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ABOUT ME
• I have been Teaching, Guiding and
advising Civil Services Aspirants since
past 2 years.
• My expertise are in GS Paper-II and
PSIR optional.
• Beyond this, I work as a Research
associate at Freedom.press where my
core area of focus is “Use of Big-Data
in Psephology.” Swetank Pandey
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Chase Prelims-2020
Medieval History
NCERT
Marathon Session
Part I
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~Swetank Pandey
Between 1000- 1200 A.D.
• Caliph granted the title of Amir-ul-Umra on Generals
who were able to carve out separate sphere of
influence.
• Very less importance was given to the expansion of
Turkish states in this period because the Gurjara-
Pratihara Empire broke up and there was already a
political uncertainty in the North Indian region.
• Alaptigin/Alp-Tigin, a Turkish slave who was the
Samanid Governor, formed capital at Ghazini and
started Ghaznavid Dynasty.
Mahmud ascended to Throne of Ghazni (998-1030).

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• Firdausi’s Shah Namah Literary work which shows highest
point of Iranian Renaissance. (The protoganist of Shah Namah is
Afrasiyab.)
• Mahmud Ghazni himself claimed Descent from the legendary
Turanian king Afrasiyab.
• Mahmud fought Hindushahi ruler Jayapala and later his son
Anandapala, capital at Waihind (near Peshawar).
• Mahmud raided Thanesar, Kannauj (1018), Somnath (1025).
• After Mahmud’s death, Seljuk empire grown (Syria, Iran and
Trans- oxinia).
• It reduced Ghaznavid empire to Ghazni and part of Punjab.

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• Mahmud Ghazni invaded Bhatia (near Jamnagar) in 1005 AD.
• He invaded Multan in 1006 AD. During this time, Ananda Pala attacked him.
• Mahmud of Ghazni attacked and crushed Sukha Pala, ruler of Bhatinda in 1007 AD.
• Ghazni attacked Nagarkot in the Punjab hills in 1011 AD.
• He attacked the Hindushahi kingdom under Anand Pala and defeated him in the Battle of Waihind.
• He captured Thanesar in 1014 AD and attacked Kashmir in 1015 AD.
• He attacked Chandra Pala in Mathura,1018 AD and defeated a coalition of rulers.
• Mahmud conquered Kanauj in 1021 AD by defeating Chandella Gauda.
• He invaded and conquered Gwalior in 1023 AD.
• He attacked the Somnath temple, 1025 AD.
• Mahmud Ghaznavi died in 1030 AD due to Malaria during his last invasion. Silver Yamini Dirham

• He destroyed the temples of Somnath, Kangra, Mathura and Jwalamukhi and so called Idol Breaker.

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Rajputs
• Gahadavalas of Kannauj
• Paramaras of Malwa
• Chauhans of Ajmer
• Kalachuris around Modern Jabalpur
• Chandellas in Bundelkhand
• Chalukyas of Gujarat
• Tomars of Delhi

Rajput notion of sanctity of land didn't permit their resumption by the ruler, except in special circumstances
such as rebellion, absence of an heir, etc.
They stood-forth as the Protector of the privileges of the Brahmin and of caste system.
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Nagara temple architecture came to prominence, mostly in North India and Deccan
• Temple at Khajuraho and Bhubaneswar
• Square room where it deity resides is Garbgriha or Deul.
• Tall curved spiral roof exactly over it.
• Anteroom Mandapa is added to the Garbgriha.
• Parsvanath Temple by Chandella Ruler.
• Kandarya Mahadeo Temple at Khajurahoo.
• Rich and elaborate carvings on the wall
• Mostly built by Chandela rulers
• In Odisha Lingaraja Temple (11th century A.D.), Sun temple
(13th century A.D.) and Jagannath temple of Puri belong to this period only.
• Vastupala, minister of Chalukya ruler Bhimma built Jain temple at
Mount Abu aka Dilwara Temple.
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Evolution of Literature
Paramara Rulers of Malwa had two Capitals Ujjain and Dhara.
Under Raja Bhoja (1010-1055 A.D.), Language and Literature was focused upon.
Ujjain was a famous centre of Sanskrit learning.
Major Works of the Period

