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1. What Big Five personality traits does Lorraine Monroe possess?

To a large extent, Lorraine Monroe was a successful founder and leader because of her
Strong personality in the Big Five. She has a strong need for surgency, is conscientious,
and is open to new experience as she does consulting to bring about better educational
leadership to help public school children. Lorraine was not afraid to step on toes and
be disagreeable at Frederick Douglass Academy as she took strong control over the
school and enforced discipline conducive to learning, while maintaining overall emotional
2. What traits of effective leaders does Lorraine Monroe possess?
She has dominance, high energy, and self-confidence, and she founded and led two leader-
ship institutes and was a high school principal. Monroe is an internalizer (locus of control);
she believed she could turn a poorly performing high school into a top performer. The key to
Monroe’s leadership success in high school was her stability and integrity, and the teachers
trusted and followed her to success. She is intelligent, holding a doctorate degree, but she also
has emotional intelligence to motivate others to achieve her vision. Monroe is flexible, as
shown in her doctrine where she suggests breaking the rules to meet your mission.
Her sensitivity to students and faculty was critical to the successful turnaround of Frederick
Douglass Academy.

3. Does Lorraine Monroe have the personality profile of an effective leader? And
what does she say in response to businesspeople who continually ask her,
“What makes a good leader?”
Lorraine Monroe has an LMP. Her need for power is illustrated through being a school
principal and founding two leadership institutes to train leaders. Monroe has a socialized
need for power since she shows concern for students, teachers, and administrators. Her need
for achievement leads to continued success. She also has a lower need for affiliation as she
set standards for discipline in school, and she consistently observed teachers (although they
complained at first), improving their performance.
Businesspeople continually ask Monroe, “What makes a good leader?” Part of her
answer is that the leader is the person who keeps a vision in front of people and reminds
them of their mission. Leaders need to give employees a sense of purpose beyond a pay
check, the feeling that they can make a difference, and something to be proud of .
Leaders have high expectations and demand continuous measurable improvement through
Employees have latent productivity; it is the leader’s job to bring it out. Leaders demonstrate
their ability. They walk around and watch people do their work and talk to them about
Improving as they give praise. Leaders treat people well, listen to what they have to say, do
nice things for them, and get them together to talk so they feel connected.
4. How did “attitude” help change the performance of Frederick Douglass Academy?
A major factor in Lorraine Monroe’s turning Harlem’s Frederick Douglass Academy from a
poor n performer into a high performer, with 96 percent of inner-city graduates going on to
college, was through her Theory Y attitude and use of the Pygmalion effect. Monroe
encouraged her faculty to be creative and try new things. Unlike the trend of most educators,
she set higher standards and treated students and teachers like capable winners—-which they
5. How did Lorraine Monroe’s self-concept affect her leadership?
Lorraine Monroe grew up in Harlem and went to its public schools. Her parents did not go to
college, but they did teach her to never doubt that she could do whatever she applied herself
to accomplish. If she did not believe she could successfully turn the academy around, things
would not have changed. Monroe began her leadership training in school. For example, she
served as class president in high school. As stated in her doctrine, “Becoming a leader is
an act of self-invention. Imagine yourself as a leader: Act as if you are a leader until you
actually become one.”
6. What role did ethics play in changing the performance of Frederick Douglass

As discussed thus far, Lorraine Monroe possesses the traits and attitudes of effective
leaders; therefore, we can assume that she uses ethical behavior. Monroe is on the
post conventional level of moral development. During her consulting, ethics is an important
issue. As a school principal, in her “Twelve Non-Negotiable Rules,” Monroe made it clear
what ethical behavior was and rewarded it, and what unethical behavior was and punished
it. Ethics played a role in transforming Frederick Douglass Academy.