe npo-
qacTHOBJIa~eJIh'IeCKa5I nocTpoHKa.
lIAJIYEA. Kp08I1R. cTpaHcTBo, B KOTOPOM cO~ep)l{aT KPOJIH-
KOB. lIAPYC (=naH~aTllB, neH~eHTllB).
lIAJIhMETIA. ,D;eKopaTHBHhIH MOTHB KOHCTPYKTllBHhIH 3JIeMeHT B Bll~e cq,e-
B BH~e MHOrOJIOllaCTHoro lIaJIhMOBOro lIAPKETHhII1 IIIMT. !4umo8ou nap- pll'IeCKoro TPeyrOJIhHllKa, 06paIIIeH-
Kem.
JIHCTa.
lIAPHAC. HaChIITHOH XOJIM B yca~e6-
lIAH,D;ATIlB. IIapyc.
HOM napKe.
lIAH,D;YC. lIoJIorHH HCKyccTBeHHhIH
lIAPHhIE MOJIhI. JKeme.
nO~'beM 6e3 cTyneHeH, - ~JIli nemHX
HJIH nOB030K. lIAPOB03HOE 3,D;AHME. )l(eJIe3HO-
lIAHEJIh. 1 ,D;eKopaTHBHoe nOKphITHe ~OpO)l{HOe oeno ~JIS! CT05IHKH MapmpyT-
HH)I{HeH 'IaCTH CTeH B uHmepbepe, HMe- HhIX H MaHeBpoBhIX JIOKOMOTHBOB Ha
BpeM5I OT~hIxa napoB03HOH 6pHra~hI. Horo oCTplleM BHIl3, a ~yroH B ropll30H-
TaJIhHOH llJIOCKOCTll - KBepxy, IIpH
lIAPOM. lIJIaByqee coopY)l{eHlle ~JI5I
nepexo~e OT 'IeThlpexrpaHHoro 06'beMa
nepeB03Kll naCCa)l{llpOB, rpY30B, a
K IIHJIllH~pH'IeCKoMy.
TaK)l{e cyxonYTHhlx TpaHcnopTHhIX
cpe~cTB C O~Horo 6epera peKll llJIll lIAPYCHhII1 CBO,D;. lIepeKphITlle B
Bo~oeMa Ha ~pyroH. Bll~ecq,ephI, yce'IeHHOH C 60KOB nJIOC-
KOCT5IMII CTeH.

IOIIIee Bll~ pocnllcH JIH60 06JIlll\OBKll H3


~epeBa, nJIaCTHKa II T. II. 2 TpoTyap.

lIAHMKA,D;MJIO. KpynHa5I l\epKOBHa5I


JIIOCTpa co MHO)l{eCTBOM CBe'IeH (CM.
IIolluKaHoullo. Xopoc).

lIAHHO. 06paMJIeHHa5I pocnllCh,


peJIheq, llJIll KapTllHa, npe~Ha3Ha'IeH­
Hhle ~JI5I YKpameHHll CTeHhI, 1I0TOJIKa lIACCA)I(. 1 3~aHlle (B 2 3Ta)l{a II
llJIH c8oot.tamozo nepeKphITll5I B Te'Ie- Bhlme) C Mara311HaMll 110 06ellM CTOpO-
Hlle npO~OJI)I{llTeJIhHOrO BpeMeHll. HaM IIpoxo~a no~ 3aCTeKJIeHHhIM 1I0TOJI-
IIAHCMOH. 1 3aKphIToe cpe~Hee
Y'Ie6HOe 3aBe~eHlle C 06IIIe)l{IlTlleM.
2 He60JIhma5I zocmuHu/,fa (1), nOCTO-
SlJIhIIaM KOTOPOH npe~OCTaBJI5IeTC5I
peryJI5IpHOe nllTaHlle.
lIAlIEPTh (=BHemHHH npHTBop). IIIll-
pOKoe OTKphIToe KPhIJIhl\O HJIll 2allepeR
(1) nepe~ BXO~OM B IIepKoBh. lIAPTA. TpH~l\aTa5I 'IaCTh MOOYIIR (2),
lIAP A,D;OC. YKphITlle npOTllB ThIJIh- llCnOJIh3yeMa5I ~JIli nocTpOeHIl5I MeJIKllX
HOro 06CTpeJIa. 3JIeMeHTOB ~eKopa.
KOM. 2 KphITa5I wllepeR (1) ~JI5I lIemexo-
lIAPAEKKJIECM5I. IIpecmoll B ObR- lIAPTEP. 1 OTKphIThIH Y'IaCTOK pezy- YJIlll\hI.
~OB, COe~IlH5IIOIIIa5I

KOHHUKe. IIRpHOZO napKa, BKJIIO'IaIOIIIllH B ce65I


IIAChIHOK. YKocuHa.
waOHbl, IIBeTHllKll H Hll3KllH ~eKopaTllB-
lIAPAlIET. HeBhICOKa5I orpa~a­ lIAChKhIT 3YC. HaphI ~JI5I CHa B
IOIIIa5I CTeHKa no KpaIO KPbIUlU, 6a/1- y~MYPTCKOH ua6e (1).
lIATMO. He60JIhmOH 3aMKHYThIH ca~,
orpaHll'IeHHhIH BhICOKllMll CTeHaMll
oOMa (1, 2) II ero Orpa~hI.

ITAq. PyccKaJl net.tb B KpeCTh5IHCKOM


)l{IlJIllIIIe KOMIl-3hIP5IH.
lIEBrOBhII1. COCHOBhIH.
KOHa (1), meppacbl (1), KphIJIhIIa, JIeCT-
HHIIhI, Ha6epe)l{HOH, MOCTa, ~oporll Ha~ HhIH KycTapHllK no KpaIO. 2 HH)l{HllH ITErAT. MeCTO ~JI5I o6IIIecTBeHHhIX
06phIBOM. 2 Epycm8ep. 3T~ oOMa (1), Ha'IllHaIOIIIllHC5I OT C06paHllH B 'Ie'IeHCKOM CeJIeHllll.

-99-
n nEA3A>KHblA nAPK - nnAcPOH 100

IIEM3A)KHhIM ITAPK (=aHrJIHHCKHH BepIIIKa, KOTopble Y;U;aJIeHbI O,!lHH OT ITEili. JIaZYHa.


napK). ITapK co CBo6o;U;HOH llJIaHHpOB- ,!IPyroro Ha nOJI-apIIIHHa, a 3arJIy6JIeHbI ITEPT. Cpy6HaSI MapHHCKaSI U36a (1) C
KOH H TaKOH }Ke KOMnOHOBKOH Haca}K}l;e- B 3eMJIIO Ha 'leTBepTb apIIIHHa.
,!IBYCKaTHOH: Kpbluteu.
HHH, B no;u;pa}!{aHHe npHpO;u;e.
IIEPEITOJIOIIIHhIM KOJIOKOJI.
ITHJIA. Tpcx- HJIH 'lcTbIpeXpH)l;Hbm
ITEKJIEBAHHhIM 5.lm;HK (=CHTHbIH Bcno/loumou KO/IOKO/I.
PPU3 (2), COCTaBJIeHHbIH H3 KHpnH'leH
RI.QHK, Kopen;, KOpSlK). JIapb Ha MeJIbHH-
ITEPEPYB. ITepece'leHHe Hap~oH C HanycKoM, KOTopble nOJIO}KeHbI
n;e, B KOTOPbIH nocrynaeT MYKa OT }Kep-
CTeHbI cpy6a nonepe'lHoH CTeHoH, BbI- llJIaIIIMH no,!l yrJIOM K nOBepXHocTH
HOBOB.
cTynaIOIn;ee Ha q,aca,!le. q,aca;u;a.
IIEJIEAA. 1 HaBec KpOe/lU Me}K}l;Y
IIEPECJIE)l(HHA. BpeeHo (1), COe,!lH-
;U;BYMSI cOCe;U;HHMH u36aMU (1).2 ITOKPbI- HSlIOIn;ee c/lezu.
THe Ha;u; CKHP;U;aMH XJIe6a.
ITEPETETHBhE. IIoonpY:JlCHaR apKa
ITEH,IJ;EHTIffi. IIapyc.
ceooa, nepeKHHYTaSI no;u; npRMbIM yrJIOM
ITEHTAfPAMMA. lliTHKOHe'lHaSI K HaPY}KHOH CTeHe.
3Be3;u;a, 06pa30BaHHaSI H3JIOMaMH nepe-
IIEPEillEEK. ropJ/Ca.
llJIeTeHHOH 3aMKHYTOH JIeHTbI.
IIEPE,IJ;. JIeTHSIH U36a (1) Ha BbICOKOM ITMJIOH. MaCCHBHbIH rpaHcHbIH YCTOH.
ITEPfOJIA. ITapKoBoe coopY}KeHHe B
nOOK/leme, BXO;U;BIn;aSI B COCTaB oOMa-
BH;u;e 6eceoKu (1) HJIH KopH;u;opa co IIHJIOOBPA3HA5.l KPbIIIIA. meoo-
oeopa HJIH ;U;OMa 6pYCOM.
CKB03HbIM KapKacoM, YBHTbIM 3e· 6aR KpbtUla.
JIeHbIO. IIEPMAHEH. IIocmoRHHbte 6e/lUlla.
ITMJIOTHPOBAHHE". 3a6lfBKa C6aU.
ITEPOBA5.l ,IJ;OCKA. /1,ocKa (1) TOJI-
ITHJI5.lCTPA. ilJIOCKHH, 1CaH.1le.l/,UpO-
Il\HHOH B nOJITOpa ,!IIOHMa.
6aHHblu HJIH pUlleH'tamblu BCPTHKaJIb-
ITEPCH (= nepIIIH). ITOJIYKpYrJIble HJIH HbIH BblcTyn Ha q,OHC CTCHbI, IfMCIOIn;eH
npBMoyrOJIbHble BblcTynbI ,!IJISI yCTa- 6a3y If KanUme/lb.
HOBKH 06opOHHTeJIbHbIX Opy;U;HH, npH-
ITHHAKJIh. ,IJ;eKOpaTHBHbIC 6aIIIcHKa
MbIKaIOIn;He C BHeIIIHeH: CTOPOHbI K
IfJIH nHpaMH;U;Ka, 3aBepIIIaIOIn;He HMU't-
OCHOBHOH CTeHe YKpenJIeHHSI.
HUK, KapHU3 H T. ,!I.
IIEPEBO,IJ;HHhI. 1 BaJIKH, Ha KOTO- ITEPCH,IJ;CKHE HEBOJIhHHKH,
pble HaCTHJIaeTCR nOJI JIH60 nOTOJIOK. ITHPOfPABIOP A. PlfCYHOK HJIH Y30P,
ITEPCH,IJ;hI. AmllaHmbt.
2 ITepHJIa. IfCnOJIHeHHbIH: BbI}KHraHHeM (HanpHMep,
IIEPCITEKTHBA. ITpOTSl}KeHHaB M- ;U;JIB xY,!lO}KeCTBeHHoH OT;u;eJIKH Me6eJIH).
IIEPEBOJIOqHHA. Bpyc (1), nOMep- /leR HJIH YJIHIJ;a, BOcnpHHHMaeMaSI KaK
}KIfBaIOIn;HH nOTOJIOK. ITI1POH. MeTaJIJIH'lecKHH: IfJIH KaMeH-
MHOrOllJlaHOBaSI KOMn03Hl\HB C pa3BH-
HbIH: BKJIa;u;bIIII B KaMeHHbIH: 6JIOK ,!1M
ITEPE,IJ;MOCThE. IIpeoMocmbe. THeM B rJIy6HHy.
ero npO'lHoro coe;U;HHeHHSI C COCe;U;HHM
ITEPEKH,IJ;HOM PYKAB. fOPH30H- IIEPCITEKTHBHOE ,IJ;EJIO. CTeHo- 6JIOKOM.
TaJIbHbIH KHpllH'lHbIH Obl.MOXOO B nHCb, H306pa}!{aIOIn;aSI apXHTeKTYPY B
}KeJIe3HOM q,YTJIBpe, cOe;U;HHSlIOIn;HH nepcneKTHBe.
ne'lb C ;U;bIMOBOH TPy60H B cTopoHe OT IIEPCITEKTHBHhIM (nopmM, Ha-
Hee.
/lU'tHUK, apXUeO/lbm). C yxO)l;BIn;HMH B
IIEPEKPECTIIOE COITP5.l)I(EHHE. rJIy6HHY YCTynaMH CXO;U;Horo o'lepTaHHB
CKpenJIeHHe B3aHMHOnepneH;u;HKYJIBP- B BepTHKaJIbHOH: nJIOCKOCTH.
HbIX 6pycbee eno/loepeea HJIH B 'tem- IIEPiliH. IIepcu. ITHPC. BbI,!IBHHYTOe OT 6epera B BO;U;y
eepmb oepeea (1). npH'laJIbHOe coopY}KeHHe ,!IJISI ,!IByCTO-
ITETJI5.l. MeTaJIJIH'lecKoe npHcnoc06- pOHHeH IIIBapTOBKH CY)l;OB.
IIEPEKPhliliKA. BepXHSISI nOBepx- JIeHHe ;U;JIB iIoBopoTa KaKOH-JIH60
HOCTb Obl.MOeOW KaHa/la B ne'lH. ITJIAKHPOBKA. IToKpbITHe nec'la-
CTBOPKH (HanpHMep, cmae1tR, ;U;Bepn;bI,
HbIX OTKOCOB HaCbIIIeH If BbleMOK oep-
ITEPEMET. ITOBOPOTHaSI Ha roPH30H- nOJIOTHHIn;e BOpOT), npHKPCllJICHHOC K
HeH:. HOM (TOJII.QHHOH OKOJIO 15 CM) ,!\JIR
TaJIbHOH: OCH cnHHKa nepeHOCHOH:
3aIl\HTbI HX OT 06pYIIIeHlfSI.
CKaMbU B ;u;peBHepYCCKOM oOMe (1), IIEq. KOMHaTa pyccKoro THna (c llJIH-
06bI'lHO YKpaIIIeHHaSI pe3b6oH:. TOH, 3aCTeKJIeHHbIM OKHOM, ;u;epeBSIH- ITJIACTHHA (=llJIaxa, roHOT, O,!lHO-
HbIM nOJIOM H nOTOJIKoM) B Kapa'lacB- pe3Ka, ,!IOJIraph, ,!IOJI}KHHa). ITOJIOBHHa
ITEPEMETHAA CKAMh5.l. Onpo-
CKOM }KHJIHIn;C. 6pe6Ha, paCnHJIeHHOrO IfJIH paCKOJIO-
MemHaR CKaMbR.
Toro B;U;OJIb.
IIEqypA. 1 He60JIbIIIaSI HHIIIa Ha BHY-
ITEPEHOE KPhIJIhIJ;O. ry/lb6uw,e
TPeHHeH: nOBepxHocTH CTeHbI B ,!IpeBHe- ITJIATBAH,IJ;. IJ;BeTo'lHoe 06paMJIeHHe
HJIH KPblJlbn;O 6e3 HaBeca, 06paMJIeHHOe
PYCCKOM KaMeHHOM 3;u;aHHH, HrpaBIIIaSI (IIIHpHHOH OT nOJIYTopa,!lO Tpex apIIIHH)
napanemoM.
pOJIb BCTPoeHHoro IIIKaq,'lHKa ;U;JISI xpa- napmepa (1).
IIEPEHOCHhIM IIJIETEHb. <l>0PTH- HeHHB MeJIKOH yTBapH; HHOr)l;a 6blJla
ITJIATOK. JIo6oeaR oocKa.
q,HKal\HOHHbIH: llJIeTeHb BbICOTOH: 21/2 pa3;u;eJIeHa Ha Rpycbt )l;epeBBHHbIMH nOJI-
apIIIHHa, COCTOSlIn;HH: H3 q,paI"MeHTOB KaMH H 3aKpbIBaJIaCb HaBeCHbIMH ;U;Bep- IIJIA<I>OH. fOPH30HTaJIbHaSI 'laCTb ne-
;U;JIHHOH: ,!IO 41/2 apIIIHHa H BKJIIO'laIOI.QHH n;aMH. 2 HHIIIa C aM6pa3ypou (1) ,!IJIB peKpbITHSI, YKpaIIIeHHaSI POCllHCbIO HJIIf
B ce6S1 KOJIbSI TOJIIn;HHOH: B nOJITOpa cTPeJIb6bI. 6ape/lbepoM.

-100-
n nnAXA - nOAKOB006PA3HASl APKA 101

TIJIAXA. JDtacmwta. IOr.u;ee rrO}];HHMaTb H perYJIHpOBaTb ypo- TIO,UBOPhE. 1 rOpO}];CKOH KOMrrJIeKC C


seHb BO}];hI Ha rrpHJIeraIOr.u;eM Y'laCTKe rOCTHHHQHbIMH, ToproBbIMH HJIH X035!H-
TIJIAIIIKOYTHhH1: MOCT. TIJIaByqHH
BblIIIe rro Te'leHHIO. CTBeHHbIMH IPYHKll,HSlMH, rrpHHa}];JIe)Ka-
MOCT, orIHpaIOr.u;IH1:c5! Ha rrJIOCKO}];OHHble
r.u;HH BJIa}];eJIbll,y (MoHacThlpIO, Kyrrll,y)
cy}];a. TIHEBMATMqECKA5I TIEQh. KaJlo-
H3 }];pyroH MeCTHOCTH. 2 IIOCmORJlblU
pucjJep.
TIJIAI..UJ:APM. 1 TIJIor.u;a}];b B yKperrJIe- 080p.
HHH, rrpe}];Ha3HaqeHHa5! }];JI5! c60pa TIOBAJI. TIocTerreHHoe HaKJIOHHOe
TIO,UBhIIIIEHME (cBO}:la, apKH). Pac-
BOHCK. 2 TIpHcrroco6JIeHHbIH K o6opoHe pacIIIHpeHHe KBepxy, BeHQaIOr.u;ee cpy6.
nOJIO)KeHHe ll,eHTpa nOJlYl{upKYJlb1l020
CKJIa}]; opy:aum, aMyHHll,HH mIH rrpo-
TIOBAJIYIIIA. 1 BblcoKaSl }];epeB5!HHa5! c800a (apKu) BblIIIe ypOBHSl nRm.
BHaHTa }];JI5! BOHCK. 3 JIHHH5! KpyroBoH
6autllR (1) B COCTaBe XOPOM, 3aBepIIIeH-
060pOHhI rrepe}]; YKperrJIeHHeM.
HaSl utampoM HJIH enall'1eu. 2 061ll,aSl
TIJIAIJ,-TIAP A,I(. TIJIor.u;a}];b }];JI5! BoeH- CrraJIbH5! (Qalll,e JIeTH5!Sl, HeOTarrJIHBae-
HbIX CMOTPOB H o6yqeHH5! BOikK. Ma5!) B Tpa,[lHll,HOHHOM PYCCKOM oOMe
(1).
TIJIECKATEJIhHhIH EACCEHH.
TIOBAJIhHhIE CJIErM. 3aBepIIIaIO-
HerJIy60KHH BO}];OeM, YCTpoeHHbIH B I
r.u;HH 8ellel{ B n08aJle cpy6a, CJIY)KaIll,HH
3CTeTHQeCKHX ll,eJI5!X HJIH }];JI5! }];eTCKHX
yrropoM }];JI5! HH)KHHX KOHll,OB cmponUflb- TIO,UrOJIOBHMK. JIapel{ C HaKJIOH-
Hrp.
llblX 1102. HOH BepxHeH ,[IOCKOH, CJIY)Kar.u;HH H3ro-
TIJIECO. BbeljJ. JIOBbeM ,[IJISl crrSlr.u;ero.
TIOBETh. QacTb KpbIToro o80pa (2) B
TIJIP-IHOH YrOJI. YroJI KpecThSlHcKOH ycaob6e, rrpe}];Ha3Ha'leH-
ljJacoM H IjJJlallKOM 6acmuolla. HaSl ,[IJISl ceHa, COJIOMbI H X03SlHCTBeH-
Horo HHBeHTapSl.
TIJIMHT. KBa}];paTHa5! rrJIHTa, 3aBepIIIa-
IOr.u;a5! nocmaMellm. TIOrPEEMIJ,A. Ha}];CTpOHKa Ha}:l rro-
rpe60M. •
TIJIMHTYC. TIoCTaBJIeHHa5! Ha }];JIHHHYIO
y3KYIO CTOPOHY }];epeB5!HHa5! oocKa (1), TIO,U. TIOJI B TorrKe PYCCKOU ne'1U
3aKpbIBaIOr.u;a5! CTbIK CTeHbI H rrOJIa. (06bIQHO BbICTJIaHHbIH JIelll,a}:lbIO), Ha
KOTOPhIH KJIa}:leTCSl TOrrJIHBO H CTaBSlTCSl TIO,U,UEJI. ll,OKOJlb.
ropIIIKH C rIHlll,eH. TIo,U,UYr A. IIaoyw.
TIO,UEAJIKA. KOpOTKHH ropH30H- TIO,U30P. 1 TIOJIOca co CKB03HhIM
TaJIbHbIH 6pyc, orIHpaIOIll,HHCSl Ha CTOJI6, opHaMeHToM, CBHcaIOlll,aSl C }];JIHHHOrO
CTOSlK JIH60 KOJlOllllY H rrO}];}];ep)KHBa- BhIcTyrra (HarrplIMep, Kapllllaa) lIJIlI KpaSl
IOIll,HH CKperrJIeHHYIO rrapaJIJIeJIbHO C TKaHlI napaJIJIeJIbHO eMY. 2 Hapaael{ C
HHM 6aJIKY. }:IBOHHOH apO'1KOU, BKJIIOQeHHbIH B
TIO,UEOVL j(elll{e. }];eKOpaTHBHYIO apKaoy no OCHOBaHHIO
TIJIMH<I>A. XapaKTepHbIH }];JISl PYC-
CKoro ,[IOMOHrOJIbCKOrO 30}];QeCTBa TOH- ITO,UEOP. CTeHKa H3 BepTHKaJIbHbIX ne'lH'~mI
KHH KHprrHQ, IIIHpHHa KOToporo 6JIH3Ka o6py6KOB 6pe8eH, orpa)K}];aIOlll,aSl rro}];-
ero }];JIHHe. rrOJIbe rro}]; Cpy60M.
TIJIOCKA5I APKA. ApKa (1), Y KOTO- TIO,UBEPTKA. ITepeJIOM B }:IbIMOBOM
pOH cmpeJla nOOoeMa B 8 HJIH 60JIee pa3 KaHaJIe m~'lH, MeHSlIOIll,HH HarrpaBJIeHHe
MeHbIIIe npO:flema. }];bIMa Ha npOTHBOrrOJIO)KHoe.
TIJIOCKMH TIAPYC (=KpoHIIITeHHbIH TIO,UBM)J(HOH TP ABEPC. TIepeH()C- TIO,UMYM (=nO,[lHH). BhlcoKoe npSlMo-
rrapyc, o6paTHaSl rrHpaMH}];a, rrJIOCKHH yrOJIbHOe OCHOBaHHe coopY)KeHHSl, HMe-
HhIH 060pOHHTeJIbHbIH BaJI H3 ropH30H-
TpoMrr). 06par.u;eHHbIH oCTpHeM BHH3 TaJIbHbIX ljJautUll, YJIO)KeHHbIX Ha rro- IOlll,ee JIeCTHHll,Y Ha KOPOTKOH nepe}];HeH
cTopoHe H OTBeCHble CTeHKH Ha OCTaJIb-
rrepe'lHble }];epeBSlHHble 6aJIKH Me)K}:Iy
HbIX.
cmoeK C nOOKOCaMU.
TIO,UKJIET. HH)KHHH 3Ta)K 3,[1aHH5! B
}];OOp}];epHOH PYCCKOH apxHTeKType,
He3Ha'lHTeJIbHO B03BblIIIaIOIll,HHC5! Ha}:l
3eMJIeH.
HaKJIOHHbIH paBH06e,[lpeHHhIH Tpe- TIO,UKOBOOEPA3HA5I APKA
yrOJIbHHK rrpH rrepexo}];e OT '1em8epUKa (=MaBpHTaHcKaSl apKa). ApKa (1) C
K 8ocbMepuKY. }];yroH 60JIee rrOJIOBHHbI OKPY)KHOCTH.
TIO,UBOJIOKA. 1 YTerrJIeHHbIH 3eMJIeH
TIJIOCKMH CBO,U. OQeHb rrOJIOrHH
,[IepeBSlHHbIH rrOTOJIOK Ha MamUl{ax (1)
C800, Y KOTOPOro cmpeJla noOoeMa He
B xopoMax, 06bI'lHO YKpaIIIeHHbIH pe3b-
rrpeBhlIIIaeT 1/36 rrpOJIeTa.
60H H pocrrHcbIO. 2 HcmonKa (2).
TIJIOCKMH TPOMTI. IIJloCKUU napyc.
TIO,UBOJIOQHhIE IIITYKM. KJIe-
TIJIOTMHA. rH}];pOTeXHH'leCKOe co- eHble }];epeBSlHHble Ill,HTbI }:IJISl pocrrHcH
opY)KeHHe rrorrepeK peKH, rr03BOJISl- rrOTOJIKa.

-101-
n nOA KOnOKonbi XPAM - nonATH 102

I10,Il, KOJIOKOJIbI XPAM. UepKoB- IIapaJIJIeJIbHbIH pR,llaM KJIa,llKH (,llBYCTO- I10,Il,'bE3,Il,. Bxo,ll C KPbIJIbIl,OM II HaBe-
Hoe 3,llaHHe C RpyCOM 3601ta Ha rJIaBHOH POHHIDI, HJIH ,llBoil:HaSI, IIO,llpe3Ka). COM.
BepTHKaJIbHOH OCH.
I10,Il,PEIIIETKA. HellJIOTHO YJIO)l{eH- . I10)KEHA5I QACOBH5I. IJac061tR (1)
I10,Il,KOC. I1epepaCIIpe,lleJISIIOIIl,aSI Har- HbIe rro 6aJIKaM Y3KHe nOJlyo6pC31tblC Ha BbICOKOM cpy6e HJIH Ha cToJI6e, B03-
PY3KY B KOHCTPYKIl,HH HaKJIOHHaSI ,llepe- OOCKU ,llJISI HaCTHJIKH Ha HHX 'tucm020 Be,lleHHaSI Ha yqacTKe, KOTOPbIH 3aTO-
BSIHHaSI IIO,llilOpKa, Bpy6JIeHHaSI KOHIl,aMH nOJla, napKcma (1) HJIH Ulmy't1t020 rrJISIeTCSI B rrOJIOBO,llbe.
B cmORK 1'1 B roPH30HTaJIbHbIH 6pyc (1) nOJla.
I103EMHA5I I10CTPOMKA. H36a
Ha HeM.
I10,Il,PYE. IIopy6. (1) HJIH HHaSI rrocTpoHKa, B03Be,lleHHaSI
I10,Il,KPbIJIKM. He60JIbllIlle OOCKU 6e3 nOOKJlCma; 06blqHO - C 3eMJIRHbIM
I10,Il,CEHME. Hcnoo1tuc ce1tu.
(1), 3aKpbIBaIOIIl,He Ha <j>aca,lle U36bl (1) rrOJIOM.
HJIH ,llepeBSIHHbIX XOpOM TOPIl,bI 6pe6C1t B I10,Il,CKAJIbHMK. HH)I{HHH CJIOH KpO-
I10KJIOHHbIM KPECT. YKpeIIJleH-
n06aJlaX 1'1 06bPIHO YKpaIIIeHHbIe pe3b- BeJIbHOrO Teca, OT,lleJIeHHbIH OT Bepx-
60H. HbIH Ha,ll BXO,llOM MJIH YCTaHOBJIeHHbIH
Hero CJIOSI JIH60 KpOBeJIbHOH opa1tU
rrpH ,llopore KpecT, rrpe,llHa3HaqeHHbIH
6epe30BOH CKaJlOU HJIH JIHrrOBbIM
I10,Il,KYPETHMKM (=IIO}:l,KypSITHH- ,llJISI MOJIHTBeHHbIX rrOKJIOHOB rrepe}:l,
KH). BepxHHe 6pe61ta cpy6a, B KOTopbIe JIy60M.
Bpy6aIOTcSI CmpOnUJlb1tblC 1t02U (cp.: I10,Il,CKPEEKA. B o6pca.
II06aJlb1tbIC CJlczu).
I10,Il,CTABA (=KYJIaKH). BbIcTyrra-
I10,Il,OBA5I JIEIl(A,Il,b. KanCOJlb. IOIIl,He 1'13 CTeHbI, nUJlO1ta HJIH cToJI6a
KOHCOJIbHbIe MeTaJIJIHqeCKHe orropbI C
I10,Il,OJI. HH3HHHaSI qaCTb ,llpeBHepyc-
CKoro 2Opooa (2), paCIIOJIO)l{eHHaSI Y
IIO,llHO)l{HSI ero B03BbIIIIeHHoro SI,llpa.

I10,Il,OIIIBA. HH)I{HSISI llJIOCKOCTb ¢y1t-


OaMC1tma, cOllpHKaCaIOIIl,aSICSI C rpYHTO-
BbIM OCHOBaHHeM.
BepTIIKaJIbHbIM KpyrJIbIM OTPOCTKOM
I10,Il,OIIIBEHHbIM EOM. 1 BOU1tUU,bl ,llJISI HaBeCKH OKOHHbIX Cma6C1tb (1),
HH)l{HerO ypOBHSI B KpellocTHbIX cTeHax nOJIOTHHIIl, ,llBepeH 1'1 BOpOT.
1'1 6aUl1tRX (3). 2 YCTpOHCTBO BO,llSIHbIX
I10,Il,CTEHOK. YqaCTOK KaMeHHoH
MeJIbHHIl, C Y,llapaMH BO,llbI B HH)I{HHe
KJlaOKU, rrpHMbIKaIOIIl,HH K nRme apKu
JIOilaCTlf KOJIeca.
MJIH c6ooa, ,llJISI noraIIIeHHSI pacrropa.
I10,Il,I10PHA5I CTEHKA. CTpOHTeJIb-
HaSI KOHCTPYKIl,HSI, IIpHMbIKaIOIIl,aSI K I10,Il,CTPEJIMHA. Bpyc (1) KPbtUlU,
MaCCHBY rpYHTa HJIH KJlaOKC, - ,llJISI HaXO,llSIIIl,HHCSI rro,ll CBeCOM Kp06JlU HJIH
rro,ll nOJluu,eu (1).
3aIll,HTbI OT 06pYIIIeHHSI.
I10,Il,CTP0I1MJIbHbIE EPEBHA.
BblmRJIC1tble 6pe61ta. I10JIABOQHMK. 1 I10JIKa Ha,ll JIaBKa-
I10,Il,CTYI1EHOK JIHIl,eBaSI BepTH- MH, HenpepbIBHo orH6aIOIIl,aSI CTeHbI B
KaJIbHaSI rroBepxHocTb cTyrreHH. U36e (1). 2 I1oKpbIBaJIO (06bIqHO CYKOH-
Hoe) Ha npHCTeHHYIO JIaBKY B U36e (1).
I10,Il,TEQMHA. Bpyc (1) o6peUlemKu
rro,ll TecoBYIO KP06JlIO. nOJIArAJIMIl(E. KJIa,llOBaSI.