• Bhujabala-bhima (Bhujabalabhīma), a work on astrology


• Champu-Ramayana
• Charucharya (Cārucārya), a treatise on personal hygiene
• Govinda-vilasa, poem
• Nama-Malika, a compiled treatise on lexicography
• Yukti-Kalpataru, it deals with topics like statecraft, politics, city-building,
jewel-testing, ship-building
• Hemachandra, the Jain scholar wrote both in Sanskrit and Apabhramsha.
• Lahore became a centre of Arabic and Persian language andfor
Use link literature.
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By mid of 12th century A.D.
• Another group of Turkish tribesmen, who were partly Buddhist and partly Pagan shattered the power of
Seljuk Turks and two new power rose to prominence.
Khwarizmi Empire (based in Iran)
Ghurid empire (based in Ghur, in Northwest Afghanistan), they started as a vessel of Ghazni crown under
Sultan Alauddin (aka Jahan-Soz i.e. world burner)
• Khwarizmi Empire stop the Ghurid from moving to Central Asia and hence Ghurid in 1173 under
Shahabuddin Muhammad (aka Muizzuddin Muhammad bin Sam) came to power at Ghazni while his
brother ruled over Ghur.
• By 1190, Muizzudin Muhammad conquered Peshawar, Lahore and Sialkot.
• By this time, Chauhans of Ajmer had taken over Dhillika (Delhi) from Tomars.
• Prithviraj came to power in Ajmer at age of 11.
• Bheema II (1178-1240, Gujarat) defeated Muizuddin Muhammed (aka Muhammad Ghuri) and Prithviraj.
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First battle of Tarain, 1191
• Between Prithviraj and Muhammad Ghuri, Prithviraj won and Ghuri fled.
Second Battle of Tarain, 1192
• Ghuri won, Prithviraj captured (initially allowed to rule over Ajmer but later he was executed on the
charges of conspiracy.) His son was installed as Chauhan ruler and he moved to Ranthambore.

After Battle of Tarain, Ghuri returned to Ghazni, leaving behind the India in hands of Qutbuddin Aibak.
• Muizzudin (Ghuri) return to India in 1114 and defeated Jaichand and took over Kannauj.
Finally Aibak defeated Bhima-II of Gujarat.
• A Khilji officer Bakhtiyar Khilji raided east of Banaras and destroyed Nalanda and Vikramshila.
• Iqta Turkish land revenue system, it was collected by Muqtis or Iqtedars.
• Khalisa Revenue yielding land administered by Imperial Revenue Department directly.
• Ku-varna Lower caste.
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Qutbuddin Aibak, 1206- 1210
• He severed his links from Ghazni when Yalduz (another slave of Muizzuddin
came to power)
• He died of injuries received in a fall from his horse while playing Chaugan
(polo).
Iltutmish, 1210- 1236
• He was Qutbuddin Aibak’s Son in law.
• In 1218, Khwarizmi Empire was destroyed by Mongols.
Raziya, 1236-1239
• Chahalgani (The Forty), the Turkish chief, it was equivalent to
Cabinet in current times.
• It was started by Iltutmish.

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Balban (Ulugh Khan), 1246- 86
• Kind of a prime minister to Iltutmish's younger son. (Ghiyasuddin Balban)
• He arrogated all power to himself and rule in the name of Nasiruddin Mahmud
(younger son of Iltutmish) whom he helped to come to power in 1246.
• He himself came to power in 1265 when Mahmud died.
• He always tried to strengthen his claim to Throne by declaring
himself descendant of Iranian King Afrasiyab.
• He broke the power of Chahalgani.
• He reorganized the military department (Diwan-i-arz)
• To emphasize the nobles were not equal to him, insisted on ceremony
of Sijada (Prostration) and Paibos (Kissing the feet of Monarch).
• Balban was the one who handle Mongols in best possible way and it was only after his death and
1286, at least twice Mongols try to read Delhi.
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Mamuluk/ slave rulers/ Ilbari Turks
Khaljis, 1290- 1320

Jalaluddin khalji (1290- 96)


• He tried to mitigate some of the harsh aspects of Balban rule.
• He put forward the view that the state should be based on the support of the government.
• He accepted the fact that since majority population in
India was Hindu it can't be made a truly Islamic state.

