Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 151

IOANA RALUCA CRĂCIUN

ENGLISH

FOR

TECHNICAL PURPOSES

- PART I -

EDITURA UNIVRSITĂŢII DIN ORADEA


2014
TABLE OF CONTENTS

UNIT ONE: DEFYING THE BOUNDARIES OF SCIENCE............................................................ 7


I.1. Definitions....................................................................................................................................... 7
I.2. Branches of Science (Scientific fields)............................................................................................ 8
I.3. ALCHEMY – the Cradle of Science................................................................................................ 9
I.4. History of Science ......................................................................................................................... 11
I.5. Portrait of the Classical Scientist ................................................................................................. 13
I.6. Famous Crazy Scientists in Books and Movies ............................................................................ 14
I.7. Timeline of Inventions and Scientific Breakthroughs................................................................... 14
I.7.1. Prehistoric Times (up to 4000 BC)..................................................................................... 14
I.7.2. From Ancient to Classical Times (The Bronze Age: 4000 BC – 1000 AD) .................... 15
I.7.3. From the Post-classical Times to Renaissance (1000 – 1400) .......................................... 21
I.7.4. Early modern times (1400-1700) ........................................................................................ 22
I.7.5. The Modern Era (1700-1914) ............................................................................................. 25
I.7.6. The War Period (1914-1950) .............................................................................................. 27
I.7.7. Post-war 20th Century (1950-2000) ................................................................................... 30
I.7.8. The 21st Century ................................................................................................................. 31
I.8. Ranking of the Most Important Inventions ................................................................................... 33
Vocabulary.............................................................................................................................................. 35
Exercises................................................................................................................................................. 38
Discussion Point..................................................................................................................................... 40

UNIT TWO: THE UNIVERSE OF THE COMPUTERS................................................................. 41


II.1. Definition..................................................................................................................................... 41
II.2. History ......................................................................................................................................... 41
II.3. Computer Generations ................................................................................................................ 43
II.4. Uses of Computers....................................................................................................................... 44
II.5. How Computers Work ................................................................................................................. 45
II.5.1. HARDWARE....................................................................................................................... 45
II.5.2. SOFTWARE........................................................................................................................ 48
3
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S - P A R T I -

II.6. Types of Computers ..................................................................................................................... 49


II.7. MICROSOFT CORPORATION .................................................................................................. 50
Vocabulary............................................................................................................................................. 52
Computer............................................................................................................................................. 52
Internet ................................................................................................................................................ 56
Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 57
Discussion Point..................................................................................................................................... 58

UNIT THREE: COMPUTER-AIDED ENGINEERING (CAE)...................................................... 59


III.1. Definition ................................................................................................................................... 59
III.2. Modules of Computer-aided Engineering (CAE)....................................................................... 60
III.3. COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN (CAD) ...................................................................................... 61
III.4. COMPUTER-AIDED MANUFACTURING (CAM)................................................................... 62
Vocabulary.............................................................................................................................................. 62
III.5. COMPUTER-GENERATED 3-D MODELS .............................................................................. 63
Vocabulary.............................................................................................................................................. 65
Mathematics / Maths........................................................................................................................... 65
Computer modeling............................................................................................................................. 66
Additional Concepts .............................................................................................................................. 70
Exercises................................................................................................................................................ 70
Discussion Point..................................................................................................................................... 72

UNIT FOUR: VIRTUAL REALITY (CYBERSPACE).................................................................... 73


IV.1. VIRTUAL REALITY (VR) ........................................................................................................... 73
IV.1.1. Definition ........................................................................................................................... 73
IV.1.2. History ............................................................................................................................... 74
IV.1.3. Types .................................................................................................................................. 74
IV.1.4. Key-concepts associated with VR (Michael R. Heim).................................................... 74
IV.1.5. Description ........................................................................................................................ 74
IV.1.6. Uses .................................................................................................................................... 76
IV.1.7. Disadvantages.................................................................................................................... 77
IV.2. SENSES ...................................................................................................................................... 77

4
TABLE OF CONTENTS

IV.2.1. Definition ........................................................................................................................... 77


IV.2.2. Human Senses ................................................................................................................... 77
IV.2.2.1. Traditional Human Senses ........................................................................................... 77
IV.2.2.2. Other Human Senses.................................................................................................... 80
IV.2.3. Non-human Senses............................................................................................................ 80
IV.2.3.1. Analoguous to Human Senses ..................................................................................... 80
IV.2.3.2. Non-analogous to Human Senses ................................................................................ 81
Vocabulary.............................................................................................................................................. 82
Additional Concepts ............................................................................................................................... 83
Exercises................................................................................................................................................. 84
Discussion Point..................................................................................................................................... 85

UNIT FIVE: MACHINE TOOLS ....................................................................................................... 86


V.1. Definition ..................................................................................................................................... 86
V.2. Types ............................................................................................................................................ 86
V.2.1. CONVENTIONAL MACHINE TOOLS ......................................................................... 87
V.2.2. PRESSES ........................................................................................................................... 93
V.2.3. UNCONVENTIONAL MACHINE TOOLS ................................................................... 93
V.3. NANOTECHNOLOGY (NANOTECH) ........................................................................................ 95
V.4. Manufacturing Processes, Technologies and Operations........................................................... 99
V.5. Characteristics of Metals and Fluids ........................................................................................ 102
V.6. Cutting Tools and Fluids ........................................................................................................... 104
V.6.1. Cutting Tools .................................................................................................................... 104
V.6.2. Cutting Fluids ................................................................................................................... 108
V.7. Metals and Non-Metals ............................................................................................................. 109
Vocabulary............................................................................................................................................ 112
Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 119
Discussion Point................................................................................................................................... 120

UNIT SIX: CIVIL ENGINEERING ................................................................................................. 122


VI.1. Definition.................................................................................................................................. 122
VI.2. History of Building Construction ............................................................................................. 122

5
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S - P A R T I -

VI.3. Architectural Wonders of the World ........................................................................................ 131


VI.3.1. The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World................................................................... 131
VI.3.2. Other Wonders of the World......................................................................................... 133
VI.3.3. The Seven Wonders of the Modern World .................................................................. 133
VI.4. Megastructures......................................................................................................................... 133
VI.5. Green Construction .................................................................................................................. 135
Vocabulary............................................................................................................................................ 136
1)BUILDING MATERIALS............................................................................................................... 136
2)BUILDING ELEMENTS................................................................................................................ 140
3)TYPES OF BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES.............................................................................. 143
4) CIVIL ENGINEERING VEHICLES AND OTHER EQUIPMENT ............................................... 145
5) HAND TOOLS .............................................................................................................................. 146
Additional Vocabulary ......................................................................................................................... 147
Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 148
Discussion point ................................................................................................................................... 150

BIBLIOGRAPHY................................................................................................................................. 151

6
UNIT ONE: DEFYING THE BOUNDARIES OF SCIENCE

Objectives: This unit aims to provide an overview of the scientific world, explaining the
rise of the scientific spirit and introducing the scientist, the different branches of science and a timeline
of inventions.

Keywords: scientific spirit, science, scientist, scientific research, scientific method

Contents

I.1. Definitions1

 Science = the systematic study and knowledge of the physical world and its behaviour, that is
based on controlled methods and conditions, experiments, physical evidence and proven facts, and is
organized into a system → scientist / researcher

Technology = advanced scientific knowledge, machines or equipment used for practical


purposes, especially in industry → technologist

 Invention = a machine, tool, or system designed or thought of for the first time; → inventor

 Innovation = radical and incremental changes in thinking, things, processes or services →


innovator

1
Encarta Encyclopedia 2008/Science;
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Science, accessed 03.03.2013;
7
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

I.2. Branches of Science (Scientific fields)2


1) Natural sciences: physics (e.g. acoustics, electromagnetics, atomic physics, particle physics,
solid-state physics, classical mechanics, quantum mechanics, optics, thermodynamics) and
chemistry (e.g. biochemistry, organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, physical chemistry,
polymer chemistry)
2) Life sciences: biology (e.g. entomology, zoology, botany, ichthyology, ornithology,
bacteriology, microbiology, physical anthropology, embryology, physiology, genetics), health
sciences
3) Earth sciences: ecology, glaciology, hydrology, limnology, oceanography, geology,
geochemistry, geophysics, seismology, climatology, meteorology, aeronomy
4) Social sciences: anthropology, business administration, economics, communication studies,
education, history, law, linguistics, political science, public administration, psychology,
sociology, criminology + journalism, library science, management, marketing, political
economy
5) Formal sciences: logic, mathematics (e.g. algebra, mathematical analysis, arithmetics,
geometry, trigonometry, number theory, theory of probabilities, set theory, combinatorics),
theoretical computer science, information theory, systems theory, decision theory, statistics, and
some aspects of linguistics
6) Applied science (it applies existing scientific knowledge to develop more practical
applications, such as technology or inventions): applied engineering, materials science, ceramic
engineering, nanotechnology, artificial intelligence, applied mathematics, applied physics,
optics, nuclear technology, computer science, electronics, some branches of medicine, forensic
science, environmental engineering, forestry, archaeology, linguistics
7) Interdisciplinary/Overlapping fields (it combines one or two academic disciplines into one
activity): physical chemistry (physics + chemistry), astrophysics (astronomy + physics),
geochemistry (geology + chemistry), astrogeology (astronomy + geology), paleontology
(biology + geology), astronautics (astronomy + biology + physics), nanotechnology,
bioinformatics, sustainable development, etc.

2
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Branches_of_science, accessed 05.03.2013;

8
UNIT ONE: DEFYING THE BOUNDARIES OF SCIENCE

I.3. ALCHEMY – the Cradle of Science3

a) Objectives:

The alchemists sought for perfection and freedom from the temporal existence in several ways:

1) material perfection:
a) for metals - the creation of the philosopher’s stone, a legendary alchemical substance said to
be capable of turning base metals (e.g. mercury, lead, tin, iron, copper) into noble metals (e.g. silver,
gold); it was also considered a mystic element holding the hidden spiritual truth or power that would
lead to a spiritual and material evolution (to obtain gold); the efforts to discover it are called “Magnum
Opus” / “The Great Work”;
- discovery of a universal solvent (ALKAHEST) to dissolve any substance, even
gold; this solvent is said to have been invented by Paracelsus (Switzerland) who in his quest to discover
the philosopher’s stone, created a recipe based on caustic lime, alcohol and carbonate of potash;
b) for humans - the development of an elixir of life (universal panacea) that could confer
rejuvenation, longevity or even immortality;
- the artificial creation in the laboratory of a small human being (homunculus);

2) spiritual ennoblement - by inner revelation, enlightenment or heavenly bliss.

b) Origins:

 alchemy originated from Hellenistic Egypt when Alexandria became a center of alchemical
knowledge; Hellenistic alchemy used figures from Greek, Roman and Egyptian mythology, focusing
on a central figure named HERMES TRISMEGISTUS (Thrice-Great Hermes);
 by the middle of the 7th century, alchemy was an almost entirely mystical discipline that relied
mostly on philosophy (a mixture of Pythagoreanism, Platonism, Stoicism, Gnosticism), and to a
smaller extent on metallurgy (e.g. recipes for dyeing and making artificial gemstones, for fabricating
and cleaning pearls, for imitating silver and gold);

3
Revista DESCOPERA, anul VI, Nr.2 (54), martie 2008, art. Cavalerii Pietrei Filosofale, pg.65-75;
9
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

 two prominent figures marked the beginnings of alchemy - Zosimos of Panopolis (author of the
oldest known book on alchemy) and Mary the Jewess (the 1st non-fictitious Western alchemist), who
both lived in Egypt under Roman rule and wrote in Greek;

c) Evolution:

 after the fall of the Roman empire the alchemical development moved to the Islamic world;
 in the late 8th century, Jabir ibn Hayyan (known as “Geber” in Europe) – focused on the practical
part of alchemy and came up with a new approach based on scientific methodology and controlled
experimentation in the laboratory, thus opposing to the Greek and Egyptian alchemy which was
allegorical and unintelligible; he made key chemical discoveries (e.g. hydrochloric acid, sulfuric
acid, nitric acid, including “aqua regia”(“apă regală”), a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids
that could dissolve gold) but his ultimate goal was the artificial creation of human life in the
laboratory (TAKWIN); he analysed each Aristotelian element in terms of 4 basic qualities – hotness,
coldness, dryness and moistness – and by re-arranging the qualities of a certain metal he obtained a
new metal, achievement that inspired the search for the philosopher’s stone in Western alchemy;
 Jabir also created a new original elemental system consisting of classical elements (aether, air,
earth, fire, water) and chemical elements (sulfur – “the stone which burns” that represented the
principle of combustibility and mercury – the idealized principle of metallic properties); shortly
after, these elements evolved into 8 elements with the Arabic concept of the three metallic
principles: sulfur (giving flammability or combustion), mercury (volatility and stability) and salt
(solidity);
 the year 1144 - introduction of alchemy to Latin Europe;
 the Middle Ages witnessed the birth of a new social class – the intellectual class of the scholars,
mainly monks educated in monasteries; at that time, alchemy was an overlapping discipline that
involved the study of mineralogy, chemistry, physics, zoology, botany, astronomy, astrology, as
well as various Oriental philosophical doctrines and foreign languages (e.g. Latin, Greek, Arabic,
Hebrew); with these alchemists, substances, physical states and material processes were used as
metaphors for spiritual entities and states  the transmutation of metals (especially lead into gold)
and the elixir of life stood for a tendency to perfection, an evolution, a purification, a regeneration, a
personal transmutation from an imperfect, ephemeral state and ignorance, to a perfect, everlasting
state and enlightenment;

10
UNIT ONE: DEFYING THE BOUNDARIES OF SCIENCE

 Renaissance – Hermetic and Platonic foundations were restored to European alchemy, which
brought about the decline of its medical, pharmaceutical and occult branches; a very clear distinction
was made between spiritual alchemists and those working with literal metals and chemicals;
 the dawn of alchemy was a result of the rise of modern science based on experimentation.

d) Conclusion:

 alchemy is a combination of esoteric, mystic, contemplative aspects (Greek philosophy, mainly


Hermetic principles and practices related to mythology, magic, religion and spirituality) and exoteric
practical applications (Egyptian and Mesopotamian technology) (Marie-Louise von Franz);
 the practical applications of alchemy greatly contributed to the development of medicine and
physical sciences by such products and processes like ore testing and refining, metalworking,
gunpowder production, ink, dyes, paints, cosmetics, leather tanning, ceramics, glass manufacture,
preparation of extracts, liquors, etc., including the “aqua vitae” (“water of life”)  Robert Boyle
(“father of chemistry”), Paracelsus (iatrochemistry);
 chemistry – field that mostly benefited from the research work done by the alchemists  studies on
thousands of substances, on the oxidation of metals, the reversibility of some chemical reactions,
breakthroughs in metallurgy, discovery of at least four elements (arsenic, bismuth, phosphorous,
stibium and possibly zinc) and of different mixed chemical substances, invention of the scientific
laboratory equipped with all necessary tools and devices, implementation of various scientific
methods and techniques as well as safety measures.

I.4. History of Science4

At the heart of any scientific activity lies the scientific spirit which was stirred up by the people
who strove to understand the world around. This spirit also stimulated the technological innovation that
originated from individuals who started experimenting things by themselves, and was determined by
necessity, fun or the obsessive idea to compete with nature. Although after the 11th century AD,
universities in the West became centers for learning and new ideas, it was only in the 20th century that
technological innovation got institutionalized.
In order to understand a phenomenon in the physical world, the scientists resort to the scientific
observation or the scientific method. The scientific method is the offspring of empirical research which

4
www.infoplease.com , accessed 06.03.2013;
11
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

is a way of gaining knowledge by means of direct observation and evidence provided by the senses.
The scientific method is a discovery process, an approach that provides guidance in distinguishing
reliable concepts among all the impressions that invade our senses from the outside world. It is an all
encompassing method (it can be employed by scientists of all specialities) and involves the following
steps:
 observing a certain phenomenon in the physical world;

 finding an explanation, or formulating a hypothesis, for that phenomenon;

 testing the hypothesis by means of objective, reproducible experiments.

 keeping the control during the experiment - making sure that each observation is related to the
cause and paying attention to factors that may not be apparent when the experiment began.

If the results of the experiments support the hypothesis, it becomes accepted as scientific theory;
in case this theory is generally accepted it is called a law or principle Later, if new information is
found to contradict the hypothesis, it may be revised or abandoned in favour of a new hypothesis,
which is then subjected to additional experiments.

Although scientists turn to reality as the sole source of inspiration, they have separated into two
schools - rationalism and empiricism - due to the argument about what reality really is: an idea
produced by the mind (rationalism) or an impression of something from the real world, generated
through the senses (empiricism)? The gap between these two conceptions was bridged in the 18th
century by the German metaphysician Immanuel Kant who concluded that “Concepts without factual
content are empty; sense data without concepts are blind … The understanding cannot see. The senses
cannot think. By their union only can knowledge be produced”.

 Rationalism - certain truths are innate and our intuition and deduction help us to grasp
them directly; rationalists (e.g. Pythagoras, Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Spinoza, Leibnitz, Kant)
had so much confidence in the power of reason that no physical evidence is necessary to
ascertain the truth.
 Empiricism – intuition and a priori reasoning are rejected in favour of knowledge
obtained through sensory experience and evidence; empiricists (e.g. Bacon, Locke, Berkeley,
Hume) believed that the human mind is originally a “tabula rasa” on which every experience
leaves marks.

12
UNIT ONE: DEFYING THE BOUNDARIES OF SCIENCE

☞ at the end of the 19th century - Thomas Edison set up the 1st industrial laboratory at Menlo
Park;

☞ 1925 – AT&T established a research laboratory – Bell Telephone Laboratories →


inventions: transistor, photovoltaic cell, electron diffraction, radio astronomy, etc.;

☞ types of laboratories:
- sponsored by industry: IBM Research Labs, Xerox Palo Alto Research
Center (PARC);
- funded by the government and set up near research universities to gain from
the presence of qualified personnel → science park = an area housing
organizations doing scientific research, especially an area connected to a
university;
- research institutes founded by universities to work on contract and as
independent non-profit entities;

The vastness of any field or subject in science and technology has determined a growth in
specialization and thus, a growing number of specialized laboratories rather than general research
establishments.

I.5. Portrait of the Classical Scientist

 strange appearance: generally a middle-aged man, with dishevelled hair and thick-lens glasses,
wearing a white overall, and being surrounded by all sorts of steaming test-tubes and strange tools
and instruments;
 eccentric person (e.g. Einstein`s tongue) with a crazy laughter, slight disabilities or tics;
 unconventional person, using unorthodox methods and devices;
 sometimes genius but close to madness, full of obsessions or even far-fetched ideas and
consumed by a shattering passion for science;
 conceited and professionally selfish;
 pursuing visions;
 in permanent competition with nature and dreaming to change the world;
 he explains everything in scientific terms, obsessed with facts;

13
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

 pioneer, author of many discoveries, person who makes headway;


 patient and persevering, as results might come only in time;
 objective, practical and methodical;
 data-gatherer and theory-maker;
 absent-minded, not well-organized;
 questioning mind, searchingly, curious, serious;
 sparkling wit, very intelligent, great thinker and inquirer;
 he reads and thinks a lot;
 devoted, dedicated;
 creative, ingenious;
 intuitive;
 no social life, sometimes reclusive

I.6. Famous Crazy Scientists in Books and Movies


1) Victor Frankenstein – Frankenstein (1818), by Mary Shelley;
2) Captain Nemo – Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea (1870), The Mysterious Island (1874), by
Jules Verne;
3) Doctor Moreau – The Island of Doctor Moreau (1896), by H.G.Wells;
4) Griffin – The Invisible Man (1897), by H.G.Wells;
5) Dr.Strangelove – Dr.Strangelove movie (1964);

I.7. Timeline of Inventions and Scientific Breakthroughs5

I.7.1. Prehistoric Times (up to 4000 BC)

The earliest human beings – Homo sapiens – lived ~ 200,000 years ago in Africa, and belonged to
the human tribe Hominini, which had evolved from some ape-like species ~ 5.3 to 1.8 million years
ago. The evolution of human beings was determined and accelerated by the enormous climatic changes
in the environment, which entailed several evolutionary adaptations:

5
Mahajan, Shobhit, The Story of Inventions. From Antiquity to the Present, h.f.ullmann, Tandem Verlag GmbH, 2008;
www.nbcnews.com, accessed 07.04.2013;

14
UNIT ONE: DEFYING THE BOUNDARIES OF SCIENCE

 5.3 – 1.8 million years ago (Pliocene Epoch) – characterized by cool and dry climate → ~ 2.6
million years ago - the earliest fossil evidence of tool-making;
 2.5 - 0.2 million years ago (Paleolithic period = the early Stone Age) - the earliest tools –
rudimentary chipped flakes made of flint and other stones, by hammering a pebble of flint, or any
fine-grained rock, with another stone and detaching a series of flakes until achieving a jagged
cutting edge;
 1.8 million – 11,500 years ago (Pleistocene Epoch) – the Great Ice Age, characterized by
glaciation or development of large ice-sheets;
 1.5 million years ago – hand axe – the most versatile tool, along with the use of different kinds of
stones for making tools: e.g. flint (cremene, silex), sandstone, chert (silice, tip de cremene), shale
(şist argilos, rocă argiloasă în lamele), basalt; the flakes were used as knives, side-scrapers, or
tools, and finally they were set in handles or shafts to serve as spearheads or knife blades;
 500,000 years ago – use of fire obtained by means of a flint steel (amnar) or tinder box (cutie cu
iască pentru aprins focul);
 50,000 – 20,000 years ago (late Paleolithic) – the use of bone, wood, antler (corn de animal),
ivory, shell to make different tools or objects (e.g. fish hooks and needles made from bones);
composite tools (e.g. harpoons, bows, arrows) bearing traces of weaving and sewing (e.g.
perforated bone needles);
 12,000 years ago – the beginnings of the pottery;
 11,500 years ago (beginning of Holocene Epoch) – the beginning of an interglacial period, marked
by the withdrawal of the ice-sheets to their present positions and an increase in precipitation;
 9000 BC – the use of sun-dried bricks to build houses in Jericho;
 8000 BC – first use of copper, along with gold, silver, lapis lazuli;
 7000 BC – the beginnings of agriculture;
 4000 BC – first attempts to produce synthetic material – Egyptian faience; the first pottery kilns
(cuptoare pentru ars cărămizi) came into use; the first use of a seal – small circular discs of fired
clay or stone with an impression;

I.7.2. From Ancient to Classical Times (The Bronze Age: 4000 BC – 1000 AD)
Mesopotamia
 4000 BC – Sumerians settle in Mesopotamia; the first use of copper and the introduction of clay
and stone seals; the construction of ziggurats;
 3500 BC – Sumerians invent the wheel and the cuneiform writing and develop copper casting;
15
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

 3400 BC – the invention of the chariot and the first use of the cylindrical seal in Sumer;
 2000 BC – the creation of the first true glass, by heating together the quartz and soda;
 2400 BC – Sumerians develop the calendar;
 2300 BC – the beginnings of the bronze use for making tools, weapons or ornaments;
 1600 – 1100 BC – the first use of iron;

Egypt
 3100 – 2950 BC – hieroglyphic writing and establishment of cities;
 2950 – 2575 BC – the first pyramid is built at Saqqara and Egyptians make leavened bread (pâine
cu drojdie de bere, mai mare şi mai uşoară);
 2575 – 2150 BC – the great pyramids are built at Dahshur and Giza;

Both the Egyptians and the Mesopotamians:


 introduced standard lengths and weights (e.g. the balance) for use in land surveying and
commerce, the units of length being based on the human body: e.g. the cubit (cot-încheietură),
the span, the feet;
 introduced and developed the plow (plug);
 were the first to make bread and beer;
 introduced a simple form of loom (război de ţesut) to weave cloth;

Greece
 1100 – 800 BC – geometric schemes used on pottery; the formation of city-states;
 800 – 500 BC – first Olympics held (776 BC) and the first use of coin currency;
 after 323 BC – many scholars contributed to the development of science:

The early Greek physicists (pre-Socratic philosophers) rejected traditional mythological


explanations of the phenomena in favour of more rational explanations, raising questions about the
origin, composition and diversity of the natural world. These thinkers treated nature as if it had no
intelligent order, explaining things in terms of motion and matter.

 Empedocles (~ 490 BC – 430 BC) – the universe is composed of four elements – Earth,
Water, Air and Fire – and all the change is brought about by the combination of these

16
UNIT ONE: DEFYING THE BOUNDARIES OF SCIENCE

elements; two forces – Love and Strife – act as agents in the mixture and separation of the
elements.

 Parmenides of Elea (early 5th century BC) – the whole universe is timeless, unified,
uniform, necessary and unchanging.

 Protagoras (~ 490 BC – 420 BC) – everything in our world is relative and “man is the
measure of all things”.

 Anaxagoras (~ 510 BC – 428 BC) – all events are scientifically explicable and are not
caused by supernatural agents (e.g. he gave a scientific account of eclipses, meteor and
rainbows and stated that the sun was an enormous hot rock in the sky and not the chariot of
Apollo); he regarded material substance as an infinite multitude of imperishable primary
elements and introduced the cosmological concept of Nous (mind) as an ordering force.

 Heraclitus of Ephesus (535 BC – 475 BC) – there is a permanent change in the universe -
“Everything flows”(“Panta rhei”) and “You cannot step in the same river twice”; he also
believed in the unity of opposites (“The Path up and down are one and the same”),
considering that all beings are characterized by pairs of contrary properties.

 Thales of Miletus (624 BC – 546 BC) – the 1st systematic philosopher of the Western
world and supposedly the 1st real scientist; he rejected all supernatural explanations and
tried to find reasons behind events: e.g. he introduced geometry (e.g. he devised many
theories among which some that helped him to estimate the distance of ships from the shore
or the heights of the pyramids from the lengths of their shadows) to the Greeks; he was the
first person to study static electricity; he predicted correctly a solar eclipse, set the seasons
of the year and divided the year into 365 days.

 Democritus (460 BC – 370 BC) – considered by many “the father of modern science”; in
his opinion, the entire universe is governed by understandable and predictable natural laws.

 Euclid of Alexandria (unknown) – laid the foundations of geometry (Euclidian geometry)


and of the number theory;

 Pythagoras of Samos (570 BC – 495 BC) – “the father of numbers”, author of the
“Pythagorean theorem”; he believed that everything was related to mathematics and that
numbers were the ultimate reality and, through mathematics, everything could be predicted

17
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

and measured in rhythmic patterns or cycles; he was also the first to study irrational
numbers and to figure out all regular solids.

 Eratosthenes of Cyrene (276 BC - 195 BC ) – “the father of geography”; he made several


discoveries and inventions including a system of latitude and longitude; he was the first
person to calculate with remarkable accuracy the circumference of the Earth and the tilt of
the earth's axis; he may also have accurately calculated the distance from the earth to the
sun and invented the leap day; he also created a map of the world based on the available
geographical knowledge of the era;

 Archimedes of Syracuse (287 BC - 212 BC) – “the Greek mathematical and engineering
genius” contributed to geometry and number theory, discovered the principle of buoyancy,
and built ships; in physics, he laid the foundations of hydrostatics, statics and explained the
principle of the lever; he was attributed the design of many innovative machines, including
siege engines and the screw pump (Archimedes` Screw), machines capable of lifting
attacking ships out of the water (Claw of Archimedes - a huge crane with a hook to pick up
ships and drop them), and setting ships on fire using an array of mirrors;

* the principle of buoyancy - while taking a bath, he noticed that the level of the water in
the tub rose as he got in, and realized that this effect could be used to determine the volume of objects;
then he went out to the streets naked, so excited by his discovery that he had forgotten to dress, crying
"EUREKA!" (in Greek - "I have found it!")

Classical philosophers:

 Socrates (~ 470 BC – 399 BC) – he was distrustful of the persons who used their senses
to discover the mysteries of the world; he also considered that physical objects and events
are "shadows" of their ideal or perfect forms, and exist only as a proof that they are the
perfect versions of themselves.

 Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC) – he found the universal (which he called “essence of
things”) in all particular things → created a scientific method that relied on the evolution
from the study of particular phenomena to the knowledge of essences; apart from the
already existing elements – earth (solid), water (liquid), air (gas), fire (plasma and heat), he
proposed a fifth element – aether; he stated that any substance is a combination of form and

18
UNIT ONE: DEFYING THE BOUNDARIES OF SCIENCE

matter and that everything comes into being due to four causes: material cause (the
material or matter used to create something), formal cause (the arrangement of the matter),
efficient cause (“primary source”, which determines the creation or change), and final cause
(the purpose of the creation).

 Plato (~ 428 BC – 347 BC) – unlike Aristotle, he found that the universal exists apart
from particular things, and is related to them as their prototype → created a scientific
method that relied on the descent from a knowledge of universal Forms (ideas) to the
contemplation of particular imitations of these.

Rome
 312 BC – first aqueduct and first major road built;
 280 BC – the beginnings of coinage;
 200 BC – the use of concrete;
 85 BC – introduction of the heating system;
 Romans developed the steam turbine, the water clock, the glass blowing, the water mill; in military
technology, they improved weapons like the catapult, the crossbow and invented a weapon using
air under pressure;
 with the help of devices like cogwheels, pulleys, levers and gears, they could produce better
cranes;
 the brick and concrete arch – the biggest contributions to architecture;

Islam
 Muslims pioneered the concept of modern hospitals, by establishing the first Islamic hospital in
Damascus in 707 AD → Al-Zahrawi (“the father of surgery”) combined Islamic medicine with
the traditional Greek and Roman medical knowledge;
 they developed pharmacology by establishing drugstores and compiling encyclopedias of
medicine;
 they developed many mathematical concepts and Abu Musa Jabir ibn Hassan – “the father of
chemistry”- introduced the experimental method in alchemy and invented many chemical
processes;
 they built the world`s first observatory and invented the astrolabe;

19
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

China
 the Chinese are the owners of a highly developed writing system;
 the emergence of the acupuncture;
 highly interested in astronomy and astrology – they developed and improved sundials to keep time
and the abacus for counting;
 the “four great inventions”of ancient China: gunpowder (the 4th century AD), paper (100 AD),
printing (9th century AD) and magnetic compass (before 1000 AD);

Japan
 major advances in pottery, agriculture and technology;

India
 they made great advances in the fields of astronomy (the 9th century BC – the earliest reference to
the heliocentric model of the Universe), grammar, mathematics (e.g. the decimal system, the
concept of zero, improvements in geometry), medicine (e.g. Ayurveda – based on herbal medicines
and minerals, new surgery procedures: plastic surgery especially of the nose, the removal of the
cataract from the eyes;
 Indian artisans developed many techniques for extracting, refining and working with metals like
copper, tin and iron – the famous wootz steel (made by heating iron, charcoal and glass in a sealed
crucible or furnace) used to make the Damascus swords, well-known for their sharpness and
durability;

Ancient American civilizations


 the Maya civilization developed a writing system and had a very developed calendar and
knowledge of astronomy;
 5th century AD - they made a form of paper from the inner bark of some kind of fig tree, which
was used to prepare manuscripts;
 highly developed weaving industry with wool from llamas or alpacas;
 famous for melting, casting and alloying gold with other metals, like silver, copper or even
platinum;

20
UNIT ONE: DEFYING THE BOUNDARIES OF SCIENCE

I.7.3. From the Post-classical Times to Renaissance (1000 – 1400)

Islam
 astronomy - 8th century – brass astrolabes were invented in Persia;
 mathematics (e.g. algebra, geometry, theory, cryptography);
 psychology and medicine (13th century – Ibn al-Nafis made the first description of the human
circulatory and pulmonary system; 14th century – Mansur ibn Ilyas described the nervous
system, the classification and manufacturing of many substances and herbs used as medicinal
drugs);
 engineering - Al-Jazari (12th-13th century) –“the father of mechanical engineering”- invented lots
of devices like: automata, gear mechanisms, camshafts, crankshafts, connecting rods, water
lifting devices, two-cylinder reciprocating suction piston pump driven by a water wheel, clocks;
he made an automaton for entertaining royal guests, which was a boat with four automatic
musicians who played programmed instruments; also, he used for the first time a flow regulator
in one of his mechanical contraptions;
China

 10th century – flame throwers were used with some kind of flammable material, followed in the
11th century by the use of bamboo tubes – the first type of guns – which were later replaced by
cast iron tubes; 1288 – the earliest use of a handgun; 13 th century – introduction of the first land
mines and of gunpowder-propelled rockets;
 11th century – the first odometer (contor de parcurs);
 11th century – Shen Kuo developed the magnetic needle compass;
 13th century AD – the wooden movable printing device instead of the ceramic movable type;
 Ma Jun invented a hydraulic powered mechanical puppet theater on a wooden wheel, which
rotated with flowing water;

Europe
 the introduction of the wheeled-plow with a moldboard and the horse collar, both inspired by the
Chinese;
 the development of some useful tools (e.g. axe) and the large-scale use of windmills;

21
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

 the introduction of the spinning wheel, the decimal numbering system and algebra, all invented by
the Indians;
 the adaptation of the compass, inspired by the Islamic world;
 14th century – the first mechanical clocks were invented in Europe;
 famous scholars:

 DESCARTES (1596 – 1650) – key figure of the Scientific Revolution, he is regarded as the
first thinker to emphasize the importance of reason in the natural sciences; his most famous
theory – the methodic doubt, is a sort of systematic and methodological skepticism applied to all
beliefs in order to distinguish the true beliefs from the false ones; advocate of the body-mind
dualism, he considered that while the body is a sort of machine with material properties, the
soul is not material and does not follow the laws of nature;

 ROGER BACON (1214-1294) – a 13th century Franciscan friar who advocated empiricism and
was considered “the founder of the scientific method”, relying a lot on experimentation and
observation → Opus Maius, his famous encyclopedia of all fields of science, contains
descriptions of various optical phenomena, talks about the process of making the gunpowder
and the motion of the celestial bodies, and anticipates later inventions such as the microscope,
telescope, spectacles, flying machines, hydraulics, steam ships and the magnifying glasses.

 THOMAS AQUINAS (1225-1274) – a Roman Catholic priest in the Dominican order, who
tried to reconcile theology (faith) with Aristotelian ideas (reason).

I.7.4. Early modern times (1400-1700)

The Renaissance is the rebirth and reawakening of interest in the classical learning and
scholarship, the clerical authority being replaced by a new intellectual and scientific movement):

 the period of exploration of new lands (e.g. the Americas were “discovered” and colonized by the
Europeans) and the invention of new instruments to discover them: Gerardus Mercantor –
devised the projection map, a mathematical way of projecting the map of the globe on a flat
surface, and introduced the term atlas for a collection of maps;
 the emergence of new techniques and instruments to study the heavens: Galileo Galilei – the
heliocentric theory, the formulation of the laws of motion and falling bodies, the improvement of

22
UNIT ONE: DEFYING THE BOUNDARIES OF SCIENCE

the telescope, the creation of the first compound microscope, invention of the air thermometer, the
introduction of the Gregorian calendar;
 inventions and innovations in technology: 1498 – Johannes Gutenberg invented the movable type
printing and the printing press; 1631 – Pierre Vernier invented the Vernier scale, useful in
navigation and surveying; 1643 – Evangelista Torricelli invented the mercury barometer;
 an explosion of innovations in Mathematics: John Napier published in 1614 the first logarithm
tables, simplifying calculations of trigonometric quantities; Pierre de Fermat – the founder of
the modern theory of numbers, René Descartes invented the Cartesian coordinate system, the
analythical geometry and laid the foundations of the infinitesimal method, Blaise Pascal developed
a mechanical calculator (named Pascaline), laid the foundations of the science of probability,
worked on hydrostatics, and also discovered an important property of fluids;
 new discoveries in medicine: William Harvey (an English doctor) – the first person to describe
the circulation of blood and the functioning of the heart as a pump; Antony van Leeuwenhoek (a
Dutch trader) – used for the first time the microscope to observe bacteria and protozoa;
 important personalities:

 LEONARDO DA VINCI (1452-1519) – a real genius, a complete Renaissance man, an


Italian polymath, whose dream was to reflect and decipher the workings of nature. He asserted the
supremacy of the painting over the other arts, based on his belief that “the eye deludes itself less than
any of the other senses”, thus suggesting that the direct observation inherent in creating a painting has a
truthful and scientific character.

 inventor: he devised all sorts of machines and devices, such as: screw threads, gears, hydraulic
jacks, swiveling devices, ball bearings, worm gears, transmission gears, machines with a
differential gear system, hydraulic pumps, reversible crank mechanisms, centrifugal pumps,
automated bobbin winder, machine for testing the tensile strength of wires, finned mortar shells,
anemometer, concentrated solar power, calculator, triple barrel steam cannon, giant crossbow
(ballista), rapid-fire gun (machine gun), flying machine, helical airscrew (helicopter),
ornithopter, hang-glider, parachute, submarine, diving suit, double hull for ships, moving
fortress (armoured tank), self-propelled cart; in 1495, he designed a robot, a humanoid
automaton (a robotic knight, clad in German-Italian medieval armour), that was apparently able
to make several human-like motions;

23
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

 scientist and engineer: he recognized and studied the primal mechanical forces that govern the
universe (e.g. the flight of birds, the physical properties, laws of motion and currents of water,
whirlpools and eddies, the laws of growth of plants and trees, the geologic structure of earth and
hill formation, the air currents); he made great advances in the study of mechanics (e.g. the two
Madrid notebooks), designed a more accurate clock, developed principles of graphic
representation, outlined a rudimentary theory of plate tectonics;

 architect and hydraulic engineer: he made sketches for different buildings like the palace of a
Milanese nobleman, the villa of a French governor in Milan, the Medici residence in Florence,
and a big project for the palace and garden of Romorantin in France; he made studies for large-
scale canals in the Arno region and Lombardy; he devised a revolving bridge and a system of
moveable barricades to protect the city from attacks, made a drawing of a single span 220 m
bridge that was intended to span the Golden Horn (Turkey); he devised the city of the future;

 painter: Mona Lisa, The Last Supper, The Adoration of the Magi (1481), Virgin of the Rocks
(1483-1486);

 creator of works on paper: his most famous drawing - Vitruvian Man (1487) - depicts a nude
male figure in two superimposed positions with his arms and legs apart and simultaneously
inscribed in a circle and square; applying the principles of geometry to the human body,
Leonardo demonstrated that the ideal proportion of the human figure corresponds with the
forms of the circle and the square (that is why the drawing is sometimes called the Canon of
Proportions or the Proportions of Man); in other words, when a man places his feet firmly on
the ground and stretches out his arms, he can be contained within the four lines of a square, but
when in a spread-eagle position, he can be inscribed in a circle.

 writer – he wrote 40 codices (of which only 21 survived) which were notebooks containing
drawings, sketches, scientific diagrams, and his thoughts on the natural world: a treatise on
painting, a treatise on architecture, a book on the elements of mechanics, and a work on human
anatomy (e.g. Codex Atlanticus, Codex Leicester, Codex Trivulzianus, Codex on the Flight of
Birds);

 sculptor: he was attributed a group of generals` heads in marble and plaster; he started a huge
equestrian monument (he wanted to cast the horse in a single piece) dedicated to Francesco
Sforza and another to Marshal Trivulzio, but never finished them; he made a colossus (statue);

24
UNIT ONE: DEFYING THE BOUNDARIES OF SCIENCE

 anatomist: he studied human and animal anatomy in great detail by dissecting corpses → many
studies of the human skeleton and its parts, as well as muscles, sinews, the sex organs, and other
internal organs, focusing mostly on the heart and vascular system, the brain and the lungs which
he considered the “motors” of the senses and of life; he made one of the first scientific drawings
of a fetus in the uterus; he closely observed and recorded the effects of age and of human
emotion on the physiology, studying in particular the effects of rage; he also drew many figures
who had significant facial deformities or signs of illness;

 musician: he designed several musical instruments → viola organista (1488-1489) - the first
bowed keyboard instrument ever to be devised;

 ISAAC NEWTON (1643-1727) – the most significant figure of the 17th century scientific
revolution, an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist and
theologian. His book – Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687) – contained a detailed
presentation of the laws of motion and gravitation, and laid the foundations of the science of
mechanics. Newton showed that the motions of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed
by the same set of natural laws by demonstrating the consistency between Kepler's laws of planetary
motion and his theory of gravitation, thus removing the last doubts about heliocentrism and
advancing the scientific revolution.

* Newton`s Apple - a popular story claims that Newton was inspired to formulate his
theory of universal gravitation by the fall of an apple from a tree, which hit his head and whose impact
somehow made him aware of the force of gravity. The question for Newton was not whether gravity
existed, but whether it extended so far from Earth that it could also be the force holding the Moon to its
orbit. Newton showed that if the force decreased as the inverse square of the distance, one could indeed
calculate the Moon's orbital period; he guessed the same force was responsible for other orbital
motions, and hence named it "universal gravitation".

I.7.5. The Modern Era (1700-1914)


The 18th century was the Age of Enlightenment in Europe, when the old, established ideas
were questioned and human reason became the main element to be trusted. The second half of the 18th

25
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

century witnessed the Industrial Revolution – which started in Britain and brought about unprecedented
changes like the introduction of new food crops and farming technologies:

 the English agriculturist Jethro Tull invented in 1701 the seed drill (used for making holes in the
ground and placing seeds in them) and a horse-drawn hoe (to destroy the seeds on the ground and
pulverize the soil so as to allow the moisture and air to reach the roots);
 the English inventor Robert Ransome devised a cast-iron share (brăzdar) in 1785 and a self-
sharpening share in 1803;
 1784 – Andrew Meikle (Scottish mechanical engineer) – invented the threshing machine
(treierătoare) (to automatically remove the grain from the stalks);
 1869 – the introduction of the first usable steam plow;
 1712 – Thomas Newcomen – improved an existing design and made the first beam engine driven
by steam;
 1714 – Fahrenheit (German scientist) used Mercury for the first time in a thermometer and devised
a scale for measuring temperature;
 1752 – Benjamin Franklin (American scientist and statesman) – invented the lightning rod;
 1765 – James Watt made the first practical steam engine;
 1784 – Edmund Cartwright built the first power loom;
 1801 – John Dalton formulated the atomic theory;
 1804 – R. Trevithick (English inventor) – built the first steam locomotive;
 1816 – Humphry Davy (English chemist) invented the miners`safety lamp and R.T.H. Laennec
(French physician) – invented the stethoscope;
 1821 – Michael Faraday – the first electric motor and in 1831 – he made the first electric
generator using the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction that he had discovered;
 1831 – Cyrus Hall McCormick (American inventor) – invented the first automatic reaping
machine (secerătoare);
 1834 – Louis Braille (a blind Frenchman) – perfected his Braille system, helping visually impaired
people to read and write; Hiram Moore (American inventor) patented the first combined
harvester;
 1837 – John Deere, an American blacksmith, made a plow from steel; Samuel Morse – patented
the electromagnetic telegraph;

26
UNIT ONE: DEFYING THE BOUNDARIES OF SCIENCE

 1839 – Charles Goodyear invented the process of vulcanization of rubber (to make natural rubber
much harder and resistant to chemicals);
 1856 – Charles Parker invented a new material – cellulose;
 1859 – Charles Darwin formulated his theory of natural selection in his book On the Origin of
Species;
 1860 – Jean Joseph Lenoir – made an internal combustion engine running on lighting gas;
 1862 – Louis Pasteur (French chemist) – invented the pasteurization process (to prevent milk
from fermenting);
 1867 – Alfred Nobel (Swedish inventor) – invented dynamite and the American Christopher
Sholes invented the typewriter;
 1876 – Nikolaus Otto – made the first four-stroke internal combustion engine and Alexander
Graham Bell – patented the telephone;
 1877 – Thomas Alva Edison – invented the phonograph (to record and reproduce human voice)
and in 1879, he made the first long-lasting incandescent bulb;
 1884 – Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach – developed a high-speed, four-stroke engine
burning gasoline; Lewis Waterman – made the first fountain pen;
 1885 – Daimler made the first gas-engined motorcycle;
 1888 – John Boyd Dunlop – developed the first pneumatic tyre; Heinrich Hertz – demonstrated
the existence of radio waves;
 1895 – Auguste and Louis Lumière – held the first screening of a projected motion picture;
Wilhelm Roentgen – discovered X-rays;
 1898 – Marie and Pierre Curie discovered two new chemical elements: radium and polonium;
 1901 – Guglielmo Marconi (Italian inventor) – transmitted a radio message across the Atlantic;
Hubert Booth – invented the vacuum cleaner;
 1903 – The Wright brothers – flew the first heavier-than-air machine;
 1904 – John Holt made the first tractor for use in agriculture;
 1910 – Georges Claude – made the first neon lamp;

I.7.6. The War Period (1914-1950)


 1916 – Einstein publishes his General Theory of Relativity;
 1921 – discovery of the insulin;
 1913 – discovered many new materials: plastics, stainless steel, bakelite;
27
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

 1922 – Technicolor introduced in movies;


 1926 – Schrödinger presented a theory of quantum mechanics; Goddard flew the first liquid-fueled
rocket; release of the first movie with a sound track;
 1927 – Lindberg`s nonstop solo trans-Atlantic flight;
 1928 – discovery of penicillin;
 1929 – Edwin Hubble discovered the expansion of the Universe;
 1930 – Frank Whittle filed a patent for a turbojet propulsion system;
 1931 – Zworykyn produced the first working television system; built the world`s tallest building –
The Empire State Building (New York);
 1932 – discovered the neutron;
 1939 – Igor Sikorsky built a helicopter with a single main rotor and a vertical tail rotor; British
scientists invented the cavity magnetron oscillator (which helped to construct a microwave
radar in 1940);
 1942 – initiated the first self-sustaining controlled nuclear reaction;
 1945 – dropping of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki;
 1946 – the first computer (ENIAC);
 1947 – invented the transistor and the Polaroid camera;
 1949 – took off the first civilian jet airplane;

 ALBERT EINSTEIN (1879-1955) – the most influential scientist of the 20th century; famous
for his theory of relativity and mass-energy equivalence (E = mc2); he published over 300 scientific
works and over 150 non-scientific works, and his many contributions to physics include the following:

 special theory of relativity (STR) - proposed in 1905 by Albert Einstein in the paper On the
Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies; it is the physical theory of measurement in inertial frames
of reference, which generalizes Galileo's principle of relativity – that all uniform motion is
relative, and that there is no absolute and well-defined state of rest (no privileged reference
frames) – from mechanics to all the laws of physics; in addition, he revolutionized Newtonian
physics, which relied on the idea that space and time were the only constant and absolute
notions; this theory incorporates the principle that space and time can be modified by external
factors and that the speed of light is the only constant and absolute value in the universe, as it is
the same for all inertial observers regardless of the state of motion of the source; furthermore,

28
UNIT ONE: DEFYING THE BOUNDARIES OF SCIENCE

the closer we travel to the speed of light, the slower the passage of time (e.g. S.F. movies, where
spaceships which travel at a speed close to that of light, return to Earth after a few days spent in
space and find out that tens of years have already passed on our planet), and this phenomenon is
known as “temporal paradox”.

E = m ∙ c 2 (mass-energy equivalence)
↓ ↓ ↓

energy mass speed of light

This equivalence was added to the special theory of relativity four months after its
publication and suggests the fact that any infinitesimal particle of matter contains a huge quantity of
energy, and in case the balance of its nucleus is somehow disturbed, the energy released is
tremendous; this theory inspired the advent of the atomic bomb and the theory of the Big Bang,
which tries to explain the creation of the Universe.

 general theory of relativity (GTR) – published in 1916, extended the principle of relativity to
the non-uniform motion, creating a new theory of gravitation; it unifies special relativity and
Newton's law of universal gravitation, and describes gravity as a property of the geometry of
space and time, or spacetime; in particular, the curvature of spacetime is directly related to the
four-momentum (mass-energy and linear momentum) of whatever matter and radiation are
present; in other words, he considered that space was a huge flat membrane, marked by huge-
mass and volume orbs or planets which determine curvatures in its flatness; if smaller celestial
bodies get close to these curvatures, they are attrected by them and their trajectory changes,
phenomenon known as gravitation; thus, Earth maintains its trajectory around the Sun, because
its rotation speed and its curvature are in balance; at its turn, the Earth`s curvature attracts the
Moon, which constantly revolves around it, and other smaller celestial bodies that fall on our
planet; Einstein also demonstrated that all celestial bodies are attracted by these curvatures, and
light makes no exception, as it is also suffers from deformation, which entails the extension of
its route in space, due to gravitation and its constant speed; the largest curvatures are known as
“black holes” and their deformation is so huge that even light cannot penetrate them, thus
determining the interruption of the passage of time.

29
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

I.7.7. Post-war 20th Century (1950-2000)


 1952 – Jonas Salk developed the polio vaccine; US detonated the first hydrogen bomb;
 1953 – James Watson and Francis Crick deciphered the structure of DNA;
 1954 – the solar cell was invented by Daryl Chaplin, Calvin Fuller, Gerald Pearson;
 1955 – optic fiber invented;
 1956 – Christopher Cockerel invented the hovercraft;
 1957 – Soviet Union launched the Sputnik; FORTRAN was launched;
 1958 – NASA established; the integrated circuit developed by Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce;
laser invented by Gordon Gould;
 1959 – Luna 2, a Soviet space probe, reached the Moon; the internal pacemaker invented by
Wilson Greatbach;
 1961 – Yuri Gagarin became the first man in space;
 1962 – invented the audio cassette;
 1963 – the first videodisc invented;
 1964 – invented the acrylic paint and developed BASIC programme;
 1965 – launched Intelsat 1, the first geostationary communications satellite; the CD invented by
James Russell;
 1967 – the first hand-held calculator;
 1968 – the first computer with integrated circuits; the first heart transplant in humans carried
out by Christiaan Bernard in South Africa;
 1969 – Neil Armstrong was the first human to land on the Moon; invented the ATM and bar-
code scanners;
 1970 – floppy-disk invented by Alan Shugart;
 1971 – established the Soviet space station, Salyut 1; released the first microprocessor, 4004;
invented the dot-matrix printer, VCR and LCD;
 1973 – began the gene splicing; invented the Ethernet by Robert Metcalfe;
 1974 – liposuction invented;
 1976 – invented the ink-jet printer; Viking 1 and 2 landed on Mars;
 1977 – magnetic resonance imaging invented by Raymond V. Damadian;
 1978 – born the first test-tube baby;
 1979 – invented the cellular phone and the walkman;
 1980 – developed the hepatitis-B vaccine;

30
UNIT ONE: DEFYING THE BOUNDARIES OF SCIENCE

 1981 – launched the first reusable space shuttle, Columbia; invented the IBM PC and MS-DOS;
 1983 – identified the AIDS virus;
 1984 – CD-ROM invented;
 1985 – WINDOWS invented by Microsoft;
 1986 – USSR launched Mir; invented the super conductor;
 1990 – NASA launched the Hubble Space Telescope; created the World Wide Web;
 1993 – developed the first web browser, Mosaic; invented the Pentium processor;
 1995 – invented the DVD;
 1997 – cloning of the sheep Dolly; NASA spacecraft landed on Mars;

I.7.8. The 21st Century


 2000 – a preliminary draft of the complete genome sequence completed by the Human Genome
Project; the creation of the Segway Human Transporter;
 2001 – the 1st artificial heart (created by Abiomed) implemented into a patient; the 1st artificial
liver invented by Dr. Kenneth Matsumura and Alin Foundation; Apple Computer released iPod;
Microsoft released its own game console Xbox and Nintendo the GameCube; fuel cell bike
invented by Aprilia;
 2002 – the U.S. Mars Odyssey probe began its imaging of the Martian surface, discovering
huge deposits of ice on Mars; Braille Glove invented by Ryan Patterson; Nano-tex
(nanotechnology wearable fabrics) produced by Nano-tex LLC;
 2003 – the Human Genome Project (to determine the genetic causes and treatments for many
diseases and disorders) ended with a complete genomic blueprint of human beings; China
launched a taikonaut into space; hybrid car invented by Toyota; new fabrics – Salmon Skin
Leather (invented by Claudia Escobar), Skini and Luminex (glowing fabric invented by
Luminex);
 2004 – U.S. probe landing on Mars confirmed the presence of water on this planet sometime in
the past; South Korean scientists successfully cloned a human embryo; launched the 1st
privately funded spaceflight – SpaceShipOne; Cassini-Huygens spacecraft arrived on Saturn to
study its satellites and rings; Adidas 1 thinking shoes invented by Adidas; LitraCon (translucent
concrete) invented by the Hungarian architect Aron Losonczi; SonoPrep (device that will
deliver medication by sound waves rather than injection) invented by bioengineer Robert
Langer;

31
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

 2005 – Huygens landed on Titan, the largest moon of Saturn; YouTube created by Steve Chen,
Chad Hurley and Jawed Karim;
 2006 - NASA`s Stardust mission brought back dust from a comet for investigations; Scramjet
(an airplane to fly at seven times the speed of sound) tested; the 1st railway to Lhasa (Tibet)
opened; the infrared alcohol test invented by TruTouch Technologies; HugShirt (that stimulates
the feeling of being embraced) invented by CuteCircuit; NanoNuno umbrella (that dries after a
quick shake) invented by Pro-Idee;
 2007 - stem cell research; mechanically levitated trains; genetically (GM) modified food;
iPhone invented by Apple Inc.; Venturi Eclectic autonomous car (that runs solely on wind and
solar power) invented by Venturi Automobiles;
 2008 - ATLAS experiment (a particle physics experiment initiated at the Large Hadron Collider
at CERN); the ATLAS detector searched for new discoveries in the head-on collisions of
extraordinarily high energy protons; its purpose was to learn about the basic forces that have
shaped our universe since the beginning of time and that will determine its fate; among the
possible unknowns are the origin of mass, extra dimensions of space, microscopic black holes,
and evidence for dark matter in the universe; the 23andMe retail DNA test invented by Anne
Wojcicki and Linda Avey; the 1st bionic hand created by Touch Bionics; the synthetic organism
made by J. Craig Venter;
 2009 – NASA`s Ares Rockets; the 1st signs of teleportation (showed by the scientists of the
University of Maryland's Joint Quantum Institute, who successfully teleported data from one
atom to another in a container a meter away); Herschel Space Observatory (telescope for
invisible stars) launched by the European Space Agency; the creation of the 1st AIDS vaccine;
the solar shingle developed by Dow Chemical Co.; the electric eye being developed by MIT
researchers;
 2010 – creation of eLegs exoskeleton; the 1st synthetic cell; the 1st lab-grown lungs; the malaria-
proof mosquito and the mosquito laser; Google`s driverless car; the straddling bus;
 2011 – the Stark Hand; dynamic eye sunglasses; a prenatal marker to screen for pregnancy
complications; the medical mirror; the Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD); Kymera motorized body
board;
 2012 – indoor cloud (created by the Dutch artist Berndnaut Smilde); motion-activated
screwdriver; LiquiGlide; enable talk gloves; self-inflating tyres (by Goodyear); Google glass;

32
UNIT ONE: DEFYING THE BOUNDARIES OF SCIENCE

switchblade drone; the highly unstable superheavy element 113 (dicovered by a team led by
Kosuke Morita at the RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science in Japan).
 2013 - Sony`s smart lens; Mission R motorbike; the Oculus Rift; the edible password pill; the
invisible skyscraper; the 3Doodler; Volvo`s solar pavilion; artificial memory; a new atomic
clock; SpaceShipTwo; the Atlas rescuer robot; robot bat wing; Argus II (artificial retina and a
pair of glasses for those who suffer from retinitis pigmentosa); the X-47B drone; artificial
pancreas; Rewalk (an exoskeleton or bionic suit for paraplegics); surgical knife that detects
cancer; Google Glass (augmented-reality glasses); Cygnus cargo craft;