I10,Il,TOBAPHMK. TOHKHH CTPOH- I10JI ACTbl. KBa,llpaTHbIH JIa3 Ha,ll


I10,Il,I1PY)J(HA5I APKA. ApKa (1), SI1IWH ,llJISI xpaHeHHSI KapTo<j>eJISI, rrpope-
TeJIbHbIH JIec XBOHHbIX rropo,ll, ,llHaMe-
rrO,ll,llep)l{HBaIOIIl,aSI C600. 3aHHbIH B rroJIY )l{HJIIIIIl,a TaTap-MHIIIa-
YpOM 8-11 CM 1'1 ,llJIHHOH OT 3 ,ll0 9 M.
peH.
I10,Il,YIIIKA. HH)I{HSISI ropH30HTaJIb B
OKOHHOH Kopo6Ke. nOJIATM. 1 HapbJ ,llJISI crraHbSI,
YCTpoeHHbIe no,ll rrOTOJIKOM, Me)l{,llY pyc-
I10,Il,UEPKOBbE. HH)I{HHH 3Ta)l{ Il,ep-
KOBHoro 3,llaHIISI, 06bP1HO He IICrrOJIb3Y-
eMbIH ,llJISI 60rOCJIY)I{eHHSI.

I10,Il,IIIMBKA. JIHIl,eBaSI qaCTb ,llepe-


I10,Il,I15ITHMK. KpYfJIbIH BbIcTyn Y
BSIHHoro rrepeKpbITHSI, KOTopaSI COCTOHT
KpaSI Ha Y3KOM TOpIl,e ,llBepHOro nOJIOT-
113 OOCOK (1), rrpH6HTbIX CHH3Y K ero
HHIIl,a, 1l0MeIll,aBIIIHHCSI B mC300 (1)
6aJIKaM.
,llBepHOH paMbI.
I10,Il,IIIMBHOM I10TOJIOK. I10To-
I10,Il,PE3KA. 06pa60TKa Ul6a B
JIOK, rrpll6HTbIH CHlI3Y K 6aJIKaM.
KaMeHHoH KJlaOKe rrYTeM Y,llaJIeHHSI
1I36bITKa pacTBopa, OTqerO IIIOB rrpH- I10,Il, IIIYEY. 06pa60TKa CTeHbI IIITY- CKOU ne'tblO 1'1 CTeHOH U36bt (1). 2 Ha-
06peTaeT BII,ll rrOJIOCKH, 3arrpoKHHYTOH KaTypHbIM Ha6pbI3roM, C03,llaIOIIl,aSI 6ec- CTHJI ,llJISI xpaHeHIISI BeIll,eH, YCTpoeHHbIH
O,llHHM KpaeM BrJIy6b KJIa,llKH (O,llImap- CHCTeMHYIO MeJIK06yrpHCTYIO rro- no,ll rrOTOJIKOM. 3 IIpuOCJlb1tbtU xpaM Ha
HaSI nO,llpe3Ka), JIH60 1l0JIyqaeT H3JIOM, BepXHOCTb. ypoBHe XOp06 B Il,epKOBHoM 3,llaHHII.

-102-
n nonATKA - nOnYKPECnO 103

nOJIATKA. Kpyrrul qeTblpeXCKaTHrui coe;n:HHeHHhIX no;n: rynhIM yrJIOM H CBSI- 6aJ1bMaMU B BepxHeH qaCTH, Ha TOpWlx
Kpbluta C roPH30HTaJIbHbIM zpe6HeM (2), 3aHHhIX KOHIJ;aMH co cmponUJIaMu 3;n:aHHSI.
3aBepIIIalOIqrul 06'beM npSlMoyrOJIbHOrO nocpe;n:CTBoM nooKoco6 H cmpyH.
nOJIYBAHqEC. BaCUJIeK.
llJIaHa.
nOJIOTEHUE. 1 BepTHKaJIhHruI ;n:epe-
rrOJIYfJIABHE. nOJIYKpYrJIOe 3aBep-
nOJIEBOM: KAMEHh. P,UKUU Ka- BSlHHruI nOJIoca C y30pHhIM KpaeM (qaCTO
IIIeHHe BHeIIIHeH CTeHhI l\epKOBHoro
MeHb. H co CKB03HOH pe3h6oH), HeCKOJIhKO
3;n:aHHSI Ha;n: ee cepe;n:HHoH.
BhI;n:BHHYTrui HaA q,OHOM q,aca;n:HoH

nOJIY,Il,A. )KeJIe30, nOKphIToe TOHKHM


nOJIHBHA5I KEPAMHKA. H3;n:emlSl CJIOeM OJIOBa, )KeCTh.
H3 060)lOl{eHHOH rJIHHbI, nOKpblTbIe ula-
aypblO. nOJIY,Il,OMOK. 1 He6oJIbIIIOH OOM
(1), Y KOToporo HH)I{HHH 3TaX{ KaMeH-
nOJIH,Il,OPOBMI )KHBOnHCh. HhIH JIH60 KHpnHqHhIH, a BepxHHH -
Czpappumo. ;n:epeBSlHHhIH. 2 P,OM (1), 3aHHMalOm;HH
nOJIOBHHY yqaCTKa, OTBe;n:eHHoro no;n:
nOJIHKAH,Il,HJIO. UepKOBHblH CBe-
ero cTPoHTeJIhCTBo.
THJIhHHK, 06'be;n:HHSlIO~H OT 7 ;n:o CTeHhI JIH60 3aKphIBalOm;aSl TOPl\bI ee
12 CBeqeH. 6pe6eH. 2 CTBopKa ;n:BepH HJIH OKHa, rrOJIY,Il,EHHMI CH,Il,EJIKA. CKa-
nOJIHCA,Il,. IIaJlucao (1). HMelOIqrul C KpalO BepTHKaJIbHYIO OCb MbSl-CH;n:eJIKa B napKe, 3a~m;aeMruI
Bpam;eHHSl. JIHCTBOH OT JIyqeH nOJIy;n:eHHoro COJIHl\a.
nOJIHUA. 1 nOJIOrHH CKaT B OCHOBa-
nOJIOqKA. Y3KHH BhIcryn npSlMO- nOJIY3AnpY,Il,A. ByHa (1).
HHH 60JIee KpYTOH Kp06J1U. 2 II1HPOKrui
nOJIKa ;n:JISI Bem;eH, npHMhIKalOm;ru1 yrOJIhHOrO CeqeHHSI. nOJIYKA3APMA. nYTeBrui KaaapMa
pe6poM K CTeHe. nOJIYAKPOTEPHM:. AKpomepuu Ha (3) C HenOJIHhIM COCTaBOM nOMem;eHHH
HH)l{HeM yrJIy ppoHmoHa. (HanpHMep, 6e3 OT;n:eJIeHHSI ;n:JISI CyIIIKH
nOJIOBHHHhIM: EACTHOH. 3noJZe- o;n:e)K;n:bI).
MeHm. nOJIYEEJIOE CTEKJIO. JIHcToBoe
CTeKJIO nocpe;n:cTBeHHoro KaqeCTBa ;n:JISI nOJIYKAnOHHP. cP0pTHq,HKal\HOH-
nOJIOBHHqATMI EECE,Il,KA. IIo- Hoe coopY)KeHHSI ;n:JISI npo;n:OJIhHOrO
OKOH.
Jly6eceoKa. 06CTpeJIa KpenocTHoro pBa B O;n:HOM
nOJIYEECE,Il,KA (=nOJIOBHuqaTrui HanpaBJIeHHH.
nOJIOBH5IK (=nOJIOBhe). BpYCK06blU 6ece;n:Ka). BeceoKa (1) C nJIaHOM B BH}l;e
Kupnu't, paCKOJIOTblH nOnOJIaM B;n:OJIh nOJIYKpyra, nOJIyoBaJIa HJIH npSlMO-
nocmeJlu. yrOJIhHHKa C IIIHPHHOM B;n:Boe MeHhIIIe
nOJIOf. CnaJIhHOe nOMem;eHHe B ;n:JIHHhI.
RpaHu. nOJIYEYTOBMI KJIA,Il,KA. KOH-
nOJIOfMI APKA. ApKa (1), Y KOTO- cTPYKl\HSl KaMeHHhIX CTeH, npH KOTOPOH
pOH cmpeJia nOO'beMa B qeTbIpe pa3a npocTPaHCTBO Me)l{}l;y KHpnuqaMH,
MeHhIIIe npoJlema. o6pa3ylOIqHMH BHeIIIHlO1O H BHYTPeH-
HIOIO nOBepxHocTh CTeHbl, 3anOJIHSleTCSI nOJIYKOJIOHHA. KOJlOHHa, HanOJIO-
nOJIOK. HaphI no;n: nOTOJIKOM PYCCKOH 06JIOMKaMH KaMHSI H cTPoHTeJIhHhIM BHHy BhIcTynalOm;aSl H3 BepTHKaJIhHOH
6aHH, Ha KOTOPhIX napSlTcSI. pacTBopoM. nOBepxHocTH KJlaOKu.
nOJIOK JIAHfO. IIoJlamu (1, 2) B nOJIYBAJI. fOpH30HTaJIhHhIH BhI- nOJIYKPECJIO. CTYJI C no;n:HHMa-
3P3S1HCKOH U36e (1). cryn C o;n:HHaKOBhIM nOJIYKpYrJIhIM ceqe- IOm;HMHCSI K cnHHKe llJIaBHhIMH H3rH-
HHeM.
nOJIOHCO CHCTEMA. Pa3HoBH;n:-
HOCTh 6UCR'tUX cmponUJI, B KOTOPOH nOJIYBAJlhMA. HaKJIOHHaSi rpaHh Ha
aamRJICKa COCTOHT H3 TPex oTPe3KoB, TOpl\e qeThIpexcKaTHoH KP06J1U, HMe-
lOm;aSl BH}l; TpeyrOJIhHHKa HJIH Tpanel\HH,
no BblCOTe HaMHOrO MeHhIIIe npo;n:OJIb-
HhIX CKaTOB.
nOJIYBAJlhMOBA5I KPhIIIIA. ,Il,BY-
CKaTHoe nOKphITHe C He60JIhIIIHMH

-103-
n nOnYKPECTOBAg KnA,Q,KA - nOCA,Q, 104

6aMH no CTopOHaM CH;n;eHbSl, 3HaqH- nOJIYIJ;I1PKYJIhHhIH CBO,ll; (=n;H- nOPTAJI. Xy;n;O)KeCTBeHHoe o6paMJIe-
TeJIbHO 60JIee HH3KHMH, qeM nO;n;JIOKOT- JIHH;D;p1fqeCKHH CBO;n;).. C800 C nOJIY- HHe BXO;n;a.
HHKH KpeCJIa. OKP~OCTblO B CeqeHHH, O;n;HHaKoBoM
Ha BceM npoTSI)KeHHH.
nOJIYKPECfOBMI KJIA,ll;KA. IJ,en-
HllIl KIlaOKa.

nOJIYKynOJI. Koma.

nOJIYJIOTKOBhIH CBO,ll;. nOJIy-


COMKHYTbrn: C800.

nOJIYMEOIIJ;. J!.eMUJuoH.
nOJIYIIIJII03. Bo;n;OcnycK Ha cy;n;oxo;n;-
nOJIYOEPE3HA5I ,ll;OCKA. ,ll;epe- HOM HJIH CllJIaBHOM KaHaJIe.
BSlHHaSI oocKa (1) C HeO;n;HHaKOBblMH
IlOJIY3TA)K. 3Ta)!{ 3HaqHTeJIbHO
60JIbWHMH nJIOCKOCTSlMH H TOpn;aMH -
MeHbwe:ii: BbICOTbI no cpaBHeHHIO C ;n;py- IlOPTAJI MOCfA. ApXHTeKTypHoe
H3-3a qaCTHqHO oCTaBwe:ii:cSI KOPbI.
rnMH !na)KaMH Toro )Ke 3;n;aHHSI. o<i>opMJIeHHe B'be3;n;a Ha MOCT, C coe;n;H-
nOJIYOKHO. EOKOBaSI qaCTb Uma.tlb- HeHHeM Kpa:ii:HHX onop <i>epM no o6eHM
RHCKOlO OKHa. IlOJIY5IPYC. Hpyc, 3HaqHTeJIbHO ycry- CTOPOHaM npoe3)Ke:ii: qaCTH.
nalOrn;HH no BblCOTe ;n;pyrnM SfPycaM
nOJIynEPEIIIEEK. J!.eMUWp:JIC. Toro)Ke coop~eHHSI. nOPTArnB. nepeHocHbI:ii:
OpUiH.
nOJIYTIJIAC,ll;APM. TynHKoBoe OT-
nOJIhCKMI KJIA,lJ;KA. Bepcm08ll1l
BeTBJIeHHe OT Xo;n;a C006rn;eHHSI B nOJIe-
KAaoKa.
BbIX YKpellJIeHHSIX.
IlOMOrA. Koco:ii: Kpene)KHbI:ii: ay6 Ha
KOHn;e cmponUJ/,bHou HOlU.

IlOMOQI1. Epe8Ha-KOHCOAU, BblcTyna-


lOIn;He H3 cpy6a.

nOJIYTIJII1Hct>A. KHpllHq B CTPOH-


TeJIbCTBe ;n;peBHero HOBropO;n;a, HMe- nOPTEPHMI. IlHTe:ii:Hoe 3aBe;n;eHHe C
IOrn;HH pa3MepbI 28 X 23 x 7,5 CM. npo;n;a)!{e:ii: nOPTepa - KpenKoro TeMHO-
ro nHBa.
IlOJIYTIO,ll;BAJI. 3Ta)K, 3arJIy6JIeH-
HbI:ii: B 3eMJIIO MeHee qeM Ha nOJIOBHHY IlOPTHK. KOMno3Hn;HS1 Ha <i>aca;n;e 3;n;a-
BbICOTbI CBOHX nOMern;eHHH. HHSI, KOTOPaSI o6pa30BaHa KOAOHHaMU,
nOAYKoAOHHaMU JIH60 nUJ/,RcmpaMU,
IlOJIYCAMIJ;OBMI KPOBJUI. THn HecYIn;HMH aHma6Ae.MeHm.
nOKpblTHSI ;n;epeBSlHHoH nOCTpo:ii:KH, npH
KOTOPOM ero npO;n;OJIbHble 6aJIKH HerJIY-
60KO Bpe3aHbI B HellJIOTHO pacnOJIO)KeH- IlOHTOHhI. ,ll;epeBSlHHble HJIH )KeJIe3-
Hble 6pe8Ha U4unl{08bLX f/JpoHmoH08 HaA Hble nJIOCKO;n;OHHble cy;n;a, HCnOJIb3Y-
TOpn;OBbIMH CTeHaMH. eMble B KaqeCTBe onopbI llJIaByqHX
MOCTOB.
IlOJIYCBO,ll;. IJem8epmHou C800.

IlOJIYCOMKHYThIH CBO,ll; (=no-


JIYJIOTKOBbI:ii: CBO;n;). Kop0608blu JIH60
nOAYl{UpKYAbHblU C800, orpaHHqeHHbI:ii:
IlOPTOMOHHhIH QEP,ll;AK. IloMe-
C TOpn;a AomKOM.
rn;eHHe, B KOTOPOM CYWHJIOCb 6eJIbe
nOCJIe nOJIOCKaHHSI B peKe.

nOPYE (=B3py6, no;n;py6). HeBbICO-


KH:ii: ;n;epeBSlHHbI:ii: nooKllem.

IlOHYP. nOJI nepe;n;He:ii: (npy;n;OBo:ii:) nOPct>I1,ll;KA (=npo<i>HTKa). OT;n;eJIb-


qaCTH 8000CAU8HOU HJIH 8000cnYCKHou Hoe meaoo (1) ;n;JISI n;epKoBHo:ii: CBeqH Ha
naHuKaoUJ/,e.
nAomUHbl.
IlOJIYct>POHTOH. <PpoHmoH C npe- IlOPMOK. PSI;D; 00M08 (1), o6pa3YIO-
pBaHHo:ii: nocpe;n;HHe ropH30HTaJIblO IlOPEEPI1K. 1 OpHaMeHTaJIbHaSI roPH-
rn;HX CTOPOHY ;n;epeBeHcKo:ii: yJIHn;bI.
30HTaJIbHaSI nOJIoca Ha <i>aca;n;e, o6pa30-
BaHHaSi OAHHM PSIAOM KHpllHqe:ii:, OAHHa- nOCA,ll;. 1 ToproBo-peMeCJIeHHOe no-
KOBO pacnOJIO)KeHHblX nJIawMSl HJIH Ha CeJIeHHe, npHMbIKaBwee cHap~ K CTe-
pe6po nOA yrnoM K nOBepxHocTH CTeHbI. HaM ApeBHepYCCKoro wpooa (1, 2).
2 KaMeHHaSI OKaHTOBKa Tporyapa co 2 nOCeJIOK ropO;n;CKoro THna B Poc-
CTOPOHbI npoe3)Ke:ii: qaCTH. CH:ii:CKO:ii: HMllepHH.

-104-
n nOCKon1HA - npI>1HU-METAJln 105

IIOCKOTHHA. 1 H3roPO)l;h, KOTOPOH KH. 2 TenJIOBOH KaHaJI OT Ka.tlOpurjJepa, 2 BepTHKaJIhHaSl oocKa (1), 3aKphIBa-
o6HeceHa ceBepHruI HJIH cH6HpCKaJI rrpOHH3hIBalOll.\HH CTeHY. lOll.\ruI nepepy6.
)l;epeBHJI BMeCTe C npHJIeralOll.\HMH K HeH
IIPHEOMKH. BepTHKaJIhHhIe peRKH
BhIroHaMH )l;JIJI CKOTa. 2 ropoob6a (1)
Me)!{)l;Y 6peBeH'IaTOR CTeHOll: H ee
BOKpyr CKOTHOro )l;BOpa.
06UlU6KOU H3 Teca HJIH Wp6blJlJl (1).
IIOCTABEU. HeBhIcoKHH IIIKa<p )l;JIJI
IIPHEOP. KOMnJIeKT 3JIeMeHTOB )l;JISI
nocY)l;hI.
)l;BepH, OKHa HJIH ne'IH. ,a:BepHOll: H OKOH-
IIOCTABHAA CBEqA. Tow,aJl C6et.ta. HhIll: II. BKJIIO'IaJI B ce6S1 B )l;peBHOCTH
IIOTP5ICOK. KophITQe Ha MeJIhHHQe, )l;Be JlCUK06UHbl, KplOKH )l;JIJI HaBeCKH
IIOCTAMEHT. B03BhIIIIeHHoe OCHO- 'Iepe3 KOTopoe nocTynaeT 3epHo nO)l; cma6eHb (1), 3a)l;BH)I{KH, KOJIhQO B Ka'Ie-
BaHHe KO/lOHHbl, MOHYMeHTa, cTaTYLI )l{epHOB. CTBe PY'IKH, BHTOll: aaK/laOHOU KPIOt.tOK,
JIH60 6aaOHa (1, 2).
IIOqMAK 5IK. )l(eHCKaJI (oHa )l{e Ky- cKo6hI, a TaK)I{e rB03)l;H nJISI 06HBKH
IIOCTEJIh. CaMaJI KpynHruI rpaHh XOHHruI) nOJIOBHHa TaTapcKoro CeJIh- nOJICThMH (BORnOKOM) HJIH CYKHOM.
6PYCK060W Kupnut.ta. CKoro )l{HJIHll.\a. IIe'IHoH II. BKJIIO'IaJI B ce6S1 )l{eJIe3HhIe
3aCJIOHhI K ne'IaM H Tpy6aM, paMKH
IIOCT05IJIhIliJ: ,a:BOP. KOMnJIeKC, II05IC. 1 rOpH30HTaJIhHaJI )l;eKOpaTHB- OT)l;YIIIHHKOB, 6bIOUlKU, KOJlOCHUK06ble
06'he)l;HHJIIOll.\HH KOMHaThI )l;JIJI HO'IJIera HaJI nOJIoca no nepHMeTpy 06'heMa HJIH peIIIeTKH, KO'Iepry, )l{eJIe3HYIO JIOnaT-
npHe3)1(L1X, mpaKmup, a TalOKe 060P BO BCIO IIIHPlfHY <paca)l;a. 2 BepxHSISI HJIH KY, YXBaT H neIIIHIO.
(1, 2) )l;JIJI JIOIIIa)l;eH H 3KHna)l{eH BpeMeH- HH)I{HSISI ropH30HTaJIh rjJepMbl.
HhIX nOCTOJIJIhQeB. IIPHrOJIOBAiliEK. BaW/106aUleK.
II05ICHA5I ,a:oporA. ,a:opora no
nepHMeTpy napKa. IIPHrOH. CapaR )l;JISI CKOTa.

lIP AIIOP. MeTaJIJIH'IeCKHR <pJIa)l{OK IIPH,a:EJI. ,a:onOJIHHTeJIhHhIll: xpaM co


Ha)l; 6aIIIHeo6pa3HhIM 06'heMOM. CBOHM npeCmO/lOM H UKOHocmaCOM,
npHMhIKalOll.\HR K OCHOBHOMY QepKoB-
HOMY 3)l;aHHIO JIH60 BKJIIO'IeHHhIR B ero
06'heM.

IIOCT05IHHhIE EEJIHJIA (=6apH-


TOBhIe 6eJIHJIa, 6JIaH-<pHKc, JIHTOnOH,
nepMaHeH).· H3rOTOBJIeHHruI Ha OCHOBe
cepHOKHCJIOrO 6apHlI 6eJIaJI MaCJIJIHaJI
KpaCKa C BhICOKOH KpOIOll.\eH cnoco6HO- IIPE,a:EJIJIA. BepXHJIJI 'IaCTh a/lmapJl
CThlO, )l;JIJI 060eB. (2), 06hI'IHO YKpaIIIeHHruI )l{HBOnHChlO
IIOTEPHA. C600t.tamb1U nO)l;3eMHhIH HJIH pe3h6oR.
XO)l;, COe)l;HHJIIOll.\HH W/lepelO (2) )l;JIJI
CTpeJIKOB (3a aCKapnHou HJIH KOHmpac- IIPHKJIA,a:OqHhIM IIIOB. CKB03HOH
KapnHou cTeHKoH no <PPOHTY Kpeno-
BepTHKaJIhHhIH Ul06 Me)!{)l;Y 'IaCTJIMH
cmu) C BH)'TpeHHeH 'IaCThlO yKpenJIe- 3)l;aHHlI.

IIPHKPhIThIM IIYTh. IIpocTpaHcTBo


Me)l{)l;Y KOHmpacKapnoM H l/laCUCOM.

IIPE,a:MOCThE (=nepe)l;MOCThe).
1 He6oJIhIIIOe YKpenJIeHHe nepe)l;
MOCTOM. 2 (=B3MOCT). IIoMocT nepe)l;
ceHSlMH H nepeXO)l;aMH B xopOMax (1, 2)
HJIH KPynHoR ua6e (1). 3 PYHOYK (2). IIPHMKHYThIM EACTHOH. Bac-
IIOTEIIIHhIM rOPO,a:OK (=noTeIII- mUOH, Ha rjJJlaHKaX KOToporo 6a.tlWHl
HhIH )l;BOp, COKOJIhHJI). ,a:epeBJIHHruI HJIH IIPECTOJI. HenO)l;BH)I{HhIR 'IeThIpex- H 6pycm6ep HenOCpe)l;CTBeHHo npHMhI-
3eMJIJIHaJI Kpenocmb )l;JIJI <pOpTH<pHKa- yrOJIhHhIR CTOJI B QeHTpe a/lmapJl (1), KalOT K KypmUHa.M (3).
QHOHHOro o6Y'IeHHlI PYCCKHX QapeBH- 06JIa'IeHHhIH B TKaHH C peJIHrH03HoR
'IeH. CHMBOJIHKOR; Ha BepXHell: nJIOCKOCTH IIPHMKHYThIM TP ABEPC. Tpa6epc
HaXO)l;S1TCSI EBaHreJIHe C HanpeCTOJIh- (1), om6aeMhIll: TpaHIIIeeR HJIH XO)l;OM
IIOTMAP. JIaph )l;JIJI xpaHeHHJI nocY)l;hI, C006IQeHHSI TOJIhKO C O)l;HOR CTOPOHhI
HhIMH KpecTaMH no cTopoHaM, a TalOKe
pacnOJIO)l{eHHhIH PJI)l;OM C ne'IhlO B (cp.: 06XOOHOU mpa6epc).
oapoxpaHUme/lbHUl{a.
3P3S1HCKOR ua6e (1).
IIPHEO)l(OHKA. IIpum60p (1). IIPHMOCT. HaphI )l;JISI cnaHhSl B pyc-
IIOTOK. 1 MaccHBHhIl'i )l{eJIo6, B KOTO- CKOR ua6e (1, 2).
PhIH YIIHpalOTCSI HH)I{HHe KOHQhI TeCHH B IIPHEOHHA. 1 BepTHKaJIhHhIR 6py-
Kp06/le PYCCKOH )l;epeBJIHHOH nocTpoR- COK (1) Me)!{)l;Y Cpy60M H o6um6Kou. IIPHHU-METAJIJI. Bama Mema/l/l.

-105-
n nPMPY& - npOcDMnbHblE BOPOTA 106

•IIPlfPYB. He60JIbmasI ;o;epeBSlHHasI CHB CTeHbI HJIH 3aKpenneHHasI Ha ;O;Bep- TPaneqReBH;o;HbIH KOHen; O;O;Horo 6pyca
npHCTpoHKa, KOHCTPYKTHBHO CBSl3aHHasI HOM nOJIOTHe. BbICTynaeT Ha illHpHHY BTopora.
C 60JIee KpYTIHOH qaCTblO 3;o;aHHH.
IIPOrlfMHA3lfH. Cpe;O;Hee yqe6Hoe IIPOCEK. MCKYCCTBeHHasI npJIMasI ;0;0-
IIPMCEK. Kpene)KHbIH 3y6, OCTaBJIeH- 3aBe;o;eHHe C COKpam;eHHOH npOrpaMMOH pora 'Iepe3 JIeCHOH MaCCHB, BXo;o;mu;Hii B
HbIH Bqame Y Ko~a 6pe6Ha, npe;O;Ha3- 06yqeHHH (4 ro;o;a HJIH 6 JIeT BMeCTO 8 B COCTaB napKa.
HaqeHHOrO ;o;JISI py6KH CTeH C ocmam- mMHa3HH).
IIPOCEqHOE )l{EJIE30. )l{eJIe3HasI
KOM.
llPorOH. MaCCHBHasI npO;o;OJIbHasI nOJIoca co CKB03HbIMH OTBepCTHSlMH,
IIPMCllA. 3eMJISlHasI HaCbTIIb, 6aA (1), 6aJIKa, YJIO)KeHHasI Ha CTeHbI nOMem;e- qaCTO COCTaBJISlIOm;HMH ~HbIH opHa-
KypzaH. HHSI H no;o;;o;ep)KHBalOm;asI ;o;pyme 6aJIKH. MeHT H nOJIyqeHHbIMH C nOMOm;blO 3ao-
CTpeHHora y;o;apHora HHcTPYMeHTa.
IIPlfCTIEIIIHhIH KATOK. lloxo~ IIPOEKTYPA. ApxHTeKTypHbIH BbI-
Ha npHJIaBOK BbITSlHYTbIH CTOJI ;o;nSl CTyn HJIH CBec.
pa60TbI nOBapoB.
llPOEMHAH TIEqh. lle%, BCTpoeH-
IIPMCllElllUl. 1 KYXIDI, nOBapIDI. HasI B KanHTaJIbsyID BHYTPeHHlO1O CTeHY
2 lleperopo;O;Ka B U36e (1), npHMbIKa- 3anO;O;JIHn;0 C ee nOBepXHOCTJIMH.
lOm;asI K neqH H OT;o;eJISlIOm;asI npocTPaH-
llPOEMHhIH 3AM6K. ,!l;eKopaTHB-
CTBO ;o;JISI CTPSlTIHH.
HbIH 3aMK06bl14 KaMeHb, B03Bblma-
IIPMCTYll (=npHCTYTIHasI Kono;O;Ka). IOm;HHCSI Ha;o; apxu6oAbmoM, nepeceKasI
llepeHocHasI CKaMeeqKa-cryneHbKa Y KapHU3Hble mRZU.
KpoBaTH HJIH Kpecna.
llPOKJIAAHAH llJIMTA. OTecaHHblH
IIPlfCYTCTBEHHhIE MECTA. KOM- KaMeHb, BKJIlOqeHHbIH B KHpn~HYIO
nneKC racy;o;apCTBeHHbIX yqpe~eHHH B KAaoKY;O;M ee yKpenneHHSl (Ha ypoBHe
rapo;o;ax POCCHHCKOH HMnepHH. apO'lHbLX TlRm, Ha pa3HoH BblCOTe B
CTBOJIax KHp~HbIX KOAOHH, B OCHOBa- IIPOCllEKT. JIHn;eBasI 'IaCTb OpZtlHa.
IIPlfTBOP. 1 Orp~eHHoe CTeHaMH
HHH noocma606).
nOMem;eHHe nepe;o; BXO;o;OM B qepKoBHoe llPOCTMJIh. llpaMoyrOJIbHOe B nnaHe
3;o;aHHe. 2 CTBOpKa BOPOT HJIH KaJIHTKH. 3;O;aHHe C O;o;HOPJIAHOH KOAoHHaoou
llPlfTBOPHOE BlfJIO. BUAO (3). TOJIbKO Ha rJIaBHOM ljJ;tca;o;e, PaBHOH eMY
no mHpHHe.
llPlfTlfH. 1 MeCTO ;o;JISI qaCOBoro.
2llpHTOH. IIPOCTlfJIhHAA ,!l;PAHh. llPH6HTbIe
Henocpe;o;cTBeHHo K CTeHe HaKJIOHHbIe
IIPlfTOJIOKA. 1 BepxHHH 6pyc (1) napaJIJIeJlbHble nOJIOCbI opaHu (2), Ha
;o;BepHora npoeMa. 2 3aBepmalOm;asI KOTopbIe no;o; npJIMbIM yrJIOM Ha6H-
rapH30HTaJIb ;o;BepHoH Kopo6KU. BaeTCSI 6bLXooHaR opaHb, - ;o;M y;o;ep)Ka-
llPlITYIlJIEHHAH APKA. llOJIOrasI HHH mTYKaTypKH.
CmpeAb'lamaR JIH60 ;O;BycKaTHasI apKa co llPOCTOH TEHAJIh. TeHaAb C ;o;BYMH
cKpyrJIeHHHMH B TlRmax (1). OCTPOyroJIbHbIMH BbIcrynaMH B CTOPOHY
npOTHBHHKa.

