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# A short table of trigonometric identities

## Dr. Mohammed Hawa, December 2006

Pythagorean Identity:
sin 2 α + cos2 α = 1

Sum-Difference Formulas:
sin(α ± β ) = sin α cos β ± cosα sin β
cos(α ± β ) = cos α cos β m sin α sin β

Even-Odd Identities:
sin( −α ) = − sin α
cos( −α ) = cosα

## Phase Shift Identities:

sin(α ± 360o ) = sin α

## cos(α ± 90o ) = m sin α

Product-to-Sum Formulas:
1 1
cosα cos β = cos(α + β ) + cos(α − β )
2 2
1 1
sin α sin β = cos(α − β ) − cos(α + β )
2 2
1 1
sin α cos β = sin(α + β ) + sin(α − β )
2 2
1 1
cos α sin β = sin(α + β ) − sin(α − β )
2 2

## Double Angle Formulas:

sin(2α ) = 2 sin α cos α

## © Dr. Mohammed Hawa, University of Jordan, 2006 1

Half Angle Formulas:
1 − cos 2α
sin 2 α =
2
1 + cos 2α
cos2 α =
2

## A cos α + B sin α = C cos(α + θ ) = C cos(α − ϕ )

where:
C= A2 + B 2
−B
θ = tan −1
A
B
ϕ = tan −1
A
A = C cosθ = C cosϕ
B = −C sin θ = C sin ϕ

Complex Numbers:
e jα − e − jα
sin α =
2j

e jα + e − jα
cos α =
2
e ± jα = cosα ± j sin α