I.8. Ranking of the Most Important Inventions

a) Top 10 inventions that changed the world6

1) Internet (ARPANET created in the late 1960s by DARPA)


2) computer (there are several researchers who contributed to the invention of the computer but
Alan Turing was considered the most influential in this field)
3) lightbulb (although a light bulb which could not glow for more than a couple of hours was
first invented by Joseph Swan in 1860, it was Thomas Edison who was attributed the
incandescent bulb in 1878)
4) automobile (Karl Benz created the first automobile in 1885)
5) steam engine (although Thomas Newcomen was the first to use in 1712 the steam power to
pump water out of mine, it was James Watt who created the first steam engine in 1769)
6) communications (the invention of the electric telegraph by Samuel Morse in 1836)
7) refrigeration (while some believe that Oliver Evans was the precursor of the modern
refrigerator by designing a vapor-compression unit in 1805, others point to Carl von Linde`s
design made in 1876)
8) printing press (invented by Johannes Gutenberg around 1439)
9) wheel (the oldest wheel and axle mechanism were found near Ljubljana, Slovenia and dates
back to ~ 3100 BC)
10) plow (it was probably developed independently in different regions)

b) Top 10 best inventions of all time7

6
www.geniusstuff.com, accessed 12.07.2013;
33
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

1) World Wide Web (invented by Sir Tim Berners-Lee in 1990)


2) computer (there are several researchers who contributed to the invention of the computer but
Alan Turing was considered the most influential in this field)
3) airplane (although the first attempts to create a plane were made by Abbas ibn Firnas in the
9th century, it was the Wright brothers who were attributed the first sustained flight in 1903)
4) lightbulb (although a light bulb which could not glow for more than a couple of hours was
first invented by Joseph Swan in 1860, it was Thomas Edison who was attributed the
incandescent bulb in 1878)
5) phonograph/gramophone (created by Thomas Edison in 1877)
6) telephone (invented by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876)
7) steam engine (although Thomas Newcomen was the first to use in 1712 the steam power to
pump water out of mine, it was James Watt who created the first steam engine in 1769)
8) printing press (invented by Johannes Gutenberg around 1439)
9) compass (the magnetic compass was invented in China for divination by the Han Dynasty in
the 2nd century)
10) paper (pulp papermaking was invented in China by the Han Dynasty in the 2nd century)

c) Top 10 inventions of the 21st century8

1) Hydrogen-powered cars
2) Automation
3) Antigravity
4) Human cloning
5) Nanotechnology
6) Artificial intelligence
7) Free energy
8) Hypersonic transportation
9) Genetic engineering
10) Robotics

d) Top 10 most important inventions of the 21st century in technology9

7
www.omgtoplists.com, accessed 12.07.2013;
8
www.toptenz.net, accessed 12.07.2013;

34
UNIT ONE: DEFYING THE BOUNDARIES OF SCIENCE

1) iPhone
2) iPad
3) Google`s driverless car
4) Electric-car charging stations
5) Flip Mino
6) Nintendo Wii
7) Google Android
8) Electric Tesla Roadster (developed between 2008-2012 by Tesla Motors)
9) YouTube (created in February 2005 by three former PayPal employees, it was acquired by
Google in November 2005)
10) Facebook (launched in 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg and his college roommates)

Vocabulary
to research / to do a research / to conduct a research (a cerceta, a face cercetare) → scientific research
(cercetare ştiinţifică)
to devise / to conceive / to contrive / to think out = a imagina, a concepe, a gândi, a inventa
to discover / to make headway (a descoperi, a progresa) → discovery / breakthrough (descoperire)
to endeavour / to venture / to enterprise (a face o incursiune, a se aventura, a face un gest îndrăzneţ) →
endeavour / venture / enterprise (încercare, incursiune)
to search for / to quest for / to pursuit smth. (a căuta să descoperi ceva) → in search of / in quest of /
in pursuit of (în căutarea)
to invent (a inventa) → invention (invenţie)
to innovate (a inova) → innovation (inovaţie)
to make technological advances (a face progrese tehnologice) → technological advance / development/
improvement / leap / progress (progres, evoluţie, îmbunătăţire, dezvoltare tehnologică)
to be open to improvement = a necesita îmbunătăţiri
advent / arrival / beginning / coming / commencement = apariţie, inventare
pioneer / discoverer / explorer / innovator / pathfinder / trailblazer = pionier, deschizător de drumuri
scholar / learned person / erudite / intellectual = cărturar, învăţat, erudit, intellectual
predecessor / forerunner / precursor = precursor
to be ahead of smb.`s time = a fi mult înaintea vremii sale, a fi revoluţionar pentru vremea sa
to win/get recognition or fame (a obţine recunoaşterea meritelor) → to be noteworthy (a fi merituos)

9
www.infoniac.com, accessed 12.07.2013;
35
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

to stand the test of time = a trece proba timpului


to be known as / to be reffered to as = a fi cunoscut ca şi
turning point = punct, moment de cotitură
to lay the basis / foundations for/of smth. = a pune bazele a ceva
to establish soundly the basic principles of = a stabili temeinic principiile de bază
to give rise to / to generate smth. (a determina, a da naştere la ceva) → to arise from (a proveni din)
to pave the way to = a pregăti calea pentru
to lie in smb.`s power to = a sta în puterea cuiva de a face ceva
to bear the stamp of = a purta amprenta
to come to grips with / to deal with / to manage / to handle smth. = a se ocupa de ceva
to master / to be completely proficient or skilled in = a stăpâni un anumit domeniu
to have a knack for / to be very good at / to have a natural talent for = a avea talent la
→ talent (talent)
→ skills / abilities (abilităţi)
→ competencies (competenţe)
→ know-how (abilităţi şi cunoştinţe practice de specialitate)
to tend to / to have a tendency to / to be prone to / to be inclined to = a avea tendinţa de a face ceva, a
avea înclinaţii către
to meet the needs / requirements of smth. = a răspunde, a face faţă cerinţelor
to keep pace with smth./smb. = a ţine pasul cu ceva / cineva
to confine within certain limits = a îngrădi între anumite limite
to bridge the gap = a reduce diferenţele, a aplana divergenţele
to state / to set forth = a formula, a enunţa, a expune
to declare / to utter / to give utterance to one`s thoughts / to frame one`s thoughts into words = a
exprima în cuvinte, a declara
to muse on / to ponder on / to reflect on / to meditate on smth.= a cugeta, a reflecta asupra unui lucru
to grasp / to apprehend / to understand / to comprehend smth. (a pricepe, a înţelege, a sesiza ceva) →
beyond one`s grasp (dincolo de puterea de înţelegere a cuiva)
to get an insight into (a pătrunde, a analiza fin) → insight / deep penetration or perception (înţelegere,
intuiţie, pătrundere (psihologică) subtilă)
purpose / aim / goal / target (obiectiv, scop, ţel) → to reach an objective (a atinge un obiectiv)
to achieve / to accomplish / to attain smth. (a realiza ceva) → achievement / accomplishment /
attainment (realizare)
to bear fruit / to yield results (a da roade) → fruitful (fructuos, care dă roade)
thirst for knowledge = sete de cunoaştere
leap into the unknown = salt în necunoscut
leap of faith = „salt de credinţă”, încredere în ceva nesigur şi neverificat
to inquire / to enquire / to ask / to get informed on (a se informa despre) → inquiry / enquiry
to trouble one`s head about / to fret about / to puzzle one`s brain upon / over / about a problem = a se
frământa în legătură cu o problemă
to give an expert opinion = a exprima o părere avizată
to develop one`s views on a subject = a-şi expune ideile asupra unui subiect

36
UNIT ONE: DEFYING THE BOUNDARIES OF SCIENCE

to dwell on/upon a subject = a stărui asupra unui subiect


to adhere to / to sympathize with one`s ideas = a achiesa la ideile cuiva
to be open to question (a fi supus dezbaterii) → questionable matter (chestiune problematică,
discutabilă)
to clear up / to clarify / to give a clear account of (a lămuri, a explica clar) → clear-cut (precis, clar)
to get down to the bottom of / to get to the root of the matter / to get to the point (a ajunge la miezul
chestiunii) ≠ to stray from the point (a se depărta de subiect)
to give a mere hint of smth. = a face o simplă sugestie, aluzie la ceva
to give shades of meaning = a oferi nuanţe de sens
to go into details / particulars = a intra în detalii
to expose what lies beneath = a dezvălui lucruri ascunse
to be beyond all shadow of doubt = a fi fără umbră de îndoială
to vouch for the truth of the statement = a garanta adevărul afirmaţiei
an issue of great concern / far reaching importance = o chestiune de foarte mare interes
an issue of much controversy = o chestiune foarte controversată
a puzzling issue = chestiune confuză, dificil de înţeles
a sound argument / an argument that holds (argument întemeiat) → argument devoid of foundation
(argument neîntemeiat)
an argument that weighs down all the others = argument care învinge orice alt argument
considerations of no weight = consideraţii fără valoare
to assume / to presume (a presupune) → assumption / presumption (presupunere) → on this
assumption / presumption (pe baza acestei presupuneri)
to infer (a deduce) → inference (deducţie)
to observe (a analiza, a supune observaţiei) → observation (analiză, observaţie)
to point out / to indicate = a arăta, a demonstra
to be within one`s range of vision = a fi în câmpul de viziune al cuiva
to be outside / beyond the scope of = a fi în afara domeniului de interes
to carry out a project = a executa, a duce la îndeplinire un proiect
to undergo changes = a fi supus la schimbări
to put to the test = a pune la încercare
to take a test = a da un test
scientific paper (lucrare ştiinţifică) ≠ non-scientific paper (lucrare non-ştiinţifică)
scientific method (metodă ştiinţifică) ≠ rule of thumb (metodă empirică, bazată pe experienţă)
synopsis (pl. synopses) = expunere sumară
synthesis (pl. syntheses) = sinteză
abstract = rezumat
multidisciplinarity = multidisciplinaritate, asocierea mai multor discipline
interdisciplinarity = interdisciplinaritate, transfer de concepte între mai multe discipline
transdisciplinarity = transdisciplinaritate, reunirea tuturor disciplinelor într-una singură, unitară
cross-disciplinarity = explicarea aspectelor unei discipline prin prisma alteia

37
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

Exercises
a) Match the following names of scientists with their corresponding invention(s):

1) Isaac Newton a) the first airplane


2) Johann Gutenberg b) geocentric theory
3) Albert Einstein c) theory of the evolution of species
4) Louis Pasteur d) lightning rod, bifocals
5) Galileo Galilei e) chemical element
6) Charles Darwin f) four-stroke internal combustion engine
7) Nicolaus Copernicus g) principle of buoyancy
8) Antoine Lavoisier h) photography
9) James Watt i) first nuclear reactor
10) Michael Faraday j) theory of universal gravitation
11) Orville & Wilbur Wright k) pneumatic tyre
12) Benjamin Franklin l) laws of planetary motion
13) Thomas Edison m) penicillin
14) Anthony van Leeuwenhoek n) involuntary reflex
15) Guglielmo Marconi o) dynamite
16) Anders Celsius p) germ theory, pasteurization process
17) Alexander Graham Bell r) electric motor
18) Louis Daguerre s) microbes
19) Alexander Fleming t) motion picture
20) Nikolaus August Otto u) telephone
21) William Rontgen v) printing press
22) Johannes Kepler x) radio
23) Enrico Fermi y) theory of relativity
24) Archimedes z) temperature scale
25) Alfred Nobel a`) incandescent light bulb, phonograph
26) John Dunlop b`) radioactivity
27) Auguste & Louis Lumière c`) steam engine

38
UNIT ONE: DEFYING THE BOUNDARIES OF SCIENCE

28) Marie & Pierre Curie d`) telegraph, Morse code


29) Samuel Morse e`) X-rays
30) Ivan Pavlov f`) heliocentric theory, telescope

b) Translate into English:

1) Primele manifestări ale spiritului ştiinţific au apărut atunci când oamenii primitivi au început să
cerceteze lumea naturală, cu scopul de a înţelege numeroasele fenomene şi manifestări ale
acesteia.
2) La început, învăţaţii foloseau instrumente rudimentare şi metode de cercetare empirice pentru a
desluşi misterele universului şi ale fiinţei umane.
3) De-a lungul timpului, folosindu-se de experienţa şi cunoştinţele acumulate, oamenii de ştiinţă
au dezvoltat maşinării şi dispozitive care au ajutat omenirea să evolueze.
4) După ce în urmă cu 200.000 de ani, primii oameni au trăit în Africa, ei au părăsit acest continent
şi s-au stabilit în diverse zone de pe glob, unde au început să-şi confecţioneze unelte şi arme
pentru viaţa cotidiană.
5) Înainte de a descoperi focul acum 500.000 de ani, oamenii primitivi inventaseră deja unele
unelte rudimentare din cremene şi chiar toporul.
6) Considerat primul om de ştiinţă adevărat, Thales din Milet a deschis seria unei întregi galerii de
invenţii şi descoperiri ştiinţifice.
7) În timp ce făcea baie, Arhimede a observat că nivelul apei în cadă creştea pe măsură ce el se
scufunda în ea, deducând astfel o serie de raţionamente care au condus la formularea
principiului flotabilităţii.
8) Isaac Newton a fost inspirat în formularea teoriei gravitaţiei universale de căderea unui măr din
copac, care l-a lovit direct în cap.
9) Cele patru mari invenţii ale Chinei antice au fost: praful de puşcă, hârtia, busola magnetică şi
tiparniţa.
10) Considerat “părintele ingineriei mecanice”, Al-Jazari a conceput numeroase dispozitive
mecanice ingenioase, dintre care cele mai importante rămân sistemele automate şi arborii cotiţi.
11) Datorită vizionarismului lor, invenţiile lui Leonardo da Vinci au rămas de-a lungul secolelor un
model dar şi o provocare pentru inginerii din lumea întreagă.

39
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

12) A doua jumătate a secolului al XVIII-lea a fost martora Revoluţiei Industriale, care s-a
declanşat în Marea Britanie şi a adus cu sine schimbări fără precedent, cum ar fi introducerea de
noi recolte şi tehnologii agricole.
13) Cuprinşi de febra cercetării ştiinţifice, oamenii de ştiinţă au implementat metoda ştiinţifică, ce
presupunea realizarea unui experiment controlat şi folosirea observaţiei directe în scopul
verificării unei ipoteze iniţiale.
14) Primul laborator industrial i se datorează lui Thomas Edison, care a pus bazele unui astfel de
amplasament la sfârşitul secolului al XIX-lea.
15) Teoria generală a relativităţii a adus modificări în ceea ce priveşte trecerea timpului, geometria
spaţiului, mişcarea corpurilor în cădere liberă şi propagarea luminii.

Discussion Point

1. Complete the list above with other qualities and flaws of the classical scientist.
2. Create the portrait of the modern scientist.
3. Name five famous Romanian scientists and their inventions.
4. How did technological innovation appear?
5. What gadgets do you use?

40
UNIT TWO: THE UNIVERSE OF THE COMPUTERS10

Objectives: This unit aims to facilitate an approach to computer science, with an emphasis
on the computer and its history, uses, components and types, providing at the same time information
on the most famous IT company in the world – Microsoft Corporation.

Keywords: computer, hardware, software, computer science, Microsoft

Contents:

II.1. Definition
 COMPUTER = machine that performs tasks, such as mathematical calculations or
electronic communication, under the control of a set of instructions called a program. Programs usually
reside within the computer and are retrieved and processed by the computer electronics, and the
program results are stored or routed to output devices, such as video display monitors or printers.
Computers are used to perform a wide variety of activities with reliability, accuracy and speed.

II.2. History

 the first counting devices: Sumerian abacus (~2,500 BC), slide rule/slipstick (1620s), astrolabe
and Antikythera mechanism (~80 BC), mechanical calculator (1642);

10
Brookes, Michael; Lagoutte, François, Engleza pentru informatică, Editura Teora, Bucureşti, 2001;
Encarta Encyclopedia 2008/Computer;
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer, accessed 28.05.2013;
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/130429/computer, accessed on 29.05.2013;

41
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

 early 17th century – John Napier invented logarithms and a multiplication table reproduced on
pieces of wood (Napier`s Bones);
 1613 - the first use of the word computer which meant “a person who carried out calculations
or computations”; the word continued with the same meaning until the middle of the 20th century;
 1642 – Blaise Pascal invented the first mechanical calculator designed to help his father in
keeping the books of the family store;
 1801 – Joseph Marie Jacquard made an improvement to the textile loom by introducing a
series of punched paper cards as a template which allowed his loom to weave intricate patterns
automatically → the first form of programmability;
 automatic calculation + programmability = the first recognizable computer;
 1837 – Charles Babbage was the first to conceptualize, theorize and design a fully
programmable mechanical computer → analytical engine;
 late 1880s – Herman Hollerith invented the recording of data on a machine-readable
medium;
 Alan Turing – the father of modern computer science → 1936 – Turing machine;
 1937-1941 – Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC) – the first electronic digital computer, not
programmable, designed only to solve systems of linear equations; it used vacuum tube-based
computation, binary numbers and regenerative capacitor memory;
 1941- Konrad Zuse devised Z3, the first program-controlled computer, an electromechanical
computing machine;
 George Stibitz – father of the modern digital computer → 1937 – MODEL K – a relay-
based calculator, the first to use binary circuits to perform an arithmetic operation;
 1946 – Drs. Eckert and Mauchly – ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator),
the first general-purpose electronic computer;
 1950s – vacuum-tube computers;
 1956 – Hewlett-Packard (HP) – the first IT company to settle in Silicon Valley;
 1960s – transistor-based computers (smaller, faster, cheaper to produce, more reliable and
requiring less power);
 1970s – the advent of the silicon chip and the integrated circuit technology → microprocessor
→ microprocessor computers (smaller size, reduced costs, higher speed and reliability); the first
microprocessor (Intel 4004) was sold by Intel in 1972;
 1980s – the first home computers.

42
UNIT TWO: THE UNIVERSE OF THE COMPUTERS

II.3. Computer Generations

 1st generation (mechanical / electromechanical):


- calculators: Pascal`s calculator, arithmometer;
- programmable devices: Jacquard loom, analytical engine, Z3;

 2nd generation (vacuum tubes):


- calculator: Atanasoff-Berry computer (ABC);
- programmable device: ENIAC;

 3rd generation (discrete transistors and intergrated circuits):


- mainframe computer
- minicomputer

 4th generation (VLSI integrated circuits):


- 4,8,16,32,64 - bit computer
- personal computer (desktop, laptop, notebook, tablet, PDA);
- wearable computer (calculator la purtător)
- embedded computer (calculator încorporat)
- ubiquitous computer (calculator ubicuu, care se axează pe comunicaţia
electronică permanentă între calculator şi alte dispozitive)

 Theoretical / experimental computers:


- quantum computer - able to solve some of the most difficult problems in
computation; the information is stored in qubits (quantum bits), allowing
quantum mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, to
perform operations on this data (computer cuantic);
- DNA computer (computer cu ADN)

43
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

II.4. Uses of Computers

 homes - tiny computers embedded in the electronic circuitry of most appliances control the
indoor temperature, operate home security systems, tell the time, and turn electronic devices on
and off;
 business - computers track finances and forecast company performance, track inventories with
bar codes and scanners, check the credit status of customers, and transfer funds electronically;
 telecommuting – computers are used to work at home and communicate with fellow workers;
 automobiles - onboard computers regulate the flow of fuel, thereby increasing gas mileage;
 entertainment – computers create digitized sound on stereo systems or computer-animated
features;
 art – computers enable musicians to learn, create and record music; they also allow artists to
envision and manipulate images;
 media – computers (mostly laptops) are used by foreign correspondents to compose news
stories and submit them from remote locations;
 internet – computers are used to interface with worldwide communication networks to find
information on any subject;
 computer programs / applications - from programs that teach simple addition or sentence
construction to programs that teach advanced calculus;
 education - computers are used to track grades and prepare notes; with computer-controlled
projection units, teachers can add graphics, sound, and animation to their lectures;
 medicine
 flight simulation
 scientific research – used to solve mathematical problems, display complicated data, or model
systems that are too costly or impractical to build (e.g. testing the air flow around the next
generation of space shuttles);
 military - employs computers in sophisticated communications to encode and unscramble
messages, and to keep track of personnel and supplies.

44
UNIT TWO: THE UNIVERSE OF THE COMPUTERS

II.5. How Computers Work

II.5.1. HARDWARE (circuite electronice) = the physical computer and its components:

a) Memory (memorie) - stores data and instructions;


To process information electronically, data are stored in a computer in the form of binary
digits, or bits, each having two possible representations (0 or 1). If a second bit is added to a single bit
of information, the number of representations is doubled, resulting in four possible combinations: 00,
01, 10, or 11. A third bit added to this two-bit representation again doubles the number of
combinations, resulting in eight possibilities: 000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110, or 111. Each time a bit
is added, the number of possible patterns is doubled. Eight bits is called a byte, which has 256 possible
combinations of 0s and 1s.
A byte (octet) is a useful quantity in which to store information because it provides
enough possible patterns to represent the entire alphabet, in lower and upper cases, as well as numeric
digits, punctuation marks, and several character-sized graphics symbols, including non-English
characters such as “ţ” or “ş”. A byte can also be interpreted as a pattern that represents a number
between 0 and 255. A kilobyte (1,024 bytes) can store about 1,000 characters; a megabyte can store
about 1 million characters; a gigabyte can store about 1 billion characters; and a terabyte can store
about 1 trillion characters.
The physical memory of a computer is either random access memory (RAM), which can
be read or changed by the user or computer (e.g. dynamic random access memory), or read-only
memory (ROM), which can be read by the computer but not altered.
One way to store memory is within the circuitry of the computer - main memory, usually
in tiny computer chips that hold millions of bytes of information; the memory within these computer
chips is RAM.
Memory also can be stored outside the circuitry of the computer – external memory, on
external storage devices:
- magnetic floppy disks (two megabytes of information);
- hard drives / hard disks (thousands of megabytes of information);
- optical disc drives
45
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

- CD-ROMs / compact disc (up to 630 megabytes of information);


- DVDs/digital video discs (8.5 gigabytes of information);
- USB flash drives – small, lightweight, removable and rewritable devices;
- memory card;
- streamers (tape drives) - data storage devices that read and write data
stored on a magnetic tape or punched tape; they are typically used for
archival storage of data stored on hard drives;
- e-mail

b) Central processing unit (CPU) (unitatea centrală de procesare) - carries out instructions;
Information from an input device or memory is communicated via the bus to the central
processing unit (CPU), which is the part of the computer that translates commands and runs programs.
The CPU is a microprocessor chip - that is, a single piece of silicon containing millions of electrical
components. Information is stored in a CPU memory location called a register. Registers can be
thought of as the CPU’s tiny scratchpad, temporarily storing instructions or data. When a program is
run, a register called the program counter keeps track of which program instruction comes next. The
CPU’s control unit coordinates and times the CPU’s functions, and it retrieves the next instruction from
memory.
In a typical sequence, the CPU locates the next instruction in the appropriate memory
device. The instruction then travels along the bus from the computer memory to the CPU, where it is
stored in a special instruction register. Meanwhile, the program counter is incremented to prepare for
the next instruction. The current instruction is analysed by a decoder, which determines what the
instruction will do. Any data the instruction needs are retrieved via the bus and placed in the CPU’s
registers. The CPU executes the instruction, and the results are stored in another register or copied to
specific memory locations.
At present, the possibility of embedding more devices on the processor determined the
creation of more powerful multi-core processors: e.g. dual-core processor (2 cores), quad-core
processor (4 cores), hexa-core processor (6 cores), octo-core processor (8 cores), deca-core processor
(10 cores).

46
UNIT TWO: THE UNIVERSE OF THE COMPUTERS

c) Arithmetic logic unit (ALU) (unitatea aritmetică-logică) – performs arithmetic


operations (e.g. addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, square roots or trigonometry functions
like sine, cosine, etc.) and logic operations that involve Boolean logic (e.g. AND, OR, XOR, NOT);

d) Bus (magistrala de date) - connects the various computer components;


It is usually a flat cable with numerous parallel wires. The bus enables the components in
a computer, such as the CPU and memory, to communicate. Typically, several bits at a time are sent
along the bus: e.g. a 16-bit bus, with 16 parallel wires, allows the simultaneous transmission of 16 bits
(2 bytes) of information from one device to another.

e) Input devices / peripherals (dispozitive/periferice de intrare) - allow the user to


communicate with the computer:
- keyboard (tastatură)
- mouse (mechanical, optical) + pointer (cursor)
- trackball
- touchpad
- mouse pen
- joystick
- light pen
- touch screen
- graphics tablet + digitizer
- game pad / control pad
- scanner
- webcam
- microphone

* No Mouse – a software alternative that uses the cursor keys to move the pointer around the
screen;

f) Output devices / peripherals (dispozitive/periferice de ieşire) - enable the computer to


present information to the user:
- video display monitor – known as VDU (video-display unit) or CRT (cathode ray tube):

47
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

- CGA (colour graphics adaptor) monitor - capable of displaying 4 colours on


screen (from a choice of 8) and can display up to 320 x 200 pixels;
- EGA (enhanced graphics adaptor) monitor - includes cards enabling the user
to handle various types of graphics on the screen; it can display up to 16 colours and resolutions up to
640 x 350;
- VGA (video graphics array) monitor - the graphics standard of a monitor,
offering 256 colours at resolutions of 320 x 200, or 16 colours at a resolution of 640 x 480;
- SVGA (super VGA) monitor – capable to provide 256 colours at a resolution
up to 1,280 x 1,024;
- liquid crystal display (LCD);
- printer: dot matrix, impact, inkjet, laser
- plotter
- overhead projectors (OHP)
- headphones and speakers

II.5.2. SOFTWARE (programe, instrucţiuni) = the programs that run the computer, the intelligence
without which a computer is simply a useless tool; it is generally designed to perform a particular type
of task (e.g. to write a letter, to draw a graph, to control the arm of a robot to weld a car body, or to
direct the general operation of the computer).

a) Operating system (OS) (sistem de operare):


When a computer is turned on it searches for instructions in its memory. Usually, the first
set of these instructions is a special program called the operating system (e.g. Windows, Linux), which
is the software that makes the computer work. It prompts the user (or other machines) for input and
commands, reports the results of these commands and other operations, stores and manages data, and
controls the sequence of the software and hardware actions. When the user requests that a program run,
the operating system loads the program in the computer memory and runs the program.
In order to communicate with the computer a user interface (UI) / human-computer interface
(HCI) / man-machine interface (MMI) is required, which is the space or system of interaction
between humans and machines. The interface is used to provide a means of input (allowing the user to
effectively operate and control the system) and output (allowing the system to react to the user`s
manipulation):
48
UNIT TWO: THE UNIVERSE OF THE COMPUTERS

- graphical user interface (GUI) - a display that employs tiny pictures, or icons, to represent
various commands; to execute these commands, the user clicks the mouse on the icon or presses
a combination of keys on the keyboard;
- text-based user interface (TUI) – a display that uses text, symbols and colours available on a
given text environment, but does not necessarily provide line-by-line output.

b) Programming languages (limbaje de programare) – artificial languages that can be used to


control the behaviour of a machine, particularly a computer. They can come with the computer when
the user buys it or have to be bought separately. They are the tool that programmers or software
engineers require in order to write programs for general or special applications:
- high-level (e.g. Pascal, Basic, C++)
- low-level (providing information in the form of strings of bits, such as
machine code, machine language, assembly language);
Unlike natural languages they are designed to permit no ambiguity and to be concise.

c) Compilers and interpreters (compilatoare şi interpretoare) – needed for writing a


program in a high-level language, as instructions written in a this language have to be turned into a
machine code that the machine can understand - strings of bits (lanţuri de bits); they are either
translated into machine code by a compiler or an assembler before being run, or translated directly at
run time by an interpreter.

d) Software packages (pachete de programe) – word processing packages, spreadsheets,


graphics and accounting software packages, etc.

e) Artificial intelligence and Expert systems (inteligenţă artificială şi sisteme Expert) –


computer programs that have powers of reasoning that imitate human intelligence and whose
applications go far beyond simple tasks of problem-solving.