IIPOJIET APKH. PaCCTOSIHHe MexqJ;Y IIPOCTYllh. rOpH30HTaJIbHasI no-


TlRmaMU (1) apKu. BepXHOCTb CTyneHH.

llPOME)I{YTOqHhIH KAPHlf3. llPOC<I>OPHAH. llOMem;eHHe ;O;JIa


KapHU3, pa3;o;eJISUOm;HH RpyCbl Ha ljJa- BblneqKH npocljJop - KpyrJIbIX xne6n;eB
ca;o;e. C peJIbeljJHbIMH CHMBOJIaMH, ynoTPe6JISI-
llPMXO)I(AA. HexamasI KOMHaTa npH llPOHO)I{KH. rOpH30HTaJIH, coe;O;HIDI- eMbIX B XPHCTHaHCKHX o6pSl;o;ax.
Bxo;o;e B KBapTHpY· IOm;He B HIDKHeH qaCTH HO)KKH Me6eJIH. IIPOTHrM. BbllnRJICHble 6pe6Ha.
IIPlfqEJIMHA. J(ocKa (1), 3aKpbIBa-
llPOTH)I{KA. MeTaJIJI~eCKasI rpa-
lOm;asI pe6po CaMl4060U Kp06AU.
~a Me~y CTeKJIaMH B 6Umpa:JICe (1).
IIPI-UIMOK. lfCKyccTBeHHoe 3arny6JIe-
llPOYlllfHA. CKB03Hoe OTBepCTHe B
HHe B rpYHT nepe;o; npoeMoM nO;O;BaJIb-
3JIeMeHTe KOHCTPYKn;HH (o6b1'IHO y era
Horo 3Ta)Ka.
KOHn;a).
IIPOBMBHhIE rB03,!l;M. BauoaUl- llPOllMJIEM. 06paMJIeHHe napa;O;Hora
llPO<I>lfJIlfPOBAHHhIH. llpOT}l)KeH-
Hble 26030U. Bxo;o;a napanneJIbHbIMH KOAOHHaOaMu.
HbIH 3JIeMeHT, HMelOm;HH Ha JII060M
llPOBMPHAA llAJIATKA. Ka3eHHoe IIPOlllfJIhHAA PE3hBA. Y30p Ha yqaCTKe O;o;HO H TO )Ke nOnepeqHOe ceqe-
yqpe~eHHe, B KOTOPOM onpe;o;eJISUOT ;o;epeBSlHHoH oocKe (1) HJIH ljJaHepe, HHe, orp~eHHoe ;o;yraMH H OTPe3-
CO;o;ep)KaHHe 6JIarapO;O;HbIX MeTaJIJIOB B BbITIOnHeHHbIH nyTeM CKB03Hora npo- KaMH npSlMbIX.
H3;o;eJIHSIX H IjJHKCHpYIOT era HaJIO)Ke- TIHJIa H npe;O;Ha3Ha'IeHHblH K BOCnpHH-
IIPO<I>lfJIhHhIE BOPOTA. Kpeno-
HHeM 1CAeilMa. THIO Ha npocBeT.
CTHbIe BopoTa, npoeM KOTOPbIX HaqH-
IIPOBOH. )l{eJIe3HasI nemAR ;o;JISI IIPOPE3HAA JIAllA. T-06pa3Hoe HaeTCSI OT no;o;omBbI 6aAa (1) B HX OCHO-
HaBeCKH 3aMKa (3), 3a;o;eJIaHHasI B Mac- Cn;enneHHe 6pycbe6 (1), npH KOTOPOM BaHHH.

-106-
n npOcPMTKA - nSiTPA 107

IIPO<I>MTKA. IIopcjJuoKa. IIYHbKA, IIYH~. Capaft ~JISI xpase- IIbITIIIKMCb IIOCO.IJ;3. CeHH KOMII-
HKSI KOPMOBhlX pacTeHIIH, SIPOBOH COJIO- nepMSII.\Koro KpeCThSIHcKoro )KKJIKm.a.
IIPYCCKMM CBO.IJ;. HeCKOJIhKO O~II­
MhI, MSIKKHhI K T. n.
HaKOBhIX 60'lapHblX CBOOOB, BhITSIHy- IIbIIIJ,bIK. KJI~OBruI B qepKeCCKoM
ThIX nOnepeK 06m.en OCII II pa3~eJIeH­ IIYPIIYPMH. AcmpaJlum. oOMe (1).
HhIX nOHIDKeHHhIMII apKaMU (1).
IIYPXA. raMpeR (1) B~OJIh tPaca~a IIbE.IJ;ECTAn. Xy~O)KeCTBeHHo otPop-
IIPIDHEITb. IIJIOTHruI llIepcTSIHruI KYMhIKCKOro oOMa (1). MJIeHHhIH nOCmaMeHm, - HanpHMep, C
TKaHh ~JISI 06KBKII Me6eJIII. IICnOJIh30BaHlleM op~epHhIX tPOPM K
IIYCTOM BACTMOH. BacmuoH, BHY-
npOnOpl.\IIH.
IIP~MA~ AMBP A3YPA. BouHuu,a, rpll KOToporo BaJlWH2 npoxo~IIT B~OJIh
IIIDIIMTP. HaKJIOHHruI nO~CTaBKa ~JISI
OCh KOTopon 06pa3yeT npSIMoH yrOJI C cjJJlaHKOB II cjJacoB, a nOBhIllIeHHoH nJIO-
HOT KJIH KHHr, 3aBeplllafOm.ruI JIerKYfO
BHcllIHen nJIOCKOCThfO KpenocTHoH m.a~KH ~JISI apTIIJIJIepKH HeT.
CTOHKY·
CTeHhI KJIII 6pycmBepa. IIYCTOIIlOBKA. Cnoc06 KHpnllqHOH
KJlaOKU, npll KOTOPOM pacTBop Ha caH- IIIDPTIDM. CeHH qysallicKoro Kpe-
IIP~MAA KITA.IJ;KA. KOHCTPYKI:\KSI CThSIHCKoro OOMa (1).
TIIMeTp He ~OXO~HT ~O JIHl.\eBOH nOBepx-
KKpnKqHOrO CBooa, B KOTOPOM rpaHK
HOCTH, 06JIerqaSI ee Cl.\enJIeHHe co llITy- II~ITbU:bI. 1 lleThlpexyrOJIhHhIe paMhI
Ka)K,lloro KKpnKqa pacnOJIO)KeHhI no~
KaTypKoH. K3 6pycbeB (1), Ha KOTOPhIX 3aKpellJIeHa
npSIMhIM yrJIOM K nJIOCKOCTSIM CTeH
nepeKphIBaeMoro nOMem.eHKSI HJIH IIYCTbIHb. MOHallieCKaSI 06HTeJIh, ~om.aTaSI 06ll111BKa MKHHoro KOJlOou,a
napaJIJIeJIhHhIHM. B03HIIKllIaSI B CTopOHe OT HaCeJIeHHhIX (2). 2 KOMHaTHruI UlupMa.
MeCT. II5ITA. 1 HII)KHIIH ypoBeHh B K3rll6e
IIP~MOM 3AMOK C 3YBOM. Cno-
apKU (1, 3) IlJIII cBooa. 2 BhIeMKa ~JISI
c06 CllJIaqHBaHKSI 6pycbeB (1) no O~HOH IIYTEBOM ,IJ;BOPEIJ,. .IJ;BOPI.\OBhIH
Kpene)KHOrO Uluna.
OCII, npll KOTOPOM Ha KOHl.\ax Ka)K,llOrO KOMnJIeKC . ~JISI HenpO~OJI)I(JITeJIhHOrO
6pyca ~eJIafOTCSI O~HHaKOBhIe npO~OJIh­ OT~hIxa JIHI.\ l.\apCKOH tPaMIIJIlI1I BO II~TEPMK. BpeBHO
HhIe BhIcrynhI-KpfOKII r-06pa3HoH tPop- BpeMSI ~aJIhHerO nYTellleCTBIISI. 5 BeplllKoB.
MhI, C H3JIOMaMII no~ npSIMhIM yrJIOM. IIYTIT~HKA. JIa6upUHm. II~TMrITABME. 3aBepllleHKe OCHOB-
IIP~CITO. 1 YqaCTOK CTeHhI ~peBHe­ IIYllMHA. MaKCIIMaJIhHOe paCllIKpe- Horo 06'beMa l.\epKOBHoro 3~aHKSI
pyccKoro KaMeHHoro coopY)KeHIISI, or- HHe JlYKOBU'lHOU, MaKOBU'lHOU HJIII rpy- nSIThfO 2JlaBa.Mu.
paHllqeHHhIH ~ByMSI JlOnamKaMU, nUJlO- llIeB~HOH l.\epKOBHoH 2JlaBbl, BhIllie ee II~TMKOITO.IJ;HOE OKHO. HmaJlb-
HaMU HJIII6aUlHR.MU (1, 2, 3) (cp.: ropo- OCHOBaHKSI. RHCKoe OKHO.
oeHb). 2 YqaCTOK ~epeBSIHHoH orpa~hI,
IIYqKOBbIE IIMIT5ICTPbI. 3JIeMeHT II5ITM CKAT. IIpSIMOyroJIhHhIH KaMeH-
orpaHHqeHHhlH ~ByMSI cToJI6aMH, KOJIh-
apXIITeKTypHoro ~eKopa, 11306pa)Ka- HhIH 6JIOK, oTecaHHhIH C llSITII CTOpOH.
SIMH KJIK cToHKaMII.
fOm.HH pacnOJIO)KeHHe Tpex nUJlRCmp B
IICMIIIE. BOJIhlllOe 3epKaJIO ~JISI yCTa- ~Ba CJIOSI - TaK, qTO ~Be 3a~Hlle BhICTy-
II~TMCTEHOK (=llSITKCTeHHruI 113-
HOBKK Ha nOJIy. rrafOT K3-3a nepe~HeH. 6a). KpeCThSIHCKHH OOM (1) 113 6peBeH
IlJIH 6pycbeB (1), y~JIIIHeHHhIH cpy6
IITMqMM rITA3. Pa3HoBH~HOCTh ~pe­ IIIIJ,AHT3. Ycaob6a KpeCThSIHHHa KOToporo pa3~eJIeH nonepeK Ha )KKJIYfO
BeCHHhI KJIeHa, IIMefOm.ruI )KHBOnllcHYfO cpe~HeI'O ~OCTaTKa B Ka6ap~HHCKOM HJIH U36y (2) K napa~HyfO 2OPHUU,y (1) Kanu-
meKcmypy II n03BOJISIfOm.aSI 113rOTOB- qepKeCCKOM CeJIeHIIII, BKJIfOqafOm.aSI maJlbHOU cmeHou, py611BllIeHcSI O~HO­
JISITh He~oporyfO Me6eJIh C BHelllHKM )KKJIOn OOM (1) B rJIy6KHe npOcTopHoro BpeMeHHo C OCTaJIhHhIMII CTeHaMK.
BH~OM, nOXO)I(JIM Ha 113~eJIKSI 113 KapeJIh- oBopa (1) (06HeceH nJIeTHeM KJIH HH3-
CKOH 6epe3hI. II~THMU:A. T.facoBHR (2) B BH~e Kpe-
Kon KaMeHHoH cTeHKoH), a TaK)l(e
CTa C IIKOHOH, nOCTaBJIeHHaSI y pa3BHJIKK
IIYrOBMIJ,A. KpyrJIhIH ~eKOpaTKB­ rrocTp.0HKY ~JISI KyXHH, HaBec ~JISI X03SIH-
~opor.
CTBeHHhIX Hy)K~, nOMem.eHlle ~JISI JIOllla-
HhIH BhIcTyn, 3aKphIBafOm.IIH llIJISInKY
~II, CKOTHhIH ~BOp, KypSITHIIKH II npH- II5ITPA. raJlepeR (1) no BTOPOMY
rB03~SI KJIH TOpel.\ UlnUJlbKU (2) B Kpe-
yca~e6HhIH yqaCTOK C noceBaMII KyKy- 3Ta)KY cII611PCKOro aM6apa (1, 2), orpa-
nJIeH1I1I ~epeBSIHHhIX 3JIeMeHTOB.
PY3hI H oBom.eH. HJlqeHHruI TOqeHhIMII KOJIOHKaMII.
IlYKET. BYKem.
IIIIJ,bIII3. KpyrJIoe )l(JlJIHm.e C He06Ma-
IIYKOH. CTYJI ~JISI rJIaBhI ceMhK HJIII 3aHHhIMH nJIeTeHhlMH CTeHaMII, pacnpo-
nOqeTHoro roCTSI B y~MYPTCKOM )l(JlJIK- crpaHeHHoe y a~hIrCKKX Hapo~oB.
m.e.
IIIIJ,bI3 ( = nlllhI3 ). IIoxo)Kee Ha llIaJIalli
IIYITAT. IIoJlamu (1, 2) B U36e (1) qepKeCCKoe )KIIJIIlm.e C BhITSIHyThlM nJIa-
TaTap-MlIllIapeH. HOM.
IIYITbIIET (=nyJIhnHTp) . .IJ;epeBSIHHhIH IIIIJ,bI3XYPEM. Kpyrnoe qepKeCCKoe
nlonump (cp.: AHaJlOu). )KKJIIlm.e, no tPopMe nOXO)Kee Ha
IIYIThTOBM.IJ;HAA KPbIIIIA. IIOJIO- llIaJIalli.
rruI O~HOCKaTHaSI KpblUla. IIbIB3AH. 3hIPSIHCKruI OXOTHHqhSI
K36YlllKa CHe60JIhlllHM aM6apOM (1) ~JISI
IIYHKITM. IIOJIyctPepllqeCKHe rOJIOBKK
~06hIqH.
Kpene)KHhIX CTep)KHeH, npHMeHSIBllIllxCSI
B ~peBHepyccKoM npIlKJIa~HOM IICKyC- IIbIPT. ITonapcKaSI cpy6HruI u36a (1)
CTBe. 6e3 nOTOJIKa, OTanJIIIBaeMruI 'lYBaJlOM.

-107-
PAEATKA. Y3KH"H n;BeTHMK rro KpaIO P A3,o:BOEHHhII1: YrOJI. BHeIIIHHH P AMO'1HA5I <l>EPMA. Apo'tllaH pep-
,n;OpOrM HJIH a.!l.!leu. yroJI 3,n;aHHlI, 3arra,n;aIOIl\HH H3-3a HeCJIH- Ma.
BaIOIl\HXCli .!IOnamOK rro KpaliM CMbIKa-
PAEOTHhII1: ,o:OM. I1crrpaBHTeJIbHOe P AMO'1HhII1: HAJII1'1HI1K. 3aMKHY-
IOIl\HXCli <paca,n;HbIX rrJIOCKOcTeH.
Y'lpe)!(,n;eHHe, B KOTOPOM cO,n;ep)!(aJIHCb M Toe 06paMJIeHHe rrpoeMa, MMeIOIl\ee
BbIIIOJIHl1JIH 06Il\eCTBeHHO rrOJIe3HYIO P A3,IJ,EJIKA. 1 YTOJIIl\eHHe KHprrH'l- o,n;HHaKOBoe Ce'leHHe Ha Bcex Y'laCTKax.
pa60TY JIHn;a HH3IIIHX COCJIOBHH, COBep- HOH CTeHbI Obl.MOXOOa Pl1,n;OM C ,n;epeBl1H-
P AMTIA. 1 HaKJIOHHali rrJIOCKOCTb.
IIIHBIIIHe He3Ha'lHTeJIbHbIe rrpecTyrrJIe- HbIMH KOHCTPYKn;l1l1MH, a TaK)!(e KaMeH-
2 Ea.!llocmpaoa, rrepHJIa.
HHl1, a TaK)!(e HeHMYIl\He C YBe'lbl1MH (rro Hal1 CTeHKa 6e3 ,n;epeBl1HHbIX 3JIeMeHTOB,
YKa3Y 1781 r.). B03Bo,n;HMali Pl1,n;OM C TorrKOH rre'lH HJIH P AHKAH. Orpa)!(,n;eHHe za.!Iepeu HJIH
HHoro KyxoHHoro O'lara. 211.bl.M06IlUK. JleCTHMn;bI, B l1rrOHCKHX rrocTpoHKax.
P ABEJII1H. TpeyroJIbHOe B rrJIaHe
<pOpTH<pHKan;HOHHoe coopy)!(eHHe rre- P A3)KEJIOEOK. )KeCTliHOH )!(eJIo6 PATITIOPT. TIoBTOPliIOIl\HHC113JIeMeHT
pe,n; KpenOCmllbl.M PBOM, Me)!(,ll;Y 6ac- ,n;JIli rrporrycKa ,n;O)!(,n;eBoH BO,n;bI, YJIO)!(eH- opHaMeHTa.
mUOllaMu. HbIH Ha ,n;OIl\aTOe OCHOBaHHe B yrrry6JIe-
PACKAT (=pocKaT). EpeBeH'laTbIH
HHM KP06.!1U, a TaK)!(e Pl1,n;OM C ,n;bIMOBOH
rrOMOCT ,n;JIli rrYIIIeK Ha KpenOCmllou CTe-
Tpy60H HJIH C.!lYX06blM OKIl0M.
He, a TaK)!(e rrOMOCT HJIH HaCbIIIHal1 rrJIO-
P A3)KI1BKA. Herrry60KHe KaHaBKH Ha
OCHOBHOH rroBepxHocTH ,n;epeBl1HHOrO
6ape.!lbepa, c,n;eJIaHHble ,n;JIl1 Mo,n;eJIH-
POBKM opHaMeHTa HJIH B HHbIX 3CTeTH-
'leCKHX n;eJIlIX.

PA30PBAHHhII1: <I> POHTOH (=BbI-


PA,o:Y)I(HOE CTEKJIO. CTeKJIO C
rpbI3eHHbIH <pPOHTOH). (/Jpollm«)ll, y
pa,n;Y)!(HOH rro6e)!(aJIOCTbIO rrOBepXHO-
KOToporo ,n;JIli ,n;eKopaTHBHoro 3<p<peK-
CTH, rrOJIY'leHHOe rrYTeM B03,n;eHCTBHl1 Ha
Ta rrpepBaHbI CKaTbI.
Hero B paCKaJIeHHOM COCTOl1HHH a30THO-
m,a,n;Ka rro,n; KpenOCmllbl.M 6a.!10M (1),
KHCJIbIX H XJIOPHCTbIX COJIeH; pacrrpo- PA3PE3HOI1: TIAPTEP. 06paMJIeH-
c,n;eJIaHHbIe C TOH )!(e n;eJIbIO (CM. Eama-
CTpaHlIJIOCb C 1870-x rr. HbIH CTpH)!(eHbIM 6YKCOM (caMIIIHToM)
peH).
rrapKoBbIH napmep (1), PMCYHOK KOTO-
PA3rpY30'1HA5I APKA. ApKa (3),
poro C03,n;aIOT n;BeTbI Ha rreC'laHOMPACKOC. HaKJIOHHblH 6pyc (1), yrrH-
BKJIIO'leHHaJI B TOJIIl\Y K.!IaOKU H rrepe-
<poHe. paIOIl\HHCli O,n;HMM KOHn;OM B llaCaoKY (1)
pacrrpe,n;eJIliIOIl\al1 HarpY3KH, - ,n;JIli
M B BepIIIMHy O,n;HOH cmouKu, a ,n;py-
60JIbIIIeH Ha,n;e)!(HOCTH KOHCTpYKn;HH. P AI1:CKI1E BPA T A. C6Hmbie 6pama.
rMM - B .!IeJICellb (1) M B HM)!(HMH KOHell,
PAKA. BbITl1HYTbIH rro ropM30HTaJIH ,n;pyroH CTOHKM, YCHJIHBaJI rrpO'lHOCTb
MeTaJIJIH'leCKHH l1Il\HK C OCTaHKaMH CBl1- KOHCTPYKlI,HH.
Toro, o<popMJIeHHbIH KaK capKopaz HJIH
PACKPETIOBKA.
- , , apxHTeKTypHoe coop~eHHe.
,/'
BblcTyrr rrpOTl1)!(eHHOrO ropH30HTaJIb-
-/' -,::-',; ,I.:~ P AKOBI1HA. BeepHoe 3arrOJIHeHHe Horo 3JIeMeHTa, rrapaJIJIeJIbHbIH I1JIOCKO-
mUMnalla 3aKOMapbl HJIH rrOJIYKpyrJIOro CTH CTeHbI.
Bepxa HMIIIH.
P ACTIAJIYEKA. 1 PaBHo6e,n;peHHbIH
P AMMA. A)!(ypHble ,n;epeBl1HHble pe- TPeyrOJIbHbIH Y'laCTOK n;MJIHH,n;pH'leCKOH
IIIeTKH, coe,n;HHl1IOIl\He rroBepxy CTOJI6bI, rrOBepXHOCTH C ,n;yroo6pa3HbIM OCHOBa-
B l1rrOHCKHX I10CTpoHKax. HHeM, OrrHpaIOIlI,HMCl1 Ha ,n;Be TO'lKH.

108

-108-
P PAcnAWHASI ABEPb - PMrA 109

2 CBOAHK C Tpeyrom,HoH, cTPem,'IaTOH, PE,[(HHA. PacnOJIO}KeHHaSl Ha KpalO 3Be3A'IaThIM KpaeM, 3aKpeTIJIeHHhIe Ha


napaGOJIuqecKoH, nRTUYmJIhHOH HJIH OTKPhITOro npocTPaHcTBa 'IaCTh napKo- nepeCe'leHHH nOJIOC B KOBaHhIX ABepSlx
npmmyrOJIhHOH npoeKD:HeH, HaBHCa- Boro MaCCHBa, AJISI KOTOPOH xapaK- MH npYTheB B peweTKax.
IOm;HH HaA npoeMoM H Bpe3aHHhIH B TepHhI HeCOMKH}'TOCTh KpOH H OTCYT-
OCHOBHOH caoo nOMem;eHIDl. CTBHe nOAJIeCKa.

PE,[(YT. IIpHcnoco6JIeHHoe AJISI KPyrO-

cr '.'. , BOH OGOpOHhI COMKH}'Toe nOJIeBOe yKpe-


.'.
. " nJIeHHe C npSlMoyrOJIhHhIM HJIH MHoro-

PACIlAII1HA51 ,[(BEPh. ,[(BYCTBOp'la-


TaR ABeph.

P ACIIAIIIHhIE KPhillhD;A. CHMMe-


yrOJIhHhIM TIJIaHOM, KOTOPhIH BKJIIO'IaeT PETHPA,[(A. 1 A6utftum. 2 OTXO}Kee
TPH'IHhIe OmlCUOftbte ICpbt.ltbi¥J no pa3-
HhIe CTOPOHhI 3AaHHSI. B ce6S1 6a.t1 (1) C 6aftICemOM (1), a TaK}Ke MeCTO, y60pHaR.
OKaHMJIeHHOe BHeWHHM H BH}'TPeHHHM PETPAHIIIEMEHT. 1 BcnOMOraTeJIh-
PACIIYIIIKA. BbtOpa (2). pBaMH. HaR q,opmq,HKalUlOHHaR nocTPoil:Ka AJISI
P ACCBEThI. BepmKaJIhHhIe nOBepx- PE)K. rOpOOlffl (1, 2, 3). YCHJIeHHoil: BH}'TPeHHeil: OGOpOHhI ICpe-
HOCTH OKOHHoro npoeMa, KOTOPhIH pac- nocmu B CJIyqae npophIBa npOTHBHHKa
wHpSleTcSI B CTOPOH}' Uftmepbepa. PE3EPB.A)K. TeXHOJIOrHR H3rOTOBJIe-
PACCTEKJIOBKA. PaC'IJIeHeHHe ne- HHR 06oeB, npH KOTOPOH ne'laTaeTCSI
penJIeTa iIa 3aCTeKJIeHHhIe yqacTKH. TOJIhKO HX q,OH, a PHCYHOK oGpa3yeT
HCXOAHaR nOBepxHocTh GYMarH.
P ACIIIHBKA. MexasuqeCKaR oGpa-
GOTKa WBa B BHAe aa.tlulCa (2) Me~y PE:HHCKHH IIOrPEE. KJIaAOBaR AJISI
TOHKHX :HCe./106ICo6. BHHa.
P A TYlIIA. 1 OpraH ropoAcKoro ca- PEKAMhE. KOPOTKaR lCyutemlCa C BhI-
MoynpaBJIeHHR B PYCCKHX 2OpoOax (2) COKHM H30rH}'ThIM H3rOJIOBheM.
C 1727 no 1743 r. (CM. Mazucmpam).
2 COCJIOBHhIH CYA B HeGOJIhWHX 2OpOOax PEKPEAD;H5I. IIoMem;eHHe B yqeGHoM (CM. A6utftum). 2 IIoJIeBoH OKon AJISI
3AaHHH, npeAHa3Ha'leHHOe AJISI oTAhIXa neXO,:\,hI, B KOTOPOM ABe napaJIJIeJIhHhIe
(2) POCCHH XVIII H XIX BB.
yqam;HXcR B nepephIBe Me~y 3aHRTH- BhIeMKH my6HHoH 3 q,yTa pa3AeJIeHhI
PAYIIIrEJIhE. KpaCHaR KpacKa C }KeJI- 6pycmaepoM.
SlMH.
TOBaThIM OTTeHKOM.
PEJIH. 1 Ma'lThI, nOAAep}KHBalOlJUle PEcI>JIEKTOP. IIocepeGpeHHoe BOJIHH-
P AD;HOHAJIhHhI11: KHPIIHQ. QenH HJIH KaHaThI 6UCR'leZO Mocma. CToe CTeKJIO B nOABH}KHOH MeTaJIJIuqec-
EeToHHhIH HCKYCTBeHHhIil: KaMeHh C KOH paMe, KOTOPaR YKpenJIeHa cHapY}KH
2 Ape./lu.
napaJIJIeJIhHhIMH m;eJIeBHAHhIMH nyCTO- nepeA OKHOM 3aTeMHeHHoro nOMem;e-
TaMH (npHMeHRJICSI C 1912 r.; KOHCTPYK- PEMEIIIKH. 1 (=apMHJIJIhI, aHHeJIe- HHR, - AJISI pacnpocTPaHeHHR B HeM AHe-
~ PYCCKHX HH}KeHepOB C. JI. IIpoxo- ThI). Y3KHe peJIheq,Hhle KOJIhQa B OCHO- BHoro CBeTa.
pOBa H M. H. CMHpHO~a). BaHHH aXUfta, onORChIBalOlJUle OCHOBa-
HHe OopU'lecICOU lCanume./lu. 2 HaGop- PEIIIETHHhI. OCHoBHhle 3JIeMeHThI
PEBEPEEP. MeTaJIJIuqeCKoe 3epKaJIO
HhIH 6azem (2) H3 TPex OAHHaKOBhIX o6peutemlCu.
npH JIaMne HJIH CBe'le, nOBhIwalOm;ee
nJIaHOK C MepHhIM PHTMOM BhlnyKJIO-
OCBem;eHHOCTh. PHrA. 3aBepWeHHaSl HaBeCOM no-
cTeil:, KOTophIe B coceAHHX PSlAax CMe-
CTPOHKa AJIR CyWKH 3epHoBoro XJIeGa H
PErOJIA. IIoMem;eHHaR nOA mpuz./lU- m;eHhI Ha nOJIwara.
JIhHa.
POM H paBHaR eMY no WHpHHe nOJIO'lKa
C weCThlO zymmaMU, npHMhIKalOm;aR PEHTEPE5I. MecTHoe Ka3Ha'leil:CTBo,
CHH3Y K meftUu. npHHHMaBWee HaJIOrOBhIe B3HOChI, xpa-
HHBwee Ka3eHHhle AeHhrH H BhIAaBaB-
PErYJI5IPHhIl1:. OCHOBaHHhIH Ha CHM- wee HX no paCnOpR}KeHHIO BoeBOAhI;
MeTPHH reOMeTPuqecKHX nOCTPOeHHH. cym;ecTBOBaJIH TaKHe Ka3Ha'leHCTBa C
PE,[(AH. OTKphITOe nOJIeBOe yKpeTIJIe- 1720 r.
HHe, 06pam;eHHoe B CTOPOH}' npOTHB-
PEHIIITOK. YJIO}KeHHOe BAOJIh AOPO}K- . ,~----~
HHKa OCTPhlM yrJIOM.
Horo nOJIOTHa HCKycCTBeHHOe PYCJIO H3
KaMHSI, KHpnH'Ia, GeToHa HJIH AepeBRH-
HhIX waweK (B COOTBeTCTBHH C nOKphI-
THeM npoe3}KeH 'Iacm), HanpaBJISlIOm;ee
JIHBHeBhIe BOAhI K MeCTaM eCTeCTBeH-
Horo CTOKa.
(\ '-17
I IJ" \j I

PEIIhH (=peneil:KH). MeTaJIJIH'IeCKHe


poaemlCu C oKpyrJIhIMH JIeneCTKaMH HJIH
""'--~"/

-109-
P PMrA'I - PYHAYK 110

PIt:rA q. TIpHCTpouKa ,n:ml xpaHeHHSI KaMHSIMH Me}K,t\y HeCKOJIbKHMH pSI,n:aMH POHAEJIh. HeBblcoKaSI 6autHR (3),
XJle6a B CHOrrll,X, rrpHMLlKalO~aSI K C6aU. BLlcTYrralO~aSI H3 KperrOCTHblX CTeH B
capaIO C rre'lhlO ,n:JISI HX CyuIKH. CTOPOHY rrpOTHBHHKa ,n:yro06pa3Hou
POfATKA. 3aKpellJIeHHbIU Ha BepTH-
rroBepxHoCTblO.
PHfEJIh. fopH30HTaJIbHLlU 6pyc (1), KaJIbHOU OCH roPH30HTaJIbHhIU 6pyc (1)
coe,n:HHSlIO~u cmponUllbHble H02U B C 'lacTbIMH KpecTOBHHaMH, 3aKpbmaB- POCKAT. PaCKam.
6UCR'tUX cmponUilax. IIIHU rrpoe3,n: rro yJIH~e HJIH ,n:opore.
POCTBEPK. B3aHMHO rreprreH,n:HKy-
PHfEJIhHO-TIO,lJ;KOCHMI CHCTE- JISIpHLle Jle3ICHU Ha C6aRX, rro,n:,n:epxama-
MA. KOHCTPY~SI ,n:epeBSlHHblX lO~e fjJYHOaMeHm.
MOCTOB, rrpH KOTOPOU nOOKocbl YITHpa-
IOTCSI CBOHMH BepIIIHHaMH B PUUJlb.