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Alauddin Khalji, 1296- 1316
• He treacherously murdered Jalaluddin Khalji and came to power.
• He reversed Jalaluddin's policy and awarded drastic punishment to
those who dare to oppose him.
• To prevent nobles from conspiracy, he banned marriage alliances
without his permission among them, they were also forbidden to
hold Banquets of festivities.
• He banned the use of Wine and all other intoxicants.
• He instituted a Spy service to contain Nobles.
When Alauddin Khilji attacked Ranthambore,
Amir Khusrau went along him and he has given a
graphic description of the fort and 3 month long Siege and the fearful
Jauhar ceremony, this all happened in 1301.
• He introduced the Dagh (branding system) for Horse trade.
• Market control and Agrarian policy for controlling the Inflation –
He fixed prices of everything.
• For this purpose, he setup three markets in Delhi for
- Food grains
- Clothes
- Horses, Slaves and Cattles.

Each market was under the higher officer Shahna.


He declared land revenue in Doab Region to be directly paid to the state,
villages were no more assigned into "Iqta".
Land revenue would be increased to half of the produce.

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• Realisation of land revenue in cash enable Alauddin to pay his soldiers in cash - first
Sultan to do so.
• Sawar Cavalrymen
• Barani thought that a major objective of controlling the prices was his desire to punish
the Hindus since most of the traders were Hindus and they resorted to profiteering.

• He was the first Monarch in the Sultanate who insisted that in the doab, land revenue
would be assessed on the basis of measuring the land under cultivation.
• This made sure, rich couldn't pass their burden on poor.
• Alauddin wanted Jagirdars (Landlords) of areas i.e. Khuts and Muqaddams should be
the same taxes as the others.
• Amil Market official

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Khusrau
• After Alauddin's death Malik Kafur raised one of his son to
Throne, later Kafur was killed and Khusrau (a Hindu
convert) ascended to The Throne.
• Even Nizamuddin Auliya accepted his gift and hence
acknowledged his sovereignty.
• Later in 1320, Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq raised the banner of
Revolt of Islam.
• Khusrau Khan’s reign was just two months long.
• Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq who joined Jallaluddin Khalji army
as an imperial guard took over from Khusrau.

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• Tughlaqs, 1320-1412
• Ghiyasuddin (1320-24)
• Muhammad Bin Tughlaq (1324-51)
• Firuz Shah Tughlaq (1351-88)

• Although Tughlaq's ruled tilt 1412, the invasion of Delhi by Timur


in 1398 may be set to mark the end of Tughlaq empire.
• In February 1325, the wooden pavilion used for his reception collapsed,
killing him and his second son Prince Mahmud Khan. Ibn Battuta
claimed it was a conspiracy, hatched by his Wazir, Jauna Khan.

Tomb of Ghiyasuddin
inTughlaqabad, New Delhi
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Muhammad bin Tughlaq, 1324-51
• He undertook many experiments
• He showed keen interest in agriculture
• He was a rationalist, still because of history and impatient
nature he has been dubbed an " ill starred Idealist”.
• Transfer of capital from Delhi to Deogir (Daulatabad)
• Daulatabad was almost 1500 kilometre from Delhi.
• Latest shifted back to Delhi.
• Ibn Battuta, 1333, wrote he never really saw any harmful after effects of Tughlaq’s experiment both
related to Capital shift and introduction of Fiat money.
• Muhammad Tughlaq never believed in Alauddin Khalji's plan of treating Muqaddams to the
position of ordinary cultivators.

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• Tughlaq launched a scheme to extend and improve cultivation in the doab.
• Diwan-i-Amir-Kohi Separate Department for the purpose
• Tughlaq showed unbiased approach towards appointment ability with respect
to Turkish, Khalji and Indian converts.
• Even the foreigners were welcomed by Muhammad Bin Tughlaq.
• After Muhammad bin Tughlaq again shifted the capital from Daulatabad to
Delhi, rebellion led by two brothers Harihara and Bukka occured in the
southern India. Bahmani Kingdom from 1470

• Their influence gradually expanded and Vijayanagara empire was so formed.


• Alauddin Bahman Shah who was a General in Muhammad Bin Tughlaq’s
Military set up a principality near Daulatabad which expanded into Bahmani
empire.