II.6. Types of Computers


 Supercomputer – high processing capacity, high speed of calculation;
 Mainframe computer – big computer, host computer (server);
 Workstation – higher performance than the personal computer (staţie de lucru);
 Microcomputer:
49
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

- Personal computer (PC) = a machine capable of repetitively and quickly performing


calculations and instructions, designed to be used by a single person; it is smaller, less
expensive, and easier to use than other classes of computers, but it usually has less
computational power.
- desktop computer (calculator de birou);
- laptop (calculator portabil);
- notebook computer (calculator portabil de dimensiuni mai mici);
- tablet computer
- PDA/personal digital assistant (agendă electronică)
 Embedded computer – special-purpose computer system designed to perform a dedicated
function; unlike a general-purpose computer (such as a PC), it performs one or more predefined
tasks, usually with very specific requirements, and often includes task-specific hardware and
mechanical parts not usually found in a general-purpose computer (e.g. router);
 Wearable computer – computer that is worn on the body (e.g. used in behavioural modeling,
health monitoring systems, information technologies and media development) (calculator la
purtător)

II.7. MICROSOFT CORPORATION11

Microsoft Corporation is the leading American computer software company. Microsoft


develops and sells a wide variety of software products to businesses and consumers in more than 50
countries. The company’s Windows operating systems for personal computers are the most widely
used operating systems in the world. Microsoft has its headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
Microsoft’s other well-known products include Word (word processor), Excel
(spreadsheet program), Access (database program) and PowerPoint (program for making business
presentations). These programs are sold separately and as part of Office, an integrated software suite.
The company also makes BackOffice, an integrated set of server products for businesses. Microsoft’s
Internet Explorer allows users to browse the World Wide Web. Among the company’s other products
are reference applications, including Encarta Encyclopedia (no longer functional), games, financial

11
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer, accessed 28.05.2013;

50
UNIT TWO: THE UNIVERSE OF THE COMPUTERS

software, programming languages for software developers, input devices, such as pointing devices and
keyboards, and computer-related books.
Microsoft operates The Microsoft Network (MSN), a collection of news, travel, financial,
entertainment, and information Web sites. Microsoft and the National Broadcasting Company (NBC)
jointly operate MSNBC, a 24-hour news, talk, and information cable-television channel and
companion Web site.

Founding
Microsoft was founded in 1975 by William H. Gates III and Paul Allen. The pair had teamed up
in high school through their hobby of programming on the original PDP-10 computer from the Digital
Equipment Corporation. In 1975 Popular Electronics magazine featured a cover story about the Altair
8800, the first personal computer. The article inspired Gates and Allen to develop the first version of
the BASIC programming language for the Altair. They licensed the software to Micro Instrumentation
and Telemetry Systems (MITS), the Altair's manufacturer, and formed Microsoft (originally Micro-
soft) in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to develop versions of BASIC for other computer companies.
Microsoft's early customers included fledgling hardware firms such as Apple Computer, maker of the
Apple II computer; Commodore, maker of the PET computer; and Tandy Corporation, maker of the
Radio Shack TRS-80 computer. In 1977 Microsoft shipped its second language product, Microsoft
FORTRAN, and it soon released versions of BASIC for the 8080 and 8086 microprocessors.

MS-DOS
In 1979 Gates and Allen moved the company to Bellevue, Washington, a suburb of their
hometown of Seattle. (In 1986, the company moved to its current headquarters in Redmond.) In 1980
International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) chose Microsoft to write the operating system for
the IBM PC personal computer, to be introduced the following year. Under time pressure, Microsoft
purchased QDOS (Quick and Dirty Operating System) from Seattle programmer Tim Paterson for
$50,000 and renamed it MS-DOS (Microsoft Disk Operating System). As part of its contract with
IBM, Microsoft was permitted to license the operating system to other companies. By 1984 Microsoft
had licensed MS-DOS to 200 personal computer manufacturers, making MS-DOS the standard
operating system for personal computers and driving Microsoft’s enormous growth in the 1980s.

51
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

Evolution
 1982 – it released Multiplan (spreadsheet program);
 1983 – Microsoft Word (word-processing program);
 1985 – WINDOWS (operating system that extended the features of MS-DOS and employed a
GUI);
 1987 – Windows 2.0 (improved performance and a new visual appearance);
 1990 – Windows 3.0 (more powerful version);
 1991 - MICROSOFT and IBM ended a decade of collaboration;
 1993 – Windows NT (operating system for business environments);
 1995 – Windows 95 (simplified interface, multitasking, and other improvements);
 1995 – Microsoft Network + (as a result of its expansion into the media, entertainment and
communications industries);
 1996 – MSNBC;
 1996 – Windows CE (operating system for handheld PCs);
 1998 – Windows 98;
 1999 – Windows 2000;
 2001 – Windows XP (the first version that encompassed the features of both its business and
home product lines);
 2007 – Windows Vista and Windows Office 2007;
 2009 – Windows 7;
 2012 – Windows 8.

Vocabulary

Computer

computing (data processing) = computer engineering + software engineering + computer science +


information systems + information technology (IT)
to compute (a calcula) → computable (calculabil)
→ computation (calcul, calculaţie, operaţie aritmetică)

52
UNIT TWO: THE UNIVERSE OF THE COMPUTERS

→ computational ability (capacitate, putere de calcul)


→ computing (calcul, operaţie / proces matematic)
→ cloud computing (“calculare în nor”)
computer (calculator)
→ computer architecture (arhitectura calculatorului)
→ computer network (reţea de calculatoare)
→ computer routine (program intern (al unui calculator)/rutină, procedură, (parte de)
program de utilizare generală sau repetată, subprogram, program de maşină,
ansamblu de instrucţiuni care realizează o anumită funcţie;
→ computer protocol (protocol, set de reguli care guvernează două procese care
cooperează)
→ computer run (rulare pe calculator)
→ computer simulation (simulare pe calculator)
information (no –s for plural) = informaţie / informaţii
→ information technology = tehnologia informaţiei
→ packets of information = pachete de informaţii
→ information highway = magistrală de informaţii
data (sg. datum) = date, informaţii (primare), indicii
→ data base = bază de date
→ data bank = bancă de date
→ data link = transmitere a datelor
→ data stream = flux de date
→ data input = introducere de date
! data is used with both the singular or plural form of the verb: e.g. data is / data are
vacuum tube = tub, lampă cu vid
electromagnetic relay = releu electromagnetic
transistor = tranzistor
integrated circuit = circuit integrat
punched card = cartelă perforată
slide / transparency = folie transparentă
software = soft, ansamblu de programe, proceduri şi reguli de folosire a unui calculator
→ software engineering (ingineria programării)
→ software engineer (inginer programator)
→ software design (proiectare a programelor)
→ software package (pachet software)
→ software program(me) (program aparţinând unui sistem de programare)
→ software piracy (piraterie soft)
→ software bug (eroare de programare)
bug = eroare apărută într-un program de calculator
virus = virus (de calculator)
to debug = a repara, a remedia o eroare
to hang = a nu răspunde, a se bloca (despre un program)
53
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

to corrupt / to infect data = a infecta date pe calculator


to fail = a se defecta, a deveni nefuncţional
non-responsive/unresponsive program = program blocat, care nu răspunde, nu reacţionează
display = ecran, afişaj
file = fişier
file format = format de fişier
layout = aşezare, dispunere, configuraţie
folder = director
window / frame = fereastră
icon = icoană, simbol grafic
field = câmp
pointer / cursor = cursor, săgeată
mouse click = click cu ajutorul mouse-ului
keystroke = apăsare de tastă, tastare
scroll bar = bară cu ajutorul căreia se deplasează imaginea în sus sau în jos
tool bar = şir de simboluri grafice care activează anumite funcţii ale programului
pull-down menu = meniu rulant
macro = instrucţiune care înlocuieşte un grup de instrucţiuni
DTP (desktop publishing) = realizarea unei ediţii de articole, comentarii, folosind doar un PC şi un
software
glossary = listă alfabetică de cuvinte şi termeni tehnici sau speciali
thesaurus = dicţionar de sinonime
to edit (a edita)  editing (editare a unui program, a unor date / redactare, preparare a informaţiilor)
to retrieve = a recupera, a extrage, a aduce la suprafaţă
to highlight / to outline = a evidenţia, a scoate în evidenţă, a sublinia
to expand = a extinde
cut and paste = a tăia şi a lipi în altă parte
to delete = a şterge
to browse = a răsfoi
to download (a descărca)  to upload (a încărca)
to update = a actualiza
to customise = a modifica, a adapta conform preferinţelor
user-friendly = uşor de folosit
dot pitch  distanţa dintre pixeli / puncte
pit = cavitate, adâncitură în care se stochează datele pe un CD
to encode (a codifica)  to decode (a decodifica)
to engrave  a grava
to boot  a încărca sistemul de operare
a speck of dust on the CD  un fir de praf pe CD
printer  cartridge  cartuş
 sheet feeder = sistem de alimentare foaie cu foaie

54
UNIT TWO: THE UNIVERSE OF THE COMPUTERS

 nozzle = orificiu de ieşire a cernelii


 socket = mufă
 slot = conector
 to clog = a încărca
text editor  plain text (text simplu)
 font (fonturi, totalitatea caracterelor disponibile):
- regular (caractere obişnuite)
- bold (caractere îngroşate)
- italic (caractere cursive)
- underline (caractere subliniate)
 paragraph: - alignment (aliniere)
- indentation (alineat)
- spacing (spaţiere)
- formatting (formatare)
 tables, equations, graphics
 header (antet), footer (note de subsol), table of contents (cuprins), index, table of
figures, caption (comentariu la o imagine)
 spelling and grammar (pronunţie şi gramatică)
 page layout: size, orientation, margins (top, bottom, left, right, gutter), numbering
 borders and shading
 preview
 print
spreadsheet (program de calcul tabelar):
 tables, columns, rows, cells, grid
 insert text, numbers, formulas
 table formatting
 logical, mathematical and trigonometric functions, graphs

* Moore's law - describes an important trend in the history of computer hardware, which
was first observed by Intel co-founder Gordon E. Moore in a 1965 paper; since the invention of the
integrated circuit in 1958, the number of transistors that can be placed inexpensively on an integrated
circuit has increased exponentially, doubling approximately every two years and is not expected to ever
stop; almost every measure of the capabilities of digital electronic devices is linked to Moore's law:
processing speed, memory capacity, even the number and size of pixels in digital cameras, all of them
improving at exponential rates as well.

55
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

Internet

analogue-digital converter (ADC) = convertor / transformator analogic-digital


search engine = motor de căutare (e.g. Yahoo, Google, Altavista, Lycos, etc.)
web browser = browser, navigator, explorator de Internet
web portal / gateway = portal de acces la Internet
web page = pagină web
web site = site web
hyperlink = referinţă, legătură, element de navigație într-un document electronic către alte părţi ale
aceluiaşi document, alte documente sau secţiuni din alte documente, spre care un utilizator
este trimis atunci când accesează elementul de navigaţie
hypertext = text care conţine linkuri, legături către alte texte
logical port = poartă logică
online television / radio = televiziune / radio online
dial-up Internet = Internet prin telefon
modem = modem pentru acces la Internet
router = ruter, dispozitiv care conectează două sau mai multe reţele de calculatoare bazate pe
comutarea de pachete
wireless Internet = Internet wireless, fără fir
packet switching = comutarea de pachete
IP (Internet protocol) address = protocol care asigură un serviciu de transmitere a datelor şi care
identifică fiecare interfață logică a echipamentelor conectate, printr-un număr numit „adresă IP”
chat = conversaţie directă online (e.g. MyCybertwin = a chat automaton, a software able to answer
anytime, any question and to anyone);
blog (web log) (jurnal online) → corporate blog
online ≠ offline
avatar = reprezentare grafică, identitate virtuală a unui utilizator
emoticon (emotion + icon) = simbol sau combinaţie de simboluri menite să confere mesajului scris un
caracter emoţional
digitization = digitalizare
interactivity = interactivitate
networking = comunicarea şi relaţionarea dintre oameni prin intermediul Internet-ului
multitasking = sistem multi-sarcină, operare simultană a mai multor comenzi
multiprocessing = multiprelucrare, prelucrare simultană a mai multor programe
multiplexing = multiplexare, utilizare a unei singure resurse pentru mai multe canale de informaţie
media meshing = folosirea unui mijloc media (e.g. blog, website) pentru a îmbogăţi experienţa oferită
de un alt mijloc media (e.g. articol de ziar, program TV)
multimedia = multimedia, ansamblu de tehnologii care operează împreună pentru achiziţionarea,
prelucrarea şi redarea informaţiilor provenite de la diferite medii (e.g. text, grafică, animaţie,
sunet, imagine)

56
UNIT TWO: THE UNIVERSE OF THE COMPUTERS

Exercises

Translate into English:

1) Cel mai vechi mecanism din lume care se presupune că ar fi funcţionat ca şi maşină de calculat
se numeşte “mecanismul din Antikythira”, datează din anul 87 î.e.n. şi se pare că era folosit la
calcularea mişcărilor planetelor.
2) Dezvoltarea ştiinţelor în secolul Renaşterii a determinat apariţia unui întreg şir de dispozitive
mecanice de calculat, toate bazate pe principiul ceasornicului, ca şi maşina inventată de Blaise
Pascal.
3) Deşi Charles Babbage a fost cel care a proiectat prima maşină de calcul complet programabilă
în 1837, proiectul său nu a văzut lumina zilei datorită limitărilor tehnologice ale vremii.
4) Secolul al XX-lea a fost martorul înlocuirii calculatoarelor analogice cu cele digitale, cu
ajutorul cărora problemele nu mai erau modelate în semnale electrice sau mecanice, ci în
numere (biţi).
5) Eforturile susţinute ale unei întregi echipe de cercetare au condus la crearea în 1946 a primului
calculator electronic de uz general, numit ENIAC.
6) Nemulţumirile legate de arhitectura destul de inflexibilă a calculatorului ENIAC au determinat
inventatorii acestuia să caute o arhitectură mai flexibilă, pe care aceştia au denumit-o
“arhitectura von Neumann” şi care a fost adoptată de aproape toate maşinile de calcul moderne.
7) Cele două momente de cotitură care au schimbat cursul evoluţiei calculatorului au fost
înlocuirea tuburilor electronice cu tranzistorii, în anii 1960 şi apariţia circuitelor integrate în anii
1970.
8) Prima companie IT din lume a fost Hewlett-Packard, care s-a stabilit în Silicon Valley în anul
1956.
9) Tehnologia circuitelor digitale s-a dovedit în timp a fi cea mai eficientă, fiindcă aceste circuite
pot efectua operaţii atât din algebra booleană cât şi din aritmetica binară.
10) Chiar dacă lămpile electronice şi tranzistorii au fost folosiţi pentru a înmagazina date, cel mai
eficient mod de stocare a memoriei este în prezent pe dispozitive de stocare în mediu purtător
magnetic, cum ar fi memoria cu miezuri magnetice.

57
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

11) Perifericele de intrare sunt dispozitive care ajută utilizatorul să comunice cu calculatorul prin
introducere de date.
12) Calculatorul foloseşte perifericele de ieşire pentru a transmite informaţii utilizatorului şi a
comunica cu lumea exterioară.
13) Modulele calculatorului sunt interconectate printr-un mănunchi de fire numit magistrală de date,
prin care circulă în flux continuu datele şi instrucţiunile.
14) Instrucţiunile, memorate şi reprezentate în cod binar în interiorul calculatorului, sunt
interpretate de către unitatea centrală de procesare şi executate de unitatea aritmetică-logică.
15) Având la bază limbaje de programare tot mai sofisticate, programele de calculator includ de la
câteva instrucţiuni care îndeplinesc o sarcină simplă, până la milioane de instrucţiuni executate
în mod repetat.

Discussion Point

1. Define the computer in your own words.


2. How often and for what purpose do you use the computer?
3. How many types of computers do you know?
4. Which are the computer components?
5. What turning points in the history of the computer do you know?

58
UNIT THREE: COMPUTER-AIDED ENGINEERING (CAE)12

Objectives: This unit aims to analyse the way computers are put to use in various branches
of engineering, especially in the design and manufacturing of different items.

Keywords: computer-aided engineering, computer-aided design, computer-aided


manufacturing, computer modeling

Contents:

III.1. Definition

 Computer-aided engineering (CAE) is the use of computer software to aid the different
engineering tasks: e.g. analyzing the robustness and performance of components and assemblies,
optimizing the product or process, stress analysis of components and assemblies using Finite Element
Analysis (FEA), thermal and fluid flow analysis, multybody dynamics (MBD) and kinematics, etc. The
term encompasses simulation, validation and optimization of products and manufacturing tools.
Any computer-aided engineering task involves three phases:
 pre-processing – defining the model and environmental factors to be applied to it;
 analysis solver – usually performed on high powered computers;
 post-processing of results – using visualization tools

12
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer-aided_engineering, accessed 05.06.2013;
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/130579/CASE, accessed 07.06.2013;

59
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

Devices and equipment:


 CNC (computer numerical controlled machine tools)
 DNC (direct numerical control machine tools)
 PLCs (programmable logic controllers)
 Robotics
 Computers
 Software
 Controllers
 Networks
 Interfacing
 Monitoring equipment

Technologies:
 FMS (flexible manufacturing system)
 ASRS (automated storage and retrieval system)
 AGV (automated guided vehicle)
 Automated conveyance systems

III.2. Modules of Computer-aided Engineering (CAE)

 Computer-aided design (CAD) = proiectare asistată de calculator


 Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) = fabricaţie asistată de calculator
 Computer-aided analysis (CAA) = analiză asistată de calculator
 Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) = producţie integrată pe calculator
 Computer-aided planning (CAP) = planificarea fabricaţiei asistată de calculator

 Computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) are the


application of computers in the design and manufacture of components used in the production of
various items (e.g. automobiles, jet engines). CAD is software for creating precise engineering
drawings. CAM adds a computer to a machine tool, such as a drill or a lathe. CAM engineers similarly

60
UNIT THREE: COMPUTER-AIDED ENGINEERING (CAE)

use computer modeling to determine the best overall manufacturing procedures for use in an industrial
plant, including the testing and handling of finished products. Engineers use CAD and CAM together
to create the design in CAD on one computer, and then transmit the design to a second computer that
creates the part using CAM.

History:
American Ivan Sutherland invented CAD in 1961 when he described a computerized
sketchpad in a doctoral thesis while attending the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in
Cambridge, Massachusetts. He designed CAD to replace the traditional drafting board and other tools
drafters used, such as the ink pen, plastic stencil, and electric eraser. Early CAD software ran on large,
expensive computers. Today, engineers can run CAD software on personal computers or workstations.
The earliest CAM software was a simple computer attached to a milling machine.
Punching buttons on the computer front panel programmed the software for the machine. Since the
mid-1980s, CAD and CAM have come closer together, as some CAM software operates within the
CAD software programs instead of through shared databases.

III.3. COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN (CAD)

Engineers use CAD to create two- and three-dimensional drawings, such as those for
automobile and airplane parts, floor plans, and maps. While it may be faster for an engineer to create an
initial drawing by hand, it is much more efficient to change and distribute drawings by computer.
In the design stage, drafting and computer graphics techniques are combined to produce
models of objects. Designers manipulate and test these models on video display screens until they
incorporate the best balance of features, including ease of production and cost. The CAD information is
then combined with CAM procedures through shared databases. Today, it is possible to perform the
six-step "art-to-part" process with a computer:
 Step 1 + 2 - using sketching software to capture the initial design ideas and to produce accurate
engineering drawings;
 Step 3 - rendering an accurate image of what the part will look like;
 Step 4 - using analysis software to ensure that the part is strong enough;
 Step 5 - producing a prototype, or model;
 Step 6 - the CAM software controls the machine that produces the part.
61
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

III.4. COMPUTER-AIDED MANUFACTURING (CAM)

CAM uses a computer to control the manufacture of objects such as parts, which are most often
made of metal, plastic, or wood. The basic manufacturing operations include milling, drilling, lathing,
and polishing. The CAM software selects the best cutting tools for the material and sets the most
effective cutting speed. The software generates an image, called a tool path display, which shows how
the tool will cut the material, just as print preview in a word-processing program displays a page before
it is printed. The tool path has three stages:

 containment area - beyond which the tool may not cut;


 rough cut - removes large areas of material;
 surface finish cut - removes gouges, produces a smooth finish, and cleans up the part.

Vocabulary

to draw (a desena, a schiţa)  drawing (desen, schiţă)


to draft (a schiţa, a proiecta)  drafting (schiţare, proiectare)
 drafting / technical drawing (desen tehnic)
to sketch (a schiţa, a proiecta)  sketching (schiţare, proiectare)
to design (a proiecta, a executa un proiect / plan, a desena)
 design (proiect, schiţă)
 designing (proiectare)
 designer (proiectant)
to plot (a desena un plan, a reprezenta grafic, a ridica o curbă prin puncte, a pune pe hartă, a trasa, a
schiţa)
→ plot = (mat.) grafic, schemă, diagramă / (nav.) grafic, schemă, trasare pe hartă /
(geod.) parcelă, lot de pământ
→ plotter = trasator de curbe, înregistrator grafic / (nav.) echer de navigaţie gradat
→ plotting = (cstr.) fragmentare, parcelare / (geod.) reprezentare grafică, cartografiere,
cartare, ridicare topografică, trasare, marcare / (nav.) trasare pe hartă /
(tele.) înregistrare

62
UNIT THREE: COMPUTER-AIDED ENGINEERING (CAE)

to survey (a măsura terenul, a face măsurători topografice / a cerceta, a studia, a examina)


 surveying (topografie, prospecţiune topografică / control, inspecţie, executare a unei
expertize)
 surveyor (topograf / supraveghetor, inspector)
 Land Registry (Cadastru)
cartography / mapmaking = cartografie, cartografiere, realizare de hărţi
mapping = reprezentare grafică / cartare, cartografiere
blueprint = plan de detaliu / de execuţie, copie heliografică, fotocopie prin cianotipie
floor plan = releveu, schiţă în care sunt reprezentate la scară elementele unei construcţii
sketchpad = suprafaţă de schiţare, de proiectare a unei schiţe
drafting board = planşetă de desen
graph / graphing / millimeter / coordinate paper = hârtie milimetrică
stencil / template / cutout / plate / pattern / model / shape / outline = şablon
tools drafters = instrumente de desen
ink pen = stilou cu cerneală
plastic stencil = şablon de plastic
electric eraser = radieră electrică
to conceive (a concepe un obiect, produs) → conception (conceperea produsului)
to produce (a produce, a construi, a fabrica, a confecţiona, a executa)  production
to manufacture (a fabrica, a confecţiona, a produce industrial)  manufacturing
item / product / article = produs, obiect, articol
part / piece / component = piesă, componentă

III.5. COMPUTER-GENERATED 3-D MODELS

The three-dimensional image (3-D image) is a flat image enhanced to impart the illusion
of depth. Humans perceive the world and the objects in it in three dimensions - height, width, and
depth. This seemingly simple phenomenon is the product of a complicated set of interactions between
our eyes and our brains that is still not entirely understood. Our eyes are spaced about 6 cm apart,
which causes each eye to receive a slightly different image. The brain fuses these two images into a
single 3-D image, enabling us to perceive depth. This way of seeing is called binocular vision, or
stereoscopic vision. Flat images, such as illustrations, photographs, films, and graphics on a computer
screen, can be manipulated with any of several techniques to create the illusion of depth. Such
techniques make the objects in the images appear to pop out of the paper, film, or screen on which they
appear.
Graphic designers and scientists use computers to create 3-D computer graphics using a
process called rendering. In this case, the term 3-D refers not to stereoscopic images, but to graphics
63
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

rendered with highly accurate shape, shading, and perspective using mathematical calculations on a
computer. The computer mathematically derives how an object should appear to a viewer from all
angles in a given set of conditions.
The first step in rendering requires the user to provide the computer with a detailed
description of an object. This description can be delivered to the computer in the form of photographs
or video images, or it can be created from scratch by means of a software program. The computer
calculates a viewer’s perspective of the object from all angles and uses this information to create a
wire-frame representation, in which every surface on the object is represented by a geometric shape.
Next, the user instructs the computer to fill the surfaces of the geometric shapes with
colours, textures, and patterns that give the object a more realistic quality. Finally, the user provides the
computer with detailed information about the source and angle of the lighting. From this information,
the computer determines the way the light would hit each surface on the wire-frame representation and
adds appropriate reflections and shadows.

History:

 1970s - the first use of 3-D computer graphics by the Hollywood filmmakers in movie shorts;
 1982 - Star Trek: The Wrath of Khan and Tron – the first major feature films to apply this
technique;
 1995 - Toy Story - the first feature film in which all the images were created entirely with
computers.

Uses:

 industrial design - to build 3-D models of complicated products (e.g. airplanes, automobiles);
 medical research - to study 3-D models of cells, molecules, organs, and even the entire human
body;
 pharmaceutical research;
 scientific research - to create computer-generated maps that show the topographical features on
the surface of Earth and other planets;
 computer games – to enable players to manipulate 3-D graphics on-screen; these games
incorporate highly sophisticated real-time rendering tools that process player input and update
the graphics immediately; real-time rendering tools update computer graphics 30 or more times

64
UNIT THREE: COMPUTER-AIDED ENGINEERING (CAE)

per second, making them appear to move in the time frame in which events would naturally
happen in the real world.