PH:>KCKMI MOCTOBMI. Moaau'tec-


KaR MOCm06aR.
POCTPAJIhHhIH. YKpaIIIeHHbiu CTH-
PH3AJIHT. BblcTyrralO~aSI 'laCTb P03A. BOJIbIIIoe KpyrJIOe OKHO co JIH30BaHHbIMH H306pIDKeHHSIMH Kopa-
<lJaca,n:a (KaK rrpaBHJIO, HMelO~aSI rrpSl- CJIO}I{HblM Y30PHbIM rreperrJIeToM. 6eJIbHblX Hoca H KOPMbl.
MOyrOJIbHbrn rrJIaH) - O,n:HH H3 cy~e-
CTBeHHblX 3JIeMeHTOB ero cHMMe1"pH'l- POTOHAA. 3,n:aHHe C KpyrJIbIM lIJIa-
HOU KOMrr03H~H. HOM HJIH 60JIbllIOU ~JIHH,n:pH'leCKHU
06'beM, 3aBepIIIeHHblU KynoJloM.
PH3HHQA. TIoMe~eHHe B ~epKBH HJIH
MOHacTblpe, rrpe,n:Ha3Ha'leHHOe ,n:JISI xpa- POTYHAA. KpyrJIaSI 6eceoKa(1, 2),
HeHHSI 06JIa'leHHU H ~epKoBHoH yTBapH, pomoHoa.
a TaK}l{e OT,n:eJIbHOe 3,n:aHHe Toro xe Ha3-
POII(A. MaccHB ,n:epeBbeB O,n:HOU H TOU
Ha'leHHSI.
xe rropo,n:bI, B neUaa:HCHOM napKe, C rrpo-
PH3HHQHhIH TIPH,lJ;EJI. j{bRKOH- P03APHH. 1 Y'laCTOK ca,n:a, rrpe,n:Ha3- CMaTpHBaeMbIM rrpOC1"paHCTBOM Me}K,tly
HUK. Ha'leHHbIU ,n:JISI BbIP~BaHHSI p03 pa3- CTBOJIaMH.
JIH'lHblX rro ~eTY H <lJopMe. 23apOCJIb
PHMCKMI M03AHKA. M03aH'lHOe ,n:HKopacTy~ero IIIHllOBHHKa B rrapKo- PY,lJ;HhIH ,lJ;BOP. PaclIIHpeHHe py,n:-
H306pIDKeHHe H3 O'leHb MeJIKHX rroJIHpo- BOM KOMrrJIeKce. HH'lHOrO KopH,n:opa rrepe,n: rro,n:'beMHOH
BaHHbIX KaMeIIIKOB. IIIaxTOH, rrpe,n:Ha3Ha'leHHOe ,n:JISI BpeMeH-
P03ETKA (=p03eTTa). ,lJ;eKOpaTHB- HOro CKJIa,n:HpOBaHHSI py,n:bl.
PUMCKMI QEPETIHIJ;A. Tparre~H­
HbIH MOTHB B BH,n:e KpyrJIOrO ~BeTKa C
eBH,n:HbIe rrJIOCKHe IIJIHTKH C Y3KHMH PY,lJ;O-xEnThIH.OpaH}l{eBbIH.
O,n:HHaKOBblMH JIerreCTKaMH.
60pTHKaMH rro HaKJIOHHblM cTopoHaM
P03ETTA. 1 CTHJIH30BaHHoe H306pa- PYHHA. TIapKoBoe coopyxeHHe-; C
xeHHe ~BeTKa B pHCYHKe ca,n:OBo-rrapKO- POMaHTH'leCKOH XHBOIIHCHOCTblO H306-
pIDKalO~ee pa3BaJIHHbI aHTH'lHOro xpa-
BOro napmepa (1).2 PoaemKa.
Ma, rp06HH~bI H T. ,n:.
P030BhIM CM. PezYJlRpHblU rrapK C
rrpe06JIa,n:aHHeM p03 B ero 06JIHKe. PYKAB. 1 Ka}K,tIoe H3 'leTbIpex OTBeT-
BJIeHHU KpeCT006pa3HoH lIJIaHHpOBKH,
POKAHrrhHhIH. XapaKTepHblu ,n:JISI a TaK}l{e cooTBeTcTBYIO~U eMY apXH-
aCHMMe1"pH'lHOrO apXHTeKTYPHoro ,n:e- TeKTypHblH 06'beM. 2 Maput ..
Kopa POKOKO (HarrpHMep, ,n:HaroHaJIb-
PYMTIA. Kop06'laTLlU BLlCTYrr Ha
TParre~HH, y,n:ep}I{HBaeMble 1"peHHeM
3a,n:HeH cTopoHe U3paa~, rrpe,n:Ha3Ha-
(6e3 Kperre}I{HblX IIIHrroB) Ha CIIJIOIIIHOU
'leHHbIH ,n:JISI ero 3aKpellJIeHHSI B KJlaOKe
o6peutemKe rrpH ee YKJIOHe He 60JIee
1:4; CTLlKH rrepeKpbIBalOTcSI 3JIeMeH-
TaMH B BH,n:e yce'leHHOrO KOHYca.

PHMCKHH KPECT. JIamuHcKuu


Kpecm.

PHMCKHH OPAEP. KOMnoaumHblu


opoep.
Hble rreperrJIeTeHHSI C KpyrrHblM rrpOCBe-
PHTIH,lJ;A. Cepe6pIDlhIu HJIH 30JIO'le-
TOM, pe6pHCTble 3aBHTKH MOPCKHX rre'lH HJIH CTeHbI (rrpH 3TOM BHYTPeH-
HbIU ,n:HCK JIH60 rrpSIMoyrOJIbHHK C IDKYP-
paKOBHH, rrpHXOTJIHBO H30rnyTbIe, pa3- HOCTb P. 3arrOJIHSleTCSI paCTBopoM C KHp-
HbIM H306pIDKeHHeM cepafjJUMa B JIy'lax
BeTBJIeHHble H ClIJIeTeHHbIe rr06erH IIJIO- IIH'IHbIM ~e6HeM).
CHSIHHSI, 3aKpellJIeHHblU Ha ,n:JIHHHOM
,n:OBbIX paCTeHHH).
BePTHKaJIbHOM IIIeCTe H BbIHOCHMbIU
PYH.n;YK. 1 napb C rro,n:'beMHOH KpbIIII-
rrpOTO,n:bSlKOHOM BO BpeMSI apxHepeHc- POKAPMM. Y'laCTOK rrapKa, 06'be,n:H-
KOU, HCrrOJIb3yeMbrn KaK CKaMbSi. 2
Koro 60rOCJIyxeHHSI (B 'laCTHOCTH, rrpH HSlIO~H B CB060,n:HblX KOMII03H~HSIX
KPLlTaSI rrJIO~a,n:Ka HapY}I{HoH JIeCT-.
KpecTHoM xo,n:e). aCHMMe1"pH'lHbIe rJIbI6b1 OUKOZO KaMHR
HH~bI rrpH ,n:peBHepyccKoM 3,n:aHHH. 3
H rroca,n:KH ~BeTOB.
PHCBEPMA. TIJIO~a,n:Ka C HH30BOU HH3KHH rrpSIMOyrOJIbHblU 06'beM, HaBH-
CTOPOHbI 6ooocnycKHou, 6000CJlU6HOU POMAHCKMI KATIMTEnh. Ky6o- calO~H Ha,n: BXO,n:OM B 6peBeH'laTbIH
JIH60 zJlYxou nJlOmUHbl, BblCTJIaHHaSI 6amaR KanUmeJlb. aM6ap (1, 2).

-110-
P PYCCKASI KnAAKA - PSI)K 111

PYCCKA5I KJIA.D:KA. BepCm06aR JISUOIqHH 3aBO~HTb 3a):1BIDKHOH 3anOp-


lUlaOKa. HbIH 6pyc (1).

PYCCKA~ llEqb (=BapHcTruI ne'Ib). PbIM. )I(eJIe3HOe KOJIb~O (;n;HaMeTp -


HaH60JIee pacnpOCTpaHeHHhIH B Pyc- 10-20 ;n;IOHMOB, TOJl~Ha 2-3
CKOM KpecTbSIHcKOM cTpoHTeJIbCTBe run ;n;IOHMa) ;n;JIX IIIBapTOBKH cy;n;oB, KOTopoe
ne'lH, ~JIX KOToporo xapaKTepHbI: Bpa~aeTcSI B npoyutwte 60JITa, 3a):1eJIaH-
OTCYTcTBHe obtMoo6opomo6, HaJIH'IHe HOro B KaMeuuyIO lUlaoKY Ha6epe)KHOH.
60JIbIIIHX nOJIOCTeH, n03BOJISUOIIQIX HC-
PbIHbIill. OBHH B KOMH-3hIpmcKoH
nOJIb30BaTb HX ~X BbIne'lKH XJIe6a H
ycaob6e.
~JIX MhITbX, a TaIOKe HaJIH'lHe umpOKOH
JIeXaHKH HaBepxy. P3H.D:3I1MMO. Pa3;n;BHX<HhIe OKOH-
HhIe paMbI C 'IaCTbIM peIIIeT'IaTbIM nepe-
PYCCKIIE rOPbI. rOpbt.
nneTOM, 3aTXHYTbIe 6eJIOH 6YMaroH (B
PYCCKIIE qACbI. .D:peBHepyccKHe xnOHCKHX nOCTpOHKax).
'IaChI, ~<pep6JIaT KOTOPbIX pa3~eJleH
P3H.D:30 KYEAPlI. IJ;eJIbHruI 6aJIKa
Ha 17 'IaCTeH - ~JIX 0603HaQeHIDI ~HeB­
Ha HeCKOJlbKHX onopax B xnOHCKOH
Horo BpeMeHU OT~eJIbHO OT HO'IHOrO;
nOCTpoHKe.
pOJIb CTpeJIKH HrpaJIO H306paxeHHe
COJIH~a C JIY'IaMH, ~BHraBIIIeecSi no BHe- P~. Cpy6 C npOCBeTaMH MeX<;n;y 6pi!-
IIIHeMY KpaIO ~<pep6JIaTa. Belt, 3anOJlHeHHbIH KaMHSIMH (;n;JISI Kpe-
nOCTHbIX H rH;n;pOTeXHH'leCKHX coopyx<e-
PYCCKIIH MAKA.D:AM. MalcaoaM. Ha
HUH) (CM. rOpOOHR (1, 2, 3).
HCKycCTBeHHoH neC'IaHOH nO;n;CTHJIKe.

PYCCKIIH YrOJI. Opyc 'tMObtut.

PYCT. llOBTOPSUOIqHHCX :meMeHT pyc-


m06KU.
PYCTOBAHHAA illTYKATYPKA.
Pycmo6Ka, HCnOJIHeHHruI B IIITYKaTypKe
6e3 peaJIbHbIX BhIcTYnoB K.!laOKu.
PYCTOBKA. .D:eKopaTHBHruI o6pa-
60TKa cTeHHoH nOBepxHoCTH, HanOMH-
HaIO~aSl K.!laoKY H3 KPYnHbIX KaMHeH
.: " , d';' "")o.!~I~~~..!~~~~.
;~;:.)t3:;~?l}i<'
r

HJIH HMeIO~ruI BH;n; roPH30HTaJIbHhIX


nOJIOC PaBHOH IIIHpHHhI (TO'lHee - Bbl-
COTbI), peJIbe<pHo BhICTYnaIOIIQIX Ha):I
<pOHOM.

PYXJI~.D:HA~ llAJIATKA. KaMeHHoe


CBO;n;'IaTOe nOMe~eHHe JIH60 3;n;aHHe C
XeJIe3HhIMH ;n;BepSlMH H CTaBHSlMH, npe;n;-
Ha3Ha'leHHOe ;n;JISI xpaHeHHX MeJIKOrO
;n;OMaIIIHero HMY~ecTBa 6oraToro BJIa-
;n;eJIb~a.

PYQEH. rOpH30HTaJIbHhIH na3 B Ka-


MeHHoH K.!laOKe OTKoca npoeMa, n03BO-

-111-
CA.o;HJIO. 1 He60JIbUIaH pUla 6e3 pH;L\a 'IeTbIpex mbt'tKOB, y KOTOPbIX I1pOeMOM HJIH HHilieH (H3Ha'laJIbHO
cpe;LIHeH CTeHKH H I10TOJIKa. 2 MecTo B I10CJIe ;LIByKpaTHoro o6MaKHBaHHH KHP- ;LIJIH 3a~TbI OT ;LIO)K;LIeBOH BO;LIbI).
I1apHHKe, 3aHHTOe HMaMH C'IepH03eMoM I1H'Ia B H3BeCTb OCTaBaJICH KpacHbIM
;LIJIH oBo~eH, Tpe6ylOIIl;Hx oco6oro yxo- I1IHpOKHH paBHo6e;LIpeHHblH TpeyrOJIb-
;LIa. 3 He3aCTeKJIeHHOe OKHO, 'Iepe3 HHK - B cpe;LIHeM PH:r:lY ;LIBa TaKHX TPe-
KOTopoe OIlYCKalOT CHOIlbI B OBUH. yrOJIbHHKa paCIIOJIaralOTCH BepIlIHHoH
BHH3 (KaK H B TbI'IKe BepxHero pH;LIa), a
CA,lJ;OK. 1 Ca:J/Ca.!/xa. 2 EOJIbiliaH KJIeT- HH)KHHH TPeyrOJIbHHK o6pa~eH BepIlIH-
Ka, B KOTOPOH cO;LIep)KaT H pa3Bo;LIHT HOH BBepx; I1pHMeHHJIaCb ;LIJIH yKpaIlIe-
I1eB'IHX I1TH~.
HHH KHpIlH'IHbIX ua6 (1) C JIH~eBOH KJlaO-
CA,lJ;PAl.J: OPYH.o;YK. KOU BHeUIHHX CTeH.
YKpaIlIeHHbIe CAHKTYAPHH. lloMe~eHHe B KaTO-
pe3b6oH ;LIo~aTbIe CTeHKH paBHoH CAMl.(OBA5I KPOBJI5I. THII KpbtutU JIH'IeCKOM xpaMe, I1pe;LIHa3Ha'leHHOe ;LIJIH
BbICOTbI - I10 TpeM CTOPOHaM KpoBaTH ;LIepeBHHHbIX I10CTpOeK, I1pH KOTOPOM xpaHeHHH H ;LIeMoHcTPa~HH I1pe;LIMeToB
;LIJIH rJIaBbI ceMbH B Kapa'laeBCKOM
I1PO;LIOJIbHbIe 6aJIKH YKJIa;LIbIBalOTcH Ha JIHTyprHH.
AillJIH~e.
6peBHa, o6pa3ylO~e U{unl{OBbte l/JPOH-
CAHCOBHHO OKHO. OKHO, B KOTO-
CA)!(. XrreB, B KOTOPbIH Ca)KalOT CBH- mOHbt TOp~OBblX CTeH.
POM apKa (1), 3aBepUIaIO~aH I1pOeM,
HeH ;LIJIH oTKopMa. cpJIaHKHpOBaHa mpex'temBepm1tbt.MU
CA)KAJIKA. 1 (=ca;LIoK). llpy;LI ;LIJIH Ka1t1teJlUpOBa1t1tbt.MU KOJlO1t1taMU C U01tU-
pa3Be;LIeHHH PbI6bI. 2 KOpOTKHH ;LIepe- 'teCKUMU KanUmeJlR.MU, Hecy~HMH

BHHHbIH KOJI. UMnOCmbt (1).

CAHHHK (=3aryH). KpbITbIH 3aroH CAllA. HaIlpaBJIeHHaH B CTOPOHY oca-


;LIJIH JIOIlIa;LIeH, B ycaob6e KOMH-3bIpHH. )K;LIaeMOH Kpenocmu TPaHUIeH, I1OCTe-
I1eHHO y;LIJIHHHeMaH I10;LI rrpHKpblTHeM
CAKJI5I. KaBKa3CKOe Hapo;LIHoe )KHJIH- Ma1tmeJlemOB, uta1tOeJlbepOB, mypoB H
~e, 06bI'IHO YCTPoeHHoe B CKJIOHe l/Jautu1t.
rOpbI.

CAKPHCTH5I. PuaHUl{ll I1pH KaTOJIH-


'IeCKOM HJIH JIlOTepaHcKoM xpaMe.

CAKCOHCKHH CBO.o;. Bo'tapHbtU


CBOO. CAMl.(OBbIH JIOE. Iaunel{ Ha Top~e
6peBeH'IaTOH ua6bt (1).
CAlIA. 3a.t1a.
CAHEOHH. rJIaBHOe 3;L1aHHe CHHTO-
CAMAH (=B03;L1YUIHbIH KHPIIH'I). He-
HCTCKoro xpaMa.
060)K)KeHHbIH KPYIlHbIH KHpIIH'I H3
rJIHHHcToro rpYHTa, CMeIlIaHHoro C CAHrABAP A. BOJIHHCTOe I10KpbITHe
o6pe3KaMH COJIOMbI (cp.: JIeMna't). B HIIOHCKOH apxHTeKType.

CAMMOH. rJIaBHbIe BopOTa I1epe;LI CAH.o;PA. IIoJlamu (2) Ha;LI BXO;LIOM B


CAllorOM (=rnaroJIeM). Pa3Me~e­
HIIOHCKHM xpaMoM. 6aIlIKHpcKoe )KHJIH~e.
HHe O;LIHoHpycHoro oBopa (1) B Kpe-
CAMOBAP. CHMMeTpH'IHaH I1JIOCKOCT- CAH.o;PHK. He6oJIhiliOH oTpe30K Kap- CTbHHCKOH ycaob6e C60KY H C3a;L\H ua6bt
HaH q>Hrypa H3 pa3Me~eHHbIX B TPH Huaa HJIH l/JpoHmoH, I10Me~eHHhIH Ha;LI (1), C OXBaTOM ee I10 ;LIByM CTOPOHaM.

112

-112-
c CAPA~ - CEHr06EHCKOE CTEKnO 113

CAPAH. 1 CKJIa):(cKruI rrOCT}JoHKa. CBETOBOH EAPAEAH. Bapa6aH C CTopOHaMH C rrOMOW;blO HX OTeCKH Ha


2.3):(aHHe, B KOTOPOM CTOKJIH BarOHbI H OKHaMH, OCBew;alOw;HMH UHrnepbep. ):(Be rpaHH rro~ ryrrbIM yrJIOM (Ha O~HOH
rrapoBo3bI, a TaIOKe XpaHHnHCb 3arrac- cTopoHe - Brr~HHa, Ha ~pyroH -
CBEqHOH .sIIIJ;MK. BblCOKHH H BMe-
HbIe qaCTH H MaTepHanbI ):(ng Hy)KJ\ BbIcTyrr).
CTHTenbHbIH napb-rrpllnaBOK ~g xpaHe-
)Kene3HOH ):(oporH.
HHSI H rrpO):(a)KH CBeqeH, 06bIqHO paCIIO-
CAPAH-3JillMHr. 3):(aHHe ):(ng CTO- JIO)KeHHbIH B 3arr~HOH qaCTH ~epKOB­
gHKH a3porrnaHoB, a3pocTaTOB H ):(HpH- Horo uHrnepbepa.
)Ka6neH.
CBMJIb. OKpyrnblH HarrJIbIB Ha CTBone
CAPA «PAH. OCHOBHOH 06"beM KonOKO- ):(epeBa, o6n~arom;HH 3arrYTaHHbIM
na, HMelOW;HH B~ yceqeHHOrO KOHyca. rreperrneTeHHeM BOJIOKOH, 'ITO C03):(aeT
rrOBbIweHHYIO rrpOqHOCTb 3Toro
CAPKO«pAr. KaMeHHoe H~rpo6He,
yqaCTKa ~peBeCHHbI H ):(eKopaTHBHYIO
BbITjffiYToe rro ropH30HTanH H HarrOMH-
rneKcrnypy Ha ero cpe3e.
HalOw;ee CyH):(yK, qaCTO co cKpyrneHHeM
CEKMPHbIH 3AM6K. PacrrpocTpa-
yrnoB H pe6ep. CBO;O: (=B3BO~). KPHBOJIHHeHHOe rre-
HeHHbIH BapHaHT .ItU'tUHbt, HarrOMHHa-
peKpblTHe, rrepe~alOw;ee Ha OCHOBaHHe
CATM. M306pa)KeHHe pbl6bI-):(paKoHa IOw;HH rro CHJIY3TY JIe3BHe CeKHpbI.
He TOJIbKO HarpY3KY, HO H pacrrop.
Ha KpoBne grrOHCKOro xPaMa.
CBOJIOK. rJIaBHruI 6anKa, rro):(~ep)KH­
CA«pT-rpMH. TeMHO-3eneHruI KpacKa.
BalOW;ruI rrOTOJIOK B U36e (1) HJIH xopo-
CEOPH5I. /l.OM (1), B KOTOPOM C06H- .Max (-cp.: Marnu~a).
pancg ):(epeBeHcKHH cxo~.
CB5I3b. 1 MeTanJIHqeCKruI rrOJIoca IInH
CBA5I. Bpyc (1) IInH 6pe8Ho, BepTH- ~epeBjffiHbIH 6pyc (1), rrpOHH3bIBalOw;He
KanbHO B6HTbIe B 3eMnlO. KaMeHHYIO KJlaoKY H rrpoTHBo):(eHCTBY-
CBETEU. )l(ene3HblH rrpyT C 3a)KHMOM, IOW;He pacrropy C80008. 2 THrr PYCCKOH
B KOTOPb[H BCTaBngnaCb ropgW;ruI U36bt (1), rrpH KOTOPOM ):(Ba )KHnbIX
JIyqHHa ~ng OCBew;eHHg B U36e (1) HnH rrOMew;eHHSI 06"be~HHSlIOTCg qepe3 ceHU
XOPOMax.
B rrpgMOyroJIbHbIH 06"beM.

CB5ITbIE BPATA. 1 BopOTa rJIaBHOrO


Bxo~a H B"be3~a B MOHaCTbIpb. 2 Uap- CEKPETEP. He6oJIbWOH rrHcbMeHHbIH
CKue 6parna. CTOJI C Ha):(cT}JoHKOH, BKJIlOqalOW;HH
BbmBH)KHbIe H rroTaHHble gW;HKH ):(JIg
):(enOBbIX 6yMar H rrHceM.

crPA«P«PMTO (=rpacpCPHTH). ;O:eKopa-


THBHag OT~enKa CTeH, rrpH KOTOPOH
nHHHH, rrpo~aparraHHbIe B BepxHeM CJIoe
wTyKarypKH, 06Ha)Ka1OT ee HH)KHHH
CBETEJIKA. He60JIbWag CBeTJIruI CJIOH HHOro ~BeTa.
KOMHaTa B BepxHeH qaCTH oOMa (1).
C;O:ABJIEHHA5I APKA. CJlCarnaR
CBETMJIbH5I. ;O:epeBgHHOe KOPbITO apKa.
pg):(OM co C8ern~OM, B KOTopoe rr~aJI
CErMEHTHA5I «pEPMA. MeTaJIJIH-
Harap C nyqHHbI.
qeCKruI CrnpOnUJIbHQR KOHCTpy~HSI,
CBETJIMUA. 1 rJIaBHOe rrOMew;eHHe B rrOMep)KHBalOw;ag Kp06J110 .Ity'tK06020
KpeCTbgHCKOM oOMe (1) (CM. rOpHU~). ceqeHHSl.
2 llapa):(Hag CBeTJIruI KOMHaTa B XOpO- CEJIbHMK. rOpHu~a (2).
CErMEHTHOE OKHO. OKHO B BH):(e
Max (1, 2). CEMMHAPM5I. Cpe~Hee yqe6Hoe 3a-
qaCTH Kpyra, 3HaqHTeJIbHO MeHbwe,
CBETJIbIH qEP;O:AK. rpYIIIIa C8ern- qeM rronOBHHa rrOCJIe):(Hero. Be):(eHHe ~JIg rro~rOTOBKH CJIY)KHTeJIeH
JlU~ B BepxHeM Rpyce XOpOM; KOHCT}JYK- KYJIbTa (~YXOBHruI C.) HnH yqHTeJIeH
CErMEHTHbIH CBO;O:. J/y'iK08btU
~Hg HX ):(epeBjffiHbIX CTeH 6blJla KapKac- HaqaJIbHOH WKOJIbI (yqHTeJIbCKag C.).
C600.
HOH, a He py6JIeHoH. CEHrOEEHCKOE CTEKJIO. CTeKJIO
CE;O:JIOM KPOBJI5I. ;O:BycKaTHruI ):(JIg rroKpbITHg naccaJlCeu, BHYTpeHHHx
CBETOBOE KOJIbUO. KpyrJIoe IInH
KP08J1R. 080P06 (1), TeIIJIH~ H T. ~., o6JI~a-
MHoroyronbHoe OTBepCTHe B UteJlbt2e,
rrporrYCKalOw;ee CBeT B UHrnepbep rro):( CE;o:JIOM llPMllA30BKA. llJIoTHag lOw;ee rrpOqHOCTblO 3epKaJIbHoro, a rro
HHM. CTbIKOBKa OOCOK (1) Y3KHMH ~nHHHbIMH CTOHMOCTH 6JIH3KOe K OKOHHOMY·

-113-
C CEHM - CKAJlA 114

CEHH. IIoMe~eHHe B rp~aHCKOH napaJIJIeJIbHO H nepne8AHKYJIKpHO ere- Kpo6.1te gnOHCKOro xpaMa, HanOMHHaIO-
nOC-rpOHKe, coeAHIDIIO~ee BXOA C KOM- HaM Ha GOJIee MaCCHBHble GaJIKH, cnno- ~ee XBOCT COBbl HJIH PbI6HH XBOCT.
HaTaMH (rum nQIJama.M.U (1) JIHGO C qeHHble B Tope~.
nepeAHeii.
CEPIIAHTHH. H3BHJIHCTruI Aopora Ha
CEHh. XYAO)KeCTBeHHO oq,opMJIeHHbIH nepena):lax peJIbeq,a (HaIIpHMep, B neu-
HaBeC Ha KOJIOHKax, B03BeAeHHbIH Ha):I 3a:JICHOM napKe).
npeCmO.lWM, mpOHOM HAP.
CEPhrA. 1 TpeyroJIbHruI nOABeCKa K
HQlJU'tHUKY. 2 OTBeperHe B Bblcryne
'tepenu'tHOU nnHTKH, n03BomIIo~ee
npHBg3aTb ee K o6peUlemKe. 3 CTeHKa
H3 i)paHKu, no KOTOpoii BbeTCg BHHO-
rpa):lHruI JI03a.
cE.o;3H. CABHraeMruI ereHKa B gnOH-
CKOH apXHTeKType, COCTO~ruI H3 JIer-
KOH AepeBJlHHOH peweTKH C 06KJIeHKOH
6yM:aroH. .

CE.o;O. 1 OTKpbITOe nOMe~eHHe C


CHBHPKA. 1 ApecTaHTCKruI npH BO-
KOJIOKOJIOM, npH CHHTOHCTCKOM xpaMe.
JIOerHOM npaBJIeHHH HJIH nOJI~eHCKOM
2 IIoMe~eHHe AM HacToneM, npHMbI-
yqacTKe. 2 He60JIbWruI 3TanHruI TIOpb-
KaIO~ee C 3a):1Heii CTOPOHbI K CHHTOHCT-
CEPA«I>HM. Pa3HOBH;lIHOCTb TaK Ha3bI- Ma. 3 HPb-cu6upKa.
CKOMY xPaMY.
BaeMbIX CHJI He6eCHbIX, H306paJKaeMIIJI
CHBHPCKOE )KEJIE30. j{oJJ¥jmoe
B BH;lIe AeTCKOH roJIOBKH C weCTbIO cEHH. 1 IIoJIKa, BAeJIaHHruI B CTeuy
:JICe.lte30.
gnOHcKoro· )KHJI~a. 2 IIIKoJIa npH
mOHCKOM xpaMe. CH.o;EJIKA. O;llHoMecTHruI napKoBruI
CKaMeiiKa-Kpecno AJIg
CECO (=cecoHH). HHJKHHii: RPYC mOH- C03ep~aHHB: npHpOAbI.
CKoro xpaMa.
CHJIJIOHA. AH6e.ltona.
CEM. XpaM B KaJIMb~KOM JIaMaHCT-
CKOM MOHaerbIpe. CHMA. BeuqaIO~ 2YCbK06btU npo-
q,HJIb i)opu'tecKozo KapHuaa.
AJIHHHbIMH KpbIDbJIMH (o;llHa napa C)KAT AA APKA (=cAaBJIeHHruI apKa).
nOABJlTa Ha):I roJIOBOH, APyrruI - ony- II.lWCKaR JIH60 nO.lW2aR apKa (1) C npo-
~eHa HHJKe roJIOBbI, a e~e ABa KpbIDa TJl)KeHHOH rOpH30HTaJIbIO Ha):I npOJIe-
pacnpoCTepTbI B CTOpoHbI). TOM.

CEPE.o;A. 1 qaerb nO,1la nepeA ne%IO iI


ua6e (1), BbICTJIaHHruI i)OCKaMU (1) nOA
npJIMbIM yrJIOM K OCTaJIbHbIM nOJIOBH-
~aM. 2 IIepeAHU qaCTb ua6bt (1).

CEPH30BhI¥I. BHIlIHeBoro ~eTa.