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SPYT
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Firuz Shah Tughlaq, 1351-88
• Cousin of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq
• He was by no means are distinguished military leader.
• He lead campaign against Bengal (lost), against Jajnagar, Odisha but never
annexed the Utkal region.
• He declared that whenever a noble died, his son should be allowed to succeed
• to his position, including his Iqta and if he had no son, his slave should succeed
• He got rid of practice of torturing Nobles.
• He was the first to introduce Jaziya separately, as a tax prior to the time it was
a part of land revenue.
• It took some steps to get ancient Indian scholarly work translated into Persian
from Sanskrit.
• He banned inhuman punishments such as cutting of hands, feet, nose, etc.
• He set up hospitals for free treatment of the poor and ordered the Kotwals to make
list of unemployed persons, and provided dowry for the daughters of poor.
• Firuz repaired and dug number of canals, longest one was 200 km, which
took off from the river Sutlej and connected Hansi, Haryana. Another
Canal to cut from Jamuna.
• Firuz died in 1388.
• He made a Army of slaves, 180,000, who were directly answerable to him.
• Timur invaded Delhi in 1398. (Nasiruddin Tuglaq was at helm)
• Still the Tughlaq dynasty lasted till 1412 and there wasn't much political impact of the raid.
• Wazir Primarily military leader
• In 14th century, Wazir begin to be considered more an expert in revenue office and presided over a
large department dealing both with income and expenditure.

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• A separate Auditor General for scrutinizing expenditure and Accountant General
for inspecting income work under the Wazir.
• Khan-e-Jahan A converted Tailang Brahmana was chosen as Wazir by Firuz
Tughlaq.
• Diwan-i-Arz Military department
Its head was called Arz-i-Mamalik
The function of Diwan-i-arz was to recruit, equip and pay the Army
whereas the chief of Army was Sultan and not the Arz-i-Mamalik.
• Alauddin Khalji was first to pay all his soldiers in cash.
• Diwan-i-Risalat Religious matters
• Diwan-i-insha State correspondence
• Barid Intelligence agents
• Wakil-i-dar He headed department of Slaves.
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• Turks divided the country into Iqtas headed by Muqtis/Walis.
• They were initially almost independent provinces (Subas)
• Below the Iqtas were Shias and below them were Parganas, headed by Amil.
• Villages are grouped in group of 100 or 84.
Most important people in village
Khut landowners
Muqaddam Head man
Patwari Village accountant
• Ibn Batutta lived in court of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq for 8 years.
• For first time Cotton Carder's bow (Dhunia) was introduced, e now cotton could be clean faster and
better by the use of it.
• For trade, there was already A road from Peshawar to Sonargaon, Muhammad Bin Tughlaq built a
road to Daulatabad, Maharashtra.
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• Rahat miscalled Persian wheel, so that water could be
lifted from a deeper level for irrigation.
• So modification took place in Rahat in this time.
• Superior mortar was introduce which helped Turks to make Archs
and Domes.
• Nauroz (the Persian New Year) was Muhammed Bin Tughlaq's
birthday and he celebrated it.
• Zawabit Sultan supplemented the Muslim law by
framing their own regulation.
• Alauddin Khalji told the Qazi that he doesn't know what is lawful
or unlawful but framed laws according to the needs of the state.

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• Ziauddin Barani refused to consider the state in India as truly
Islamic and called it one based on worldly or Secular consideration
i.e. Jahandari.
• Zimmis Protected people, from the time of Arab invasion
of Sindh, hindu subjects were called Zimmis.
• They were those who have accepted Muslim rule and agreed to pay
Jizyah.
• Initially, Brahmanas were also exempted from Jizyah along with
Women and children.
• Firuz Tughlaq was the first to apply it on Brahmanas and also
collected at separately from land revenue.

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Vijayanagar, 1336-1646
• Vijaynagar empire ended after Battle of Bannihatti, 1565.
• Bahmani kingdom has already disintegrated 50 years earlier.
• Harihara ruled from 1336 to 1356.
• Bukka ruled from 1356 to 1377.
• By 1377, Vijayanagar Empire's boundary extended till Rameshwaram.

Bahmani kingdom, 1347-1482 Vijaynagara Empire from 1377

• Its founder was Alauddin Hassan, an Afghan adventurer.


• He had resin in the service of a Brahmana, named Gangu and therefore
was also known as Hasan Gangu.
• Later, he assumed the title of Alauddin Hasan Bahman Shah.

Bahmani Kingdom from 1470


• Vijayanagara Kingdom and Bahamani kingdom fought over
Tungabhadra Doab (wealth and economic resources)
• Krishna-Godavari Delta (very fertile and had various Ports)
Marathwada country (way to Konkan)
• 1367, when bahmani ruler raided in to Vijayanagar Empire crossing
Tungabhadra Doab, artillery was used for the first time in India by both sides.