Vocabulary

Mathematics / Maths

 Arithmetics: - arithmetic operations: - addition (adunare)


- subtraction (scădere)
- multiplication (înmulţire)
- division (împărţire)
- arithmetic expressions
- arithmetic mean (medie aritmetică)
- numbers - odd number (număr impar)
- even number (număr par)

 Algebra: - equation (ecuaţie)


- variable (variabilă)
- symbol (simbol)
- set elements
- polynomial (polinom)
- factorization (factorizare)
- permutation (permutare)
- roots (rădăcini)
- groups (grupuri)
- rings (inele)
- fields (câmpuri)
- matrix (matrice)
- algorithm
- logarithm
- vector
- scalar
- numerical value (valoare numerică)

 Mathematical analysis: - calculus (calcul)


- limit of a sequence
- limit of a function
- differentiation (derivare)
65
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

- integration (integrare)
- infinite series
- analytic functions
- real and complex numbers
- real and complex functions
- integral (integrală)
- trigonometric functions (e.g. sine, cosine, tangent,
secant, cotangent, cosecant)

 Combinatorics (combinatorică)
 Number theory (teoria numerelor)
 Geometry - planimetry (geometrie plană)
- solid geometry (geometrie în spaţiu)
- parabolic / Euclidean geometry (geometrie euclidiană)
- descriptive geometry (geometrie descriptivă)
- differential geometry (geometrie diferenţială)
- computational geometry (geometrie computaţională)

Computer modeling

Geometric modeling (modelare geometrică)  geometric model

 geometric primitives (primitive geometrice): e.g. points, lines, line segments, planes, circles,
triangles, but also spheres, other polygons, curves, cubes, toroids, cylinders, pyramids,
prisms;
 Boolean operations (operaţii booleene): e.g. union, intersection, difference;
 modeling processes (procese de modelare geometrică):

- polygonal modeling (modelare poligonală): surface (suprafaţă), vertex


(vârf), edge (muchie), face (faţetă);
- NURBS (non-uniform rational B-spline) modeling (modelare NURBS,
folosită la reprezentarea şi generarea curbelor şi a suprafeţelor);
- boundary representation (reprezentare prin frontiere);
- surface subdivision (subdivizarea suprafeţelor);
- level set method:
- level curve / contour line (curbă de nivel / linie de contur)
- level surface (suprafaţă plană)
- level hypersurface
- tessellation (acoperire a planului cu poligoane regulate / mozaicare);
- wire-frame representation (reprezentare în reţea, prin muchii, prin „cadru de sârmă”);
66
UNIT THREE: COMPUTER-AIDED ENGINEERING (CAE)

- mapping (reprezentare grafică): - texture mapping


- bump mapping
- normal mapping
- parallax mapping
- relief mapping

- ray tracing (tehnică de generare a unei imagini prin urmărirea cu ajutorul pixelilor a
traiectoriei luminii pe un plan al imaginii şi simularea efectelor interacţiunii
acesteia cu obiectele virtuale)

computer graphics = grafică pe calculator, grafică computerizată, grafică digitală


animation = animaţie
to model (a modela):  model (şablon, tip, model, machetă, mostră, tipar)
 2-D modeling (modelare bidimensională)
 3-D modeling (modelare tridimensională)
 2-D model/ 3-D model (model bidimensional / model tridimensional)
 modeler (modelor, modelator, program de modelare geometrică / inginer
proiectant)
mock / mock-up = (TH) machetă, copie, model, dispozitiv fals, artificial / (inf.) model, simulare
to shape (a modela, a fasona / (maş.) a da formă)  shaping (modelare)
to render (a reda, a genera, a reproduce o imagine)  rendering (redare, generare, reproducere a unei
imagini)
image (imagine): - sharp image (imagine clară)
- blurred, fuzzy image (imagine neclară, înceţoşată)
- mirror image (imagine simetrică)
- stretched image (imagine alungită)
- ragged image (imagine ondulată)
- reverse(d) image (imagine răsturnată)
- panoramic image (imagine panoramică)
- after-image (imagine remanentă, persistentă)
- stereoscopic image (imagine tridimensională)
projection = (mat.) proiecţie (a unei figuri pe un plan) / (fiz.) proiectare (a imaginii unui obiect pe
ecran)
graphical representation = reprezentare grafică
 chart / graph (schemă, desen, tabelă, grafic, diagramă)
 flowchart (schemă logică a unui proces)
 diagram (diagramă, schemă, grafic, schemă de calcul, desen explicativ)
 atlas (atlas)
 map ((mat.) aplicaţie, reprezentare / (TH) imagine, hartă, plan)
grid = (mat.) reţea de curbe / (TH) grilă, grilaj, grătar / reţea de fire electrice, de linii

67
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

array = tablou, tabelă, rând / linie transversală, matrice, şir, serie, sistem, reţea, distribuire / aşezare
într-o ordine determinată
mesh = (mat.) celulă / ochi al unei site, plasă, împletitură / (maş.) angrenare de dinţi  coarse
mesh(ed) (cu ochiuri mari)
dimension = cotă, dimensiune
to dimension / to measure / to size / to proportion (a dimensiona, a cota)  dimensioning / measuring /
sizing / proportioning (dimensionare, cotare)
to scale (a scala, a desena la scară)  scaling (scalare)  scale / gauge (scală)
to hatch (a haşura)  hatching / hatchure (haşurare)  cross-hatching (haşurare încrucişată)
to shade (a produce umbra unei imagini, a haşura)  shading (colorare, haşurare)
to trim (a balansa, a rectifica, a netezi, a ajusta, a regla, a îndrepta, a echilibra, a pune în ordine) 
trimming (echilibrare, îndreptare)
gradient = gradient, unghi de înclinare
skew = (mat.) oblic, înclinat, strâmb, curb, asimetric / (tele.) distorsiune geometrică a imaginii 
skewing (poziţie oblică, înclinată)  skewness (oblicitate, înclinare, torsiune, asimetrie,
necomutativitate)
plane (plan)  semiplane (semi-plan)
coordinate (coordonată)  axis (pl. axes) (axă)
layers = straturi
blocks = blocuri

LINES (tipuri de linii)


 straight line (linie dreaptă)
 parallel line (linie paralelă)
 perpendicular line (linie perpendiculară)
 curved line (linie curbă)

GEOMETRICAL SHAPES (forme geometrice)


 circle (cerc): - radius (rază)
- centre (centru)
- arc (arc de cerc)
- circumference (circumferinţă)
- diameter (diametru)
 square (pătrat): - diagonal (diagonală)
 rectangle (dreptunghi)
 triangle (triunghi): - angle - acute angle (unghi ascuţit)  acute triangle
- right angle (unghi drept)  right triangle
- obtuse angle (unghi obtuz)  obtuse triangle
- hypotenuse (ipotenuză)

68
UNIT THREE: COMPUTER-AIDED ENGINEERING (CAE)

- cathetus (pl. catheti) / leg (catetă)


 parallelogram (paralelogram)
 rhombus (romb)
 trapezium (trapez)
 pentagon
 hexagon
 octagon

SOLIDS (corpuri geometrice)


 cone (con): - base (circle)
- ellipse / oval
- parabola
- hyperbola
 cylinder (cilindru)
 cube (cub): - side (faţetă)
 pyramid (piramidă): - apex (vârf)
 sphere (sferă)

MEASUREMENTS (măsuri)
 volume
 fraction (fracţie): - numerator (numărător)
- denominator (numitor)
 dimensions: - height (înălţime)
- width (lăţime)
- length (lungime)
- depth (adâncime)
- area (arie)

MATHEMATICAL SET (instrumente de desenat şi calculat)


 set square (echer)
 protractor (raportor)
 ruler (riglă)
 compass / a pair of compasses (compas)
 calculator

69
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

Additional Concepts

CAAD (Computer-aided Architectural Design) = proiectare asistată de calculator în arhitectură


CAQ (Computer-aided Quality Assurance) = asigurarea calităţii asistată de calculator
PPC (Production Planning and Control) = planificarea şi urmărirea producţiei asistate de
calculator
ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) = planificarea resurselor întreprinderii
ICAM (Integrated Computer-aided Manufacturing) = producţie integrată asistată de calculator
CAID (Computer-aided Industrial Design) = design industrial asistat de calculator
CSG (Constructive Solid Geometry) = geometrie constructivă

Exercises

Translate into English:

1) Ingineria virtuală este un concept care facilitează utilizatorului interacţiunea cu un mediu


virtual, prin integrarea unor modele geometrice şi a unor unelte inginereşti ca simularea,
analiza, optimizarea, într-un mediu generat cu ajutorul calculatorului.
2) Elementul central al ingineriei virtuale este prototipul virtual, care preia de la sistemul real
diferite date calitative, cantitative, precum şi informaţii legate de geometria obiectului vizat.
3) Caracterul tridimensional al datelor folosite în ingineria virtuală permite utilizatorului să
înţeleagă mai bine problemele inginereşti, să facă evaluări complexe şi să găsească soluţii cât
mai eficiente.
4) În ingineria virtuală, inginerii nu mai trebuie să se concentreze asupra caracteristicilor tehnice
ale obiectelor, ci să surprindă efectele oricărei modificări a unei componente a sistemului asupra
echivalentului său din lumea reală.

70
UNIT THREE: COMPUTER-AIDED ENGINEERING (CAE)

5) Proiectarea unui obiect are la bază un ansamblu de informaţii legate de rolul funcţional al
obiectului, materialul din care acesta va fi executat, procedeele de execuţie, precum şi un set de
norme de reprezentare.
6) Proiectarea asistată de calculator cuprinde aplicaţii şi programe de calculator care îi ajută pe
ingineri în activitatea de proiectare.
7) Concepută iniţial pentru a înlocui planşa de desenare, proiectarea asistată de calculator a evoluat
de la desenarea în două dimensiuni, la cea în trei dimensiuni.
8) Cele mai importante domenii care folosesc proiectarea asistată de calculator sunt: ingineria
mecanică, proiectarea industrială, industria auto, industria aeronautică, arhitectura şi
construcţiile.
9) Procesul de fabricaţie a evoluat dramatic odată cu introducerea calculatorului care asista şi
controla fiecare etapă a acestuia.
10) Introducerea sistemelor automatizate şi a roboticii în fabricaţia asistată de calculator au
îmbunătăţit considerabil precizia şi performanţa procesului de producţie.
11) Managementul ciclului de viaţă al produsului (PLM) este un concept atotcuprinzător care
gestionează date legate de toate fazele de evoluţie ale unui produs, de la concepţie, design,
fabricaţie, până la service-ul oferit şi retragerea lui de pe piaţă.
12) În timp ce Managementul ciclului de viaţă al produsului (PLM) vizează aspectele inginereşti
ale existenţei unui produs, Managementul ciclului de viaţă comercială a produsului (Product
Life Cycle Management) urmăreşte luarea celor mai bune decizii legate de vânzarea şi costurile
produsului respectiv.
13) În grafica computerizată, calculatorul este folosit pentru a surprinde, a modifica, a prelucra, a
manipula şi a stoca imagini vizuale din realitatea înconjurătoare.
14) Modelarea tridimensională presupune folosirea unui software pentru a realiza o reprezentare
matematică a suprafeţei tridimensionale a unui obiect oarecare.
15) Prin simularea computerizată se încearcă modelarea unui obiect real sau a unei situaţii din viaţa
cotidiană pentru a le studia mai bine mecanismul de funcţionare.

71
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

Discussion Point

1. Define CAE, CAD and CAM in your own words.


2. How many phases does a computer-aided engineering task involve?
3. How many steps does it take to create a part?
4. What is a three-dimensional image?
5. What do you understand by rendering?

72
UNIT FOUR: VIRTUAL REALITY (CYBERSPACE)13

Objectives: This unit aims to provide an insight into the different forms of parallel reality,
highlighting virtual reality and its attempt to compete with the real world by recreating the five senses.

Keywords: virtual reality, computer-simulated environment, interface devices, senses

Contents:

IV.1. VIRTUAL REALITY (VR)

IV.1.1. Definition

 Virtual Reality (VR) is a system that enables one or more users to move and react in
a computer-simulated environment. Various types of devices allow users to sense and manipulate
virtual objects just as real objects. This natural style of interaction gives participants the feeling of
being immersed in the simulated world. Virtual worlds are created by mathematical models and
computer programs.

13
Schmenk, Andreas; Wätjen, Arno; dr. Köthe Rainer, Multimedia şi lumile virtuale, traducere din limba germană de
Mihai Moroiu, Colecţia CE ŞI CUM, Enciclopedia RAO, 2000;
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_reality, accessed 23.09.2013;
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/630181/virtual-reality-VR, accessed 27.09.2013;

73
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

IV.1.2. History

 1860s – the first traces of VR when 360-degree art through panoramic murals appeared;
 1938 - Antonin Artaud coined the term virtual reality;
 1970s - the term was replaced by artificial reality, coined by Myron Krueger.

IV.1.3. Types

 simulation-based VR (semi-immersive): e.g. flight simulator


 avatar image-based VR
 projector-based VR
 desktop-based VR (non-immersive)
 true immersive VR (fully immersive): e.g. CAVE virtual reality system

IV.1.4. Key-concepts associated with VR (Michael R. Heim)

 simulation
 multimodal interaction
 artificiality
 immersion
 telepresence
 full-body immersion
 network communication

IV.1.5. Description

Virtual reality simulations differ from other computer simulations in that they require
special interface devices that transmit the sights, sounds, and sensations of the simulated world to the
user. These devices also record and send the speech and movements of the participants to the
simulation program.
To see in the virtual world, the user wears a head-mounted display (HMD) (e.g. Virtual
Cocoon – the most performant HMD, which is supposed to stimulate all the five senses, wide-angle
displays that could widen the visual field) with screens directed at each eye. The HMD also contains a
position tracker to monitor the location of the user's head and the direction in which the user is looking.

74
UNIT FOUR: VIRTUAL REALITY (CYBERSPACE)

Using this information, a computer recalculates images of the virtual world - a slightly different view
for each eye - to match the direction in which the user is looking, and displays these images on the
HMD. The computer must generate these new views at least ten times a second in order to prevent the
user's view from appearing halting and jerky, and from lagging behind the user's movements. Virtual-
world scenes must be kept relatively simple so that the computer can update the visual imagery quickly
enough. Because of these simplifications and other shortcomings or technical limitations in creating a
high-fidelity VR experience (e.g. processing power, image resolution, communication bandwidth), VR
participants can easily distinguish a simulation from physical reality.
Users hear sounds in the virtual world through earphones in the HMD. The information
reported by the position tracker on the HMD can also be used to update audio signals. When a sound
source in the virtual space is not directly in front of or behind the user, the computer transmits sounds
to arrive at one ear a little earlier or later than at the other and to be a little louder or softer and slightly
different in pitch. However, as with visual imagery, there are currently scientific and engineering
challenges that must be overcome in order to simulate accurately all the sounds heard in the physical
world.
The haptic interface, which relays the sense of touch and other physical sensations in the
virtual world, has been for a long time the least developed and perhaps the most challenging to create.
Currently, with the use of a glove and position tracker, the computer locates the user's hand and
measures finger movements. The user can reach into the virtual world and handle objects but cannot
actually feel them. It is particularly difficult to generate the sensations that are felt when a person taps a
hard surface, picks up an object, or runs a finger across a textured surface. To simulate these
sensations, a set of computer-controlled motors faster and more accurate than any presently available
would have to generate force feedback by physically pushing against the user. Another problem is
determining how a user would wear these motors and the wiring needed to control them. Touch
sensations would also have to be synchronized with the sights and sounds users experienced in their
HMDs. A current solution to the haptics challenge is the use of desktop devices that can apply small
forces, through a mechanical linkage, to a stylus held in the user's hand. Users can feel when the point
of the stylus encounters a virtual object, and they can drag the stylus across the surface to feel its
texture and surface geometry.
In recent years, virtual-reality devices have improved dramatically as the result of various
technological advances. Computers now are more powerful, have a higher memory capacity, are
smaller, and cost less than in the past. These developments, along with the advent of small liquid-

75
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

crystal displays (LCDs) that can be used in HMDs, have made it possible for scientists to develop
virtual-reality simulations.
Some advanced haptic systems now include tactile information, generally known as force
feedback (e.g. medical and gaming applications). Users can interact with a virtual environment or a
virtual artifact (VA) either through the use of standard input devices such as a keyboard and mouse, or
through multimodal devices such as data suit, wired glove, Polhemus boom arm, vibrating mouse, and
omnidirectional treadmill.
There are attempts being currently made to simulate smell using non-visual sensory
output. Simulating smells, while it can be done very realistically, requires costly research and
development to make each odour, and the machine itself is expensive and specialized. Thus, far basic,
and very strong smells such as burning rubber, cordite, gasoline fumes, have already been made.
Something complex such as a food product or specific flower would be too expensive.
In order to engage the sense of taste, the brain must be manipulated directly. This would
move virtual reality into the realm of simulated reality like the "head-plugs" used in The Matrix.
Although no form of this has been seriously developed at this point, Sony took the first step in 2005,
when it went public with the information that they had filed for and received a patent for the idea of the
non-invasive beaming of different frequencies and patterns of ultrasonic waves directly into the brain to
recreate all five senses. There has been research to show that this is possible. Sony has not conducted
any tests yet and says that it is still only an idea.

IV.1.6. Uses

 entertainment (games)
 education
 training (e.g. surgeons, pilots)
 physical therapy and rehabilitation (e.g. using a wheelchair in muscular dystrophy)
 psychic rehabilitation (e.g. sufferers of child abuse, PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
Treatment) and phobia treatments (e.g. acrophobia, agoraphobia, claustrophobia, zoophobia,
flying phobia, driving phobia, iatrophobia / doctor phobia), dependencies (e.g. alcohol)
 occupational therapy (OT)
 architecture, urban regeneration and planning
 archaeology (e.g. historic reconstruction, heritage site reconstruction)
 product design

76
UNIT FOUR: VIRTUAL REALITY (CYBERSPACE)

 real-time virtual actor input


 network simulations (e.g. teleconferences, virtual surgical operations, simulated military
training exercises)

IV.1.7. Disadvantages
 it may become a “drug” for users and determine a gradual “migration to VR” (Mychilo S.
Cline);
 it may determine behavioural changes (e.g. violence);
 users might slowly lose contact with the real world or get to make no distinction between reality
and VR;
 it can generate latency, balance loss, nausea, cybersickness;
 it requires expensive equipment;
 it requires specialized technological knowledge to be operated.

IV.2. SENSES

IV.2.1. Definition

 Senses are the physiological methods of perception, faculties by which outside stimuli
are perceived; in other words, senses are transducers from matter to mind.

loss of a sense = pierderea totală a unui simţ


impairment of a sense = pierderea acuităţii, deteriorarea unui simţ

IV.2.2. Human Senses

IV.2.2.1. Traditional Human Senses

a) Sight or vision describes the capability of the eye(s) to focus and detect images of visible
light on photoreceptors in the retina of each eye that generates electrical nerve impulses for varying
colors, hues, and brightness. There is disagreement as to whether this constitutes one, two or even
three distinct senses. Neuroanatomists generally regard it as two senses, given that different receptors
(e.g. rods and cones) are responsible for the perception of colour (the frequency of photons of light)

77
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

and brightness (amplitude / intensity - number of photons of light). Some argue that stereopsis, the
perception of depth, also constitutes a sense, but it is generally regarded that this is really a cognitive
(post-sensory) function of the visual cortex of the brain where patterns and objects in images are
recognized and interpreted based on previously learned information; this phenomenon is called visual
memory.

blindness = pierderea vederii, orbire


blindsight =
eyeball = glob ocular
pupil = pupilă
retina = retină
iris = iris
eye lens = cristalin
cornea = cornee
optic nerve = nerv optic
vitrous body = corp vitros

b) Hearing or audition is the sense of sound perception and results from tiny hair-like fibres
in the inner ear detecting the motion of a membrane which vibrates in response to changes in the
pressure exerted by atmospheric particles within (at best) a range of 20 to 22000 Hz. Sound can also be
detected as vibrations conducted through the body by tactition. Lower and higher frequencies than can
be heard are detected this way only.

deafness = pierderea auzului, surzire


inner ear = urechea internă
outer ear = urechea externă
eardrum = timpan
cochlea = cochlea
ear canal = canal auditiv

c) Taste or gustation is one of the two main "chemical" senses. There are at least four types of
taste "bud" on the tongue and hence, there are anatomists who argue that these in fact constitute four or
more different senses, given that each receptor conveys information to a slightly different region of the
brain. The four well-known receptors detect sweet, salt, sour, and bitter, although the receptors for
sweet and bitter have not been conclusively identified. A fifth receptor, for a sensation called umami,
was first theorised in 1908 and its existence confirmed in 2000. The umami receptor detects the amino

78
UNIT FOUR: VIRTUAL REALITY (CYBERSPACE)

acid glutamate, a flavor commonly found in meat and in artificial flavourings such as monosodium
glutamate.

ageusia = ageuzie, pierderea sau diminuarea simţului gustativ


mouth = gură
tongue = limbă
gustatory papillae = papile gustative
taste bud = receptor de simţ gustativ

d) Smell or olfaction is the other "chemical" sense. Unlike taste, there are hundreds of olfactory
receptors, each binding to a particular molecular feature. Odour molecules possess a variety of features
and thus excite specific receptors more or less strongly. This combination of excitatory signals from
different receptors makes up what we perceive as the molecule's smell. In the brain, olfaction is
processed by the olfactory system. Olfactory receptor neurons in the nose differ from most other
neurons in that they die and regenerate on a regular basis.

anosmia = anosmie, absenţa simţului olfactiv


nose = nas
nostril = nară

e) Touch, also called tactition or mechanoreception, is a perception resulting from


activation of neural receptors, generally in the skin including hair follicles, but also in the tongue,
throat, and mucosa. There are a variety of pressure receptors that respond to variations in pressure.

numbness = amorţeală
anesthesia = anestezie, suprimarea voită a sensibilităţii la durere
paresthesia = senzaţie de amorţeală simţită de piele
tingling = senzaţie de furnicături
pricking = senzaţie de înţepătură
itching = senzaţie de mâncărime a pielii

79
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

IV.2.2.2. Other Human Senses

a) Thermoception is the sense of heat and the absence of heat (cold) by the skin.

b) Nociception (physiological pain) is the unconscious perception of nerve-damage or damage to


tissue. The three types of pain receptors are cutaneous (skin), somatic (joints and bones) and visceral
(body organs).

c) Balance/Equilibrioception (vestibular sense) allows an organism to sense body movement,


direction, and acceleration, and to attain and maintain postural equilibrium and balance; it is related to
cavities containing fluid in the inner ear.
d) Proprioception (kinesthetic sense) is the perception of body awareness, the "unconscious"
awareness of where the various regions of the body are located.

e) Chronoception - how the passage of time is perceived and experienced.

IV.2.3. Non-human Senses

IV.2.3.1. Analoguous to Human Senses

a) Vision - vipers and some boas have organs that allow them to detect infrared light, being able to
sense the body heat of their prey; the common bat may also have an infrared sensor on its nose; birds
have the ability to see in the ultraviolet down to 300 nanometers; bees are also able to see in the
ultraviolet; cats have the ability to see in low light due to muscles surrounding their irises to contract
and expand pupils as well as a reflective membrane that optimizes the image.

b) Smell - dogs have a much keener sense of smell than humans; insects have olfactory receptors on
their antennae; sharks combine their keen sense of smell with timing to determine the direction of a
smell and then follow the nostril that first detected the smell.

c) Taste - flies and butterflies have taste organs on their feet, allowing them to taste anything they land
on; catfish have taste organs across their entire bodies, and can taste anything they touch, including
chemicals in the water.
80
UNIT FOUR: VIRTUAL REALITY (CYBERSPACE)

d) Vomeronasal organ – an auxiliary olfactory sense organ connected with the mouth cavity and
mainly used by reptiles and mammals to detect pheromones of marked territory, trails, and sexual state.

e) Balance - many invertebrates have a statocyst, which is a sensor for acceleration and orientation.

f) Sense of gravity - some plants (e.g. mustard) have genes that are necessary for the plant to sense the
direction of gravity; if these genes are disabled by a mutation, a plant cannot grow upright.

IV.2.3.2. Non-analogous to Human Senses

a) Electroception (or electroreception) - the ability to detect electric fields. Several species of fish,
sharks and rays have evolved the capacity to sense changes in electric fields in their immediate
vicinity; some fish passively sense changing nearby electric fields; some generate their own weak
electric fields, and sense the pattern of field potentials over their body surface; and some use these
electric field generating and sensing capacities for social communication. Humans can detect electric
fields only indirectly by detecting the effect they have on hairs.

b) Echolocation - the ability of some animals (e.g. bats, cetaceans) to determine orientation to other
objects through interpretation of reflected sound. It is most often used to navigate through poor lighting
conditions or to identify and track prey. Blind people report they are able to navigate by interpreting
reflected sounds (e.g. their own footsteps), a phenomenon which is known as human echolocation.

c) Magnetoception (or magnetoreception) - the ability to detect the direction one is facing based on
the Earth's magnetic field. It is most commonly observed in birds, though it has also been observed in
insects such as bees; magnetotactic bacteria build miniature magnets inside themselves and use them to
determine their orientation relative to the Earth's magnetic field; cattle tend to align themselves in a
north-south direction.

d) Pressure detection - uses the organ of Weber, a system consisting of three appendages of vertebrae
transferring changes in shape of the gas bladder to the middle ear. It can be used to regulate the
buoyancy of the fish.

e) Current detection - the lateral line is a detection system of water currents, consisting mostly of
vortices. The lateral line is also sensitive to low-frequency vibrations. The mechanoreceptors are hair

81
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

cells, the same mechanoreceptors for vestibular sense and hearing. It is used primarily by fish and
aquatic forms of amphibians for navigation and hunting.

f) Polarized light detection - used by bees to orient themselves, especially on cloudy days.

g) Slit sensillae - a small mechanoreceptory organ in the exoskeleton of the spider, which detects
mechanical strain, providing information on force and vibrations.

Vocabulary

real = care există în lumea reală, naturală, materială, fizică


artificial = creat de om şi înlocuitor al unui lucru natural
virtual = creat cu ajutorul calculatorului sau care apare pe calculator sau pe Internet
simulated = simulat cu ajutorul calculatorului
virtual artifact (VA) = obiect virtual
multimodal interaction = interacţiune multimodală, care oferă posibilitatea utilizatorului de a
interacţiona cu sistemul în mai multe moduri
interface devices = dispozitive de interfaţă, de interacţiune
lifelike experience = experienţă simulată, care încearcă să imite realitatea
data suit = costum special care permite transmiterea şi achiziţia de date în lumea virtuală
wired glove = mănuşă virtuală
boom arm = braţ de extensie
vibrating mouse = mouse vibrator
omnidirectional treadmill (ODT) = consolă, platformă omnidirecţională
tactile feedback = răspun, reacţie mecanică, tactilă
head and body tracking = monitorizarea mişcărilor capului şi ale corpului
non-visual sensory output = senzori de ieşire non-vizuali
extrasensory input and output = senzori extrasenzoriali de intrare şi ieşire
haptic technology = technologie haptică, ce implică simţul tactil
computer simulation / computer model / computational model = simulare pe calculator
immersion = imersiune, cufundare într-o altă realitate, în care conştiinţa propriei persoane este
diminuată sau uneori pierdută total → total immersion = imersiune totală
telepresence / teleimmersion = capacitatea unei persoane de a simţi că este prezentă într-o locaţie
diferită de cea în care aceasta se află în realitate
virtual community / online community = comunitate virtuală
cyberspace = ciberspaţiu, spaţiu cibernetic, care cuprinde toate reţelele informaţionale şi de
comunicare

82
UNIT FOUR: VIRTUAL REALITY (CYBERSPACE)

Additional Concepts
metaverse = the agglomeration of all online communities; environments where humans interact (as
avatars) with each other (socially and economically) and with software agents in a
cyberspace; it uses the metaphor of the real world, but without its physical limitations
(metavers);
computer-mediated reality = ability to add to, subtract information from, or manipulate one`s
perception of reality through the use of a wearable computer or hand-held device (e.g.
smartphone) (realitate mediată de un calculator);
augmented reality = a live, direct or indirect, view of a physical, real-world environment whose
elements are augmented by computer-generated sensory input (e.g. sound, video, graphics
or GPS data), with the purpose of enhancing one’s current perception of reality (realitate
augmentată);
simulated reality = the idea that reality could be simulated, often computer-simulated, to a degree
indistinguishable from 'true' reality; it could contain conscious minds which may or may
not know that they are living inside a simulation; in its strongest form, the "Simulation
Hypothesis" claims we actually are living in such a simulation (Matrix); it differs from
VR in that a virtual reality is easily distinguished from the 'true' or physical reality
(realitate simulată);
Second Life (SL) = an Internet-based virtual world launched in 2003 by the creators of Linden Labs,
in which users, called "Residents", can explore the world (known as the grid), interact with
each other through motional avatars, meet other Residents, socialize, participate in
individual and group activities, create and trade items (virtual property) and services from
one another in the local currency – linden dollar – which can be exchanged in American
dollar;

83
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

Exercises

Translate into English:

1) Sistemul senzorial cuprinde organe care recepţionează diferiţi stimuli din realitatea imediată, îi
transformă pe aceştia în impulsuri bioelectrice printr-o serie de procese fizico-chimice, iar în
cele din urmă îi transmite prin nervi la sistemul nervos central.
2) Deşi fiinţei umane i-au fost atribuite de către Aristotel doar cinci simţuri, aceasta se foloseşte
pentru a percepe lumea materială şi de alte simţuri, cum ar fi propriocepţia, echilibriocepţia,
termocepţia, nocicepţia, nocicepţia, cronocepţia.
3) Percepţia extrasenzorială presupune o percepere directă a realităţii, fără ca informaţiile
transmise să fie mijlocite de simţurile corpului fizic.
4) Deşi majoritatea simulărilor de realitate virtuală oferă o experienţă în principal vizuală, unele
dintre ele includ şi informaţii care se adresează celorlalte simţuri.
5) În încercarea de a copia cele cinci simţuri în realitatea virtuală, dificultatea cea mai mare este
impusă de reproducerea simţului olfactiv şi gustativ, care presupun dispozitive mult prea
specializate şi costuri de producţie foarte mari.
6) Tehnologiile tot mai avansate care oferă feedback mecanic şi posibilitatea comunicării verbale
estompează din ce în ce mai mult graniţa dintre realitatea materială şi cea virtuală.
7) Avându-şi originea într-o simplă simulare, în cadrul căreia operatorul era ţinut în afara mediului
simulat, realitatea virtuală a înregistrat saltul decisiv prin aducerea acestuia în interior, în cadrul
unei experienţe numită cufundare.
8) Scopul oricărui sistem de realitate virtuală este de a oferi utilizatorului experienţa unei imersiuni
totale, adică a detaşării complete de realitatea materială.
9) Cercetătorul român Grigore Burdea considera că realitatea virtuală se defineşte prin trei
elemente fundamentale: imersiune, interacţiune şi imaginaţie.
10) În timp ce interacţiunea îi oferă utilizatorului libertate de mişcare, de comunicare şi de
manipulare a obiectelor în mediul virtual, imaginaţia permite acestuia conturarea după bunul
plac a coordonatelor acestui univers.