CEPHHET. He60JIbWOH OpUfH.
CEPJIHAHO. CaMbm pacnpOCTPaHeH- CHH.o;3H. CBgTHJI~e CHHTOHCTCKOro
Hbm BapHaHT UmQIJbRHCK020 OKHa C xpaMa.
C)KHMhl. CKpenneHHble 60JITaMH
nO;llBbIweHHblM apO'tHbtM npoeMoM CHHH¥I CAH.o;AJI. Ka.M.neute60e oe-
qepe3 MeJIKHe BbleMKH B 6pe6Hox napaJI-
nocpeAHHe; Ha3BaHO no HMeHH HTaJIb- pe60.
neJIbHbIe BepTHKaJIbHbIe 6pYCbR (1) no
JlHCKOro apXHTeKTOpa C. CepJIHo
(1475-1554). o6e CTOPOHbI 6peBeuqaToH ereHbI, npe- CHHTPOH. .o;yro06pa3HruI CKaMbg,
IIB:TCTByIO~e ee HCKpHBJIeHHIO H OT- npHMbIKaIO~ruI H3HYTPH K BOCTOqHOH
CEPJI00 IIOTOJIOK (=B nepenneTe KJIOHeHHIO OT BepTHKaJIH. CTeHe QlJmapR (1), cHMMeTPlI'IHO ero
nOTOJIOK). IIJIocKoe nepeKpbITHe H3 npOAOJIbHOH OCH.
CHAMCKHE BJlH3HEIJ;hl. .o;HBaH-
qHK B BHAe AByx cnHBWHXCg KpeCeJI, 6e3 CHOH. Cepe6pJlHbm COCYA B BHAe XPH-
npoMexyTOqHOH pyqKH Ha):I CTbIKOM c-rnaHCKoro xpaMa, npe;llHa3HaqeHHbIH
cH;lIeHHii:. AJIg npocq,op H 06blqHO YCTaHaBJIHBae-
MblH Ha npecmo.lte B QlJmape (1).
CHOCOHH. CoKpoB~~a npH mo-
HCKOM xpaMe.

CHTHhI¥I HmHK. IIeK.tte6aHHbtU


R",UK.

6aJIOK, KOTOpble KOpOqe WHpHHbI nOMe- CHBH. IIpOAOJI)KaIO~ee cmponU.lta CKAJIA. IIIHpoKoe nOJIo~e 6epe-
~eHHB:, B CBg3H C qeM YKJIaAbIBaIOTCg pa3;l1BOeHHOe yKpaweHHe KOHbKa B CTbI MeJKAY cnOlIMH TeCOBOH KP06.1tU.
f I

-114-
C CKAnOBbiE rB03AIot - COKOnbHSI 115

CKAJIOBblE rB03):t;Jf. rB03;q1f ;qJIIf- CKOJIOTEHb. ):t;epeBxHHbIH rn03;qb, HhIe pa60ThI (peMeCJIa KOHKpeTHoro
HOH 4 CM, KOTOPhIMIf nplf6lfBaIOT nOJICTh Haze.nb. xapaKTepa, 1f3B03 If ;qp.). 2 IIpIfMhIKa-
(BOHJIOK, ¢eTP) ;qJIX yrellJIeHIfH CTeH If IO~HH K 2OpOOy (2) IIPOMhIIlIJIeHHhIH
CKOJIOTMHA. Il.nacmuHa C HanOJIO-
;qBepeH. 1I0CeJIOK (XIX - Ha~aJIO XX B.).
BHHy BhI;qOJI6JIeHHOH cepe;qIfHoH, KOTO-
CKAMI1JIn. E;qBa 3aMeTHax npo- pyIO ;qJIX npo~HocTIf 3arrOJIHSIIOT paCKJIIf- CJIOHEU. IIIIf¢ep.
KJIa;qKa Me~y a6aKou oopu~ecKou HeHHhIMIf OOCKaMU.
CJIY)KEA. IIoMe~eHlfe lIo;qco6HO-
Kanume.nu If apxumpa6oM, B norrepe-
CK 0 UM5.I (= IlIOTJIaH;qcKIfH npO¢IfJIh). X03xHcTBeHHoro Ha3Ha~eHIfH B )KIfJIOM
~HIfKe PaBHax BepxHeMY ;qlfaMeTpy
CBoHcTBeHHbIH op;qepHoH apxHTeKType ;qoMe IfJIIf 3;qaHlfe C TaKoH ¢YHKQlfeH B
CTBOJIa KO.nOHHbl.
BornYThIH rrpO¢IfJIb B BIf;qe COnpSI)KeH- KOMIIJIeKCe 1I0cTPoeK.
CKAMb5.I. CBx3aHHhIe Me~y C060H HbIX ;qyr pa3Horo pa;qlfyca.
CJIYXM. 1 IIpoeMhI B Ulampe (1) KO.nO-
6pyCbR B rrpocTPaHcTBe KPbtUlU,
KO.nbHU. 2 IIo;q3eMHhIe KOplf;qOphI IfJIIf
rro;q;qep)KlfBaIO~lfe cmponu.na.
KaMepbI, BhI;qBHHYThle 3a IIpe;qeJIhI
CKATHblE rOPbl. KamaAbHaR 2Opa. YKpellJIeHIfH, ~T06hI CJIe;qHTh 110 3ByKy
3a 1I0;qKOIIHbIMH pa60TaMH IIPOTIfBHIfKa.
CKBEP. OKpY)KeHHaX )KIfJIOH 3acTpoH-
KOH 6JIaroycTPOeHHax TepplfToplfX C CJIYXOBOE OKHO. IIpoeM B Kpbt-
perYJIXpHOH 06ca;qKoH ;qepeBhxMIf no Ule, CJIy)Ka~HH ;qJISI OCBe~eHIfH H BeHTIf-
KpaIO, a B cpe;qHeH ~aCTIf - C JI~aHKa­ JIXQIfIf ~epoaKa (1).
MIf, 2a301taMU, K.nYM6aMU (1).
CJII03. mAl03.
CKETI1Hr-PMHr. KphIThIH KaTOK ;qJIX
CKPM)KAJIJf. C;qBoeHHble BepTIfKaJIb- CMA3KA. 3aCbtnKa.
e3;qhI Ha POJIIfKOBhIX KOHhKax.
HhIe KaMeHHhIe OOCKU (2) C o;qIfHaKoBbIM
CMEIIIAHHblE <pEPMbl. KOHCTPYK-
nOJIYKpyrJIhIM BepxoM, Ha KOTOPhIX
QHIf KPbtUlU, B KOTOPhIX cmponu.nbHbte
HanlfcaHbI ;qecSITb 3anoBe;qeH.
HOlU H nOOKOCbt c;qeJIaHbI 1f3 ;qepeBa, a
CKPbIH5.I. 1 KOMO;q, IlIKa¢, Kuom (2). 3amRJICKU (1) If cmpyHbt - 1f3 )KeJIe3a.
2 ):t;OPO)KHhIH CyH;qy~OK.
CMOTPMJIbH5.I. 1 He60JIhllIax ;q030p-
CKY):t;EJIbH5.I. BOJICeOOMKa (2). HaSI Ha;qcTpoHKa Ha 6aUlHe (1, 3) HJIIf

CKMHM5.I. 1 IIa.namKa. 2 mamep (1). CKy<pb5.I. C600 B BH;qe nOJIororo


llIapoBoro CerMeHTa.
CKMP):t;A. EnaH~a.
CJIAB5.IHCKMll IIIKA<p. KpynHhIH
CKMT. 1 He60JIhllIOH MOHacThlph co
MHoro¢YHKqIfOHaJIbHhIH IlIKa¢, COBMe-
cTPorlfM YCTaBOM. 2 CTaP006px;q~ecKlfH
~aIO~HH B ce6e rrpocTPaHcTBo ;qJIX pa3-
(paCKOJIhHIf~IfH) MOHacThIph B 6e3JIIO;q-
BeCKIf BepxHeH o;qe~hI, BhI;qBIf)KHhle
HOH MeCTHOCTIf. 3 Ke.nbR MOHaxa-
X~IfKIf If nOJIKIf.
OTllIeJIhHIfKa, pacnOJIO)KeHHax B CTO-
pOHe OT MOHacThIpx. CJIErA (=oCJIe;qh, OCJIX;qh). BxO;qSI~ax
B o6peUlemKY )Kep;qh IfJIH oocKa (1),
CKJIA):t;EHb. MKOHhI, coe;qIfHeHHhIe
3aKpellJIeHHax nonepeK cmponu.n If yJIO-
nOBopoTHhIMIf neTJIXMIf Ha ;qJIIfHHhIX
)KeHHax Ha TOPQoBble ~unl{bt 3;qaHIfSI.
CTOPOHax.
CJIE3HMK. IIJIIfTa Half60JIhllIerO
CKJIA):t;qATbUi IIAPYC. CBO;qIfK
BbIHoca B BepxHeH ~aCTIf KapHuaa. xopOMax. 2 CTellHax Ka3a~hSI 6btUlKa Ha
rrplf rrepexo;qe OT rpaHeHoro OCHOBaHIfX
qeThIpex HaKJIOHHhIX cToJI6ax.
K pOmOHOaAbHOMY 06'heMY, pa3;qeJIeH- CJIEIIA5.I MEEEJIb. KymaHaR Me-
HhIH rrOrrOJIaM BepTIfKaJIhHhIM 1f3JIOMOM, oe.nb. CHYPOK. Bazem.
KOTOPbIH npo;qOJI)KaeT pe6po yrJIa Ha
CJIMBHOll MOCT. 3anacHoH B0)10- COEAqKA. IIpo;qoJIhHax 1I0JIOBlfHa
CTbIKe rpaHeil::
cnycK B 3aBo;qcKoH nJIOTlfHe, npe;qHa3Ha- KlfpIIIf~a.

CKJIEII. CBo;q~aTax rp06HIfl~a, ~eHHhIH )1JISI npoxo)1a naBO)1KOBhIX BO)1.


COEOP. rJIaBHhIH xpaM B ropo;qe IfJIH
06hI~HO3arJIy6JIeHHax B 3eMJIIO.
CJIMBH5.IK. Ca;q Crrpe06JIa;qaHlfeM CJIIf- MOHacThlpe, pacc~IfTaHHhIH Ha 60rocJIy-
CKOE5.IHKA. MeTaJIJIIf~eCKHe )1eTaJIH BOBhIX )1epeBheB. ~eHHSI C yqacTlfeM ellapXlfaJIhHOrO
OKOH H ;qBepeH. apxHepex.
CJIM30BOll KMPIIMq (=CJIIf3HOH
CKOEOBA5.I CTPEM5.IHKA. BepTH- Klfprrlf~). KHpnlf~,
H3rOTOBJIeHHhIH CO):t;BbIB. IIplfllo;qHSIToe Ha;q 3eMJIeH
KaJIhHax JIeCTHIfQa B BIf;qe II-06pa3Hhlx nyTeM PY~HOH ¢OpMOBKH. KPhIJIhQO C rrpIfMhIKaIO]l\eH KPhITOH
MeTaJIJIIf~eCKIfX cK06, B6HThIX IfJIH BMy- JIeCTHIfQeH B;qOJIh BHellIHeH CTeHhI Kpe-
CJIMII. CoopY)KeHlfe C HaKJIOHHOH llJIO-
pOBaHHbIx B cTeHY. CThXHCKoro oOMa (1) KOM1l.-3hlpXH.
~a;qKoH ;qJIX cIIycKa He60JIhllIHX Cy;qOB
CKOBOPO):t;EHb (=KacaTKHH XBOCT, Ha BO)1Y HJIIf ;qJIX no;q'heMa IfX Ha 6eper. C03EA APKAJIbIK. EaJIKIf 110 CKa-
JIaCTO~KlfH XBOCT). TpaneQlfeBIf;qHhIH TaM KPbtUlU HoraHCKoro oOMa (1),
CJIOEO):t;A. 1 BH;q 1I0CeJIeHlfH B ¢eo-
Kpene)KHhIH BbIcryn Ha KOHQe 6pyca CJIy)Ka~lfe OIlOPOH ;qJISI TOHK1l.X )Kep;qeH
;qaJIhHOH POCCIfIf, )KHTeJIIf KOTOPhIX
MIf 6pe6Ha, 1fH0r;qa YCJIO)KHeHHbIH 1I0;q KaMhIllioBOH HJIH rJIIfHSIHOH KP06-
OCBo60)K;qaJIHCh OT HaJIOrOB H 1I0BIfHHO-
60KOBhIM Bblpe30M B BH;qe KpIOKa. .neil.
cTeH TSIrJIOBOrO HaCeJIeHIfH (KpecThSIHe,
CKOBOPO):t;HEM. B Halpao. 1I0Ca)1CKlfe) If BhIIlOJIHSIJIH Ollpe)1eJIeH- COKOJIbH5.I. IlomeUlHbtu 2OpOOOK.

-115-
C COKutHH - CTAPOPYCCKASI KnAAKA 116

COKII1;IIH~ Il,01C'lWt-oyzaH. CO<I>A. IIIHpoKaSi cKaMhSl, 06HTaSi CPE.D:HMll BOll. EOUHUqbl BTOpOro,
TKaHhlO HJIH KO)KeH. rrpoMe)KYTo'lHoro Rpyca B KpenocmHblx
COJIE5I (=BHeWHlfll: npeCTOJI). He-
cTeHax 1'1 6aUlHJlx.
60JIhWOe npOT~[)KeHHOe B03BhIWeHHe
B,IlOJIh UKOHOCmaCa, co CTOPOHhI OCHOB- CPE.D:OKPECTME. 5IAPo KpecTo-
HOrO npOCTpaHCTBa XpaMa. o6pa3Horo B nJIaHe KYJIhTOBOro 3,I1amui,
06hI'IHO nO,Il'lepKHYToe B 06'heMHOH
COJIMTEP (=Op,IlHHap). AKu;eHTHpO-
KOMn03Hu;HH.
BaHHOe, OT,IleJIhHO CTOSlIIl,ee ,IlepeBO B
napKOBOM aHCaM6JIe. CO<I>MT. HH)KHSISI nOBepxHocTh apKU CPYB (=lIcTpy6) . .D:epeBHHHoe coopy-
(1) HJIH nepeMhI'IKH rrpoeMa. )KeHHe 6e3 nOJIa, nepeKphITHH, JIeCT-
COJIHEQHA5I P03ETKA. 1 CO.!lRP-
COXM. CTOJI6hI C pa3BHJIKaMH BBepxy, HHU;, ,IlBepeH 1'1 OKOHHhIX paM, B03BeAeH-
HblU 3ftaK (1).2 BuxpeBaR p03emKa.
nO,IlnHpalOIII,He KPblUlY (B KpecTMIHcKHX Hoe 1'13 ropH30HTaJIhHhIX 6peBeH HJIH
COJI5IPHhIll 3HAK. 1 .D:eKopaTHB- nocTpoHKax). 6pycbeB.
HhIH MOTHB B BHAe Kpyra HJIH nOJIyKpy-
CTABEHh. 1 CmaBHR (1). 2 Bcma-
ra, paBHoMepHo pa3AeJIeHHOrO Ha ceK-
BeHb.
Topa. 2 BuxpeBaR p03emKa. 3 CBacTH-
Ka - '1eThlpeXKOHe'lHhIH KpecT C O,IlHHa- CTABH5I. 1 .D:epeBHHHhIH 3aCJIOH OKHa.
KOBhIMH H3JIOMaMH KOHU;OB B O,IlHy 1'1 Ty 2 3amBop (4) B HH)KHeH '1aCTH n.!lomu-
)Ke cTopOHy. Hbl.

COMKHYTOE YKPEITJIEHME. CTAllKA. 1 CKOTHhIM ,IlBOp B Kpe-


<I>opTHcpHKaU;HOHHoe nOJIeBOe coopy)Ke- CThSlHcKoHycaob6e. 2 CapaH, B KOTOPOM
HHe, n03BOJISlIOIII,ee BeCTH KpyroBylO CO,Ilep)KaT nTHU;y.
060poHY (HanpHMep, peoym). CTAllH5I. ITpHMoyrOJIhHaSI Bhlropo,IlKa
COMKHYThIll CBO.D: (=KoTeJIhHhIH ,IlJIH JIOIIIa,IlH B XOJIO,IlHOM oBope (1) Kpe-
CBOA). CBOO Ha,II '1eThlpexyrOJIhHhIM CThHHCKOH: ycaob6bt.
nOMeIIl,eHHeM, COCTaBJIeHHhIH: 1'13 .!lOm-
CTAJIAKTMThl. CBoMcTBeHHhIH 30A-
KOB (1), nepe,IlalOIII,HX pacnop Ha CTeHhI. CITMHET. He60JIhIIIOH: K.!laBeCUft Tpe- '1ecTBY MYcYJIhMaHCKHX HapoAoB MHoro-
yroJIhHOH: HJIH '1eThlpexyrOJIhHOH cpop- . SlPYCHhIH H'IeHCThIH nepexo,II OT '1eThI-
MhI, 06hI'IHO He HMelOIII,HH HO)KeK.

COHETKA. KOMHaTHhIH: KOJIOKOJIh-


'1HK, rrpHBOAHMhIH B AeHCTBHe 1'13 APY-
pexrpaHHoro HH)KHero Slpyca K BOChMH-
roro nOMeIIl,eHHSI.
rpaHHoMY BepxHeMy, COCTOSlIIl,HH 1'13
COITJI5I. BepTHKaJIhHaSI oocKa (1) Ha CIIMP AJIEBM.D:HA5I ITEPEB5I3KA. MHO)KeCTBa MeJIKHX CBO,IlHKOB C BHCSI-
cpacaAe 11.)"1>1 (1), 3aKphIBalOIII,aSl CThIK B CnUpa.!lb. '1HMH nllmaMU (1) 1'1 KOftCO.!lbftbt.MU ono-
npU'lellllli (01 ()ZHUBa). CITMIJ;. llInuq. paMH.
COITPECIOJIII5I. CITJIOIIIHOIO <I>ACA.D:OIO 3A- CTAME.D:. JIerKaSi IIIepcTHHaH MaTe-
CKaMhH, I1PII\II,Ih.<lIOIII,He K BHYTpeHHeH CTPOllKA. ITpeAHaMepeHHoe B03Be- pHSl, ynOTPe6JISlBIIIaHCH AJISI OKOHHhIX
BOCTO'lHOH Chile a.!lmapR (1) no 06e ,IleHHe 3AaHMH C O,IlHOpO,IlHhIMH cpaca- 3aHaBeceH 1'1 Ha 06HBKY Me6eJIH.
CTOPOHhI OT lOpHe20 Mecma. ,IlaMH no CPPOHTY yJIHU;hI HJIH nJIOIIl,aAH CTAMMK. He60JIhIIIaSi BepTHKaJIhHaSI
COCEHKA. reoMeTpH30BaHHoe 1'1306- 6e3 HHTepBaJIOB no KpaCftOU .!lUHUU. onopa.
pa)KeHHe cHMMeTpH'IHO nOAHHMa- CITOll. IIIOB B K.!laOKe ne'lH. CTAH. 1 BoeHHhIH JIareph Ha B03BhI-
IOIII,HXCSI napHhlx BeTBeH: B TPH 1'1 60JIee IIIeHHH. 2 IIpoMe)KYTo'lHaSi CTOSlHKa AJIH
RpyCOB, - C nOMOIIl,hlO 06MaKHYThlx B
CITOPHA5I BO.D:A. BO,Ila, CKonHBwa-
OT,IlhIxa Ha SlMCKOM TpaKTe. 3 Ce30HHaSi
H3BeCTh yrOJIKOB KHpnH'la, KOTophle HCH nepe,II n.!lOmUHOU Ha peKe.
CKOTOBO,Il'leCKaSi CTOSlHKa. 4 MecTo cy,Ila
BhI,IleJISIIOTCSI Ha KpacHoM cpOHe JIHu;eBOH CITOThIKAQ. 3arpa)KAeHHe 1'13 KOJIIO- 1'1 c60pa nOBHHHocTeH B cpeoAaJIhHOM
K.!laOKU B HapY)KHhIX cTeHax KHpnH'IHhIX '1eM npOBOJIOKH Ha HH3KHX KOJIhSlX, PYCH. 5 TeppHTOpHaJIhHaSi e,IlHHHu;a
U36 (1). BhlcTynalOIII,ee Ha,II 3eMJIeH He 60JIee cYAe6Horo 1'1 nOJIHu;eHCKoro xapaKTepa,
'1eM Ha nOJI-apIIIHHa (35,5 CM). '1aCTh ye3,I1a. 6 JIonapcKHH IIIaJIaIII,
C OCTATKOM. Py6Ka CTeH 1'13 6peBeH,
nOKphIThIH: KOpOH: HJIH IIIKypaMH.
KOHU;hI KOTOPhIX BhlcTynalOT 3a yrJIhI CITYCKOBA5I ITJIMTA. ITpoTHBoBec-
cpy6a. HhIH: KaMeHh, rrpH)KHMaIOIII,HH C 3aAHeH CTAHOK. JIecHaSi H36YIIIKa, no-
CTOPOHhl KapHU3ftylO nJIHTY HaH60JIh- CTPoeHHaSi KaK BpeMeHHoe npHCTaHH-
COCMC. .D:JIHHHhIH rll6KHll: pYKaB 113
wero BhIHoca. III,e ,IlJISI OXOTHHKOB, JIeCHHKOB H phI6o-
6pe3eHTa HJIH napYCHHhI, BhmOJIHSI-
JIOBOB.
IOIII,HH POJIh 6HKcpOPAOBa mHypa AJISI CPE.D:M3AJIhHA5I ITEqh. ITe'lh,
BOCnJIaMeHeHHSI B3phIB'IaTKH nOA oca- npHMhIKalOIII,aH K cepeAHHe CTeHhI B CTAPOPYCCKA5I KJIA.D:KA. Bep-
)KIl;aeMhIM YKpenJIeHHeM. nOMeIIl,eHHH. cm06all K.!laOKa.

-116-
c CTEATMT - CTYn nbEAECTAnA 117

CTEATI1T. )KUPHblU KOMeHb. crOJIB KOPH5I. Cpe~HHii: onopHhm CTPAHHOIIPHHMHhIH ,l1;OM. 1 Bo-
CTOJI6 BHY1'pH aBapcKoro X{HJI~a, CHM- ZaOeAbHJl, COBMe~eHHag C 60JIh~eii:.
CTEKJIO cl>YKCA. BooHoe cme1Ulo.
BOJIH3HPYIO~ pO~OBylO npeeMCTBeH- 2 IIpHIOT ~JIB MaJI0HMY~ nyTHHKOB.
crEKJI5IHlIMI r APMOHHKA. My- HOCTh.
CTPAIIOHTI1H. QryJI C H3MeIDIeMOH
3hIKaJIhHhIii: HHC1'pYMeHT B BH):\e CTOJIa, C
crOJIBOBKA (=HeMe~ii: THn). BhICOTOii: CH):\eHhB.
no~mrroii: cmoAeUlHuu,eu, 06'he~HIDI­
Be1'pBHag MeJIhHH~a, BeCh 06'heM KOTO-
IO~Hii: HeO~HHaKOBhIe CTeKJImIHhIe CTPEKAJIO. Ba6Ka.
poii: MOX{HO nOBOpa'lHBaTh, YCTaHaBJIH-
Bag KphmhB npOTHB Be1'pa. CTPEJIA. 1 BUMnepz. 2 JIuepHa.
CTPEJIA IIO,l1;'hEMA. BepTHKaJIbHOe
paccToBHHe OT 3OMK060Z0 KOMHJl apKu
HJIH c600a ~o JIHHHH, coe~HHBIO~eii:
nRmbl (1).

CTPEJIKA. OcrpOyrOJIbHhIH yqaCToK


Ha CTbIKe yJI~ HJIH; npH CJIHBHHH peK.
CTPEJIhHHIJ;A. ,[(epeBmIHag 6aUlHJl
(3) 6e3 wampa (1).
CTPEJIhQAThIH. HMelO~Hii: 3aocrpe-
'laum Ha ropH30HTaJIhHOM BaJIY, KOTO- HHe npH nepeCe'leHHH ~Byx CHMMe1'pH'I-
HhIX~.
PhIii: npHBO~HTCB B ~BIDKeHHe ne~aJIhlO; CTOJIEIJ;. Ta6ypeT u.n;H CTYJI.
3BYK H3BJIeKaeTCB 1'peHHeM YBJI~eH­
HhIX naJIh~eB 0 Kpag 'lam. CTOJIEllIHHqA. BepKIDIB HeOTKH~­
Hag ~OCKa CTOJIa.
CTEJIA. MeMOpHaJIhHag HJIH H~rpo6-
Hag KaMeHHag DJIHTa C TeKCTOM HJIH CTOJIOOBPA3HhIE rYCJIH. Kpyn-
H306pIDKeHHeM, YCTaHOBJIeHHag BepTH- HhIH IQIDIKOBhrn MY3hIKaJIhHhlH HHC1'py-
KaJIhHO. MeHT, pacnOJIoX{eHHhIH ropH30HTaJIhHO
Ha 'leThlpex HOx{Kax, Hano~o6He npBMO-
CTEHOBOH KHPIIHq. rOp00060U
Kupnu't.
crEIIEHh. IIoMOCT Ha DJIO~a~H, K
KOTOPOMY Be~T CTyneHH.
crEPEOBAT. BhICOKoe o6'heMHoe CTPEXA. 1 HHX{HHe KOH~I TeCHH B
OCHOBaHHe no~ 3~aHHeM HJIH nbeoecma- Kpo6Ae, BhICTynalO~e 3a nJIOCKOCTb
AOM. CTeHhI. 2 KP06AR, KpblUla.
crEP)KHEBA5I MEJIhHHqA. CTPOH. CmponUAa.
CmoA606Ka.
CTPOIIHJlA (=C1'pODHJIbHble Horn,
CTI1JIOBAT. BepXIDIB DJIOCKOCTh cry- BaJIhMOBhle HorH). 06pa3yID~He
rreH'IaTOrO OCHOBaHHB no~ apXHTeKTYP- OCHOBY KpblUlU HaKJIOHHhle 6pe6Ha HJIH
HhIM coopyX{eHHeM HJIH CKYJIhnTYPHhIM 6pycbR, COe~HHeHHble BBepxy no~
MOHYMeHTOM. yrJIOM, a BHH3Y yDHpalO~eCB B CTeHbI
CTO){(APhl. IIo~MOCTKH CO CXO~SIl~H­ yrOJIhHOrO CTOJIa, Y KOTOPOro cmOAeUl- HJIH B MayapAambl.
MHCB BBepxy HaKJIOHHhIMH X{ep~BMH ~JIB Huu,a oTKHHYTa H YCTaHOBJIeHa BepTH-
KaJIhHO B~OJIh ~JIHHHOH CTOpOHhI. CfPYHA. IIpoMe~O'lHhIH x{eJIe3-
coxpaHeHHB ceHa B CYXOM BH):\e.
Hbrn CTepX{eHh B KOHC1'py~ <i>epMbI,
CToHKA. BepTHKaJIhHhIH 6pyc (1), CTOJI5IPKA. ,l1;epeBmIHhle 'laCTH OKOH nO~BepraID~CB paCTBX{eHHlO.
YCTaHOBJIeHHhIH B rHe3~e Ae3ICHJl. H pUAeH'tambtX ~epeH.
CTP5IIIHOH KYT (=6a6Hii: KyT, 3a-
crOHrrO. 1 OTropoX{eHHoe MeCTO ~JIB croPO:JKA. He6oJIhmOe YKpeDJIeHHe nOJIbe). OrropoX{eHHag 3aHaBecKOH
KOPOBhI B XJIeBY HJIH ~JIB JIOm~H B Ha rp~e MOCKoBcKoro rocy~apcTBa, 'laCTb ua6bl (1), npe~Ha3Ha'leHHag ~JIg
npe~ynpe~aBmee BHe3anHOCTh KO'le- rOTOBKH DH~.
BhIX Ha6eroB.
CTP5IIIYID;A5I H3BA. IIoBapIDI,
CT05IJIO. IIocmOMeHm. KyxIDI B KpeCTbBHcKoH ycaob6e.
cr05IqA5I CKAMh5I. Kp06eAbHtlR CTY.n;EHEIJ;. KOAooeu, (1).
CKOMbR C BepTHKaJIhHhIMH nO~OpKaMH
cmponUA. CTY,l1;H5I. MaCTepCKag X{HBODHC~a HJlH
CKYJIbDTOpa.
CTYK. IIoJIHpoBaHHhm rnnc, HMHTHpY-
1O~Hii: MpaMop.

KOHlOmHe. 2 OTceK ~JIg JIOKOMOTHBa


BHYTpH X{eJIe3HO~opox{Horo ~eno.
CTYJI
06~eM """ra.
IIhE,l1;ECTAJIA. OCHOBHOH
0....,..,_'" sa

-117-
c CTynbSl - CblYAJI An.QbI 118

rrO):(HO)l{lIe (6a3a nbeOecma.!ta) II 3aBep- HarpY3KII apKaMU (1) Ha pa3Hhlx ypOB- CYIUMJIhH5I. IIOMell(eHlle ):(JISI rrpocy-
IIIeHHhIl1: KapHU30M. HSIX, IIMelOll(ee B pa3pe3e BII):( HaKJIOH- IIIHBaHIISI C rrOMOll(hlO rrporpeBa.
HOH JIeCTHIIl\hI.
CTYJIh5I. IIpOCTeHIIIIIH PYHOaMeHm Cyrn;EBCKA5I IIEqh. He60JIhIIIaSI
rron: He60JIhIIIOe ):(epeBSlHHoe coopy)l{e- CTYIIEHqAThIE TPOMIIhI. TPOM- KyxoHHaSl rrJIIITa B BlI):(e JIe)l{a'lero
nbt B BII):(e ):(Byx IlJIII 60JIee apO'leK, pac- rrapaJIJIeJIerrllIle):(a, C ):(ByMSl KOHq,OP-
rrOJIO)l{eHHhIX O):(Ha rro):( ):(pyroH. KaMII ):(JISI rrpllrOTOBJIeHIISI IIIIll(II.

OI>MHKC. <PaHTaCTII'leCKOe )KJIBOTHOe


C TeJIOM JIhBa II rOJIOBOH 'leJIOBeKa.

CThlqHA5I CB5I3KA. CThIK ):(Byx 6pe-


aeH rro O):(HOH OCII C rrOMOll(hlO rrpo):(OJIh-
HOH Tparrel\lIeBII):(HoH Bpy6K11.

CYECTMJIAPHhIE JIMHMM. JIIIHIIII


Ha l\1Iq,ep6JIaTe COJIHe'lHhIX 'laCOB, 060-
3Ha'lalOll(lIe BpeMSl.