Harihara II, 1377-1404


• He took over power from Bukka
• After him came Devaraya I, 1404-1422
• There was constructed dams across the Tungabhadra and on the
river Harida (River in Telanga, tributary of Godavari) for irrigation purpose.

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Devraya II, 1425- 1446
• Greatest ruler of Vijayanagara dynasty
• Deva Raya II was the greatest ruler of the Sangama dynasty.
• He acquired the title of Gajabetegara
• In order to strengthen his army, he inducted more Muslims in his army
• He asked all his Hindu soldiers and officers to learn the art of archery
from Muslim army.
• Srirangam copper plates of Deva Raya Il list the various achievements of
the ruler.
• Sanskrit poet Gunda Dimdima and Telugu poet Kavi Sarvabhauma
Srinatha, author of Haravilasam, was in his court.
• Persian traveller Abdur Razzak visited his court.

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Other Travellers to Vijayanagara Empire
• Nuniz, portuguese writer of 16 century, tells us that kings
of Quilon (Kollam), Sri Lanka, Pulicat, Pegu and Tenasserium
(Tanintharyi Region of Myanmar) paid tribute to Devraya II.
• Nicolo conti visited Vijayanagara in 1420, he was Italian Traveller

Position of Women
• Women occupied a high position and took an active part in political, social and literary life of the
empire.
• They were educated and trained in wrestling, in the use of various weapons of offence and
defence, in music and fine arts.
• Nuniz writes that the kings had women astrologers, clerks, accountants, guards and wrestlers.
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Firuz Shah Bahmani, 1397-1422
• He was well acquainted with religious Sciences, on Quran, jurisprudence etc.
• He was particularly fond of natural Sciences such as botany geometry logic.
He was a Multi-linguistic.
• Firuz shah Bahmani encouraged the pursuit of astronomy and built observatory near Daulatabad.
Major ports of Bahmani kingdom Chaul and Dabhol.
• Mahmud Gawan acted as Prince minister of Bahmani kingdom, got the title of Malik-ul-Tujjar.
• Firuz Shah Bahmani’s regime lasted for 20 years.
• He divided the kingdom in 8 Tarafs (provinces), governed by Tarafdars.
• Efforts were made to measure the land and to fix the amount to be paid by the cultivator to the state.
• He made a Madarsa in Bidar (Capital city)
• Earlier the capital was Gulbarga.

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• Nobles were divided into old comers (Deccanis) and New Comers (Afaqis)
Firuz Shah Bahamani was executed in 1482.
• After that, Bahmani kingdom was divided into
- Golconda
- Bijapur
- Ahmadnagar
- Berar
- Bidar.

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Krishnadevaraya,1509-30
• He was greatest figure of Tuluva dynasty, established by Krishna Deva
after the end of Regime of Saluva.
• Krishna Deva never really give attention to the development of navy
• on the scale of either the Cholas or the previous Vijayanagara rulers.

Other Foreign Travellers who visited Vijayanagara Empire


Portuguese traveller Duarte Barbosa, He wrote 'Livro de Duarte Barbosa',
he was also a official in Portuguese Indian Estate.
Italian traveller Paes, He visited Vijayanagara Empire in 16th century.

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• Vijaynagar empire ended in 1565.
• Battle of Talikota, 1565 vs Alliance of Deccan Sultanate

Nomenclature used in the administration of Vijayanagara


Rajya/ mandal State
Nadu District
Sthala Sub District
Grama Village
• Village self government system which has developed in Chola period had Considerable
weakened.
• Amaram Territory with highest revenue granted to Military Chief
• These chief were Palaiyagar (Palegar) or Nayaks, they had to maintain a fixed number of foot
soldiers, horses and elephants for the service of state.
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Europeans
• Turks were not oppose to trade but the virtual Monopoly over Pepper
established by them was bound to work against the European.
• Pope (Nicholas V) lent his support by issuing a bull in 1453 by
which he granted to Portugal in perpetuity whatever land it discovered
beyond Cape Nore in Africa up to India on the condition of converting
to Christianity the people of those lands.
• 1488, Bartholomew Diaz rounded the Cape of Good Hope.
• Thus the route established by him and the information gathered by Pêro da Covilhã, who had
been sent overland to India and returned with reports useful to their navigators set the chain of
events which culminated to Vasco de Gama coming to India.