84
UNIT FOUR: VIRTUAL REALITY (CYBERSPACE)

11) Realitatea virtuală este un sistem folosit în medicină atât la tratarea unor dizabilităţi, cât şi a
unor fobii sau afecţiuni psihice.
12) Conceptul de realitate mediată presupune manipularea unui element din lumea reală sau
modificarea percepţiei utilizatorului asupra acestuia cu ajutorul calculatorului.
13) Reducând şi mai mult graniţa dintre realitate şi mediul simulat, realitatea augmentată oferă o
experienţă mult mai realistă decât realitatea virtuală.
14) Realitatea augmentată înseamnă surprinderea în timp real a unei secvenţe de realitate ale cărei
elemente au fost augmentate prin adăugarea cu ajutorul calculatorului a unor informaţii
senzoriale.
15) Unii cercetători consideră că fiecare fiinţă umană trăieşte pe parcursul vieţii sale într-o realitate
simulată şi că odată cu moartea sa, aceasta se “trezeşte” la adevărata realitate.

Discussion Point

1. Define virtual reality, augmented reality and simulated reality in your own words.
2. What interface devices do you need to penetrate virtual reality?
3. Describe Second Life (SL).
4. Can you find any differences between the human and animal sensory system? Name them.
5. Which of your five senses do you most rely on?

85
UNIT FIVE: MACHINE TOOLS14

Objectives: This unit aims to guide the students into the field of mechanical engineering,
describing an entire range of machine tools and manufacturing processes.

Keywords: machine tool, machining, manufacturing process, technology

Contents:

V.1. Definition

 Machine tools are stationary power-driven or hydraulically-driven machines used to shape


or form solid materials, especially metals. The shaping is accomplished removing material from a
workpiece, pressing it into the desired shape or using other kinds of deformation. Machine tools form
the basis of modern industry and are used either directly or indirectly in the manufacture of machine
and tool parts.

V.2. Types

- conventional chip-making machine tools - shape the workpiece by cutting away the unwanted
portion in the form of chips/swarf;
- presses - employ a number of different shaping processes, including shearing, pressing, or
drawing (elongating);

www.engineershandbook.com, accessed 07.10.2013;


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Machine_tool, accessed 09.10.2013;
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/354662/machine-tool, accessed 11.10.2013;

86
UNIT FIVE: MACHINE TOOLS

- unconventional machine tools - employ light, electrical, chemical, and sonic energy,
superheated gases and high-energy particle beams to shape the exotic materials and alloys that
have been developed to meet the needs of modern technology.

V.2.1. CONVENTIONAL MACHINE TOOLS (maşini-unelte convenţionale)

a) Lathe (strung)
The lathe, which is the oldest and most common type of turning machine/turn (strung automat, cu
comandă numerică), holds and rotates metal or wood while a cutting tool shapes the material. The tool
may be moved parallel to or across the direction of rotation to form parts that have a cylindrical or
conical shape, or to cut threads. With special attachments, a lathe may also be used to produce flat
surfaces, as a milling machine does, or it may drill or bore holes in the workpiece. By applying
different tools to the workpiece (which is rotated on its axis) the lathe can perform various operations
such as cutting, sanding, knurling, drilling, or deformation and is used in woodturning, metalworking,
metal spinning, and glass working to create an object which has symmetry about an axis of rotation
(e.g. candlestick holders, cue sticks, table legs, bowls, baseball bats, musical instruments, crankshafts,
camshafts, etc.)

Structure:
- stand (or legs) - sits on the floor and elevates the lathe bed to a working height;
- workbench/table - for small lathes that do not have a stand;
- bed - almost always a horizontal beam (CNC lathes commonly have an inclined or vertical
beam for a bed to ensure that swarf falls free of the bed; woodturning lathes specialized for
turning large bowls often have no bed or tailstock, merely a free-standing headstock and a
cantilevered tool rest);
- clamping device (dispozitiv de prindere), feed and thread box (cutie de avansuri şi filete), feed
bar (bară de avans), longitudinal guides (ghidaje longitudinale);
- headstock - lying at one end of the bed (almost always the left, as the operator faces the lathe),
it contains:
- high-precision spinning bearings;
- spindle - a horizontal axle rotating within the bearings, with an axis parallel to the bed;
they are often hollow, and have exterior threads and/or an interior Morse taper on the "inboard"
87
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

end (e.g. facing to the right / towards the bed) by which workholding accessories may be
mounted to the spindle; they may also have exterior threads and/or an interior taper at their
"outboard" end (e.g. facing away from the bed), and/or may have a handwheel or other
accessory mechanism on the same outboard end. Spindles are powered, and impart motion to
the workpiece; they are driven, either by foot power from a treadle and flywheel or by a belt or
gear drive to a power source;
- speed-changing mechanisms - parts to convert the motor speed into various spindle speeds: e.g.
cone pulley, step pulley, cone pulley with back gear or even an entire gear train similar to that
of a manual-shift auto transmission;
- tailstock (sometimes referred to as the loose head) - it contains a barrel which does not rotate,
but can slide in and out parallel to the axis of the bed, and directly in line with the headstock
spindle; the barrel is hollow, and usually contains a taper to facilitate the gripping of various
type of tooling;
- carriage (used on metalworking lathes) - comprising a saddle and apron, it is topped with a
cross-slide, which is a flat piece that sits crosswise on the bed, and can be cranked at right
angles to the bed. Sitting atop the cross-slide is usually another slide called a compound rest,
which provides two additional axes of motion, rotary and linear. Atop there is a toolpost/tool
holder, which holds a cutting tool which removes material from the workpiece. There may or
may not be a leadscrew, which moves the cross-slide along the bed;
- banjos - used on woodturning and metal spinning lathes which usually do not have cross-slides;
they are flat pieces that sit crosswise on the bed; the position of a banjo can be adjusted by hand
and no gearing is involved. Ascending vertically from the banjo is a toolpost, at the top of
which is a horizontal toolrest. In woodturning, hand tools are braced against the tool rest and
levered into the workpiece. In metal spinning, the further pin ascends vertically from the tool
rest, and serves as a fulcrum against which tools may be levered into the workpiece.

Accessories:
They are used to mount a workpiece to the spindle in case the workpiece does not have a taper
machined onto it which perfectly matches the internal taper in the spindle, or threads which perfectly
match the external threads on the spindle (two conditions which rarely exist):
- a workpiece may be bolted or screwed to a faceplate, a large, flat disk that mounts to the
spindle; in the alternative, faceplate dogs may be used to secure the work to the faceplate;

88
UNIT FIVE: MACHINE TOOLS

- a workpiece may be mounted on a mandrel, or circular work clamped in a three- or four-jaw


chuck; for irregular-shaped workpieces, it is usual to use a four-jaw (independent moving jaws)
chuck. These holding devices mount directly to the lathe headstock spindle;
- in precision work, and in some classes of repetition work, cylindrical workpieces are usually
held in a collet inserted into the spindle and secured either by a drawbar, or by a collet closing
cap on the spindle;
- a soft workpiece (wooden) may be pinched between centers by using a spur drive at the
headstock, which bites into the wood and imparts torque to it;
- other types: taper turning attachments, knurling tools, vertical slides, fixed and traveling
steadies, etc., that increase the versatility of a lathe and the range of work it may perform.

Slant bed CNC lathe = CNC cu batiu înclinat

b) Shaper (maşină de profilat, de modelat, modelator, raboteză transversală)


The shaper is used primarily to produce flat surfaces. It uses linear relative motion between the
workpiece and a single-point cutting tool to machine a linear toolpath. Its cut is analoguous to that of a
lathe, except that it is linear instead of helical. The tool slides against the stationary workpiece and cuts
on one stroke, returns to its starting position, and then cuts on the next stroke after a slight lateral
displacement. In general, the shaper can produce almost any surface composed of straight-line
elements. It uses a single-point tool and is relatively slow, because it depends on reciprocating
(alternating forward and return) strokes. For this reason, the shaper is seldom found on a production
line. It is, however, valuable for tool and die rooms and for workshops where flexibility is essential and
relative slowness is unimportant because few identical pieces are made.

c) Planer (maşină de rabotat, rabotor, raboteză)


The planer is the largest of the reciprocating machine tools. Unlike the shaper, which moves a tool
past a fixed workpiece, the planer moves the workpiece past a fixed tool. The table is moved back and
forth on the bed beneath the cutting head either by mechanical means, such as a rack and pinion drive
or a leadscrew, or by a hydraulic cylinder. After each reciprocating cycle, the workpiece is advanced
laterally to expose a new section to the tool. Like the shaper, the planer is intended to produce vertical,
horizontal, or diagonal cuts. It is also possible to mount several tools at one time in any or all tool
holders of a planer to execute multiple simultaneous cuts.

89
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

Structure:

 stand / bed frame (batiu)


 table (masă)
 vertical slide (sanie verticală)
 tool holder (portcuţit)
 ram (cap mobil, berbec)

d) Milling machine (maşină de frezat)


In a milling machine, a workpiece is fed against a cylindrical tool with a series of cutting edges on
its circumference. The workpiece is held on a table that controls the feed against the cutter. The table
conventionally has three possible movements: longitudinal, horizontal, and vertical; in some cases, it
can also rotate. Milling machines are the most versatile of all machine tools. Flat or contoured surfaces
may be machined with excellent finish and accuracy. Using various cutters can make angles, slots, gear
teeth, and recess cuts. Cutting fluid is often pumped to the cutting site to cool and lubricate the cut and
to wash away the resulting swarf. Milling machines may be manually operated, mechanically
automated, or digitally automated via computer numerical control (CNC).

Structure:

 stand / bed frame (batiu)


 flexible horizontal and vertical tables (masă flexibilă orizontală şi verticală)
 vertical rack (cremalieră verticală)
 slide (sanie)
 adjustable table (masă reglabilă)
 fixed bushing (bucşă fixă)
 adjustable frame/support (suport reglabil)
 horizontal cutter (cap orizontal)
 horizontal spindle (ax orizontal)
 pivoting plate (placă pivotantă)

90
UNIT FIVE: MACHINE TOOLS

e) Drilling and boring machine (maşină de găurit şi alezat)


Hole-making machine tools are used to drill a hole where none previously existed, to alter a
hole in accordance with some specification (by boring or reaming to enlarge it, or by tapping to cut
threads for a screw), or to lap or hone a hole to create an accurate size (tolerance) or a smooth finish.

Types:
- manually-powered;
- electrical drills: e.g. pistol-grip drill, cordless drill (using rechargeable batteries);
- pneumatic drills (using compressed air);
- with percussive action: e.g. hammer drills for masonry (brick, concrete, stone) or rock;
- drill presses: e.g. radial arm drill press (radial drilling machines), multi-spindle drill/ drilling
machine, automatic production drilling machines;
- deep-hole-drilling machines: - driven by internal-combustion engine (e.g. earth drilling augers)
- drilling rigs (e.g. to create oil wells, water wells or holes for
geothermal heating)

Boring is a process that enlarges holes previously drilled, usually with a rotating single-point cutter
held on a boring bar and fed against a stationary workpiece: e.g. jig borer (maşină de găurit în
coordonate), vertical and horizontal boring mill.

Structure:
 electromotor
 drilling head / drill (cap de găurit, burghiu)
 rotation change lever / handle (manetă pentru schimbarea turaţiilor)
 cutting conditions display (tabela cu regimuri de aşchiere)
 manual and mechanical advance handle (maneta pentru avans manual sau mecanic)
 spindle (arbore principal)
 table stand (suportul mesei)
 pillar (coloană)
 base plate / ground plate / bedplate (placă de bază)
 upright support (montant)

91
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

 start / stop button (buton pornire şi oprire)


 reverse start button (buton pornire sens invers)
 drill feed (avans, deplasare cap de găurit)
 oil level window (vizor nivel ulei)
 stand lock (blocator suport masă)
 stand feed (avans suport masă)
 depth indicator (indicator adâncime)
 feed switch (schimbător avansuri)
 depth dog or stop coupling (cuplaj limitator adâncime)
 main switch (comutator principal)
 light switch (comutator lumină)
 pump switch (comutator pompă)
 pump (pompă)
 threading reverser (inversor la filetare)
 dogs (limitatoare)

f) Grinder / Polisher (maşină de rectificat, de şlefuit, de polizat)


Grinding is the removal of metal by a rotating abrasive wheel; the action is similar to that of a
milling cutter. The wheel is composed of many small grains of abrasive, bonded together, with each
grain acting as a miniature cutting tool. The process produces extremely smooth and accurate finishes.
Because only a small amount of material is removed at each pass of the wheel, grinding machines
require fine wheel regulation. The tool speed is important, and the pressure of the wheel against the
workpiece can be made very slight, so that grinding can be carried out on fragile materials that cannot
be machined by other conventional tools.

Structure:
 stand / bed frame (batiu)
 sliding headstock (păpuşă port-piesă)
 boring head (păpuşă port-sculă)
 loose headstock / tailstock (păpuşă mobilă)
 radial and longitudinal (cross) slide (sanie radială şi longitudinală)
 guides (ghidaje)

92
UNIT FIVE: MACHINE TOOLS

Types:
 jig grinding machine (maşină de rectificat în coordonate)
 cylindrical grinding machine (maşină de rectificat rotund interior)
 face grinder / surface grinder / flat surface grinding machine (maşină de rectificat plan)
 universal grinding machine (maşină de rectificat universală)

g) Saw (fierăstrău)
The saw is a tool that uses a hard blade or wire with an abrasive edge to cut through softer
materials. The cutting edge of a saw is either a serrated blade or an abrasive. It also generally consists
of a bed or frame, a vice for clamping the workpiece and a feed mechanism:
- hand saws: e.g. backsaws (fierăstrău de mână pentru tăiat lemn), bow saws (bomfaier);
- mechanically-powered saws: e.g. circular (blade) saws (fierăstrău-disc, circular), reciprocating
(blade) saws (fierăstrău pendular), band saws (fierăstrău cu bandă), chainsaws (drujbă, fierăstrău cu
lanţ);

V.2.2. PRESSES (prese)

Presses shape workpieces without cutting away material, that is, without making chips. A press
consists of a frame supporting a stationary bed, a ram, a power source, and a mechanism that moves the
ram in line with or at right angles to the bed. Presses are equipped with dies and punches designed for
such operations as forming, punching, forging, quenching, rolling, screw pressing, stamping and
shearing. Presses are capable of rapid production because the operation time is that needed for only one
stroke of the ram.

V.2.3. UNCONVENTIONAL MACHINE TOOLS (maşini-unelte neconvenţionale)

Unconventional machine tools were developed primarily to shape the ultra-hard alloys used in
heavy industry and in aerospace applications and to shape and etch the ultra-thin materials used in such
electronic devices as microprocessors.

93
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

a) Plasma-arc machining (PAM) (prelucrarea cu jet de plasmă) employs a high-velocity jet of


high-temperature gas to melt and displace material in its path. The materials cut by PAM are generally
those that are difficult to cut by any other means, such as stainless steels and aluminium alloys.

b) Laser-beam machining (LBM) (prelucrarea cu undă laser) is accomplished by precisely


manipulating a beam of coherent light to vaporize unwanted material. LBM is particularly suited to
making accurately placed holes. The LBM process can make holes in refractory metals, ceramics and
in very thin materials without warping the workpiece. Extremely fine wires can also be welded using
LBM equipment.

c) Electrical discharge machining (EDM) (prelucrarea prin electroeroziune), also known as


spark erosion, employs electrical energy to remove metal from the workpiece without touching it. A
pulsating high-frequency electric current is applied between the tool point and the workpiece, causing
sparks to jump the gap and vaporize small areas of the workpiece. Because no cutting forces are
involved, light, delicate operations can be performed on thin workpieces. EDM can produce shapes
unobtainable by any conventional machining process. It is also used to provide a texture on the insides
of mould tools used to injection-mould a wide variety of plastic products [e.g. electrical discharge wire
cutting (prelucrarea prin electroeroziune cu fir), electrical discharge grinding (rectificare prin
electroeroziune)].

d) Electrochemical machining (ECM) (prelucrare electrochimică) also uses electrical energy


to remove material. An electrolytic cell is created in an electrolyte medium, with the tool as the cathode
and the workpiece as the anode. A high-amperage, low-voltage current is used to dissolve the metal and
to remove it from the workpiece, which must be electrically conductive. A wide variety of operations
can be performed by ECM, such as etching, marking, hole-making, and milling [e.g. electrochemical
discharge grinding (rectificare prin eroziune electrochimică), electrochemical grinding (rectificare
electrochimică), electrolytic grinding (rectificare electrolitică), electrochemical honing (honuire
electrochimică), electrochemical turning (strunjire electrochimică), shaped tube electrolytic
machining (prelucrare electrolitică cu tub de formă), electro-stream machining (prelucrare cu fluxuri
electrice)].

e) Ultrasonic machining (USM) (prelucrare prin ultrasunete) employs high-frequency, low-


amplitude vibrations to create holes and other cavities. A relatively soft tool is shaped as desired and
94
UNIT FIVE: MACHINE TOOLS

vibrated against the workpiece while a mixture of fine abrasive and water flows between them. The
friction of the abrasive particles gradually cuts the workpiece. Materials such as hardened steel,
carbides, rubies, quartz, diamonds, and glass can easily be machined by USM [e.g. ultrasonically
assisted machining (prelucrare asistată de ultrasunete), ultrasonically assisted electrical discharge
machining (prelucrare prin electroeroziune asistată de ultrasunete)].

f) Electron-beam machining (EBM) (prelucrare cu fascicul de electroni): in this process,


electrons are accelerated to a velocity nearly three quarters that of light. The process is performed in a
vacuum chamber to reduce the scattering of electrons by gas molecules in the atmosphere. The stream
of electrons is directed against a precisely limited area of the workpiece; on impact, the kinetic energy
of the electrons is converted into thermal energy that melts and vaporizes the material to be removed,
forming holes or cuts. EBM equipment is commonly used by the electronics industry to aid the etching
of circuits in microprocessors.

g) Water-jet machining (WJM) (prelucrare cu jet de apă) is used for cutting a wide variety of
materials either by means of a very high-pressure jet of water (pure waterjet) to cut softer materials
(e.g. food or rubber), or a mixture of water and abrasive (abrasivejet) to cut hard materials (e.g. metals
or granite); it is the preferred method when the materials being cut are sensitive to the high
temperatures generated by other methods.

V.3. NANOTECHNOLOGY (NANOTECH)15

Definition

 Nanotechnology, a term coined by Eric Drexler, comprises any technology that exploits
matter, phenomena and structures occurring at the nanometer scale (the scale of atoms and molecules),
usually between 1 to 100 nm (1nm = one billionth of a meter or 10 -9; a possible way to interpret this
size is to consider something ten thousand times smaller than the width of a hair). It can also be defined
as the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale.

15
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanotechnology, accessed 16.10.2013;
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/962484/nanotechnology, accessed 16.10.2013;

95
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

Approaches

- “bottom-up” applications – they seek to arrange smaller components into more complex
assemblies; materials and devices are built from molecular components which assemble
themselves chemically by principles of molecular recognition;
- “top-down” applications – they seek to create smaller devices by using larger ones to direct
their assembly; nano-objects are built from larger entities without atomic-level control;

Description

Nanoscience and nanotechnology are an extension of the field of materials science/ materials
engineering, an interdisciplinary field (it incorporates elements of applied physics and chemistry) that
applies the properties of matter to various areas of science and engineering, and investigates the
relationship between the structure of materials at atomic or molecular scales and their macroscopic
properties.
Nanorobotics creates machines or robots (named nanorobots, nanobots, nanoids, nanites,
nanomachines or nanomites) whose components are at or close to the scale of a nanometer 10-9 m;
Advanced nanotechnology / molecular manufacturing – describes engineered nanosystems
(nanoscale machines) operating on the molecular scale; it is usually associated with the molecular
assembler, a machine that can produce a desired structure or device atom-by-atom using the principles
of mechanosynthesis;

History
- - the early versions of scanning and the first probes that launched nanotechnology - atomic force
microscope (ATM) and scanning tunneling microscope (STM);
- - techniques that preceded the nanotech era: nano-lithography (e.g. optical lithography, X-ray
lithography, electron-beam lithography, nanoimprint lithography), atomic layer deposition, molecular
vapor deposition;
- - four stages in the evolution of nanotechnology (Mihail Roco): passive nanostructures → active
nanodevices → complex nanomachines → productive nanostructures

96
UNIT FIVE: MACHINE TOOLS

Fundamental concepts

 molecular self-assembly = process by which molecules adopt a defined arrangement


without guidance or management from an outside source;

 supramolecular chemistry = field of chemistry beyond that of molecules, which focuses


on the chemical systems made up of a discrete number of assembled molecular subunits or
components;

 molecular recognition = design of molecules in such way that a specific configuration or


arrangement is favoured due to non-covalent intermolecular forces;

 mechanosysnthesis = any chemical synthesis in which reaction outcomes are determined by


the use of mechanical constraints to direct reactive molecules to specific molecular sites;

Current and future applications

 modern synthetic chemistry – can prepare small molecules to almost any structure based on the
principle of molecular self-assembly and/or supramolecular chemistry to automatically arrange
themselves into some useful configuration through a “bottom-up” application (e.g. manufacture
of pharmaceuticals and commercial polymers);
 medicine: - drug delivery to specific cells using nanoparticles;
- protein and peptide (macromolecules called biopharmaceuticals) delivery using
nanomaterials, nanoparticles and Dendrimers;
- prevention of antibiotic resistance – using nanoparticles;
- cancer imaging – using quantum dots (cadmium selenide nanoparticles) in MRI can
provide excellent images of different tumors;
- detection and diagnosis of cancer in the early stages (from a few drops of blood)
using sensor test chips containing thousands of nanowires able to detect proteins and
other biomarkers left behind by cancer cells;
- destruction of cancer cells – using gold-coated nanoshells (by irradiating the tumor
area with an infrared laser which passes through flesh without heating it, the gold is
heated enough to cause death to the cancer cells);

97
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

- photodynamic therapy – placing a particle within the body and illuminating it with
light from the outside (the light gets absorbed by the particle and if it is metal, energy
from the light will heat the particle and the surrounding tissue);
- tissue engineering – artificially stimulated cells (e.g. bones could be regrown on
carbon nanotube scaffolds);
- surgery – using a “flesh welder” to prevent blood leaks from the arteries;
- nanorobots – introduced into the body to detect or even repair damages and
infections (future goal!);
- neuro-electronic interfacing – nanodevices that will permit computers to be joined
and linked to the living nervous system (future goal!);
 passive nanomaterials: e.g. titanium dioxide in sunscreens, cosmetics, surface coatings and food
products; carbon allotropes used to produce gecko tape; silver in food packaging, clothing,
disinfectants and household appliances; zinc oxide in sunscreens, cosmetics, surface coatings,
paints, outdoor furniture varnishes; cerium oxide as a fuel catalyst;
 other applications allow tennis balls to last longer, golf balls to fly straighter, bowling balls to
become more durable and have a harder surface; trousers and socks to last longer and keep
people cool in the summer; bandages infused with silver nanoparticles to heal cuts faster; cars
to need fewer metals and less fuel to operate in the future; prevent plastic car windows to
scretch and car mirrors to get steamy; dirt-repellent surfaces due to the “Lotus effect” (e.g.
self-cleaning bath tubs and roof tiles);

Potential risks

 potential toxicity of certain nanosubstances that could adversely affect the stability of cell
membranes or disturb the immune system when inhaled, digested or absorbed through the skin;
 nanoparticles in the environment could potentially accumulate in the food chain;
 societal risks raised by the creation of undetectable surveillance capabilities or of hypothetical
nanotech weapons (e.g. a nanotech machine which consumed the rubber in tires would quickly
disable many vehicles);

Key terms
Nanowire = nanofir
Nanotube = nanotub
Nanostructure = nanostructură
Nanodevice = nanodispozitiv

98
UNIT FIVE: MACHINE TOOLS

Nanomachine = nanomaşină
Nanorobot = nanorobot
Nanomaterials (nanomateriale) = materials with unique properties arising from their nanoscale
dimensions:
- fullerenes (fulerene): carbon nanotubes;
- nanoparticles (sometimes nanocrystal): quantum dots (puncte cuantice);
- nanorods
Nanoparticle / nanocluster / nanocrystal / nanopowder = nanoparticulă

V.4. Manufacturing Processes, Technologies and Operations

 machining / tooling (prelucrare cu ajutorul unei maşini sau unelte)


 profiling / forming / modeling (formare, modelare, profilare, fasonare)

 rapid prototyping (prototipare rapidă): stereolithography (SL) (stereolitografie), 3D-printing


(3DP) (printare 3D), selective laser sintering (SLS) (sinterizare laser selectivă), fused-
deposition modeling (FDM) (depunere de material topit, modelarea depunerilor prin fuziune),
solid-ground curing (SGC), laminated object manufacturing (LOM) (modelarea obiectelor
stratificate prin laminare), multi-jet modeling (MJM), direct shell production casting (DSPC),
shell-croning (obţinerea formelor de tip coji), polyjet technology, laser engineered net shaping
(LENS), robocasting
 rapid tooling (execuţie, prelucrare rapidă)
 rapid manufacturing (fabricaţie rapidă)
 flexible manufacturing system (FMS) (sisteme de fabricaţie flexibilă) (SFF)
 deformation (deformare), cold deformation (deformare la rece), cold plastic deformation
(deformare plastică la rece)
 machining allowance (adaos de prelucrare)
 cutting / chipping / splintering (tăiere, aşchiere)
 cutting to length (debitare, tăiere în bucăţi de o anumită lungime)
 cutting-off (retezare)
 crushing (sfărâmare), tearing (sfâşiere), breaking (rupere)
 shearing (forfecare): blanking (matriţare, imprimare cu matriţă, tipar sec), piercing / punching/
marking / stamping (găurire, perforare, trasare, marcare cu ajutorul poansonului,
poansonare), slitting (tăiere longitudinală, despicare, retezare, crestare), trimming
(debavurare, îndreptare), notching (dinţare, crestare, crenelare, zimţare a periferiei unei piese)
 sawing (tăiere cu ajutorul ferăstrăului)
 metal forming & shaping: rolling (laminare), forging (forjare), extrusion (extrudare),
drawing/elongation (întinderea, tragerea materialului), sheet metal forming (formarea plăcilor
de tablă), powder metallurgy (metalurgia pulberilor), molding (formare, modelare, matriţare)
 conventional machining (prelucrare cu maşini-unelte convenţionale): lathing (strunjire cu
ajutorul strungului clasic), turning (strunjire cu ajutorul strungului automat), drilling (găurire,