CYEyprAH. EaIIIHe06pa3Hoe 6y):(-


CXBATKA. 1 Coe):(IIHeHlle KOHl\OB
):(ml:CKOe coopY)l{eHlle, B KOTOPOM 3aMY-
Hlle, KOTOPhIH COCTOIIT 113 06py6KOB 6aJIOK B cmponUJIax MeTaJIJIII'leCKIIMII
pOBaHhI CB}lll(eHHhle TeKCThI II MOll(II.
6peaeH ):(lIaMeTpoM 5-7 BepIIIKoB; 06- cKperraMII. 2· IIorrepe'lHaSI )l{ep):(h, 06'h-
py6KII 3amy6JISlIOTCSI B 3eMJIIO Ha 13/4 - e):(IIHS1IOll(aSl BepTIIKaJIhHhle ):(epeBSlH-
2 1/ z apIIIIIHa II pacrrOJIaralOTCSI rro):( Hhle ::lJIeMeHThI (HarrplIMep, KOJIhSl B
yrJIaMII cTpoeHIISI, rro):( CThIKaMII H rrepe- rroKphITlI1I 3eMJISlHhIX CKJIOHOB XBOPO-
Ce'leHIISIMII CTeH; Ha OCTaJIhHhIX Y'laCT- CTOM ):(JISI IIX 3all(llThI OT oChIIIaHIISI).
Kax oTcTyrralOT O):(IIH OT ):(pyroro Ha
CXO)J;H5I. C60pHR.
1- Il/z Ca)l{eHII.
C'hE3:JKA5I (:;C'he3)1{aSlIl36a, C'he3)KJ1H
CTYIIAJIhHhlI1: KOJIO)J;EIJ,. Ko.!lo-
):(OM). A):(MIIHIICTPaTIIBHOe 3):(aHJIe, B
oe14 C rrpllBo):(HhIM KOJIeCOM 60JIhIIIO-
KOTOPOM rrOMell(aJIlICh KaHl\eJI}lplISI,
ro ):(lIaMeTPa Ha BepTIIKaJIhHOH IlJIII ')''':'<''-
apxlIB, TlOphMa.
HaKJIOHHOH OCII, KOTopoe Bpall(alOT CYBYPrA. TYBIIHCKml: cy6ypzaH.
C'hE3)KMH )J;BOP. MecTo ):(JISI CXO):(OK
CYM3H. 3aBepIIIeHHe }lrrOHCKOH nazo- cJI060)l{aH (06hI'lHO PSl):(OM C l\epKOBhlO
Obt, H306pa)l{alOll(ee 'leJIOBe'leCKYIO II C'be3J1CeU U360u).
q,lIrypy B Sl3hIKax rrJIaMeHH.
C'hE3)KMH )J;OM. C'be3J1CaR.
CYMAX. Ee3BopCOBhIH O):(HOCTOPOH-
ChIH)J;)KMP. IJ,errh ):(JISI KOTJIa Ha):( O'la-
HHH KOBep y KaBKa3CKHX HapO):(OB.
roM B Kapa'laeBCKOM oOMe (1); KpeIIIITcSI
CYM3. MaJIhIH xpaM B 6Y):():(IIHCKOM Ha rrOrrepe'lIlHe BHYTPII ObtMapR.
MOHaCThIpe.
ChIPEIJ" ChIPIJ,OBhIH KMPIIMq.
CYIIPAIIOPT. ,lJ,wooenppm. KHprrll'l H3 He060)l{)l{eHHOH rJIHHhI.
HoraMII )l{HBOTHhle, rrOCJIe):(OBaTeJIhHO CYPT. Mapml:CKOe rrOCeJIeHlle MapIIH- ChIP3. M3roTOBJIeHHhIH KycTapHhIM
rrepecTyrralOll(lIe C O):(Horo ero Y'laCTKa CKaSI ycaob6a. crroc060M 6ypem (1) B 'lepKeCCKoM
Ha coce):(HHH, q,aKTH'leCKH OCTaBaSlCh Ha )l{HJIHll(e.
CYCEK. 3m<pOM.
O):(HOM H TOM)I{e MeCTe (cp.: Ton'taHKa).
ChIYAJI. B03Be):(eHHaSI B ymy 6aIIIKHp-
CTYIIEHqATO-KPErn;AThIH CBO)J;.
KpeUfambtii caoo CO cryrreH'laTOH
~ CKOH U36bt (1), Y BXO):(HOH ):(BeplI, rre'lh-
'tyaa.!l, COCTOSlll(aSI H3 rJIHH06HTHOH IIJIO-
rrOBepXHOCThIO paCna.!ly60K (2). ll(a):(KII II IIIHpOKOH Tpy6hI.
CTYIIEHqAThIH CBO)J;. IIepeKphI-
THe C rrOCJIe):(oBaTeJIhHOH rrepe):(a'leH

CYTyr A. )KeJIe3HaSl rrpOBOJIOKa.

CYXAPMKM. He60JIhIIIlie rrpSlMO-


yrOJIhHhIe BhIcTyrrhI rro):( KapHU30M,
06pa3yIOll(He rrpephIBIICThIH PSl):(.
ChIYAJI AJI)J;hI. CKJIa):(CKoe rrpo-
CYIIIMJIO. IIoMell(eHJIe ):(JI}l rrpocyIIIII- CTpaHcTBO 3a rre'lhIO B 6aIIIKllpCKOH
BaHlIlI rrYTeM rrpOBeTPIIBaHIISI. U36e (1).

-118-
C C3pr3 - CIOM3 119

C3pr3. 1 ,IJ,epeB5IHHble HJIH KaMeHHble


CTOJI6bI Ha MeCTax, r;o:e 6YP5ITbI-IIIaMa-
HHCTbI cOBepIIIaJIH nO;O:HOIIIeHH5I ;o:yxaM.
2 KOHOB5I3b B u;eHTpe o6opa (1) 6y-
P5ITCKOIf ycaob6bl, OJIHu;eTBOpSIIOIl\M
6JIarOCOCT05IHHe X03HHHa Hero rOCTe-
npHHMCTBO.

CIOM3. qeTblpexyrOJIbHbIH JIaMaHCT-


CKHH MOHaCTblpb, pa3;o:eJIeHHbIH Ha
060Pbl (1).

-119-
T AErA. IIoJIKa ~JIjI 3anaCHbIX no~y­ rrpH YJIHqHbIX 60n B ropo~e. 3 Sapa- ~bIBaeMbIe ~pyr Ha ~pyra C HarrycKoM B
IlIeK H o~eM, a TaIOKe ~JIjI KpaCHBbIX 6aH, 3aBepIlIeHHbIH n;epKoBHoH Uta6ou .. 10-12 CM; Ha KOHbKe 06parn;eHa Y3KHMH
Bern;eH, pacnOJIO)KeHHag no Bepxy T AH,[(hIP. rJIHH06HTHag ne% B cpopMe KOHn;aMH B HaBeTpeHHYIO CTOPOHY, a Ha
3a~HeH CTeHbI B KapaqaeBCKOM HJIH 6aJI- pe6pax - BBepx no YKJIOHY (rrpH aTOM
OqeHb 60JIbIlIOrO cocy~a, Ha BHYTPeH-
KapCKOM )KHJIHrn;e. HeH rrporpeToH nOBepxHocTH KOTOPOH OCHOBHbIe nOBepXHOCTH Kp06.!tU BbIKJla-
neKYT JIeneIlIKH .. ~bIBaIOTCjI nJIOCKOH 'tepenu~eu) .
. T AEEPHAKJIh. 1 ,[(eKopnpoBaHHbIH
IlIKacpqHK B a.tlmapHOU qaCTH 3an~HO­ TAYHA CMCTEMA. JIeM6xe cucme-
xplfcTlfaHcKoro xpaMa. 2 HHIlIa B KaTO- .Ma.
JIHqeCKOM xpaMe, 06paMJIjlIOrn;ag H306-
TAYX. KaMUH B qeqeHCKOM )KHJIHID;e,
pa)KeHHe CBjlTOro.
COCTOjlrn;HH 1f3 ~ByX qaCTeH; 06JIO)KeH-
TAEJIh,[(OT. 06rn;HH o6e~eHHbm CTOJI HbIH KaMRjlMH nOJIYKpyrJIbIH oqar, H~
B naHCUOHe (2), rOCTHHliQe, pecTopaHe. TAPA. EYPjlTCKHH KOBep, COTKaHHbm KOTOPbIM HaxO~HTCjI ~bIMOBag TPy6a B
H3 K03beH IlIepcTH H KOHCKoro BOJIOca. B~e yceqeHHOH llHpaMH~bI C nJIeTHe-
TAEOP. BoeHHbIH JIarepb, oKpyxeH- BbIMH CTeHKaMH, o6Ma3aHHbIMH rJIHHOH
HbIH BMeCTO CTeHbI TeJIeraMH. TAPACbl. EpeBeffqaTble Cpy6bt Kpeno- cHap~ If 1f3HYTPIf.
cmHou CTeHbI, 3anOJIHeHHbIe 3eMJIeH H
TAEqAH (=To6qaH). ,[(epeBjlHHbIH KaMHjlMH; B OTJIHqHe OT WPOOHU (1) TAXTA. IDlfpOKHH ~lfBaH 6e3 CllHHKH,
~HBaH B KaBKa3CKOM )KHJIHrn;e. OT~eJIMHCb ~pyr OT ~pyra He ~BOHHOH, HaKpbIBaeMbIH KOBPOM, KOTOPbIH crryc-
a O~HHapHOH CTeHKoH. KaeTCjI co CTeHbI H B roPH30HTaJIbHOH
TABP. MeTaJIJIHq«CKag 6aJIKa T-06pa3-
qaCTJf ~OnOJIHeH KOBPOBbIMIf 6a.!tbKaMU.
Horo CeqeHIl.jI.
TBOPMJIO. 1 BeputHRK. 2 51rn;HK ~JIjI.
TAMHMIJ;KA5I EAIDlUI. SautHR (2, rameHlfjl 1f3BeCTIf. 3 51Ma, 06JIO)KeHHag
3), Ha~ TaHHHKoM C BO~OH JIH60 CBjl3aH- ~OCKaMIf IfJIIf KHpnHqOM.
Hag C TaHHbIM XO~OM K Bo~e.
TBOPKA (=3aCTaBKa). 3aCJIOHKa B
TAMH05l. BcnOMOraTeJIbHbIe no- MeJIbHHqHOM )KeJIo6e.
CTPOHKH CHHTOHCTCKoro KOMIIJIeKCa,
coe~HHeHHbIe Me~y C060H za.tlepeeu
TEBCH. HeBbIcoKHH KpyrJIbIH CTOJIHK
(1). Ha TPex HO)KKax, ynoTPe6JIjlBmmCjI
TOJIbKO ~JIjI e~bI (B KaBKa3CKOM )KHJIIf-
TAKTAEAH. IIoqeTHoe MeCTO B HO- TAPEJIKA. J/.emeHbtut (2). rn;e ).
raHCKOM oOMe (1).
TAPMAKA,[(AM. EeTOHHoe ~OpO)K­ TE3MA 3M. EaIlIKHpcKajl ua6a (1) 1f3
TAM. IOu. Hoe nOKpbITHe B HeCKOJIbKO CJIOeB, 1f3 HBOBbIX HJIIf 6epe30BbIx )Kep~eH, 3aJIO-
rn;e6Hj1 H ~eITjI. )KeHHbIX 3a ropH30HTaJIbHbIe llJIaHKH.
TAMEYP. 1 He60JIbIlIOe nOMern;eHHe
T APYKM. OqeHb BbICOKHe KO.!toHHbt B TEKME. MycYJIbMaHCKag YCbIlIaJIbHHn;a
co BTOPbIMH ~BepbMIf y Bxo~a B 3~aHHe,
jlnOHCKOM xpaMe, nOMep)KHBaIOrn;He y TaTap, 6aIlIKHp H HoraHn;eB.
nOMoraIOrn;ee COXpaHHTb B HeM TenJIO;
B03~YIIIHbIH IlIJII03. 2 TpeyroJIbHag nJIO- cmponUAa. TEKCTYPA. IIPHpO~HbIH pHCyaOK
rn;~Ka ~JIjI cTPeJIKOB, orpaHHqeHHaji C ~eBecHHbI Ha cpe3e.
T AC KOPA. KaMeHHag orp~a BOKPyr
~ CTOPOH 6peBeffqaTbIM na.tlUCaOOM HoraHcKoH ycaob6bt. TEJIAMOHhI (=TeJIaMeHbI). Am.ttaH-
(1), a C TPeTbeH - CTeHOH )KHJIoro HJIH
mbt.
06rn;ecTBeHHoro 3AaHIl.jI, npeBparn;eH- TATAPCKA5I qEPEIIMIJ;A. KOHH-
Horo B 060pOHHTeJIbHOe coopyxeHHe qeCKHe KepaMHqeCKHe )KeJI06a, yKJIa- TEJIEBEP,[(A. JKeJITO-3eJIeHaji KpacKa.

120

-120-
T TEnEnEHb - TOPU.OBASI MOCTOBASI 121

TEJIETIEHb. 1 JI06U1C. 2 .sI3hIK KOJIO- 2 TIapaAHaSI 'IaCTh Kapa'iaeBCKOro TOMTIAK. CnJIaB H3 U;HHKa H MeAn (B
KOJIa. )l{HJIHm;a, pacnOJIO)l{eHHaSI y 60KOBOH nponopU;HH 15,5: 84 ,5), ynoTPe6mIeMhIH
CTeHhI, 3a O'iarOM. 3 llO'leTHOe MeCTO AJISI OTJIHBKH MeJIKHX AeTaJIeH.
TEHAJIb. 06opOHHTeJIhHOe yKpenJIe-
AJISI rnaBhI ceMhH, B rJIy6HHe HoraHCKOH
Irne, o6pam;eHHoe K npoTHBHHKY ABYMSI TOHEA. TYM6a (3).
IOpmbl.
HJIH TPeMSl cHMMeTPH'IHhIMH OCTPO-
yrOJIhHhIMH BhIcrynaMH. TEPE C3PEr. KpacHblu y20JI B YA- TOHYP (=TOHHp). KaBKa3CKaSI rJIHHSI-
MypTCKOH U36e (1). HaSI ne'lh B BRAe nepeBepHYToro yce'leH-
HOro KOHYca, YXOASIm;aSI OCHOBaHHeM B
TI1HPE. POAOBOH nOCeJIOK Kapa'iaeB- 3eMJIIO.
u;eB (B PYCCKOSI3b1'1HOH JIHTepaType
'IaCTO Ha3hIBaJICSI 1C6apma.aoM (1) Kapa- TOOHO. BepxHee KOJIhU;O TYBHHCKOH
'IaeBCKOro CeJIeHHSI). IOpmbl.
TOTII1APHOE I1CKYCCTBO. <l>H-
TI1MEPQE AJIAqblrbI. KpIrnu;a B
rypHaSI cTPlI)I{Ka AepeBheB H KycTapHHKa
TaTapcKoM CeJIeIrnH.
B peryJISIpHOM napKe.
TI1MllAH. OrpaHII'leHHOe npOTSI)I{eH-
HhIM BhIcrynoM nOJIe ppoHmoHa, TOllTAJIbH.sI. CTpoeHHe, B KOTOPOM
U{unu,a HJIH aa1CoMapbl. MHYT H TOlll{YT CyKHO AJISI ero BhIAeJIKH.

TOEI1PYY. 30JIO'leHhIe nOJIywapHSI B TOllQAHKA. MeJIhHHu;a, npHBoAHMaSI


nypnyPHOM <ppH3e 6ypSITCKOro B AeHcTBHe pa60'lHM CKOTOM, KOTOPblH
TEHIUI. llPSIMOyroJIhHblH BhIcTyn B JIaMaHCTCKoro xPaMa. HaxOAHTCSI B 3aroHe-BhIropoAKe H 1I0A
3aBepWemill oOpU'teC1C020 apXUmpa6a.
TOEQAH. Ta6'laH.
TEHHI1K. ntOMOH.
TOBAPHA.sI MEJIbHI1QA. TIpeAnpH-
TEPA.Q. Teppaca (1).
SlTHe no npoH3BoAcTBY nHIu;eBoH MYKH
TEPEM. 1 ,I:(peBHepyccKHH 6aWHe06- AJISI onToBoH npoA~H.
pa3HhIH AOM. 2 BepxHHH SIPYC XOPOM, TOKHO. CHcTeMa 1CpOHutmeUHo6, 3a-
HMelOm;HH B OTJIH'IHe OT 'tepoa1Ca (1)
BepwalOID;Hx 1COJlOHHbl B SInOHCKHX
caMOCTOSITeJIhHble CTeHhI no nepHMe- YAapaMH KHyTa nblTaeTCSI H3 Hee
Tpy. 336oHHuu,a. Bbl6paThcSI, lIepecTYllaSI )l{epAH B 1I0JIO-
TOKOHOMA. Y CTJIaHHaSI U;HHOBKaMH rOH KOHH'IeCKOH lIoBepxHocTH IIPHBOA-
TEPMAJIbHOE OKHO. llOJIyKpyr-
He60JIhWaSI HIlwa HaA nOJIOM B SInOH- Horo KOJIeca.
JIoe OKRO, pa3AeJIeHHOe Y3KHMH npo-
CTeHKaMH Ha TPH 'IaCTH npHMepHo paB- CKOM uHmepbepe, YKpaweHHaSI B rJIy-
6HHe CBHTKOM (KapTHHa HJIH KaJIJIHrpa- TOP (=TOPYC). Ba.a (2) B 6aae 1COJlOH-
HOH WHpHHhI. Hbl; B UOHu'teC1COM opoepe MO)l{eT 6b1Th
<pH'IeCKaSI HaAllHCh), a Ha nepeAHeM
TEPME. Pa360pHaSI HoraHCKaSI 1CU- nJIaHe - Ba30H C He60JIhWHM KOJIH'le- IIpope3aH HellpephIBHblMH ropH30H-
6um1Ca KpynHhIX pa3MepoB. TaJIhHhIMH JlCeJl061CaMU (1CaHHeJilOpaMu).
CTBOM u;seTOB.
TEPPACA. 1 Ea.a1COH (1) Ha ypoBHe TOJIE, TOJII1. BblllYKJIhIe 30nO'leHhIe TOPA. Tapo.
nepBoro 3Ta)l{a )l{HJIoro AOMa, HMe- AHCKH BO ppU3e Ha <pacaAax 6YAAHHC-
IOID;HH nOKphITHe Ha CTOJI6ax. 2 rOpH- TOprOBbIE P5I,I:(bI (=roCTHHhIH PSIA).
Koro xpaMa.
30HTaJIhHaSI nJIOm;aAKa Ha CKJIOHe, orpa- Kopnyca, 06"beAHHSIIOm;He ToproBhIe
Irn'leHHaSI cBepxy H CHH3Y CTeHKaMH 3aBeAeHHSI (naBKH, Mara3HHhI), B KOTO-
60JIhWOH KpyT1I3HhI. pblX npoAalOTcSI TOBaphI rJIaBHhIM 06pa-
30M npHpOAHoro npOHcxo~eHHSI -
TETI1BA. K~hIH 113 AByx HaKJIOHHhIX MYKa, CaJIO, neHhKa, KO)l{ll H T. A. (cp.:
6pycbe6 (1), Ha KOTOPblX 3aKpellJleHbI rOcmUHblU 060p).
CTyneHH JIeCTHHU;hI.
TOP ,I:(bEP. llO'leTHOe MeCTO B aJITaHC-
TETP AKOHX. KOMn03H1J;HSI H3 'IeThI- KOH KOHH'IeCKOH IOpme.
pex IJ;HJIHHApH'leCKlIX 06"beMOB, nepe-· TOJICTYXA. TeMHaSI oxpa, )l{eJITO-
KphIThIX 1COHXaMU. KOpH'lHeBaSI KpacKa. TOPl1l1. llpSIMoyroJIhHhIe BOPOTa lIe-
TEXHI1QECKOE llO,I:(llOJIbE. He- TOJIQE5I. MeJIhHHIJ;a, B KOTOPOH 3ep- peA SInOHCKHM xpaMoM.
)I{lIJIOH HlI)I{HHH 3Ta)l{, 'Iepe3 KOTOPhIH HO H3MeJIh'laeTCSI He )l{epHOBaMH, a TOPO (=Topa). HaHaHcKHH waMaH-
npoxoASIT TPy60npoBoAhI H APyrHe lIeCTaMH B cTynax. CKHH CTOJI6.
HH)I{eHepHble ceTH.
TOPQOBA.sI MOCTOBA5I (=wawe'l-
TEMHbIH MA.sIK. rypuu. HaSI HaCTHJIKa). BhICTHJIKa IIpOe3)1{eH
TETIJIA.sI QEPKOBb. 3U.M/i.FI.R I¥P- 'IaCTH yJIHU;b1 HJIH MOCTa BOChMHyronh-
1C06b. HhIMH B nnaHe 06py6KaMH AepeBa, cnJIO-
'IeHHblMH Me~y C060H; 06hI'IHaSI
TEKKOMOH. CnnpaJIhHhIH opHaMeHT BhICOTa TaKHX 06py6KOB, KOTophIe
B SInoHcKoH KYJIhTOBOH apXHTeKTYPe. YKJIaAblBaJIHCh Ha lIeCOK lIoBepx Aom;a-
TEP. 1 llO'leTHaSI nOJIOBHHa B Ka6ap- TOH OCHOBhI - 20 CM, nOnepe'lHHK - OT
AHHCKOM H 6aJIKapCKOM )I{lIJIHm;e. 30 AO 35 CM.

-121-
T TOPWEP - TPIo1CJ)omd1 122

TOPllEP. BbICOKllJI HanOJlbHbIlI CBe- TPAKTHP. 1 3aBe,!leHHe, 06"e,!lHIDI- TPEXYCTYIIqAThIH YrOJI. BbI-
TIDIbHHK. IOm;ee wcmuHu/{y (1) H CTOJlOBYIO, B nyCK pe6pa yrna (B 06"eMe 3,l1;aHHSI HJlH
KOTOPOH nO,!laIOT aJIKOrOJlbHbIe HanHT- ero '1aCTH) Me)J{,!ly JlOnamKaMU JlH60
KH. 2 PecTopaH HH3IIIero pa3pSl,!la. nUJIRCmpaMU Ha cpJlaHrax COCe,!lHHX
cpaCa,!lOB.
TPEXUEHTPOBA5I APKA. IIepe-
KpbITHe C nOJlyoBaJIOM B pa3pe3e,
COCTaBJleHHbIM H3 ,!Iyr Tpex OKPY)KHO-
cTeH: Cpe,ll;HeMY y'IacTKy cooTBeTcTByeT
OKPY)KHOCTb HaH60JlbIIIerO pa,!lHyca,
~eHTp KOTOPOH pacnOJlO)KeH Ha OCH
npoeMa, a ,lI;Ba ,lI;pyrHX HaxO,ll;SlTCH
TPAHCEOP,UEP. IIOBOPOTHbIH Kpyr B HeCKOJlbKO BbIIIIe, no ee CTopOHaM.
oeno.
TPEXqETBEPKA. YKopO'leHHbIH Ha
TP AHCEIIT. IIOnepe'lHbIH Hep nepe,!l
'1eTBepTb ,!IJlHHbI 6PYCKOBbiU KUpnU'l,
aJlmapHOU '1aCTbIO UHmepbepa B 6a3U-
BKJlIO'IaeMblH B KJlaOKY ,lI;JlH BblpaBHHBa-
JlUKe.
HHH PMa no roPH30HTaJIH.
TPAHCIIAP AHT. BnHcaHHaSI B KBa- KOJIOHHA.
TOCKAHCKHH OP,UEP. MO,!lH<lmKa- ,!IpaT OKOHHoro rreperrJleTa KOMrr03H~HSI
IIpHMbIKaIOm;aSI K CTeHe KOJlOHHa,
~HSI oOpU'-leCKOW opoepa, ,!IJlSI KOTOPOH H3 HeCKOJlbKHX rrpOCBe'lHBaIOm;HX Kap-
CTBOJI KOTOPOH 60Jlee 'IeM HanOJlOBHHY
xapaKTepHo HaJIH'IHe 6a3 rro,!l KOJlOHHa- THHOK.
BblcTynaeT H3 KJlaOKU.
MU, a KaHHeJIIOp Ha CTBOJle HeT.
TPHEYH. rJlyxoe OCHOBaHHe 6apa6a-
Ha, HMeIOm;ee 60JlbIIIHH nOnepe'lHHK.

TPHrJIHlllhl. qepe,ll;YIOm;HeCH C Memo-


naMU 3J1eMeHTbI OOpU'-leCKOZO ppU3a,
HMeIOIll;He BH,!I KBa,!lpaTa HJlH 6J1H3KOrO
eMY npHMoyroJlbHHKa C BepTHKaJlbHbIMH
JlCeJl06KaMU.

TPHCTEH. TpeXCTeHHbIH aM6ap (1, 2)


npHMoyroJlbHoro nJlaHa.
TPHYMIllAJIhHASI APKA. IIapa,ll;Hoe
TPAHllEHHhIH !<ABAJIhEP. 060- cHMMeTpH'IHOe coopY)KeHHe C npoe3-
pOHHTeJlbHaSI 3eMJIHHaH rrocTpoHKa, ,!IHOH apKou (2) no OCH.
rrpe,!lHa3Ha'leHHaH ,!IJlH PY)KeHHOH
CTpeJlb6bI; C pacrrpocTpaHeHHeM ,!IaJIb-
H060HHbIX OPY,!IHH TaKHe coopY)KeHHSI
TO<;::Y. rpyrrrra rrO,!lC06HbIX rroMem;eHHH rrpeBpam;aJlHCb B CKJla,!lbI.
B 3arra,!lHOH '1aCTH ,!I33H-6Y,!l,!lHHCKOro
TP AIIE3HASI. 1 CTOJlOBaH naJlama B
xpaMoBoro KOMIIJleKca.
MOHaCTblpe. 2 IIoHH)KeHHaSI 3arra,!lHaSI
TOqOK. Tbl'toK. '1aCTb ~epKoBHoro 3,!1aHHSI, rrpHMbIKaIO-
m;aH K ero rJlaBHoMY 06"eMY H Hepe,!lKO
TOmASI CBEqA (=nOCTaBHaSl CBe'la).
BKJlIO'IaIOm;aSI B ce6H 3HMHHH (TerrJlI,IH)
HarrOJlbHOe nOJlUKaHOUJIO C BbICOKHM
xpaM.
~HJlHHAPH'IeCKHM OCHOBaHHeM 60Jlb-
IIIoro ,!IHaMeTpa, 06bI'IHO rroKpbIThiM TPEJIh5DK. 1 IIapKoBoe coopY)KeHHe C TPHYM IIIAJIhHA5I KOJIOHHA.
,!IeKOpaTHBHoH pocrrHcbIO. peIIIeT'IaTbIMH CTeHKaMH, KOTopble CJlY- O,ll;HHO'lHaSI KOJlOHHa KpynHblx pa3Me-
)KaT orropOH ,!IJlH BbIOm;HXCH pacTeHHH. POB Ha nOCmaMeHme, YCTaHoBJleHHaH B
TP ABEH. COCTaBJlHIOm;He pHTMH'Ie- '1eCTb KaKOrO-JlH60 C06bITHH HJlH
2 3epKaJlo H3 Tpex CTBOpOK.
CKHH pH,!I rrpocTPaHcTBeHHbIe H'IeHKH, ,!IeHTeJlH, 06bI'IHO ,!IonOJlIDIJlaCb CKYJlb-
Ka)J{,!laH H3 KOTOPbIX OrpaHH'IeHa 'Ie- TPEIIAJIKA. KpyrJlbJe RCJlU ,!IJlH
mypoH.
TblpbMSl onopaMH KpecmoBow cBooa HrHHT.
TPHYMIllAJIhHhIE BOPOTA. IIa-
(xapaKTepHo ,!IJlH 6a3UJ1UK).
TPETHOH CBO,U. CBOO, Y KOToporo pa,!lHOe cHMMeTpH'IHOe coopY)KeHHe B
TP ABEPC. 1 IIOrrepe'lHbIH 3eMJlHHOH cmpeJla nOO'beMa B TpH pa3a MeHbIIIe '1eCTb KaKoro-JlH60 C06bITHSI, BKJlIO'Ia-
BaA (1), 3am;Hm;aIOm;HH YKpenJleHHe OT npoJlema. IOm;ee B ce6H npOe3,!1HyIO apKY (2).
rrpO,!lOJlbHOrO 06cTpeJla. 2 EYHa (1).
TPEXBAJIhHhIE BOPOTA. TpUYM- TPHIllOJIHH. CHMMeTpH'IHaSI cpHrypa,
TPABEPTHH (=H3BecTKoBbIH TY<P). paAbHble Bopoma. orpaHH'IeHHaSI TpeMSl O,ll;HHaKOBbIMH
JIerKHH rropHcTbIH KaMeHb, HcrroJlb3Y- OKPY)KHOCTHMH, ~eHTPbI KOTOPbIX pac-
TPEXJIOIIACTHASI APKA. ,UeKopa-
eMbIH B cTpOHTeJlbHbIX KOHCTPY~HSIX H
THBHbIH 3J1eMeHT B BH,!Ie Tpex ,!Iyr, H3
apxHTeKTypHoM ,!IeKope.
KOTOPbIX nOBblIIIeHHaH Cpe,!lHHH onH-
TP ABHHK. OropO,!l C JleKapCTBeH- paeTcH Ha KOH~bI 60KOBbIX, 3epKaJlbHO
HbIMH pacTeHHSlMH. nOBTopSlIOIll;HX ,!Ipyr ,lI;pyra.