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• Zamarin, ruler of Calicut welcomed the Portugese and allowed them to take
Pepper, drugs etc on board.
• Initially the Portuguese rulers treated the Eastern trade as a royal monopoly.
• Janissaries Land soldiers in Turkish (ottoman) army.
• 1566, Portuguese and came to an agreement to share the spice and the Oriental
trade and not to class in Arab Seas.
• Portuguese opened up India's trade with Japan from which copper and
silver obtained.
• Lodhis came into light from the mid 15 century when they took over Delhi.
• It was struggle for the domination of Malwa which became the locus of
mastery over North India.

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Bengal
• Shri Krishna-Vijaya written by Maladhar Basu (Bengal)
• Turkish rulers were an familiar with the waterways of Bengal.
• Bengal broke from Delhi in 1338.
• 1342, Sultan Shamsuddin Ilyas Khan took over.
• Firuz tughlaq undertook a campaign against him and captured Bengali capital Pandua (Hooghly).
• After Firuz tried again to capture Sikandar (Ilyas Khan's Son) and was forced to retreat, then Bengal
was left till 1538
• Mughals came in period to warring kingdoms in North Bengal, Assam and Kamata (Kamrup) on one
side and Ahom Kingdom on other side.
• Ahoms were Mongoloid tribe from North Burma who established Kingdom in 13 century.
• They were Hinduized in course of time.

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Kingdom of Gujarat
Ahmad Shah I, 1411 - 1453
• Muzaffar Shah the grandson brought the nobility under control.
• He drew Jains of Gujarat to devise a style of building which was markedly different from Delhi.
• He was the first to impose Jizyah on the Hindus there.
• Most famous Sultan of Gujarat Mahmud Begarha, 1459-1511
• Mahamud Begarha had joined hands with the ruler of Egypt to check Portuguese Naval power.
• Malwa situated on the high plateau lies between the rivers Narmada and Tapi.
• 15th century, capital was shifted from Dhar to Mandu.
• Unlike Gujarat Sal architecture Mandu architecture was massive and was made to look even
more so by using a lofty plinth for the building.
• Coloured and glazed tiles were used on the large scale.
Example: Jama Masjid, Hindola Mahal, Jahaz Mahal.
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Mewar
Rana Kumbha (1433-68)
• Kumbha was himself are intellectual and therefore patronised learn men.
• He built a Kirti Stambh (victory Tower) at Chittoor.
• Rana Sanga was grandson of Rana Kumbha, he ascended the Gaddi of Mewar
in 1508.
• Ibrahim Lodi invaded Mewar but suffered a sharp restrainment at the hand of
Rana Sanga at Khatoli (Muzaffarnagar).
• Rana Sangha invited Babur in the hope that the destruction of power of
Lodhis would leave Mewar as the Strongest Power.
• Lodhis came into light from the mid 15th Century when they took over Delhi.

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• After invasion of Taimur,1398, Sultan Mahmud Tughlaq fled Delhi and took
shelter first in Gujarat and then in Malwa.
• Malik-us-Sharq Lord of the East.
• Malik Sarwar was made governor of the Eastern provinces of Ganga valley.
• His success came to be called the Sharqis after his title.
• Sharqi Sultan's fixed their capital at Jaunpur.
• Jaunpur was known as Shiraz of the East.
• Malik Muhammad jayasi author of Padmavati lived here.
• At its mightiest it stretched from Aligarh to Darbhanga
and from Nepal border to Bundelkhand.
• 1484, Bahlul Lodi, ruler of Delhi occupied Jaunpur and
annexed the Sharqi Kingdom.