99
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

burghiere), reaming-counterboring (lărgire-adâncire), boring (alezare), milling (frezare),


planing (rabotare), shaping (modelare, fasonare, profilare, rabotare transversală), broaching
(broşare, prelucrare prin aşchiere a unor piese din metal prin găurire sau şănţuire), grinding
(rectificare)
 slotting / mortising (mortezare, prelucrare prin aşchiere a unor suprafeţe cu profil complex,
folosind anumite cuţite speciale)
 chamfering / scarfing (şanfrenare, teşire a muchiilor)
 caulking (ştemuire)
 chiseling (dăltuire)
 grooving (canelare)
 unconventional machining (prelucrare cu maşini-unelte neconvenţionale): ultrasonic machining
(prelucrare cu ultrasunete), chemical machining (prelucrare chimică), electrical machining
(prelucrare prin eroziune electrică), electrochemical machining (prelucrare prin eroziune
electrochimică), high-energy beam machining (prelucrare cu undă laser), water jet machining
(prelucrare cu jet de apă)
 joining & fastening (îmbinare şi fixare/închidere): welding (sudare), soldering (lipire prin
sudare la piese mici), brazing (brazare, lipire prin sudare cu aliaj dur), diffusion bonding
(lipire prin difuziune termică), adhesive bonding (îmbinare prin lipire, încleiere), mechanical
joining (îmbinare mecanică)
 hardening / quenching / tempering (călire)
 annealing (coacere/recoacere, temperare, normalizare, decălire, maleabilizare, omogenizare,
normalizare, recristalizare, detensionare)
 metal recovery (revenirea metalului)
 soaking (înmuiere, menţinere a metalului la o temperatură constantă)
 melting (topire)
 composite and plastic molding & forming processes (formarea şi turnarea materialelor plastice
şi compozite): casting (turnare), mould casting / molding (turnare în formă), die-casting /
injection molding (injectare, turnare sub presiune), vacuum casting (turnare sub vid), metal
casting (turnarea metalului): expendable mold and permanent mold (mulaj, matriţă, formă de
turnare de unică folosinţă şi permanentă), autoclave molding (formare prin autoclavare),
centrifugal casting (formare centrifugă), compression molding (formare prin
presare/comprimare), continuous lamination (laminare continuă), filament winding (bobinaj de
încălzire), pressure bag molding (formarea cu sac sub presiune), pultrusion (pultruziune),
reaction injection molding (RIM) (turnare prin injecţie, prin reacţie), resin transfer molding
(RTM) (formarea prin transfer de răşină), spray-up (metalizare prin pulverizare), vacuum bag
molding (formarea cu sac sub vid), vacuum infusion (infuzie sub vid), blow molding (formare
prin suflare), continuous strip molding (turnare continuă a benzilor), liquid resin molding
(turnare prin răşină lichidă), rotational molding (turnare rotativă), thermoforming
(termoformare), pressure forming (formare sub presiune), profile extrusion (extruziunea
profilelor), CNC machining (prelucrare cu maşini unelte CNC cu comandă numerică)
 finishing and superfinishing (finisare şi suprafinisare / şlefuire fină): filing (pilire), honing
(honuire, ascuţire, şlefuirea unei suprafeţe cu ajutorul unei pietre abrazive), lapping (lepuire,

100
UNIT FIVE: MACHINE TOOLS

şlefuirea unor suprafeţe cu ajutorul unui abraziv amplasat între ele), polishing (şlefuire,
polizare), burnishing (brunare, acoperire chimică a unei piese de oţel sau cupru cu un strat de
oxizi împotriva coroziunii), deburring (debavurare, îndepărtarea bavurii de pe piesele
prelucrate), heat and surface treatment (tratament termic şi de suprafaţă), coating (aplicarea
unui strat protector), plating (placare), metal plating (placare cu metal)
 coating (aplicarea unui strat protector): air spray painting (vopsirea prin pulverizare), chemical
vapor deposition (CVD) (depunere chimică de vapori), diamond coating (acoperire cu praf de
diamante), diffusion coating (depunere prin strat de difuzie), electrocoating/electrophoretic
deposition (electroforeză), physical vapor deposition (PVD) (depunere fizică de vapori),
polyurethane coating (acoperire cu strat poliuretanic), porcelain enameling (smălţuire/emailare
cu porţelan), powder coating (acoperire cu pulberi), thermal spraying (pulverizare termică),
core blowing (suflare de miezuri)
 pressing (presare), cold pressing (presare la rece)
 bordering (răsfrângerea marginilor)
 swelling (umflare)
 necking (gâtuire)
 cold / compression moulding (formare prin apăsare)
 upsetting (turtire, îngroşare şi refulare))
 stamping, marking, punching (stampare, marcare şi perforare/ştanţare)
 toothing (danturare)
 folding (fălţuire)
 tapping / threading (filetare)
 fluting / knurling (rifluire, randalinare, moletare, imprimare pe un obiect a unor striuri, zimţi,
etc., cu ajutorul moletei)
 etching / chemical milling (corodare, gravare, atacare cu acizi)
 engraving (gravare)
 derusting / chemical cleaning (decapare, curăţare chimică)
 sintering (sinterizare, realizarea unor piese prin încălzirea unor pulberi şi presarea lor în
forme speciale)
 spraying (stropire prin pulverizare)
 sandblasting (sablare)
 warping / deformation (distorsionare, deformare)
 bending / sag (îndoire, încovoiere) → deformation of bars under bending ( deformaţia barelor
solicitate la încovoiere)
 torsion / twisting (torsiune, răsucire)
 elastic and plastic flexure (flambaj elastic şi plastic)
 elastic equilibrium (echilibru elastic)
 traction (tracţiune), compression (compresiune)
 insulation (izolare)
 saturation (saturare)
 calibrating / gauging / sizing (calibrare, etalonare)
 technological dimensioning (cotare tehnologică)
101
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

 cambering (ambutisare)

V.5. Characteristics of Metals and Fluids

- internal and external forces (forţe interne şi externe)


- reaction forces (forţe de reacţiune)
- heating (încălzire)
- cooling (răcire)
- adherence / adhesion (aderenţă)
- creep (fluaj, alunecare lentă)
- purity / fineness  impurity
- homogeneity  heterogeneity
- smoothness (planeitate, netezime)  irregularity (neuniformitate)
- clarity  opacity
- rigidity  flexibility
- stress / strain (solicitare, tensionare)
→ internal stress (tensiune internă)
→ stress under eccentric or axial loads (solicitări prin forţe excentrice sau axiale)
→ stress under shock loads (solicitări prin şoc)
- deformation (deformare)
- strength (rezistenţă) → ultimate strength (rezistenţă maximă)
→ ultimate tensile strength (rezistenţă la întindere)
→ strength of materials (rezistenţa materialelor)
→ strength under normal, combined and variable loads/loading
(rezistanţa la solicitări normale, compuse şi variabile)
- hardness (duritate)
- toughness (rezistenţă, compactitate)
- roughness (asperitate, rugozitate), porosity (porozitate)
- plasticity / malleability / ductility (plasticitate, maleabilitate, ductilitate)
- elastic limit / elasticity (elasticitate)
- proportional limit (limită de proporţionalitate)
- yield (curgere a metalului, fluaj, lucru util)
- yield strength (limită de curgere)
- yield stress (efort de curgere)
- fracture strength (rezistenţa la rupere)
- brittleness (fragilitate)
- availability (accesibilitatea materialului, uşurinţa cu care este procurat)
- workability / manufacturability (prelucrabilitate)
- appearance (aspect)
- density (densitate)
- durability / endurance / life (durabilitate)

102
UNIT FIVE: MACHINE TOOLS

- waterproofing / impermeability (impermeabilitate), tightness (etanşeitate)


- granulation (granulaţie)
- viscosity (vâscozitate)
- solubility (solubilitate)
- saturation (saturaţie)
- flowability / fluidity (fluiditate)
- fatigue (oboseala materialului), ag(e)ing (îmbătrânirea materialului)
- wear resistance (rezistenţă la uzură)
- rust resistance (rezistenţă la rugină)
- corrosion resistance (rezistenţă la coroziune)
- rollability (laminabilitate)
- solderability (capacitatea de lipire prin sudură)
- load-carrying capacity (capacitatea de încărcare)
- cuttability (capacitatea de a fi prelucrat prin tăiere)
- cutting capacity (capacitatea de a tăia)
- wettability (capacitatea de umezire)
- usability (utilitate, aplicabilitate)
- conductibility (conductibilitate)
- conductivity (conductivitate)  resistivity (rezistivitate)
- thermal conductivity (conductibilitate termică)
- thermal diffusivity (difuzivitate termică)
- transition time and temperature (timpul şi temperatura de tranziţie)
- thermal expansion coefficient (coeficient de expansiune termică)
- thermal shock resistance (rezistenţa la şoc termic)
- melting point (punct de topire)
- boiling point (punct de fierbere)
- freezing point (punct de îngheţare)
- fusibility (fuzibilitate, capacitatea unui metal de a se topi uşor)
- insulation (izolaţie)
- proofing (impermeabilizare)
- friction (frecare)
- oscillation / vibration (oscilaţie, vibraţie)
- expansion (dilatare), elongation (alungire), extrusion (extruziune), corrugation (ondulare)

103
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

V.6. Cutting Tools and Fluids

V.6.1. Cutting Tools

Definition

 Cutting tool = tool that is used to remove material from the workpiece by means of shear
deformation (sculă aşchietoare, unealtă tăietoare, tăietor)
Structure

 tool blade (tăiş, lamă, parte tăietoare)


 tool point (vârful uneltei tăietoare)
 tail (coadă)
 supporting surface / body (suprafaţă de sprijin, corpul uneltei)
 tool holder / tool head / tool post / tool rest (port-sculă, suport pentru fixarea sculelor)
 tool path (avansul sculei)
 tool stand (măsuţă, stelaj pentru scule)

Cutting-tool material

Because cutting processes involve high local stresses, frictions, and considerable heat
generation, cutting-tool material must combine strength, toughness, hardness, and wear-resistance at
elevated temperatures. These requirements are met in varying degrees by such cutting-tool materials
like:

- stable materials (usually tungsten carbide) - substances that remain relatively stable under the
heat produced by most machining conditions, as they don't attain their hardness through heat.
They wear down due to abrasion, but generally don't change their properties much during use.
Most of them are hard enough to break before flexing, which makes them very fragile. To avoid
chipping at the cutting edge, most tools made of such materials are finished with a slightly blunt
edge, which results in higher cutting forces due to an increased shear area. Fragility combined
with high cutting forces results in most stable materials being unsuitable for use in anything but

104
UNIT FIVE: MACHINE TOOLS

large, heavy and stiff machinery: e.g. ceramics, cermets (a composite material composed of
ceramic and metallic materials), diamonds;
- unstable materials (usually steels) - substances that start at a relatively low hardness point and
are then heat-treated to promote the growth of hard particles (usually carbides) inside the
original matrix, which increases the overall hardness of the material at the expense of some its
original toughness. Since heat is the mechanism to alter the structure of the substance and at the
same time the cutting action produces a lot of heat, such substances are inherently unstable
under machining conditions. Being generally softer and thus tougher, they can stand a bit of
flexing without breaking, which makes them much more suitable for unfavorable machining
conditions, such as those encountered in hand tools and light machinery: e.g. carbon steel, high-
speed steels (HSS) - iron alloys containing tungsten, chromium, vanadium, and carbon.

Types

I. Used for drilling, reaming, boring and broaching:


 drill (burghiu)
 leadscrew (şurub conducător)

II. Used for lathing:


a) according to the feed direction or the main cutter position (după sensul avansului sau poziţia
tăişului principal):
 right-cut tool (cuţit pe dreapta)
 left-cut tool (cuţit pe stânga)

b) according to the shape of the tool point and its position relative to the tool body (după forma
capului tăietorului şi poziţia lui în raport cu corpul):
 face cutter (cuţit frontal)
 straight-faced right / left cutter (cuţit drept, pe stânga sau pe dreapta)
 round-faced tool (cuţit cu tăiş rotunjit)
 right / left-bent tool (cuţit încovoiat pe stânga sau dreapta)
 backwards / forward-offset tool (cuţit cotit înainte şi înapoi)
 right / left offset tool (cuţit cotit pe stânga sau pe dreapta)
 narrowed / tapered cutter (cuţit îngustat)
 Dutch / shovel nose cutter (cuţit lat)
105
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

 square cutter (cuţit pătrat)


 swing cutter (cuţit turnant la strung automat)
 gooseneck / spring cutter (cuţit elastic, gât-de-lebădă)

c) according to the type of machining (după felul prelucrării):


 single-point cutter (cuţit cu un singur vârf, tăiş)
 double-bladed cutter (cuţit cu două tăişuri)
 multipoint tool (cuţit cu mai multe tăişuri)
 guard (cuţit de ghidaj)
 roughing / rough cutting tool (cuţit de degroşare)
 folding tool (cuţit de fălţuit)
 finishing / cleaning tool (cuţit de finisare)
 shaving tool (cuţit de finisare pentru strunjire fină)
 shearing tool (cuţit de forfecare)
 forming tool (cuţit de profilat, de dat formă)
 shaping tool (cuţit de şepuit)
 slotting tool (cuţit de mortezat)
 scraping tool (cuţit de răzuit)
 fluting tool (cuţit de rifluit)
 rounding tool (cuţit de rotunjit)
 plain turning tool (cuţit pentru strunjire obişnuită)
 recessing tool (cuţit pentru strunjit praguri şi caneluri interioare)
 chambering tool (cuţit pentru strunjirea suprafeţelor interioare sau a găurilor cu fund)
 angle-cutting / beveling (cuţit de teşit)
 outside / inside screw cutter (cuţit de filetat exterior şi interior)
 chamfering (cuţit pentru teşirea marginilor)

d) according to their construction (după construcţie):


 monoblock (monobloc)
 assembled (asamblate)

e) according to the accuracy of machining (după precizia prelucrării):


 roughing / rough-cutting (cuţit de degroşare)

106
UNIT FIVE: MACHINE TOOLS

 cleaning / shearing tool (cuţit de finisare)


 shaving tool (cuţit pentru strunjire fină)

f) according to the position of the cutter relative to the part (după poziţia cuţitului faţă de piesă):
 radial tool
 tangential tool

g) according to their use (după destinaţie):


 universal tool
 special-purpose or profiled tool (speciale sau profilate)

III. Used for planing:


 straight-faced cutter (cuţit drept)
 normal cutter (cuţit normal)
 bent cutter (cuţit încovoiat şi cotit)
 grooving cutter (cuţit de canelat)
 cutting-off cutter (cuţit de retezat)

IV. Used for milling:


 cylindrical / circular cutters (freză cilindrică, disc)
 face mill cutters (freză frontală)
 end-mill cutters (freză cilindro-frontală)
 slotting milling cutters (freză pentru canelat)
 T-slot cutters (freză pentru canale T), woodruff key slot cutters (freză pentru canalele
penelor de disc), dovetail slot cutters (freză pentru canale coadă de rândunică)
 conical milling cutters with rounded corners and spherical head (freză conică cu colţ
rotunjit şi cu cap sferic)
 boring mill (freză de alezaj)
 shaped milling cutters (freză profilată)
 concave and convex radius cutters (freză de rază concavă sau convexă)
 disc cutter for gear toothing (freză disc pentru danturat roţi dinţate)
 worm milling cutters for toothing (freză melc pentru danturat)

107
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

V. Used for grinding:


 grindstone (piatră abrazivă)
 abrasive wheel (disc abraziv)

VI. Used for shearing:


 parallel shears (foarfece cu cuţite paralele)
 inclined shears (foarfece cu cuţite înclinate)
 disc shears (foarfece cu discuri)
 vibrating shears (foarfece vibratoare)
 circular shears / circle cutting machine (foarfece circular)
 guillotine / cross-cut shears (forfece ghilotină)
 lever shears (foarfece cu pârghie)
 multi-purpose shearing machine (foarfece universal)
VII. Used for punching:
 die (ştanţă)
 punch (poanson)
 (placă activă)

V.6.2. Cutting Fluids (cutting fluid, cutting oil, cutting compound, coolant, or lubricant)

Definition

 Cutting fluid = a type of coolant and lubricant designed specifically for metalworking and
machining processes: e.g. oils, oil-water emulsions, pastes, gels, aerosols (mists), and air or other
gases, that can be made from petroleum distillates, animal fats, plant oils, water and air, or other raw
ingredients.

Properties
- keep the workpiece at a stable temperature (critical when working to close tolerances); very
warm is accepted, but extremely hot or alternating hot-and-cold are avoided;
- maximize the life of the cutting tip by lubricating the working edge and reducing tip welding;
- ensure safety for the people handling it (e.g. toxicity, bacteria, fungi) and for the environment
upon disposal;
- prevent rust on machine parts and cutters
108
UNIT FIVE: MACHINE TOOLS

V.7. Metals and Non-Metals (Mendeleev`s Periodic Table)16

A. Alkaline earth metals (metale alcalino-pământoase): they are very reactive and cannot be found
in natural state but only in compounds; they are shiny, silvery-white, somewhat reactive metals at
standard temperature and pressure:

- Beryllium (beriliu)
- Magnesium (magneziu)
- Calcium (calciu)
- Strontium (stronţiu)
- Barium (bariu)
- Radium (radiu)

B. Alkali metals (metale alcaline): they are very reactive and cannot be found in natural state but only
in compounds; they have only one electron, which is situated on the exterior layer; they are ductile,
malleable, good conductors of electricity and heat; they are silver-coloured, softer than most metals
and can easily explode in contact with water; they are all shiny, soft, highly reactive metals at
standard temperature and pressure:

- Lithium (litiu)
- Sodium (sodiu)
- Potassium (potasiu)
- Rubidium (rubidiu)
- Caesium (cesiu)
- Francium (franciu)

C. Inner transition metals (metale de tranziţie intermediară):


- lanthanides/lanthanoids (lantanide): lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium,
promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium,
thulium, ytterbium, lutetium;
- actinides/actinoids (actinide): actinium, thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium,
plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium, fermium, mendelevium,
nobelium, lawrencium;

D. Transition metals (metale de tranziţie): they tend to have high tensile strength, density and
melting and boiling points; they are ductile, malleable, good conductors of electricity and heat but

16
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Periodic_table, accessed 11.11.2013;
109
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

the electrons used to combine with other elements are not located only in the last layer; they often
form coloured compounds and can have different oxidation states; they are silvery-blue and solid at
room temperature and are often good catalysts. The iron, copper and nickel can produce magnetic
field.

- Scandium (scandiu) - Cadmium (cadmiu)


- Titanium (titan) - Hafnium (hafniu)
- Vanadium (vanadiu) - Tantalum (tantal)
- Chromium (crom) - Tungsten (tungsten, wolfram)
- Manganese (mangan) - Rhenium (reniu)
- Iron (fier) - Osmium (osmiu)
- Cobalt (cobalt) - Iridium (iridiu)
- Nickel (nichel) - Platinum (platină)
- Copper (cupru) - Gold (aur)
- Zinc (zinc) - Mercury (mercur)
- Yttrium (ytriu) - Rutherfordium (rutherfordiu)
- Zirconium (zirconiu) - Dubnium (dubniu)
- Niobium (niobiu) - Seaborgium (seaborgiu)
- Molybdenum (molibden) - Bohrium (bohriu)
- Technetium (tehnetiu) - Hassium (hassiu)
- Ruthenium (ruteniu) - Meitnerium (meitneriu)
- Rhodium (rodiu) - Copernicium (coperniciu)
- Palladium (paladiu) - Darmstadtium (darmstadtiu)
- Silver (argint) - Roentgenium(roentgeniu)

E. Post-transition metals (metale de post-tranziţie): they are ductile, malleable, solid,


opaque and have relatively high density; they are also good conductors of electricity and
heat:
- Aluminium (aluminiu)
- Gallium (galiu)
- Indium (indiu)
- Thallium (taliu)
- Tin (staniu)
- Lead (plumb)
- Bismuth (bismut)
- Polonium (poloniu)
- (ununtriu)
- (ununquadiu, fleroviu)
- (ununpentiu)
- (ununhexiu, livermorium)

110
UNIT FIVE: MACHINE TOOLS

F. Semi-metals/metalloids (semi-metale/metaloizi): they have properties intermediate between


those of metals and non-metals; they are usually semi-conductors rather than conductors:

- Boron (bor)
- Germanium (germaniu)
- Antimony (antimoniu, stibiu)
- Polonium (poloniu)
- Silicon (siliciu)
- Arsenic (arsen)
- Tellurium (telur)

G. Nonmetals (nemetale): they are highly electronegative; they are neither good conductors of
electricity and heat nor ductile and malleable:

a) Halogens (halogeni): they are highly reactive and help forming the salts:
- Fluorine (fluor) – gas
- Chlorine (clor) – gas
- Bromine (brom) – liquid
- Iodine (iod) – solid
- Astatine (astatiniu) – solid
- Ununseptium (ununseptiu)

b) Noble gases (gaze nobile): previously referred to as inert gases or rare gases, they are stable
and lack reactivity:
- Helium (heliu)
- Neon (neon)
- Argon (argon)
- Krypton (kripton)
- Xenon (xenon)
- Radon (radon)
- Ununoctium (ununoctiu)

c) Other nonmetals (alte tipuri):


- Hydrogen (hidrogen)
- Carbon (carbon) – solid
- Oxygen (oxigen) – gas
- Nitrogen (azot)
- Phosphorous (fosfor)
- Sulfur (sulf)
- Selenium (seleniu)

111
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

Ferrous metals (metale feroase): carbon steel, stainless steel, wrought iron

Non-ferrous metals (metale neferoase): alumin(i)um, brass, copper, titanium

Refractory metals (metale refractare): tungsten, molybdenum, niobium, tantalum, rhenium

Alloys (aliaje): iron-carbon alloys (aliaje fier-carbon): cast iron (fontă), steel (oţel); alloy steel (oţel
aliat); hard alloys (aliaje dure)

Vocabulary

part / component / member (piesă) → semi -finished part (semifabricat) → finished part (piesă
finită)
reference element / mark / marker = reper
emerging / enhanced / advanced technologies = tehnologii avansate
cutting-edge technology / state-of-the-art technology = tehnologie de ultimă oră
invention / contraption / contrivance = invenţie
instrument / tool = instrument, unealtă
device / apparatus / equipment / machine / machinery = dispozitiv, aparat, echipament, maşină,
maşinărie
gadget = dispozitiv mic, ingenios şi inteligent
tender / operator / mechanic = operator, mecanic
apprentice = ucenic
worker = muncitor
→ welder = sudor
→ turner = strungar
→ joiner = tâmplar
→ boiler maker = cazangiu
→ steel maker = oţelar
safety equipment = echipament de protecţie
→ helmet / hard hat = cască de protecţie
→ goggles = ochelari de protecţie
→ face mask = mască de protecţie
→ rubber gloves = mănuşi de protecţie
→ rubber boots = cizme de cauciuc
→ steel-toe boots/safety boots = cizme cu întăritură metalică la degete
factory = fabrică
112
UNIT FIVE: MACHINE TOOLS

plant = uzină, secţie de prelucrare, centrală


→ rolling-mill plant = secţie de laminoare
→ wire drawing plant = trăgătorie pentru sârmă
workshop = atelier
tool-room = sculărie
production / technological line = linie tehnologică, de producţie
conveyor belt = bandă transportoare
to machine / to tool / to engineer = a prelucra cu ajutorul unei maşini sau unelte
machined / tooled / engineered = prelucrat cu ajutorul unei maşini sau unelte
to break down / to fail / to malfunction (a se defecta)
→ breakdown / failure / malfunction / fault / flaw (defecţiune)
→ shortcoming (lipsă, deficienţă, neajuns)
to ruin a device by rough usage (a distruge un dispozitiv prin întrebuinţare necorespunzătoare)
→ foolproof (asigurat împotriva manevrelor greşite sau brutale)
→ shatterproof (incasant, securit)
→ scratch resistant (rezistent la zgârieturi)
→ watertight (închis etanş, ermetic)
to fix / to mend / to tinker with = a repara
to troubleshoot = a detecta şi remedia o defecţiune
to design = a proiecta
to install = a instala
to mount (a monta) ≠ to dismount (a demonta) / to dismantle (a demonta în bucăţi)
to commission / to put into operation or service = a pune în funcţiune
to start-up = a porni (un dispozitiv, echipament, etc.)
to operate = a exploata, a opera, a manevra
to revamp = to maintain + to repair + to operate (MRO) = a moderniza
to drive = a acţiona, a angrena
to power = a alimenta
metalworking = prelucrarea metalului
woodworking = prelucrarea lemnului
glass working = prelucrarea sticlei
machine tool (sg.) (maşină-unealtă) → machine tools (pl.) (maşini-unelte)
machining centre = centru de prelucrare
self-contained device / machine = dispozitiv / maşină autonom(ă)
universal testing machine = maşină universală de încercat
single-purpose machine = maşină-unealtă specială
general-purpose machine = maşină-unealtă universală
single-spindle machine = maşină-unealtă cu un singur ax principal
multi-spindle machine = maşină-unealtă cu mai multe axe principale
single upright machine = maşină-unealtă cu un singur montant
bracket machine = maşină-unealtă cu consolă
leave roller bed = cale cu role
113
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

rolling-mill = laminor
furnace = cuptor
boiler = cazan
workpiece = piesă de lucru, semifabricat
spoilage / waste / reject = rebut
sample (mostră, eşantion) → sampling (prelevare de probe, eşantionare)
mo(u)ld = formă, matriţă
die = ştanţă
punch = poanson, perforator
shears = foarfece
saw blade = lama ferăstrăului
 teeth (dinţii lamei)
 gullet (distanţa dintre dinţi)
 kerf (lăţimea tăieturii)
chips / swarf / turnings / filings / shavings of metal = aşchii, şpan
wood shavings / splinters = talaj, aşchii de lemn
workbench = masă, banc de lucru/montaj
test bench = stand de testare, banc de probe
bed / frame = pat, cadru, suport
abutment / backing rest / bearing / support = reazem
supporting bracket = consolă de reazem
stand (batiu, cajă) → pinion stand (cajă de angrenare)
case / casing / framework / framing / housing / box = carcasă
turntable / rotating table = masă turnantă
swing table = masă pivotantă
revolving table = masă rotativă
vibration table = masă vibrantă
headstock = cap de antrenare al maşinii, păpuşă fixă
tailstock = cap mobil, păpuşă mobilă a maşinii
carriage = cărucior al strungului
ram / slide = berbec, sanie principală
saddle / cross-slide = sanie transversală
coumpound rest = sanie portcuţit turnantă, portcuţit cu sanie în cruce
apron = cutie, protecţie a căruciorului de strung
plate = tablă
faceplate = platou, planşaibă
guide / slide / guard (ghidaj) → side guard (ghidaj lateral)
bar = bară
 straight bar (bară dreaptă)
 bent bar (bară cotită)
 branched bar (bară ramificată)
 articulated bar (bară cu articulaţii)
114
UNIT FIVE: MACHINE TOOLS

clamp / fastener = colier, clamă de strângere


dog = clamă, gheară, excentric, limitator, opritor
jig = dispozitiv de fixare / prindere / strângere, dispozitiv de ghidare pentru găurire
fixture = dispozitiv de fixare
vice = menghină
fulcrum = punct de sprijin, de reazem, de echilibru, de articulaţie, centru de rotaţie
swivel = ax, centru de rotaţie, îmbinare prin articulaţie, pivot, suport pivotant cu lanţ
 swivel arm (braţ pivotant)
 swivel axle (ax oscilant)
 swivel carriage (sanie pivotantă)
 swivel coupling (cuplaj, racord turnant)
 swivel head (cap revolver, turnant)
 swivel joint (articulaţie cu nucă, îmbinare articulată)
spindle / shaft = ax, arbore, fus
 main shaft (arbore principal)
 multi-spindle machine (maşină multiax)
 crankshaft (arbore cotit)
 eccentric shaft (excentric)
 button spindle (ax buton)
 cam shaft (ax camă)
gear / cogwheel = angrenaj, roată dinţată
 gear train (tren de roţi dinţate)
 external or internal gear (roată dinţată externă sau internă)
 spur gear / straight-cut gear (roată dinţată cilindrică cu dinţi drepţi)
 helical / skew gear (roată dinţată cilindrică cu dinţi înclinaţi)
 bevel gear (roată dinţată conică)
 worm gear (roată dinţată melcată)
 hypoid gear (roată dinţată hipoidală)
 crown gear (roată dinţată de tip coroană)
 non-circular gear (angrenaj necircular)
 involute / cycloidal gear (roată dinţată cu profil neevolventic)
 rack and pinion gear (angrenaj cu cremalieră şi roată dinţată)
 epicyclic / sun-and-planet gear (angrenaj planetar)
 harmonic gear (angrenaj armonic)
 cage gear (angrenaj de tip colivie)
 magnetic gear (angrenaj magnetic)
 gear tooth (dinte de roată dinţată)
 mesh (angrenare de dinţi)
crankpin = maneton
hub = butuc
turret (cap revolver) → turret lathe (strung revolver)
flywheel = volant
115
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

chuck (mandrină) → self -centering chuck (mandrină cu autocentrare, universal de strung)


pulley (scripete, troliu)
lever = pârghie
ratchet = clichet
swivel =ax, centru de rotaţie, suport pivotant
sprue = (met.) pâlnie, canal, cupă de turnare, (mase plast.) canal central de injecţie
funnel = pâlnie
drum / barrel = tambur
collet = manşon de prindere, bucşă elastică
mandrel = dorn
wedge (pană) → wedge mechanism (mecanism de fixare cu pană)
eccentric (excentric) → eccentric mechanism (mecanism de fixare cu excentric)
thread = filet, fir al filetului → thread mechanism (mecanism de fixare cu filet)
keyway = canal de pană
dowel pin = ştift
bucşă = (maş.) bushing / hub / sleeve, (el.) hub / jack, (hidr., maş.) socket
connecting piece = ştuţ
nozzle = duză, ajutaj, ştuţ
hinge = cuplă
plunger = plunjer
flange (flanşă) → flanged bushing (bucşă cu flanşă)
→ flush bushing (bucşă fără flanşă)
→ flanged shaft (arbore cu flanşă)
conveyor = conveior
mechanical, hydraulic, electromagnetic coupling = cuplaj mecanic, hidraulic, electromagnetic
buckling = flambaj
tap = tarod, burghiu de filet
stay rod = antretoază
spring = arc
clearance / backlash (joc) → safe clearance (joc admis)
to feed (a deplasa, a transporta, a avansa, a alimenta) → feeder
mechanisms = mecanisme
→ kinematic elements, chains, couplings = elemente, lanţuri şi cuple cinematice
→ four-bar mechanism (mecanism cu bare cu 4 elemente), ordinary and cycloidal gear train
(tren de roţi dinţate ordinare şi cicloidale), cam mechanism (mecanism cu came),
Maltese cross mechanism (mecanism cu cruce de Malta)
→ kinematic analysis of mechanisms (analiza cinematică a mecanismelor): position, trajectory,
speed and acceleration
→ kintostatic analysis of mechanisms (analiza cinetostatică a mecanismelor): inertia/inertial
force, friction/frictional force
→ dynamic analysis of mechanisms (analiza dinamică a mecanismelor): balancing of
mechanisms (echilibrarea mecanismelor), homogenization of mechanism motions
116
UNIT FIVE: MACHINE TOOLS