-122-
T TPHcJ)OPHM - TbI~OK 123

rrOJIO:lKeHhI B BepUHlHaX paBHOCTOPOH- rraHHruI H3 AByx IIIHPOKHX Ul6eJlJlep06 co eMKH AJIHHHOe rrOMern;eHHe cd CTeKJISIH-
Hero TpeyrOJIhHHKa. CTaJIhHhIMH rrOJIOCaMH. HOM lCpbtUleU, HaKJIOHeHHOM K ceBepy, a
TaK:lKe co CTeKJISIHHhIMH 3arraAHoH H BOC-
TPMCPOPMH. raJlepeR (1) HaA 60KO- TPYEqAThIH KMPI1Mq. EOJlbMaH06
TO'lHOH CTeHaMlI rrplI rnYXOM IO:lKHOH
BhIM HepoM, OTKphITruI B cpeAHHH Heq, lCUpnU'1.
CTeHe 1I3 KlIpIIlI'la lIJIlI KaMIDl.
CABoeHHhIMH HJIH cTpoeHHhIMH apo'1-
TPIOMO. 1 3epKaJIO, 3arrOJIIDlIOrn;ee
Hbl.MU rrpoeMaMH. TYHTOfAT. Eepecnmoe OCTHl\KOe
rrpocTeHoK H OTpa:lKalOrn;ee '1eJIOBeKa BO
:lKHJIlIrn;e C :lKepAeBOH OCHOBOH.
TYI10H OE30JI. I10JIoca KOPhI, y~e­
JIeBIIIruI Ha CThIKe AJIlIHHhIX rrJIOCKOCTeH
OOClCU (1) 1I oopa3YIOrn;ruI C HlIMlI Tyrr!>re
~

yrJIhI.
TYI10H IIIAPOBhIH I1APYC. JIapyc
B BRAe TParrel\lIlI Ha cq,eplI'IeCKOH
rrOBepXHOCTlI, OIIlIpalOIQIIHCH Ha KOPOT-
TPOHHMK. 1 ,aoclCa (1) TOJIIQIIHOH B KylO 1I3 rrapaJIJIeJIhHhIX CTOpOH.
TpH AIOHMa. 2 Epe6Ho AJIHHOH TpH ca-
TYP. BhICOKaSI l\lJIHHAP"'IeCKruI KOp-
:lKeHH.
31IHa oe3 AHa, ~arrOJIHHBIIIruICH 3eMJIeH 1I
TPOHHOE OKRO. 1 KOMII03H~IDl H3 rrp"MeHSIBIIIruICSI KaK YKphITlIe BO Bpe-
TPex OKOHHhIX rrpoeMOB, pa3AeJIeHHhIX MeHHhIX YKperrJIeHlIHX.
Y3KHMH rrpoCTeHKaMH. 2 HmaJlbRHClCOe BeCh pOCT. 2 IIIKaq, C Hapy:lKHhIM 3epKa- TYPJIAK. OCTOB HoraHCKOH 1Opmbt.
Q,lCHO. JIOM, OTpa:lKalOrn;HH '1eJIOBeKa BO BeCh
pOCT. 3 BhlcoKoe rrepeHocHoe 3epKaJIO TYPJIYK. I1JIeTeHh (y KaBKa3CKlIX Ha-
TPOHHhIE BOPOTA. BopoTa co ABY-
Ha HO:lKKax. pOAOB).
MSI KaJIHTKaMH.
TYAP KAHhIC. KO:lKaHhIH peMeHh, TYPJIYQHhIH. 06Ma3aHHhIH rJIlIHOH
TPOHIUI. XOPOMbt (1, 2), COCTmnIJ;He rroBepx rrepeIIJIe;eHHOro XBopOCTa.
H3 Tpex o6beMoB rrOA caMOCTOHTeJIh- 3aKperrJIHBIIIHH rrocpeAHHe BOHJIOK Ha
HhIMH lCP06J1R.MU. HoraHcKoH 1Opme. TYPHMCA (=JIaKMYC). TeMHo-roJIY-
6ruI KpaCKa (06hI'IHO KJIeeBaH).
TPOMI1 (=rrepeMhI'Ie'lHhIH rrapyc). TYAJlET (=TYaJIeTHhIH CTOJI). M3Hrn;-
HhIH CTOJIHK C 3epKaJIOM H Hrn;H'IKaMH TYPTMK. TWla.
CBOA'IaTruI KOHCTpyK~H AJIH rrepexoAa
AJIH KOCMeTHKH.
TYPhIIII. KYM.
TYYPfA. HaCTeHHhIH BOHJIOK TYBHH-
CKOH 1Opmbt.
TYXYM. K6apmaJl (1) ropcKoro ceJIe-
HlIH.

OT '1eThlpexrpaHHoro o6beMa K BOChMH- ~AHHhIE BOPOTA. OAHOcTBop'la-


rpaHHoMY, HMelOrn;ruI BRA aplCu (1) C KO- Thle BopoTa 1I3 BepTlIKaJIhHhIX nJla-
HH'IeCKOH BHYTpeHHeH rroBepxHocThlO. cmUH, OOCOlC (1) lIJIlI :lKepAeH; lIHorAa
3aBepIIIaJIlICh lCpbtUleU Ha cToJI6ax.
TPOMIIJIEH. 06pe3HaR cmamYR.
TIIIbIXQA. ,aOM (1, 2) B a6a31IHcKoM
TPOH. I1apaAHoe KpeCJIO MOHapxa AJIH
CeJIeHlIlI.
TOp:lKeCTBeHHhlx l\epeMoHHH.
ThIH . .il:epeBHHHaH orpaAa oe3 rrpocBe-
TOB, COCTaBJIeHHruI H3 BepTlIKaJIhHhIX
TYHf3. KpyrrHhIH IIIaMaHcKHH CTOJI6 Y
KOJIheB, 6pe6eH HJIlI :lKepAeH.
HaHaH~eB.
ThIHXBA. BpeMeHHoe a6a3HHcKoe
TYJIThIPMA 3H. EaIIIKHpcKoe Kap-
coopY:lKeHlIe, .IIIaJIaIII.
KaCHoe :lKHJIHrn;e C 3eMJIHHOH 3achIIIKoH
Me:lKAY CTeHaMH H3 TOHKRX 6epe30Bhlx ThIPr. CeHu B 3a:lKlITO'lHOM oceTlIH-
CTBOJIOB, paCKOJIOThIX BAOJIh rrOrrOJIaM. CKOM oOMe (1), rrepeAHSISI rrOJIOBlIHa
KOTOPhIX '1aCTO lICrrOJIh30BaJIaCh rrOA
TYMEA. 1 HeBhlcoKHH rrpHMoyroJIh-
KJIaAOBYIO.
HhIH HJIH MHororpaHHhIH o6beM, BXOASI-
rn;HiI B COCTaB napanema HaA lCapHU3oM. ThIPKbIK (=ThIPXhIK). 3aBaJIlIHKa Y
2 I1pHKJIMKa K CTeHe B OCHOBaHHH ABep- 3aAHeH CTeHhI BHYTP" 6aJIKapcKoro lIJIlI
Horo HaJlU'1HUlCa. 3 (=ToH6a). IIIap Ha Kapa'laeBCKOro )KlIJIlIrn;a, CJIY:lKarn;aSI
rrHpaMlIAKe·, YKpaIIIalOIQlle HaJlU'1HUlC rrOJIKOH AJIH KOHCKOH COPY" 1I rrpeAMe-
HJIH lCapHU3. TOB )KeHCKOro TPYAa.

TYHrJIMK. BOHJIO'lHhIH q,JIar HaA ThIPJIO. OropO:lKeHHOe rracT61Irn;e AJISI


TPOXMJIh. ClCOI{UR. HoraHcKoM 1Opmou AJIH MOJIOAO)KeHOB. MOJIOAHHKa.

TPYEQATA~I'EAJlKA. EaJIKac rrOJIO- TYHHEJIEBbIH I1ABMJIbOH. I1peA- TbIQOK (=TO'lOK). HalIMeHhIIIruI


CThlO rrpSlMoyrOJIhHOrO Ce'leHlIH, CKJIe- Ha3Ha'leHHOe ~ml rroPTPeTHoH q,OTOCb- rpaHh 6pYClC060lO lCUpnU'1a.

,t

-123-
T TbEPCEPOH - TRCMUY 124

TbEPCEPOH. IIpoMeX<)'ToqHruI llep-


6lOpa, IIOllIWPX<HBaJOIQruI .!luepllY B ee
cepellHHe.
T3JIT3T3 11T11HH33fHHr. KOHO-
Bg3h BO lIBope HK)'TCKoro }KIDIHIQa.

TIOBAllEK. HnMa.
TIOMOH. Cpep;HHe BopOTa B HIIOHCKOM
XPaMOBOM aHCaMOJIe.

TIOP. 1 Myx<:CKruI, IIapa):IHruI IIOJIOBH-


Ha B TaTapCKOM CeJIhCKOM aOMe (1).
2 IIIHpoKHe HaphI PH1\OM C IIelJhlO B ua-
6ax (1) TaTap-M1IIIIapeH.
TIOPEMHAJI H3BA. f{epllflSl na.!lama.

TIOPEMHbIH 3AMOK. 3tiMOK (2).

TIOP CAKE. HaphI Ha lJHCTOH IIOJIO-


BHHe lJeThIpexCTeHHoH OamKHpCKoH
ua6bt (1).
TIOP .HK. OCHOBHruI, }KIDIruI lJaCTh
lJeThIpexcTeHHoH oamKHpcKoH ua6bt
(1), OTlIeJIeHHruI OT x03HHcTBeHHoH
qaCTH 3aHasechIO.

T.HBno. Pa311eJIHIOIQHH PH1\hI UKOIl0-


cmaca 6pyc (1), KOHllhI KOToporo 3a):1e-
JIaHhI B CTeHhI xPaMa.
T.HfA. IIIT}'KarypHhIH rrpoq,HJIHpOBaH-
HhIH BhICTyII (HarrpHMep, Kapllua, KpaH
JIeIIHOH tPU.!leIlKu) , ClIeJIaHHhIH C
IIOMOII(hIO JIeKaJIhHOrO BhIpe3a B mao-
JIOHe.
T.HHYTAJI 41lUIEHKA. tPU.!lellKa C
rrpOq,HJIHpOBaHHhIM OOpaMJIeHHeM.

T.HHYTbIH KAPIlli3. IIpoq,HJIHpo-


BaHHhIH mTYKaTypHhIH Kapllua C H):\e-
aJIhHOH CTporocThlO ropH30HTaJIeH.

T.HCHI.J;Y. lla6U.!lbOIl (1) lIJIH HIIOHCKHX


qaHHbIX ~epeMoHHH.

-124-
Y A3AT,I:(OH. KYHan;KruI B OceTHHCKOM e.n;HHCTBeHHbIM nOMem;eHHeM. 2 KOM- ynOPHA5I APKA. ApK6ymaH.
XOIJIHm;e. HaTa KapaqaeBcKoro OOMa (1), B KOTO-
POH XOIJIH ero X03SIeBa co CBOHMH AeTb- YllPABJIEHHE KPOBJIER. TexHH-
Y AP,ll;OH,I:(OH. KPbITbIH HaBeC, npH- qeCKHe MeponpHSITHSI no no.n;,n;ep)l{BHHIO
MH, He BC'l'ynHBIIIHMH B GpaK.
MbIKaJOID;HH K OCeTHHCKOMY OOMY (1). Ge30nacHoro COCTOSIHHSI no,n;3eMHbIX
YIT33H. CBoii:CTBeHHbIii: 6y.n;.n;HHCKHM nOJloCTeii: B py.n;HHKe HJIH lIIaxTe, BKJlIO-
Y ACAXqA AXBA. AGa3HHcKruI 3HM-
POCllHCSIM .n;eKOpaTHBHbIii: MOTHB B BH,n;e qalOm;He B ceGSI nOJlHbIe HJlH qaCTH'IHbIe
HSIH CTOmKa ,n;mI CKOTa.
oGJlaKOB co cnHpaJIbHO KpyrJISIID;HMHCSI 06pYllleHHSI nopo,n;bI, ee nnBBHoe onyc-
Y AT. OT,n;eJlbHruI CnaJIbIDI ,n;mI )I{eHa- KpruIMH. KBHHe JlHGO 3aKJIBAKY nYCTOT.
TbIX qJleHOB ceMbH B oceTHHCKOM 00-
YH,I:(PYK. nOJIKa ,n;JlSI rJlHIDIHOH H yPACA. TpBAHn;HOHHOe XOIJIHm;e SIKy-
Me (1).
,n;epeBSIHHoii: nocy,n;bI B HOra:HCKoii: lOpme. TOB, 3aqacrylO HMelOm;ee BH,n; GepecTSI-
YBOfHR ,I:(OM. B03lCeooMKa (1). Horo Kopnyca C )I{ep,n;eBbIM KapKacoM.
YHEIIIXO. 1 fJIBBHruI KOMHaTa B )I{H-
YrJIOBOR illKACP. illKa¢ C nJiaHOM B JlOM oOMe (1) Ka6ap.n;HHcKoii: HJlH qep-
BH,n;e paBHoGe,n;peHHoro npSIMoyroJlb- KeccKoii: ycaob6bl, npe.n;Ha3HaqeHHruI
Horo ~yrOJlbHHKa, KOTOPbIH oGpam;eH ,n;JISI npO)l{HBaHHSI po.n;HTeJIeii: co CBOHMH
runoTeUY30H B nOMem;eHHe, a KaTeTaMH He)l{eHaTbIMH H He3a~HHMH ,n;eTbMH, a
npHMblKaeT K ero CTeHaM. TaK)l{e ,n;JISI npHeMa )I{eHm;HH-rocTeii:.
YfOJIOK. npoKaTHoe )I{eJle30 f-oG- 2 fJlBBHruI KOMHaTa B TPBAHn;HOHHOM
pa3Horo ceqeHHSI. BAbIreii:cKoM oOMe (1).

YrOJIbHA5I APKA. Mump06aR apKa. YH3IIIXO. JIonapcKoe KapKacHoe


XOIJIHm;e C GepecTSIHblM nOKpbITHeM.
YfOITbHOE KPECJIO. Kpecno C KBa-
YHH. HaKJIOHHbIe 6aJIKH B BepXHeii: YP3A (=KapTa). )Kep.n;H )l;JISI pa3BeCKH
,n;paTHblM CH,n;eHbeM H HeBbICOKHMH CMbI-
qaCTH TYBHHCKOH lOpmbl. o.n;e)l{)l;bI, cKaTepTeii: H nOJlOTeHen;, yKpe-
KaJOID;HMHCSI CnHHKaMH-no,n;JlOKOTHH-
nneHHbIe no.n; nOTOJIKOM B GalllKHpcKoM
KaMH no ,n;BYM coce,n;HHM CTopoHaM. YH3. )KunOH OOM (1) B KaGap,n;HHcKoii: XOIJIHm;e.
HJIH qepKeCCKoH ycaob6e, y KOToporo
YrYJIb,[()KHH. 3HMHee nOCeJleHHe
CTeHbI oGMa3aHbI rJlHHoii: no CTOJIGaM YPbIH. CJlO)l{eHHbIe Ha no,n;cTBBKe-cyu-
GypSiT npH3.HI'apbSI H npHGaHKaJIbSi.
KapKaca H 3anOJlHeHHIO H3 nepenneTeH- AYKe nOCTeJlbHbIe npHHBAJIe)I{HOCTlI B
YKA3HOR KPYf. IJ;H¢epGJlaTqacoB. HbIX BeTBeii: opelllHHKa. TPBAHn;HOHHOM GaIIIKHpCKOM )l{HJImn;e,
COCTaBJISIIOID;He BB)l{HbIR 3J1eMeHT ero
YKJIA,ll;. 3aKaJIeHHOe )I{eJle30, pa3Ho- YH3KX. qepKeccKHii: OOM (1) C uHmepbepa.
BH,n;HOCTb CTaJIH. HeCKOJlbKHMH KOMHaTaMH, pacnoJlo-
)I{eHHblMH B ,n;JlHHY o,n;Ha 3a .n:pyroii:. YPbIH,ll;bIK. illHpOKHe HapbI B Galll-
YKJIA,I:(KA. HeBbIcoKHH Cyu,n;yK C
KHPCKOM XOIJImn;e, pacnOJlO)l{eHHbIe
nJlOCKHMH nOBepXHOCTSIMH, ynoTPeG- YlUIA. KpyrnbIe KOHCO/lU (1), nO,n;Aep- B,n;OJlb CTeHbI npOTHB Bxo,n;a.
JlSIBIIIHHCSI B noe3,n;Kax. )l{HBaJOID;He Kp06/l1O GY,n;AHHCKOro KYJlb-
TOBoro coopY)l{eHHSI. YCA,I:(bBA. OT,n;eJlbHOe 3eMJIeBJIBAe-
YKOCHHA. HaKJlOHHruI no,n;nopKa.
HHe co BCeMH cTPoeHHSIMH Ha ero TeppH-
YJIHu;A. 1 npOe3)1{ruI ,n;opora nepe,n; TOpHH.
JlHn;eBOH CTOPOHOH 00M06 B CeJleHHH. YCAT. 3a,n;HHH 060P KpecTbSIHcKoii:
2 P,60p (1) nepe.n; J),360u (1) B PYCCKOH ycaob6bl TeMHHKOBCKHX TaTap-MHIIIa-
,n;epeBHe. peR, BKJllOqaJOm;HH B ceGSI TOK ,n;JlSI
YJIITY lOR. 1 CpyGHoe HJlH nneTeHoe MOJlOTbGbI, puzy HJlH 06UH (HHor,n;a H
KapaqaeBCKOe )l{HJlHm;e C GOJlblllHM 6aHIO).

125

-125-
y YCAX - Y3HlKAK 126

YCAX. O'lar C BMa3aHHhIM KOTnOM, B YXO)KH. Yro~hSI H X03SIHcTBeHHhIe


6ammpCKOH U36e (1). nOCTPOHKH B ~eBHepyccKoH ycaob6e.
YCEHOK. Pe6po QPyca (1), KOCRKa H YXOJI3A (=MaKapa). Pe3HaSI ronoBa
T. ~. ~paKoHa Ha HH)KHeM yrny H30ruyTOH
KP06.!lU 6y~~mcKoro xpaMa.
YCTEJI. CTon B nepe~HeM yrny ·Ma-
pmcKoH U36bl.
YCThIThI XAit )KeHcKaSI (npaBaSI)
nonOBHHa OCeTHHCKOrO )KHn~a.

YCThE (=)Kepno. 3eB). illHpoKoe TO-


nO'lHOe OTBepCTHe PYCCKOU ne'tu.
YChIIIAJIhHHIJ;A. CK.flen ~nSI 3axo-
pOHeHHSI mm;, 06'he~HHeHHhIx po~­
CTBOM. YX3f. C~YK ~nSI MenKHX Be~eH B
6YPSITCKOH IOpme.
YillH. 1 KpHBonHHeHHhIe HnH npSIMO-
yronhHhIe BhICryDhI HO.IIU'tHUKa, CHMMe-
TPH'lHO pacnOnO)KeHHhIe no pa3HhIe
CTOPOHhI OT BepXHeH qaCTH npoeMa.
2 JIHThIe neTnH no BepIIIHHe KonOKona,
npe~a3HaqeHHhIe ~SI ero nO~BeCKH.

YillKO.Opu.abOH.
Y3. KaKblpa.
Y3H)KAK. C~aro~HHcSI KBepxy
o6Ma3aHHhIH rnHHoH nneTeHhIH ObLMaPb
qepKeccKoro oOMa (1).

YTAP. BammpcKHH 3HMHHH xyTOp.


YTEPMAPKOBCKMI IIEqh (=YTep-
MaHOBCKaSI ne'lh). 06mHTaSI )Kene30M
KHpnH'lHaSI ne'lh (06h1'lHO B B~e BhICO-
KOro BepTHKanhHoro ~nH~pa); B Poc-
CHH - C 1820-x rr.

YTOK. IIonepeqHaSI HHTh B TKaHH, BBO-


~HMaSI qenHOKOM Me~y HHTSIMH
OCltoBbl nepne~HKynSIpHo K HHM, Ha
BCro mHpHUY MaTepHH.

YTYr. CeHHHK B 6YPSITCKOH ycaob6e.


YXBAT. )Kene3HaSI cKo6a ~nSI npHKpe-
nneHHSI BO~OCTO'IHhIX TPy6 H rpOMO-
OTBO~OB K CTeHaM.

YXBATHA5I CKOBA. ABepHaSI pyq-


Ka.

-126-
cI>AEPl:I. BeHmUJIRmOp (2). cI>ACOHHbIll Kl1PIIl1l.J. KHprrH'l C cI>EllEP-KAAACTP. AcceKypaH/{-KOH-
qJHrypHQH QTeCKQH JIH6Q CPQPMQBKQH. mopa.
cI>AEPI1IJ;HYCA CHCTEMA. raepuK.

cI>AJIEBA5I PY~IKA. ACHMMeTpH'lH<UI cI>ACUl1l1. TPH ropH3QHTaJIhHhIX yc- cI>EPMA. KQHCTPYKTHBHhIH :,lJIeMeHT
rrQBQPQTH<UI pY'lKa, QTKphIBaIOIl.\aJl ryrra Ha JIHl\eBQH rrQBepXHQCTH apxu- rrepeKphITHJI HJIH MQCTa, CQCTQJlIl.\HH H3
):IBepHQH 3llMOK (3). mpaea B UOHu'teCKOM H KOPWUjJCKOM 6pycbee (1) JIH6Q CTep)!{HeH, KQTQPhle
opoepax. CKperrJIJlIOTCJI rrQ yrJIaM H B MeCTax rrepe-
cI>AJIEBbIll 3AMOK. Bpe3HQH 3llMOK Ce'leHHH.
(3), QTKphIBaeMhIH rrQBQPQTQM ):IBepHQH 'cI>AXBEPK. KapKac CTeH, COCTQJlIl.\HH
pY'lKH. H3 BepTHKaJIhHhIX, rQPH3QHTaJIhHhIX H cI>ECTOHbI. 1 rUpJlRHoa. 2 ropoo'ta-
HaKJIQHHhIX 6pycbee (1), rrpQCBeThI mblu fjJpU3, wpoo'tamblu nORCo
cI>AJIbUEBA5I l.JEPEIIl1UA. Map- Me)!{):IY KQTQPhIMH 3arrQJIHJlIOTCJI rJIH-
CeJlbCKaR 'tepenu/{a. cI> l1AJIA ( = CPHaJI) . ApXHTeKTypHQe
HQH,KaMHeM,KHprrH'lQM.
YKpaweHHe B BH):Ie ZJlYXOU CPHryPHQH
cI> AJIbIIIl1BA5I r AJITEJIb. raJlmeJlb
6aweHKH HJIH CQcy):la C BhICQKQH KPhIW-
(1), CQCTaBJIeHHaJl H3 OOCOK (1) IIlHpH-
KQH (CM. BaaoH (2).
HQH B ):IIOHM.
cI>APAOHKA. 113Q6pa)!{eHHe rrhIllIHQ-
rpY):IQH )!{eHIl.\HHhI C PhI6hHM XBQCTQM B
PYCCKHX HapQ):IHhIX PQCrrHCJ'IX H pe3h-
6e, - HarrpHMep, B Jl060ebix oocKax.

cI>AUET. IIp03pa'lHaJl rrOJIQca rrQ KpaIO


TQJICTQrQ rrOJIHPQBaHHQrQ CTeKJIa, Q6pa-
3YIOIl.\<UI TyrrQH yrQJI C ero QCHQBHQH
rrQBepXHQCThIO .
cI>APAcI>OPKA. BopeopKa.
cI> AIIIHHbI. CBJl3KH rrpYTheB ):IJIHHQH
cI>APTl1HA. IIHTeHHhIH ):IQM, Ka6aK.
QT Tpex ):10. 'leThlpex apWHH (c cyMMap-
cI>APTYK. AeKQpaTHBHaJl 'laCTh HaJlU't- HhIM rrQrrepe'lHHKQM QT TpeTH ):10. nQJIQ-
HUKa, pa3MeIl.\eHHaJl rrQ erQ QCH HH)!{e BHHhI apWHHa), nepeXBa'leHHhle KQJIh-
rrQ):IQKQHHHKa. <!>l1rAPPEll. KpaH HanJlaeHOU fjJUJlCH-
KU, HMeIOIl.\HH KJIHHQBH):IHQe Ce'leHHe.

cI>l1JIE. AeKQpaTHBHaJl BCTaBKa B Me-


6eJIh.

cI>HJIEHKA. 1 Cpe):lHJ'lJl, BCTaBHaJl


l\eBhIMH eu/{a.MU 'lepe3 Ka2K):\hle i/2 - 3/4 'laCTh ):IBepHQrQ rrQJIQTHa. 2 06paMJIeH-
apWHHa H HCrrQJIh3yeMhle ):IJIJI yKperrJIe- HhIH HJIH 3arJIy6JIeHHhIH rJIYXQH Y'laCTQK
HHJI 3eMJIJlHhIX QTKQCQB HJIH rrpH rrpQ- cpaca):la JIH60 HaCTeHHQH naHeJlU, HMe-
KJIa):lKe ):IQPQr B CHJIhHQ rrepeCe'leHHQH IOIl.\HH CPQPMy rrpJlMQyroJIhHHKa HJIH
cI>AC. l.JacTh YKpenJIeHHJI, HMeIOIl.\aJl JIH6Q TQrrKQH MeCTHQCTH, a TaK)!{e B 6JIH3KYIO K HeMY (HarrpHMep, C BbIKPYJIC-
BH):I eaJla (1) C 6pycmeepoM, KQTOphle nQJIeBhIX YKperrJIeHHJlX ):IJIJI 3aIl.\HThI QT KllMU Ha yrJIax HJIH C rrQJIYKpY)!{HJlMH Ha
QT):IeJIeHhI QT npQTHBHHKa PBQM. Q6CTpeJIa. ' TQPl\ax).

127

-127-
cIH,nEH"IATA5I - Cl)POHTOH 128

IllMJIEHqATA5I (.flOnamKa, nUIIR- IllJIOPEHTMI1:CKA5I M03AMKA. IllPAHKJIMHA rpOMOOTBO)J,. rpo-


cmpa). MMelO~ruI rrpSiMoyr.OJIbHOe HJIH M03al{qHOe H306pa)KeHHe H3 ;!IOBOJIbHO MOOTBO;!l, 3aBepIIIeHHblH BbICOKHM
qmrypHoe 3arJIy6JIeHHe rrOqTH rro BceH KpyrrHblx KYCKOB KaMHSI H CTeKJIa. CTep)KHeM Ha):I 3a~H~aeMbIM OT rp03
JIHQeBOH rrOBepXHOCTH. coopY)KeHHeM.
IllJIIOrAPKA. TIoBopoTHaSi )KeJIe3HruI
IllMcrAPMOHM}I. TIHeBMaTHqeCKHH HaCa):IKa Ha AbIMOBYIO Tpy6y, HarrpaBJISI- IllPAHUY3C~ KPOBITK KpOB.flR
KJIaBHIIIHblH MY3bIKaJIbHblH HHCTpy- lO~aSl AbIM rro BeTPY, AJISI YJIyqIIIeHHSI .Ma1tCapObt.
MeHT, BHeIIIHe rrOXO)K}lH Ha He60JIbIIIOe TSirH.
IllPAHIJ;Y3CKA5I CMCTEMA. llo-
rrHaHHHO C BbI)l;BH)KHbIMH pblqaraMH, a
.flO1tCO cucmeMa.
rro 3ByqaHHIO - Ha opz(m.
IllPAHIJ;Y3CKA}I YKJIA)J,KA. CH-
CTeMa BblCTHJIKH IIIHcpepHoH KP06.flU
rrapaJIJIeJIbHblMH pSl):laMH IIIecTHyrOJIb-
IllJIIOrEP. TIJIOCKruI rrJIaCTHHKa HbIX rrJIHTOK TaKHM o6pa30M, ~o Ha
(crrJIOIIIHruI HJIH rrpope3HaSl, C rrpSIMOJIH- rroBepXHOCTH IIIBbI 06pa3ylOT ceTKY C
HeHHblMH HJIH CPHryPHbIMH KpruIMH) Ha HaKJIOHOM JIHHHH rro;!l yrJIOM B 45 ° K
BepTHKaJIbHOH OCH, yKa3b1BalO~ruI cBecy KPbtUlU.
HarrpaBJIeHHe BeTPa.
IllPAHIJ;Y3CKMI1: EMJIb}IP)J,. CTOJI C
IllJIIOTEET. MCKYCCTBeHHoe rrO;!lBO;!l- 60PTaMH 6e3 JIY3, ;!IJISI HrpbI TPeMSI
Hoe OCHOBaHHe rH;!IpOTeXHHqeCKOrO IIIapaMH.
coopY)KeHHSI, COCTOSl~ee H3 n01typa,
IllPAHUY3CKMI1: TIAPK. llapKoBblH
600060R H pUC6epMbi. aHCaM6JIb C reOMeTpHqeCKOH qeTKO-
CTblO KaK B IIJIaHHpOBKe, TaK H B 061>-
IllOJIbBAPK. He60JIbIIIruI AOXOAHruI
ycaob6a C orpaHHqeHHbIM qHCJIOM CJIy- eMax Haca~eHHH.
)Ke6HbIX rrOCTPoeK (B 3arra;!lHbIX paH- IllPAHIJ;Y3CKMI1: TIAPTEP. UBeTOq-
OHax CTPaHbI). Hbrn napmep (1) C Kp~eBHbIM PHCYH-
IllJIAHK. EOKOBaSi CTopOHa yKperrJIe-
HHSI. IllOHAPEM OKHO (=6Y;!lKOIO OKHO). KOM.
OKHO C ;!IOrrOJIHHTeJIbHblM OCTeKJIeHHeM IllPECKA (=a cppecKo, aJIb cppecKo,
60KOBblX CTOPOH (rrOA rrpSIMblM YrJIOM aJIbcppecKo). )l(HBOIIHCb BO;!lOpacTBopH-
K JIHQeBOH), BMeCTe C rrOAOKOHHOH MbIMH KpacKaMH rro BJIa)KHOH IIITyKa-
qaCTblO OT rrOJIa, BbI)l;BHHYToe Ha rypKe.
Kp01tlUmeu1tax rrepeA cpaCa;!lHOH rrJIOCKO-
CTblO. IllPM3. 1 Cpe;!lHSISI qaCTb a1tma6.fleMe1t-
mao 2 )J,eKopaTHBHo ocpopMJIeHHruI ro-
IllOHAPMK. 3aBepIIIalOIqIlH 3;!1aHHe PH30HTaJIbHruI rrOJIoca.
He60JIbIIIOH rpaHeHblH 061>eM, y KOTO-
poro rrOBepXHOCTb 3aCTeKJIeHHSl 60JIbIIIe IllPM30BA}I CTYTIEHb. JIecTHHqHruI
rrJIO~a;!lH rrpOCTeHKOB. cTyrreHb, rrpHMblKalO~ruI K IIJIO~aAKe.