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• After the Timurid invasion, when Tughlaq went into hiding in Gujarat,
• Saiyid dynasty arose in Delhi.
• Number of Afghan Sardar established themselves in Punjab.
• Most important of these were Bahlul Lodi, he was granted the Iqta of Sirhind.
• When he was called to help Delhi against Malwa, Bahlul stayed on and very
soon his men took over Delhi, Bahlul Lodi crowned himself in 1451.
• Most important Lodi Sultan was Sikandar Lodi (1489-1517)
• He was contemporary of Rana Sanga of Mewar.
• Mahmud Begarha of Gujarat (Muzaffarid dynasty)

Afghans of Roh i.e. Rohilla

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• Under Sikander Lodi, prices of essential commodities remarkably cheap.
• Interest in agriculture, abolish the duty on Greens and established a new
measurement yard Gazz-i-Sikandari (3/4 of a metre)
• Sikandar Lodi was regarded orthodox, even are bigoted king.
• He re-imposed Jizyah on Hindus.
• After careful survey and deliberations Sikander Lodi selected the
site for the city of Agra (1506).
• Agra was meant to command the area of eastern Rajasthan and the
route to Malwa and Gujarat.
• Later on Agra became second capital of Lodi dynasty.

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Kashmir
• As per Al-Biruni, enter into Kashmir was not allowed to even Hindus
who were not known to the nobles there.
• Kashmir was centre of of Saivism till 13 century.
• 1320, Mongols attacked under Dalucha and helpless government of Kashmir
was of no match to the Dalucha's forces.
• Hundred year after Mongol attack Zainul Abidin (BudShah) came to
power (1420-70), greatest Muslim monarch of Kashmir.
• He conciliated and brought back all Hindus who had flood Valley because
of persecution.

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Turkish Rule
• When the Turks came to India, not only had a well defined faith in Islam,
to which they were deeply attached, they also had different ideas of
government, art, architecture etc.
• Jain temple Vishnu Temple Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque.
• A monastery was converted to adhai Din Ka jhopra, Ajmer.
• The only new construction was, a facade of three elaborately carved arches
in front of Garbha Griha,
• Neither the Arch nor the Dome were a Arab-Turkish invention, Arabs
borrowed them from Rome through Byzantine Empire.
• Though they never used the Indian idol sketching as such but they use the
bell motif, lotus quite often.
• Height of Qutub Minar 71.4 metre (234 feet)
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• Alauddin Khalji's capital was at Siri. A few kilometres away from Qutub Minar.
• Alauddin added the Alai Darwaza
• Ghiyasuddin and Muhammad Tughlaq built the huge Fortress Complex
called Tughlaqabad.
• A huge lake was added to the Fort by blocking the passage of Jamuna.
Tughlaq architecture
• Batter Sloping Wall
• Hauz-Khas it was a pleasure Resort. Made by Firuz Tughlaq.
• Most of their structure were built on uplifted payment.
• Kitab ul Hind written by al-Biruni, informed the Arabs and other West-Asians about Hindu ideas
and belief.
• Sentence of Buddhism and vedantic ideas on Islamic thinking has been a subject of considerable
debate among scholars. Use link for Subscription https://bit.ly/swetankpandey
Sufi movement
• 10 century in Islamic world
• Rise of the turks on the ruins of abbasid caliphate
• Important changes in the realm of ideas and belief
• And of the domination of Mutazila (Rationalist Philosophy) and rise of
orthodox school based on quran, hadees and Sufi Mystic orders.
• Rationalist had been accused of spreading scepticism and Atheism, the
philosophy of monotheism which held that God and the created world
war fundamentally one wasn't accepted by all.

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Traditionalists crystallized into 4 schools in Sunni Islam
Hanafi, most liberal, adopted by eastern turks who came to India.
Originated in Central Asia, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, Lebanon.
Hanbali, originated and Saudi Arabia
Maliki, originated in North Africa
Shaf'I, practiced in Southeast Asia and horn of Africa.

Sufis based on mystic ideas.


Some of the early Sufis were Women like Mystic Rabia (8th century A.D.).
Mansoor-bin-Hallaj (10th century A.D.) and Al-Ghazzali (1112 A.D.) try to Reconcile
mysticism with orthodoxy.

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12 orders, Silsilaas
• Silsilahs were led by prominent mistakes who lived in Khanqah or
hospice along with their disciples.
• The Pir-Murid relationship teacher disciple relationship
• Every Pir nominated a successor (Wali) to carry on his work.
• Amrit Kund, a yogic book (Hath-yoga) which was translated in Persian
from Sanskrit.
Sufi order
Ba-Sahara those who follow Sharia
Be-Sahara those who were not bound by Sharia

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12 major Silsilas are

Kubrawiya Mevlevi Mouride Oveysi


Qadiri Senussi Shadhili Tijaniyyah
Naqshbandi Ni'matullahi Noorbakshia Suhrawardiyaa