IllJIEMCKA5I PE3b. 30JIOqeHruI pe3b- IllOHAPb. 1 J/amep1ta. 2 rpaHeHblH IllPM30BbIE )J,OCKM. 1 Ka~ruI H3
6a B CTHJIe 6apOKKO, CBOHCTBeHHruI pyc- Bblcryrr Ha cpaca):Ie, HMelOIqIlH KpyrrHble OOCOK (1) B BepxHeM CJIoe rrOJIa, yJIO-
CKHM UK01tOCmaCaM XVII H HaqaJIa OKHa Ha Ka~oH rpaHH. 3 TIoBblIIIeHHruI )KeHHbIX B;!IOJIb CTeH HJIH rrorrepeK rrOMe-
XVIII B. qaCTb KP06.flU, BKJIlOqalO~ruI B ce6S1
3aCTeKJIeHHble rrpoeMbI ;!IJISI rrpoxoAa
IllJIEPOH. 1 )J,eKopaTHBHruI mlpaMH;!IKa
AHeBHoro CBeTa B rrOMe~eHHe, KOTopoe
B BepxHeH qaCTH 1ta.flu't1tUKa HJIH Ha Kap-
orpaHHqeHO TOJIbKO BHYTPeHHHMH CTe-
1tuae. 2 CTHJIH30BaHHoe H306pa)KeHHe
HaMH.
H30rHYToH BeTBH B QeHTPe Ca;!lOBO-rrap-
~eHHSI - rro;!l rrpSlMblM yrJIOM K 60JIb-
KOBoro napmepa (1). IllOHTAIT. BOAopa360pHruI KOJIOHKa Ha
IIIHHCTBY ;!IOCOK 3TOro CJIOSI. 2 J/0606QR
rOpO;!lCKOH rrJIO~aAH, HMelO~ruI BH;!I
IllJIEilib. TIOJIeBOe CPOpTHcpHKaqIlOH- oocKa.
MHOrorpaHHOro na6U11b01ta (1) C pa3BH-
Hoe coop~eHHe, OTKpbITOe C TbIJIa H TblM cpaCa):IHbIM ;!IeKOpoM. IllPOMyrA. CVpaMyza.
06pa~eHHoe K rrpOTHBHHKy AByMSI
paCaMU AJIHHOH 20- 30 M, rrOA YrJIOM IllOPT. KpYIIHoe KpenOCm1toe coop~e­ IllPOHTMCllMC. CVpo1tmo1t.
60-120°. HHe, rrpHcrroc06JIeHHOe K AJIHTeJIbHOH
cllPOHTOH (=cppOHTHCrrHc). Tpe-
KpyroBoH 060poHe 6e3 rrOAAep)KKH
yrOJIbHOe, rrOJIYKpyrJIOe, .fly'tK060e
H3BHe.
JIH60 CJIO)KHocpHrypHoe 3aBepIIIeHHe
IllOPTEU~. Kpenocmb. Kap1tuaa HJIH 1ta.flU't1tUKQ.
IllOTAPMI1:. TIoMe~eHHe ;!IJISI yJIbTPa-
cpHOJIeToBoro, HHcppaKpacHoro H HHoro
o6JIyqeHHSl B Me;!lHQRHCKHX QeJISIx.
IllITMrEJIb. 1 :JKHJIoe JIH60 X03S1HCTBeH-
Hoe CTPoeHHe rrpH rJIaBHOM 3;!1aHHH, IIIP AMYTA. HerrO;!lBH)KHruI JIH60 OT-
rrpHMblKalO~ee K HeMY HJIH B03Be;!leH- KH;!IHruI 3aCTeKJIeHHruI paMa Ha;!l OCHOB-
Hoe rr06JIH30CTH. 2 POSlJlb. HOH qaCTblO ABepH HJIH OKHa. ":-.'.,

-128-
41POHTOHHOE OKHO - 41b1Hr 129

<l>POHTOHHOE OKHO. BbtnycKHoe


OKHO C ,IJ;BycKaTHbIM IIOKpbITlfeM Ha
OT~eJIbHbIX cmponUJlax.

<l>P.~DKCKMll I10fPEE. I1IfTeiiHoe


3aBe~eHlfe C IIpO~a)!{eH BIfHorpa~Hblx
BIfH.
<l>YKCOBO CTEKJIO. BooR-Hoe cme-
K/IO.

<l>YH.IJ:AMEHT. I1o~3eMH(l}I qaCTb


coopy)!{eHIfM, 06eCIIeqlfBalOll\(l}I ero yc-
TOii:qHBOCTb.
<I> YPHEJIb. KopoTKaM BepTIfKaJIbHaM
IIIaxTa, COe~HH»IOll\aM ~Be utmO/lbHU.
<I> YPHMTYPA. MeTaJIJIlfqeCKHe 3JIe-
MeHTbI Ha ~epeBMHHbIX ~BepMx If Me6e-
JIIf: pyqKIf, IIOBOpOTHble IIeTJIIf, /lU'tU-
Hbl, YKpaIIIeHH».

<l>YCT. CTBOJI KO/lOHHbl.

<l>YCYMA. JIerKHe pa3~BIf)!{Hble CTeHbI


B MIIOHCKHX IIOCTpoHKax.
<l>YTllTOK. HeIIO~BH)!{HaM peHKa ~JIM
1f3MepeHlfM ypOBHM BO~bI B peKe.
<l>bIHf . .IJ:epeBMHHbIH CTOJIIfK Ha TPex
HO)!{KaX, B oceTHHCKOM )!{HJIIfll\e.

-129-
XAEJIb. 1 Tpa)WJl;MOHHbIH ceBepoKaB- XAlJHIII. IIocTpoHKa ,n;JISI rOCTeH, B03- XOJIO,UHA5I EAH5I. MblllbHaR.
Ka3cKMH rrOCeJIOK - COCTaBHaji 'IaCTb Be,n;eHHaji ('IaCTO C rrpMCTPoeHHOH KO-
XOJIO,UHA5I ll,EPKOBb. JIemHRR
aYJIa. 2 A,n;blreHcKMH ayJI, o6HeceHHbIH HIOIIIHeH) BHyTpll OC060H orpa,n;bl, B
l{epKoBb.
rrJIeTHeM C 3eMJIjlHOH rrpMcbIIIKOH Ha CTopOHe OT yeaob6bl 'IepKeCOB MJIM
BbICOTY rro rpy,n;b 'IeJIOBeKa; liHor,n;a C Ka6ap,n;MHIl;eB. XOJIO,UHA5I lJETBEPKA. KMprrM'I-
rrJIeTHeBblMM Ha6mo,n;aTeJIbHblMll BblIII- Hajl CTeHKa TOJIIl.\MHOH B 'JemBepmb KUp-
XA5IABY. BOHJIO'IHbIH Il;OKOJIb TYBMH-
KaMM. nU'Ja, OT,n;eJIjllOIl.\ajl ,n;epeBHHHylO cTeHY
CKOH lOpmbl.
rrOMeIl.\eHMjI OT rre'IM MJIM MHoro OTOIIM-
XA,U3AP. HCrrOJIb3yeMoe rro,n; CTOJIO-
XEPYBHM. Pa3HOBM,n;HOCTb TaK Ha3bI- TeJIbHOrO rrpM60pa.
BylO M KyxHIO rJIaBHOe rrOMeIl.\eHMe oce-
BaeMbIX CMJI He6eCHbIX, M306pa)KaeMaji XOnOMO. KOHM'IeCKOe )KMJIMIl.\e ce-
TMHCKoro oOMa (1, 2), C O'IaroM B Il;eHT-
B BM,n;e ,n;eTCKOH rOJIOBKll C KPblJIbjlMM rro BepHblx HKYTOB, B03Be,n;eHHoe M3 rrepe-
paJIbHOH'IaCTM.
60KaM. ceKalOIl.\MXCjI )Kep,n;eH Ha 6peBeH'IaTOH
XAI1:JIO. Yembe. paMe, 06JIO)KeHHOe cHapY)KM oepHoM M
XAK3II1,. ,KYHaIl;Kajl B a,n;bIreHcKoH KpbIToe 6epecToH.
yeaob6e, COCTOjlIl.\ajl M3 KOMHaTbI ,n;JIjI
XOJIOCTA5I CJIY)KEA. Yeaoe6HaR
rOCTjI II rrpMMbIKalOIl.\eH KOHIOIIIHM ,n;JIjI
CJIY)Ke6HaH rrocTpoHKa 6e3 rre'IHOrO
ero JIOIIIa,n;M.
OTOrrJIeHMjI.
XAJIArA. 06paIl.\eHHaji K lOry ,n;epe- XOMYT. )KeJIe3Haji cKo6a, OXBaTbIBa-
BjlHHaji ,n;BycTBOp'IaTaji ,n;Bepb 6YPjlTCKOH XHKHMA,UO. CllYXOBoe OKHO B
lOIl.\aH ,n;epeBjlHHble 6pyebR (1) ,n;JIjI MX
BOHJIO'IHOH lOpmbl. KpblUJe jlrrOHCKOH rrOCTpOHKM, OTKPbI-
coe,n;MHeHlljl MJIM ,n;JIjI rrOBbIIlleHMjI rrpo'I-
BaeMoe HaTjlHYTblM llIHypOM.
XAJIYAH. J/.JlCam.Ma. HOCTM KOHIl;a 6pyca.
XHPOMA. 1 3aJIbHOe IIOMelll;eHMe B
XAJIYrA. ,UpeBHepyccKajl yJIM'IH~ M3- jlrrOHCKOM 3,n;aHMM. 2 TMrr jlrrOHCKOro XOH,U3E. ll,eHTPaJIbHaji 'IaCTb jlrrOH-
ropo,n;b.
)KMJIMIl.\a, Il;eHTp KOToporo 3aHMMaeT CKoro 3tl.MKa (1) MJIM Kpenoemu, l{uma-
60JIbIllaji KOMHaTa. Oellb.
XAHbI. Pa3,n;Bll)KHble peIIIeT'IaTble
CTeHbl TYBMHCKOH lOpmbl, C06paHHble M3 XHT. Ye,n;MHeHHaji JIaMaMCTCKajl 06M- XOH,U3H (=XOHCH). rJIaBHbIH xpaM B
MBOBbIX rrJIaHOK. TeJIb y KaJIMbIKOB. CMHTOMCTCKOM KYJIbTOBOM KOMrrJIeKce.
XAOC. XJIEEH5I. IIoMeIl.\eHMe ,n;JISI BbIIIe'IKM XOHKAKY. Orpa,n;a jlrrOHCKOH Kpeno-
HarpOMO)K,ll;eHMe KpyrrHblx KaMeHHblX xJIe6a; MHor,n;a TaK)Ke ,n;JIjI ero rrpo,n;a)KM emu.
rJIbl6 HenpaBMJIbHOH <pOpMbl (MHor,n;a
MJIM pa3,n;a'IM (B MOHacTblpe).
cpe,n;M CKaJI) B neU3aJICHOM napKe, CMMBO- XOHC5I. XOH031l.
JIM3MpYIOIl.\ee Mcxo,n;Hoe COCTOjlHMe BM- XOEOT. (=BOpOTMJIO). HapY)KHbIH
XOP. BOCTO'IHaH 'IaCTb 3arra,n;Ho-xpM-
,n;MMoro MMpa. rroBopoTHblH 6pye (2) BeTpjlHOH MeJIb-
CTMaHCKoro xpaMa, rrpe,n;Ha3Ha'IeHH~
HMIl;bI, rr03BOJIjllOIl.\MH YCTaHoBMTb ee
XAII,UbIK A5IrbI. KapallObt aRZbt. ,n;JIjI ,n;yxoBeHcTBa M 06bI'IHO OT,n;eJIeHHaji
KPblJIbjl rro HarrpaBJIeHMIO BeTPa.
OT OCHOBHoro rrpocTpaHcTBa 3,n;aHMjI
XAP ACA. ll,eHTpaJIbHblH orropHblH XOI1:MOP. IIapa,n;Haji 'IaCTb Tpa,n;M- rrOBblIlleHMeM rrOJIa, JIerKMM orpa)K,ll;e-
CTOJI6 C ropM30HTaJIbHOH 6aJIKOH, HMeM MJIM apKou C paCrrjlTMeM M rrpe,n;-
Il;MOHHoro 6YPjlTcKoro )KMJIMIl.\a, B KOTO-
rro,n;,n;ep)l(MBalOrrl;eH rrOTOJIOK py6JIeHOH CTOHIl.\MMM (EoroMaTepb M HoaHH Eoro-
poft Haxo,n;HTCH peJIMKBMM M rrpe,n;MeTbI
lOpmbl y 3arra,n;HbiX 6ypSIT. CJIOB).
pMTyaJIa.

XATTO. XpaM ,n;ml rrporrOBe,n;eH, B XOJIJI. IIpocTopHoe rrOMeIl.\eHMe ,n;mI XOPOMHHKA. He60JIbIllaji U36a (1) C
COCTaBe ,n;33H-6y,n;,n;MHCKOro aHCaM6JISI. O)KM,n;aHMH MJIM OT,n;bIxa. e,n;MHcTBeHHbIM rrOMeIl.\eHMeM.

130

-130-
x XOPOMbi - XIOP 131

XOPOMhI. 1 KpynH.Wf,n;peBHepyccKMM XYP3. JIaMaMcTcKMM MOHacThlph C pa3-


,n;OM C MHOrO'lMCJIeHHhIMM nOMeII\eHM- MeII\eHMeM nocTpoeK no Kpyry.

X3IU3IU. KyHa~KaSI, 3aHMMaIDII\aSI


He60JIhillYID nocTpoMKY Ha OT,n;eJIhHOM
,n;BopMKe B03JIe ycaob6bl B Ka6ap,n;MH-
CKOM MJIM '1epKeCCKoM CeJIeHMM.

XIDP. JIe3rMHcKoe CeJIeHMe B ropax.

SIMM. 2 CeBepHoe py6JIeHOe )KMJIMII\e B


,n;Ba 3Ta)Ka.

XOPOC (=BeH'lMK). IIo,n;BecH01f ~ep­


KOBHhIM CBeTMJIhHMK co MHO)KeCTBOM
CBe'leM,naHuKaouAo.

XOPhI. EaAKoH (1), wAepeR (1) JIM60


AOO:JfCUR BHyTpM napa,n;Horo 3aJIa MJIM B
~epKBM.

XOTOH. 1 IIoMeII\eHMe ,n;JISI CKOTa,


IIpMcTPoeHHoe C ceBepa K SIKYTCKOM
IOpme. 2 KaJIMhI~KMM aYJI.

XPAM B AHTAX. KYJIhTOBOe 3,n;aHMe


C mlm06bl.M nopmUKOM. .

XPEBET. BepxHSISI ropM30HTaJIh KO-


po6'-t.amo20 c6ooa.

XYBCAP. KOBpMK-naJIaC B IOpme


npMaHrapcKMX 6ypSIT.

XY,o;mKECTBEHHA5l rABAHh.
ra6aHb xyoO:JfCeCm6eliHaR.

XYPA IIIDPT. l.! YBaIIIcKaSI KypHaR


U36a.

XYP,o;3. CTa~oHapHhIM BpaII\aID-


II\HMCSI 6apa6aH Ha BepTHKaJIhHOM OCM,
3aIIOJIHeHHhIM TeKCTaMM JIaMaMCTCKMX
MOJIHTB.
XYPYJI. KaJIMhI~KMM 6y,n;,n;MMCKMH MO-
HaCThlph.

-131-
UArEJIhH5I. KHPIHI'IHhlM: 3aBO,n;. UKOHoemaea K O,n;HOMy H3 BOCTO'lHhIX UE3YPA. MHTepBaJI B opHaMeHTe.
CTOJI60B B c060pe JIH60 K 60KOBOM:
UAryp. 1 OrpOMHhlM: JIaph-a.M6ap C UMtEJIhH51. 1 KHPIHI'lHhlM: 3aBO,n;.
CTeHe B ero UHmepbepe; BKJIIO'IaJIO B
TPeM» ,n;Bep»MH, BO BTOPOM 3Ta:lKe aBap- 2 HaBec ,n;JI» XpaHCHH» KHprrH'Ia.
ce6» orpa:lK,n;eHHoe ce,n;aJIHIIJ;e 3a OT,n;eJIh-
CKOro oOMa (1). 2 IIIKacp-'1YJIaH B ,n;are-
HhIM BXO,n;OM H 3aBepllIaJIOCh 60raTO UMKJIOIIMqECKA5I KJIA)J.KA.
CTaHCKOM Hapo,n;HoM :lKHJIHIlW, 06hI'IHO
,n;eKopHpOBaHHhIM AepeB»HHhIM Ulam- KJlaOKa H3 OrpOMHhIX KaMHeM: HeOAHHa-
YKpallIeHHhIM: pe3h60M:.
POM (1) Ha pe3Hhlx KOJIOHKaX, KOTOPhIM: KOBOM: CPOpMhI 6e3 rrp»Mhlx yrJIOB.
UAII«I>A. IlIun (2). 06h1'1HO 6hIJI YBeH'IaH H306pa:lKeHHeM
UMJIMH,ll;PMQECKMI1 CBO,ll;. IIoJly-
UAPrA. 1 rOpH30HTaJIhHa» paMa H3 KOPOHhI HJIH ,n;ByrJIaBOrO OPJIa.
I1UPKYJlbHblU C800.
rrOCTaBJIeHHhIX Ha pe6po OOe01( (1), UBETOqHMUA. He60JIh1lI0M: zaaoH C
06'he,n;HH»IOIIJ;a» HO:lKKH CTOJIa HJIH CTY- n:seTaMH rrepe,n; Ha,n;rp06HeM, 06paMJIeH- UMMAPA KAJIOPM«I>EP. KaJl0pu-
JIa. 2 UHJIHH,n;p H3 JIHCTOBOM: CTaJIH (Ha- HhIM: 60pO/OpOM. pep C KepaMH'IeCKHMH TPy6aMH ,n;JI»
rrpHMep, ,n;JI» rrpOMhIIlIJIeHHhIX ,n;hIMOBhIX ,n;BH:lKeHH» TerrJIOrO B03,n;yxa, 060rpeBa-
UEl1XrAY3. BOeHHhIM: CKJIa,n; ,n;JI» xpa- lOIIJ;ero rrOMeIIJ;eHH».
TPy6).
HeHH» 3arraCOB BoopY:lKeHH», cHap»:lKe-
UAPCKA5I APKA. ApKa (1) l1apeKux UMMETMK. Y3KHM: KapHUa C HeCJIO:lK-
HH», 06MYH,n;HpoBaHH» H rrpo,n;oBOJIh-
8pam B UKOHoemaee. HOM: npOpUJlUp08K011.
CTBH».
UAPCKME BPATA (=BeJIHKHe BpaTa, UEJIOBAJIhH5I. qaM:Ha», Ka6aK. UMHTOBKA. TlOphMa.
paM:CKHe BpaTa, CB»Thle BpaTa). Cpe,n;-
UEM5IHKA. M3MeJIh'leHHa» 060- UMPKYMBAJIAUMOHHA5I JIM-
HHe ,n;BepH UKOHoemaea, pacrrOJIO:lKeH- :lK:lKeHHa» rJIHHa H TOJI'IeHhIM: KHprrH'I,
Hhle Ha rrpO,n;OJIhHOM: OCH XpaMa, rrepe,n; HM5I. HerrpephIBHa» JIHHH» rrOJIeBhIX
,n;06aBJI»BIlIHec» B CTPOHTeJIhHhlM: pac- YKperrJIeHHM:, KOTOpa» 06paIIJ;eHa OT
aJITapHhIM npeCmOJlOM. TBOP ,n;JI» rrpO'lHOcTH. I1UmaOeJlU H OrpaHH'IHBaeT C BHeIliHeM:
UAPCKOE MECTO. IIo'leTHoe MeCTO UEHMHA. 1 Hapaael1 C MOHOXPOMHhlM CTOPOHhI ,n;yro06pa3HYIO rrOJIOcy, 3aH»-
,n;JI» u:ap» , rrpHMhlKalOIIJ;ee co CTOPOHhI PHCYHKOM (06hI'IHO CHHero U:BeTa). TYIO BOM:CKaMH (Cp.: KOHmp8aJlaI1UOH-
2 KepaMH'IeCKOe H3,n;eJIHe C rroKphITHeM HaR JlUHUR).
3MaJIhlO.
UMPKYM«I>EPEHUM5I. HH3KHM: KOp-
UEHTPAJI. KpyrrHa» KaTOp:lKHa» rryc C,n;yro06pa3HhIM rrJIaHOM, rrpHMhIKa-
TIOphMa. IOIIJ;HM: K rJIaBHOMY OOMY (1) ycaoe6Ho20
UEIIHA5I KJIA)J.KA (=rrOJIYKpecTo- HJIH 080P1108020 KOMrrJIeKca.
Ba» KJIa,n;Ka). KHprrH'IHa» KJlaOKa, B UMPOBKA. 1 rpapbe. 2 rpaBHpoBKa
KOTOPOM: p»,n;h1 H3 O,n;HHX JlOJICK08 '1epe- rro Jle8Kacy.

UMTA)J.EJIh. IIpe,n;Ha3Ha'leHHoe ,n;JI»


caMocTo»TeJIhHOM: 060pOHhI 060c06JIeH-
Hoe YKperrJIeHHe BHYTPH Kpenocmu.

UOrqHH. I{OK'tUH-OyzaH.

,n;YIOTC» C p»,n;aMH H3 O,n;HHX mbl'tK08, a UOKOJIh (=rro,n;,n;eJI). BhlcTyrralOIIJ;ee


BepTHKaJIH Ul808 COBrra,n;aIOT '1epe3 p»,n;. rro,n;HO:lKHe 3,n;aHH» , rro BhICOTe rrpH-

132

-132-
U UOKonbHblH 3TA)I( - UbiPT 133

MepHO COOTBeTCTBYIOII\ee ypOBHIO nOJIa


B HH)!{HeM OCHOBHOM :nruKe.

UOKOJIbHbIl1: 3TNK. HH)!{HHH


3Ta)!{ 3;D;aHIDI, BHeIIIHHe CTeHhI KOToporo
HeCKOJIhKO BhlcrynalOT no cpaBHeHHIO c
BepXHHMH 3TruKaMH.

UOKqMH;,lJ,yrAH (=I\OKqHH, 1I0K-


qeH, 1I0rqHH, COKIIIHH). rJIaBHhIH xpaM B
JIaMaHCTCKOM MOHaCThlpe.

WXTrAY3 (IIYXTraY3CKIDI KaHI\emI-


pHH). McnpaBHTeJIhHhIH ;D;OM, TlOphMa.

UbIPT. IIpH;D;OPO)!{HhIH nOMHHaJIhHhIH


naMHTHHK B OceTHH.

-133-
qA)J,OBKA. Kyp/-taJl ua6a. qEKA (=qeKOJI}J;a). )KeJIe3HhIM HJIH qEPJI5I)J,h (=qepHe}J;h). TeMHO-Kpac-
}J;epeBSlHHhIH KJIHH }J;JISI 3alIHpaHHSI HaS! oxpa, IIpHMeHSlBlllaSiCSI ;n:JISI OKpaCKH
qA)J,hIP. AnTaMcKaSi KOHll'leCKaSi IOp-
BOpOT. KPOBJIH.
ma, KphITaSi rro 2Kep}J;eBOMY KapKacy
KOPOM JIHCTBeHHHn;hI. qEJIO. 1 CTeHKa Ha}J; ycmbeM PYCCKOU qEPHh. EpaYHpom.
ne'lu. 2 lI(uneu, HJIH cjJpoHmoH Ha ¢aca-
qAKhI. t(eHTPaJIhHhIM CTOJI6 B aJITaM- qEPTOr. OqeHh 60JIhillOe lIapa}J;Hoe
}J;e }J;epeBSlHHoH u36bt (1) JIH60 XOpOM.
CKOM KOHHqeCKOM IOpme. IIOMeIn;eHHe C IIhIlllHhIM y6paHCTBOM.
3 IIOTOJIOK 08UHa.
l.IAHHhIE BOPOTA. T'lallHbte 80pO- qECHOK. IIJIOTHO B6HThle B pSl}J;
qEJIIDCTHOM )J,OM. 3arJIy6JIeHHOe B
KOJIhSl HJIH C8au.
mao 3eMJIlO 3CKHMOCCKoe HJIH qYKoTcKoe
l.IAPIllAY. f{e6e.llOeK. 2KHJIHIn;e co cmponU.llaMu H3 KHTOBOH qETBEPl1K. 061>eM C rrpSiMoyroJIh-
KOCTH. HhIM IIJIaHOM (TepMHH 06hIqHO OTHO-
l.IACOBH5I. 1 He6oJIhilIOe KYJIhTOBOe CHTCSI K KYJIhTOBhIM IIOCTPOHKaM).
qEJI5I)J,HA5I. lf36a (1) }J;JISI }J;BOPOBhIX
coopY2KeHHe 6e3 a.llmapJl. 2 IIPH}J;Op02K-
JIIO}J;eM. qETBEPHA5I AMEP A3YP A. CJIHBa-
HhIM CTOJI6 C HKOHOM H .IlaMnaoou B
IOIn;HeCSI Me2KAY C060H aM6pa3ypbt (1),
HHllle. qEMh5l. Cpy6 B JIecy, CJIY2KHBlllHH B
1I03BOJISIIOIn;He BeCTH CTpeJIh6y B pa3-
KaqeCTBe BpeMeHHoro CKJIa}J;a }J;JISI
HhIX HalipaBJIeHHSIX.
}J;06hlqH ypaJIhCKHX OXOTHHKoB-rrpoMhI-
CJIOBHKOB. qETBEPTl1HA. II.IlacmuHa, pacrrH-
JIeHHaSi IIO OCH rrOIIOJIaM.
qEPBOHKA. Cep}J;n;eBHAHhIH }J;eKopa-
THBHhIH MOTHB B npOnU.IlbHOU pe3b6e QETBEPTHOM BAIT. IIpoTSl2KeHHhIM
HJIH npOCe'l/-wM JlCe.!le3e. BhICTYIi C CeqeHHeM B qeTBepTh Kpyra.

qEP)J,AK. 1 (=HcToIIKa). He2KHJIOe QETBEPTHOM CBO)J,. C800 C ceqe-


IIpoCTpaHcTBo Me2K}J;y BepxHHM IIOTOJI- HHeM B qeTBepTh OKPY2KHOCTH - OT
KOM H Kp08.1leU 3}J;aHHSI. 2 OTKphITaSi e;n:HHcTBeHHoM nJlmbt (1) }J;O ute.!lbt2u.
}J;epeBSlHHaS! 6eceoKa B ca}J;y. 3 CaJJCa.!lKa
(1). 4 TepeM (2).
qEPEII. IIOrrepeqHhIH 6pyc (1), rro}J;-
}J;ep2KHBalOIn;HH IIOTOJIOK B u36e (1).

qAIllA (=qalllKa). IIOJIYKPYrJIaSi BhI-


eMKa B KOHn;e 6pe8Ha }J;JISI py6KH CTeH C QETBEPTh. 1 QeTBepTaSi qaCTh 6pyc-
ocmamKOM, Bhlpy6JIeHHaSi IIO ¢opMe K08020 KUpnU'la, 06KOJIOTOrO lIapan-
}J;pyroro 6peBHa, KOTopoe 6Y}J;eT B Hee JIeJIhHO mbt'lKY }J;JISI BhlpaBHHBaHHSI
YJI02KeHo. }J;JIHHhI pSl}J;a B K.IlaOKe. 2 YCTYII B KHP-
qEPElIl11.1,A. IllTyqHhIH KpOBeJIhHhIH IIHqHOH K.IlaOKe IIpoeMa, paCCqHTaHHhIH
MaTepHan H3 0602K2KeHHOH rJIHHhI. Ha IIpHMhIKaHHe OKOHHOM l1JIH }J;BepHoH
paMhI.
qEPEIIHOM BEHEt(. BepxHHH 8eHeu,
B cpy6e u36bt (1), rro}J;}J;ep2KHBalOIn;HH QETBEPKA. PaCKOJIOThIH B}J;OJIh
Mamuu,y (1) H rrOTOJIOK, }J;JISI qero B 6pe8- .!lOJICKa (1) 6pYCK08btU KUpnU'l, KOTO-
Hax HJIH 6pyCbJlX (1) 3TOro BeHn;a c}J;e- phIH BKJIlOqalOT B K.!laoKY }J;JISI BhlpaBHH-
qEEEJI)J,EK. 3aHaBech y CrraJIhHOrO
JIaHhI BhleMKH. BaHHSI pSl}J;a IIO ropH30HTamL
MeCTa B ua6e (1) TaTap-MHlllapeM.

134

-134-
~ETbiPExnEnECTKOBblH XPAM - ~bln 135

llEThIPExnEIlECTKOBhlI1 XPAM. llOnrAH. KYXHlI 6ypllTcKoro JIaMaMCT-


:QepKOBHOe 3):1aHMe, Y KOTOPOro IWaH CKoro MOHacTblpll, B KOTOPOH rOTOBlIT
06pa30BaH nOJIyKpyXillllMM, npMMhIKa- )!(epTBOnpMHOrrreHMlI (6aJIMHhI M ,n;YPMY)
IOIl\MMM K CTOpOHaM KBa):lpaTa B n;eHTpe. ,n;JIlI xypanoB.

llEPHA5I. BAoUlHul1a. llOll)K-XOPOn. IloMell\eHHalI: Ha,n;


BXO):lOM B 6Y):I):IMlfcKMH xpaM CMMMeTPMq-
llEPHA5I )KECTh. nMCTOBOe KpO-
Hall KOMn03MIJ;MlI B BM):Ie «KOJIeCa 3aKO-
BeJIbHOe )KeJIe30 TOJIIl\MHOH MeHee 1 MM.
Ha» - C BoceMblO CnMIJ;aMM, tPJIaHKMpO-
llEPHA5I H3BA. 1 KYPHaR ua6a. 2 TJe- BaHHoro tPMrypaMM KOJIeHOnpeKJIOHeH-
ARvHaR. HbIX ra3eJIeH.
llEPHA5I nECTHH:QA. Ilo):lc06Hall llOllHXOP. CKYJIbnTypHoe ~306pa­
JIeCTHMn;a BHYTPM vO.Ma (1), npe):lHa3Ha- )KeHMe «KOJIeCa 3aKOHa» (CM. TJol1JfC-
'IeHHall ,n;JIlI X0311HCTBeHHbIX HY)!(,n; M XOpOA).
BbIXO,n;lIIl\alI: BO vsop (1).
llOllP A. BY):l):lMHCKOe 60roCJIOBCKOe
llEPHA5I IlAITATA. IloMell\eHMe ):IJIlI yqMJIMll\e.
apecToBaHHbIx, npM ,n;peBHepyccKoM
llOM. O):lHOCKaTHbIH rrraJIarrr KOMM-
npMKa3e.
3blpllH.
llEPHA5I IlEllh. Ile% B nOMell\eHMM,
llPEH. MeTaJIJIMqeCKall eMKOCTb ,n;JIlI
He MMelOll\all Tpy6bJ.
BbIIIapMBaHMlI COJIM M3 paCTBopa.
llEPHA5I IlOnH:QA. POClca (1) ,n;JIlI
llYBAIT. Ileqb B Hapo,n