Naqshbandi, 1380, baha-ud-din Naqshband Bukhari, considered to be 'sober', silent dhikr rather
than vocal dhikr (remembrance).
Ni'matullahi, Most widespread in Iran today, 1367, Shah Ni' Matullah Wali, related to Iranian
Revolution 1979.
Noorbakshia, Considered to have direct lineage from Muhammad through Ali.
Suhrawardiyaa, 1097-1168, Abu=al-Najib al Suhrawardi, it's a Ba-shara movement.
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Of all the Ba-shara movements,
• 2 acquired significance in North India in 13th and 14th century
Chishti and Suhrawardi Silsilahs.
• Chisti 1192, Khwaja Muinuddin Chisti, Ajmer.
• His disciple were Bakhtiyar kaki, Fariduddin (aka Ganj-i-Shakarand Baba Farid).
• Farid Uddin's verses were later found in Adi Granth of Sikhs.
• Most famous of Chishti Saints were Nizamuddin Auliya (aka Mahboob-i-ilahi) and
Nasiruddin Chiragh-i-Delhi.
• Musical recitations Sama.
• Suharwardi largely confined to Punjab and Multan.
• Most famous Saint was Shaikh Shihabuddin and Hamid-ud-din Nagori
• They didn't believe in living a life of Poverty. They accepted the service of state.

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Bhakti movement
• It Stressed on Union of individual with God.
• Real development of Bhakti movement took place in South India
between 7th and 12th century by Shaiva Nayanars and Vaishnavite
Alvars, both of whom focused on personal devotion to God and not
on austerities as priest by Jains.
• Bhakti thoughts was propagated in North India by -
Maharashtrian Saint Namdeva (in first part of 1400s) his writing
were mostly in Marathi, propagator of idea of anti casteism.
Ramananda (in later 1400s and early 1500s), he was a follower
of Ramanuja, he lived mostly in Prayag and Banaras. He substituted the
worship of Rama in place of Vishnu.

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Ramananda disciples were –
• Ravidas, who was a cobbler by caste, kabir (a weaver), Sena (a
barber), Sadhana (a Butcher)
• Now Nathpanth got prominence under Gorakhnath and later part of
twelfth century. It was not only a anti caste movement but also when
beyond the barriers of religion and allowed muslims to join the
Matha.
• Kabir strongly denounced Idol worship, pilgrimage, bathing in holy
river or taking part in formal worship, such as Namaz.
• Neither he supported living householders life for saintly life.
• He denounced caste system, but he wasn't a social reformer.
• Chaitanya popularised keertan (musical gatherings), as special form of
Mystic experience. Use link for Subscription https://bit.ly/swetankpandey
• Chaitanya revived the Krishna cult
• Narasimha Mehta Gujarat, Meera Rajasthan, Surdas Western UP,
Chaitanya Bengal and Odisa one who use rhymes for the purpose.
• While these all were from the fold of Hinduism.
• Vallabha, saint poet was one who propagated Vedantic philosophy in 15th
and 16th century. He was a Tailang Brahmana.
• 15th century Ibn-i-Arabi, became popular in India.
• He manifested everything is manifestation of divine substance
• Thus different religions were identical.
• His doctrine of Unity of Being aka Tauhid-i-Wajudi
• Abdul Wahid Belgrami, wrote Haqaiq-i-Hindi, he tried to explain words like Krishna, Murali,
Gopi, Radha, Yamuna in Sufi Mystic terms.
• Akbar's concept of unity of all religions Tauhid
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• A large number of commentaries and digests on the Hindu law
prepared between 12th and 16th century aka Dharmashastras.
• Mitakshara of Vijnaneshwar which forms one of the two principal
Hindu schools of law in Chalukya Court of 11th and 12th century A.D.

• Dayabhaga of Jimutavahana focuses on inheritance procedure. It criticises the Mitakshara.


• Jains too contributed in growth of Sanskrit like Hemchandra Suri.
• Yusuf and Zulaikha by Persian poet was the only word translated to Sanskrit.
• Most famous Arabic digest (because most administrative work was done in Persian)
was fatwa-i-Alamgiri or the Digest of Laws prepared under the reign of Aurangzeb.
• Lahore emerged as the first Centre for the cultivation of Persian language.

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Second Part of the Marathon Session will take place on
April 5th at 7 pm

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