(uniformizarea mişcărilor mecanismelor), mechanical output (randament mecanic),


energy output (randament energetic)
machine parts = organe de maşini
 non-demountable assemblies (asamblări nedemontabile): riveting (nituire), welding
(sudare), soldering (lipitură), glu(e)ing (încleiere);
 demountable assemblies (asamblări demontabile): screw-nut (şurub-piuliţă), shaft-hub
(arbore-butuc), wedge (pană), groove (canelură), elastic bracelet (brăţară elastică), pin (ştift),
thread (filetate), tapered ring (prin inel tronconic);
 torsion spring (arc bară de torsiune), helical spring (arc elicoidal), flat spiral spring
(arc spirală plan), laminated/leaf spring (arc lamelar);
 shaft/spindle (arbore), axle (osie);
 mechanical transmission (transmisie mecanică):
- spur gear (angrenaj cilindric cu dinţi drepţi), helical gear (angrenaj cilindric
cu dinţi înclinaţi), bevel gear (angrenaj conic), worm gear (angrenaj cu melc);
- belt pulley gear (transmisie cu roţi şi curele);
- sprocket drive (transmisie cu lanţ);
 journal bearing (lagăr de reazem, de susţinere), rolling friction bearing (lagăr de
rostogolire), sliding bearing (lagăr de alunecare);
 permanent coupling/joint (cuplaj permanente fix), expansion coupling/joint (cuplaj
permanent compensator);
 spring (arc)
plane / conical / cylindrical / spherical / profiled surface = suprafaţă plană, conică, cilindrică, sferică,
profilată
coordinate axes = axe de coordonate
 linear axis (axă liniară)
 rotation axis (axă de rotaţie)
 constrained axis with linear, circular or helicoidal interpolation (axă condiţionată cu
interpolare liniară, circular sau elicoidală)
motion = mişcare
 straight-line / rectilinear / uniform motion (mişcare rectilinie, uniformă)
 wobble / non-linear motion (mişcare neuniformă, bătaie, impuls)
 reverse motion (mişcare în sens invers)
stroke limits = limite de curse
creeping = fluaj, alunecare lentă
torque = cuplu, efort, moment de torsiune
efficiency / output / yield = randament
degree of accuracy = grad de precizie
burr = bavură, material rămas peste profilul normal al pieselor prelucrate sau turnate
fin / seam = bavură de sudare
edge = tăiş, margine
angle = unghi
 rake angle (unghi de degajare la scule)
117
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

 angle of slide (unghi de alunecare)


 angle of contact (unghi de contact)
 angle of nonslip point (unghi neutru)
 angle of deviation (unghi de deviaţie, deflecţie)
gouge = scobitură
slot / groove (canelură, canal, fantă, gaură longitudinală) → groove-cutting machine (maşină de
canelat)
recess cut = tăietură în adâncime, în interior
rabbet = falţ
tolerance and dimensional control = toleranţe şi control dimensional
 clearance, transition fit (ajustaj cu joc, ajustaj intermediar aderent)
 dimensional chains (lanţuri de dimensiuni)
 probability calculation (calcul probabilistic)
 shape and position deviation (abatere de formă şi poziţie)
 surface states (starea suprafeţelor): ondulations (ondulaţii), rugosities (rugozităţi)
 caliper and micrometer measurement (măsurare cu şublerul şi micrometrul)
 angle and conicity measurement (măsurarea unghiurilor şi a conicităţii)
 straightness and planeity deviation (abatere de rectilinitate şi planeitate)
 radial and frontal wobble (bătaie, mişcare neuniformă radială şi frontală)
gauge = instrument pentru măsurat dimensiunea, manometru
→ depth-gauge = instrument pentru măsurat adâncimea
→ thickness-gauge = instrument pentru măsurat grosimea
at full load (în sarcină totală) ≠ at rest (în repaus)

to notch / to hollow (a cresta, a scobi) → notched / hollowed (crestat, scobit)


to taper (a da formă conică, a subţia spre vârf) → tapered (cu formă conică, în formă de con / pană,
subţiat spre vârf)
to bevel (a a tăia oblic, a teşi, a faţeta, a înclina) → bevel(l)ed (oblic, teşit, înclinat)
to brace (a întări, a sprijini, a propti, a rigidiza) → braced (întărit, rigidizat)
to clamp (a prinde, a strânge, a fixa) → clamped (strâns, prins, fixat)
to crank / to crook / to bend (a îndoi, a coti, a încovoia) → cranked / crooked / bent (cotit, îndoit)
to lever (a ridica cu ajutorul unei pârghii) → levered (ridicat cu ajutorul unei pârghii)
→ cantilevered (în consolă)
to pinch (a efila, a strangula, a strânge, a comprima) → pinched (efilat, strangulat)
to bolt (a asambla, a îmbina prin bolţuri, buloane) → bolted (asamblat prin buloane, bolţuri)
to screw (a înşuruba, a fixa în şuruburi) → screwed (înşurubat, fixat în şuruburi)
to wedge (a fixa cu ajutorul unei pene) → wedged (fixat cu ajutorul penei)

118
UNIT FIVE: MACHINE TOOLS

Exercises

Translate into English:

1) Studiile asupra rezistenţei la întindere şi a elongaţiei la rupere au relevat faptul că materialele


testate nu sunt rezistente.
2) Au fost semnalate vibraţii axiale şi transversale la conductele transportoare de fluide sub
presiune, care pe anumite tronsoane sunt supuse unor sarcini şi forţe axiale variabile.
3) Două dintre cele mai moderne tehnici de modelare şi simulare a sistemelor mecanice sunt “the
digital mock-up” şi “functional virtual prototyping”.
4) În procesul de frezare, pot apărea vibraţii puternice care influenţează negativ precizia
prelucrării şi favorizează uzarea mai rapidă a uneltei tăietoare.
5) Inginerii mecanici sunt preocupaţi de perturbările de stabilitate mecanică a maşinilor-unelte,
cauzate de grosimea sau lăţimea tăieturii, de temperatura din zona de contact, de viteza axului
sau de unghiul de degajare.
6) Optimizarea injectării materialelor plastice presupune determinarea cât mai precisă a timpului
de răcire în interiorul matriţei.
7) După numeroase simulări realizate în diferite momente ale procesului de injecţie, s-a reuşit
obţinerea unor condiţii optime de prelucrare, din perspectiva presiunii la injectare, a timpului de
execuţie sau a temperaturii în punctul de injectare.
8) Deoarece prelucrarea cu maşini-unelte convenţionale presupune contactul direct între unealta
tăietoare şi piesa de lucru, aceasta produce tensiune reziduală locală şi crăpături de suprafaţă,
care periclitează viaţa şi calitatea piesei de lucru.
9) Printre substanţele viitorului, înzestrate cu calităţi deosebite, se evidenţiază ceramica
termorezistentă, superaliajele, alături de materialele plastice şi metalele cu memoria formei.
10) Prelucrarea cu maşini-unelte neconvenţionale se aplică atât la materialele dure şi friabile, pentru
a elimina riscul apariţiei tensiunii reziduale locale, cât şi la materialele fine, pentru a obţine o
mai bună acurateţe dimensională.
11) Două mari dezavantaje ale prelucrării cu maşini-unelte convenţionale sunt uzura uneltei
tăietoare şi deteriorarea materialului piesei de prelucrat.

119
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

12) În strânsă legătură cu industria, ştiinţa este în permanentă căutare a materialelor viitorului, care
să fie mai “inteligente”, mai uşoare, mai stabile şi mai rezistente la căldură.
13) Primul model de maşină-unealtă modernă datează din anul 1775, când inventatorul englez John
Wilkinson a conceput o maşină de alezat orizontală, folosită la prelucrarea unor suprafeţe
cilindrice interioare.
14) Deşi există numeroase metode de lipire a pieselor metalice cu ajutorul căldurii sau a presiunii,
sudarea este procesul cel mai rezistent şi eficace de unire a două piese metalice, obţinut prin
modificarea acestora.
15) Strungul carusel, echipat cu un ax vertical şi un platou orizontal, facilitează montarea pieselor
grele şi voluminoase.
16) Preocuparea principală a specialiştilor prezenţi la conferinţă este în ce măsură aliajele de metal
şi ceramică opun rezistenţă presiunii şi căldurii.
17) Strungul CNC foloseşte procese CAD şi CAM pentru a proiecta piesa şi a programa modul de
acţionare a uneltei, iar apoi carbură de wolfram pentru a o prelucra.
18) Maşinile de rectificat se adresează ultimei faze de prelucrare, atunci când operatorul urmăreşte
obţinerea unei mari precizii de formă şi dimensiune, precum şi a unor suprafeţe perfect finisate.
19) Procedeele de prelucrare neconvenţională presupun îndepărtarea de microaşchii sub acţiunea
unui agent coroziv care cedează energie suprafeţei de prelucrat.
20) În zilele noastre, proprietăţile oţelului şi ceramicii sunt în permanenţă îmbunătăţite de chimişti,
pentru a coresounde celor mai exigente cerinţe.

Discussion Point

1. What is a machine-tool?
2. How many categories of machine-tools do you know?
3. Name some of the most common conventional machine-tools.
4. What are cutting fluids used for?
5. Give the definition of the cutting-tools.

120
UNIT FIVE: MACHINE TOOLS

6. What is a press?
7. What unconventional machine-tools do you know?
8. What is the nanometer scale?
9. What is nanotechnology?
10. What are the benefits and risks of nanotechnology?

121
UNIT SIX: CIVIL ENGINEERING17

Objectives: This unit aims to initiate the student into the field of civil engineering,
focusing on the most relevant events in the history of building construction as well as on the
architectural “wonders” of the past and present.

Keywords: civil engineering, architecture, building, construction, megastructure

Contents:

VI.1. Definition18

 Civil engineering = professional engineering discipline that deals with the design,
construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works like
roads, bridges, canals, dams, and buildings.
 Architecture = art and science of designing and erecting buildings and other physical
structures that are often perceived as cultural symbols and works of art.

VI.2. History of Building Construction19

Building construction is an ancient human activity. It began with the purely functional need
for a controlled environment and to moderate the effects of climate. Constructed shelters were a means

17
www.engineershandbook.com, accessed 17.12.2013;
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Building_construction, accessed 17.12.2013;
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/83859/building-construction, accessed 17.12.2013;
18
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Building_construction, accessed 17.12.2013;
19
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/83859/building-construction, accessed 17.12.2013;
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Building_construction, accessed 17.12.2013;

122
UNIT SIX: CIVIL ENGINEERING

by which human beings were able to adapt themselves to a wide variety of climates and become a
global species. Human shelters were at first very simple and perhaps lasted only a few days or months.
The first shelter on Earth constructed by a relatively close ancestor to humans is believed to have been
built 500,000 years ago by Homo Erectus. Over time, however, even temporary structures evolved into
such highly refined forms as the igloo. Gradually more durable structures began to appear, particularly
after the advent of agriculture, when people began to stay in one place for long periods. The first
shelters were dwellings, but later other functions, such as food storage and ceremony, were housed in
separate buildings. Some structures began to have symbolic as well as functional value, marking the
beginning of the distinction between architecture and building.

The history of building is marked by a number of trends:

- improving durability of the materials used: early building materials were perishable, such as
leaves, branches, and animal hides; later, more durable natural materials - such as clay, stone,
and timber - and, finally, synthetic materials - such as brick, concrete, metals, and plastics -
were used;
- questing for buildings of ever greater height and span: this was made possible by the
development of stronger materials and by knowledge of how materials behave and how to
exploit them to greater advantage;
- increasing the degree of control exercised over the interior environment of the buildings:
increasingly precise regulation of air temperature, light and sound levels, humidity, odours, air
speed, and other factors that affect human comfort;
- changing the energy available to the construction process, starting with human muscle power
and developing toward the powerful machinery used today.

Stone Age

 the earliest temporary shelters were built by the hunter-gatherers (foragers) of the late Stone Age,
in search of food; these shelters were crude huts made of wooden poles or tents made of animal skins,
presumably supported by central poles and all surrounded by circular rings of stones (e.g. Saudi
Arabian goat`s hair tent, Mongolian yurt, American Indian tepee);

123
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

 A tent illustrates the basic elements of environmental control that are the concern of
building construction. As cold water on the human skin absorbs body heat and air promotes heat loss,
the tent creates a membrane to shed rain and snow and reduces wind speed. It controls heat transfer by
keeping out the hot rays of the sun and confining heated air in cold weather. It also blocks out light and
provides visual privacy. The membrane must be supported against the forces of gravity and wind and
thus, a structure is necessary. Membranes of hides are strong in tension (stresses imposed by stretching
forces), but poles must be added to take compression (stresses imposed by compacting forces).

 agricultural revolution (10,000 BCE) – people no longer traveled in search of game or followed
their herds but stayed in one place to tend their fields  more permanent dwellings (e.g. tholoi, which
marked the beginning of the masonry construction, was built in Europe of dry-laid stone with domed
roofs and in the Middle East with walls made of packed clay; buildings were made of clay and wood
(wattle-and-daub method) in Europe and Middle East);
 heavier timber buildings (Neolithic age) with thatch roofing (dried grasses or reeds tied together in
small bundles) in Polynesia, Indonesia, Egypt;

Bronze Age

 the first large communities settled down in the great river valleys (e.g. the Nile, the Tigris and
Euphrates, the Indus, the Huang Ho) and developed into cities, built with the clay (adobe/mud bricks
made of mud and straw) available on the riverbanks;
 evolution from the free forms of packed clay to the geometric modulation imposed by the
rectangular brick;

 Bricks were made from mud and straw formed in a four-sided wooden frame, which was
removed after evaporation had sufficiently hardened the contents. The bricks were then thoroughly
dried in the sun. The straw acted as reinforcing element to hold the brick together when the inevitable
shrinkage cracks appeared during the drying process. The bricks were laid in walls with wet mud
mortar or sometimes bitumen to join them together; openings were apparently supported by wooden
lintels. In the warm, dry climates of the river valleys, weathering action was not a major problem, and
the mud bricks were left exposed or covered with a layer of mud plaster. The roofs of these early urban
buildings have disappeared, but it seems likely that they were supported by timber beams and were

124
UNIT SIX: CIVIL ENGINEERING

mostly flat, since there is little rainfall in these areas. Such mud brick or adobe construction is still
widely used in the Middle East, Africa, Asia, and Latin America.

Mesopotamia (3,000 BCE) – the first fired bricks were made using the kiln-firing technique (e.g.
Temple of Tepe Gawra, Ziggurats of Ur and Borsippa);

Europe - development of bronze and iron technology  metal tools for wood working (e.g. axes,
saws)  the first log cabins in the forested areas of Europe;

Egypt – cities built with mud bricks; fired bricks did not appear until Roman times; timber was used
sparingly and mainly in roofs, where it was heavily supplemented by reeds; just a few royal buildings
were built with full timber frames.

Egypt, unlike Mesopotamia or the Indus valley, had excellent deposits of stone exposed above
ground; limestone, sandstone, and granite were all available. But the extracting, moving, and working
of stone were a costly process, and the quarrying of stone was a state monopoly. Stone emerged as an
elite construction material used only for important state buildings.
The Egyptians developed cut stone for use in royal mortuary buildings not only for its strength
but also for its durability. It seemed the best material to offer eternal protection to the pharaoh’s ka,
the vital force he derived from the sun-god and through which he ruled. Thus, stone had both a
functional and symbolic significance.
Within the long tradition of brick masonry, stone construction appeared abruptly, with little
transition. The brick mastaba tombs of the early kings and nobles suddenly gave way to the stone
techniques of King Djoser’s ceremonial complex at Ṣaqqārah, the construction of which is associated
with his adviser and builder Imhotep.
The construction process began at the quarries. Most of them were open-faced, although in
some cases tunnels were extended several hundred metres into cliffs to reach the best quality stone. For
extracting sedimentary rock, the chief tool was the mason’s pick with a 2.5-kg metal head and a 45-cm
haft. With these picks vertical channels as wide as a man were cut around rectangular blocks, exposing
five faces. The final separation of the sixth face was accomplished by drilling rows of holes into the
rock with metal bow drills. Wooden wedges were driven into the holes to fill them completely. The
wedges were doused with water, which they absorbed and which caused them to expand, breaking the
125
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

stone free from its bed. In the extraction of igneous rock such as granite, which is much harder and
stronger than limestone, the mason’s pick was supplemented by balls of dolerite weighing up to 5 kg,
which were used to break the rock by beating and pounding. Granite was also drilled and sawed with
the help of abrasives, and expanding wooden wedges were used in splitting.
The Egyptians were able to move blocks weighing up to 1,000,000 kg from quarries to distant
building sites. This was an amazing accomplishment, as their only machinery was levers and crude
wooden sledges worked by masses of men and draft animals. There were no wheeled vehicles before
1,500 BCE, and they were never widely used in building. Most quarries were near the Nile, however,
and boats were also extensively used in transporting stone.
At the building site the rough stones were precisely finished to their final forms, with particular
attention to their exposed faces. This was done with metal chisels and mallets; squares, plumb bobs,
and straightedges were used to check the accuracy of the work. These tools remained standard until the
19th century. After the first appearance of small stones at Ṣaqqārah, their size began to increase until
they attained the cyclopean scale usually associated with Egyptian masonry at about the time of the
building of the pyramids. In spite of the heavy loads that stone structures created, foundations were of
a surprisingly shoddy and improvised character, made of small blocks of poor quality stone. Not until
the 25th dynasty (c.750–656 BCE) were important buildings placed on a below-grade (underground)
platform of masonry several meters thick.
The Egyptians possessed no lifting machinery to raise stones vertically. It is generally thought
that the laying of successive courses of masonry was accomplished with earth or mud brick ramps,
over which the stones were dragged to their places in the walls by animal and human muscle power.
Later, as the ramps were removed, they served as platforms for the masons to apply the final finishes to
the stone surfaces. The remains of such ramps can still be seen at unfinished temples that were begun
in the Ptolemaic period. The stones were usually laid with a bed of mortar made of gypsum, sand, and
water, which perhaps acted more as a lubricant to push the stone into place than as a bonding agent.
There was also limited use of metal dovetail anchors between blocks.

Greece – borrowed the Egyptian stone frame construction after 1,800 BCE  stone-frame temples
built largely of local marble or limestone; there was no granite for huge monoliths (e.g. Parthenon,
Pharos of Alexandria, Tombs of Mycenae);

126
UNIT SIX: CIVIL ENGINEERING

 development of clay masonry:


- mud brick remained standard for dwellings;
- fired brick began to be laid with lime mortar;
- glazed brick appeared in Babylonia and Persia;
- fired clay roof tile was invented, which was revolutionary as it was more waterproof than
thatch;
- hollow terra-cotta was used for wall ornaments.

Rome - the Romans derived much of their early building technology from the Etruscans (North of
Italy), who developed the true arch in stone, possessed a highly developed terra-cotta technology and
made excellent fired bricks  Romans adopted Etruscan stone construction based on the arch and built
spectacular opus quadratum, that is, structures of cut-stone blocks laid in regular courses, usually
public works in conquered provinces (e.g. Pont du Gard);
- brickmaking became a major industry as the brick arch was adopted to span openings in
walls, precluding the need for lintels; beginning with the 2 nd century BCE, mortar (at first a mixture of
sand, lime, and water) added a new ingredient – pulvis puteoli, after the town of Puteoli (modern
Pozzuoli), near Naples, a material formed in Mount Vesuvius and mined on its slopes, now called
pozzolana; when mixed with lime, it forms a natural cement that is much stronger and weather-resistant
than lime mortar alone and that hardens even under water;
- the mortar of lime, sand, water and pozzolana was mixed with stones and broken brick to
form a true concrete – opus caementicium, still used with brick forms in walls, but soon it began to be
placed into wooden forms, which were removed after the concrete had hardened (e.g. Temple of the
Sybil/Vesta at Tivoli); the creation of cross-vault buildings (e.g. Baths of Diocletian, Basilica of
Constantine at Trier);
- major advances in timber technology  the invention of the timber lattice truss bridges
used by the Roman armies to cross the Danube  a wide variety of trusses made from timber and then,
metal, especially bronze;
- lead – introduced by the Romans for roofs and then for pipes to supply fresh water to
buildings and remove wastewater from them;
- Romans applied glass to buildings (developed by the Egyptians, who used it for jewellery
and small ornamental vessels)  coloured glass for use in mosaics to decorate interior surfaces; they
made the first clear window glass, by blowing glass cylinders that were then cut and laid flat;
127
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

- open fire was replaced by the hypocaust (an open space below a floor that was heated by
gases from a fire or furnace and that allowed the passage of hot air to heat the room above).

Romanesque and Gothic

 5th century (disappearance of the Roman power) – decline in building technology, reduced to log
constructions, packed clay walls, mud bricks and wattle and daub; brick-making was rare until the 14th
century and pozzolanic concrete disappeared entirely until the 19th century when man-made cement
equaled it;
 China - advanced building technology (e.g. The Great Wall): larger arch spans in bridges,
development of heavy timber framing (especially for temples) and stone tower pagodas up to 60 m,
extensive use of fired brick;
 9th century – revival of the stone construction in Europe (e.g. Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne at
Aachen, Germany);
 late 11th century – Romanesque style with stone arches, vaults and domes to span interior spaces and
later, the Gothic style with catenary curve, groins (ribs at the intersections of the curved surfaces),
naves, spires, columns, aisles;
 slow development of timber construction  Scandinavian stave churches of heavy timber (11th-14th
century); from the 14th century - in Western Europe, the half-timber construction emerged as a new
form of house building; fired brick was made again in the 14 th century, being preceded in many areas
by the use of salvaged Roman brick;
 12th century – masonry fireplace and chimney replaced the central open fire;

Renaissance

 decline of the Gothic style and a return to the Roman style (e.g. arches, vaults and domes)  1350-
1750 – domed church (e.g. Cathedral of Florence, St.Peter’s Basilica in Rome, St.Paul’s Cathedral in
London); in addition to the Roman forms of masonry, this period recovered other Roman technology –
timber trusses; improvements in glass – crown glass (16th century in Venice); introduction of cast-iron
and clay-tile stoves placed in a free-standing position in a room;

128
UNIT SIX: CIVIL ENGINEERING

1st Industrial Revolution (England, 1st half of the 18th century)

 large-scale production of iron  1709 - Abraham Darby - the first to use coke as a fuel in the
smelting process;
 1784 – Henry Cort developed the puddling process for making wrought iron and the same year, he
built the first rolling mill, powered by a steam engine, to produce rolled lengths of wrought-iron bars,
angles and other shapes;
 large-scale use of cast iron  development of metal buildings: e.g. bridges, greenhouses,
conservatories and exhibition halls (made from iron and glass);
 emergence of the building science, particularly the elastic theory of structures (1807 - Thomas
Young - formulated the modern definition of the modulus of elasticity);
 19th century – industrialization of the brick production  pressed bricks (mass-produced by a
mechanical extrusion process in which clay was squeezed through a rectangular die as a continuous
column and sliced to size by a wire cutter);
 19th century - rapid development of timber technology in North America, where large forests of
softwood fir and pine trees were processed industrially; 1820s - steam and water-powered sawmills
began producing standard-dimension timbers in quantity; 1830s - the production of cheap machine-
made nails which helped creating the balloon frame;
 improvements in building services  environmental control technology began to develop
dramatically: use of coal gas for lighting (coal gas was first made in the 1690s by heating coal in the
presence of water to yield methane but in 1792 - William Murdock developed the gas jet lighting
fixture); steam heating (1784 – James Watt heated his own office with steam running through the
pipes) and later hot-water heating (that used coal-fired central boilers connected to pipes that
distributed the heated fluid to cast-iron radiators and returned it to the boiler for reheating); plumbing
and sanitation: public water-distribution systems, the metal valve-type water closet (Joseph Bramah,
1778), the first large one-piece ceramic lavatories and the ceramic washdown water closet (Thomas
Twyford, 1870s), the first porcelain-enamel cast-iron tub (1870), the double-shell built-in tub still used
today (1915);

129
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

2nd Industrial Revolution

 beginning with 1880 – the age of steel (first made for rails) and electricity (e.g. Eiffel Tower);
 early steel-frame high-rise buildings  1885 – Chicago – Home Insurance Company Building (a
10-storey building with a nearly completely all-metal structure);
 1895 – a mature high-rise building technology: the frame of rolled steel I beams with bolted or
riveted connections, diagonal or portal vertical bracing, clay-tile fireproofing, caisson foundation,
electric-powered elevators, electric light (e.g. Empire State Building);
 1895-1945 - long-span structures in steel developed slowly;
 reemergence of concrete in a new composite relationship with steel  higher-strength artificial
cements; lime mortar (lime, sand, water) was improved in the 18th century by the British engineer John
Smeaton, who added powered brick to the mix and made the first modern concrete by adding pebbles
as coarse aggregate; 1824 – Joseph Aspdin created the first true artificial cement – Portland cement
(limestone and clay burned together in a kiln);
 1850s – the builder François Coignet first used the iron-reinforced concrete; 1867 – Joseph Monier
obtained a patent for large concrete flowerpots reinforced with a cage of iron wires; 1920s – the first
shell construction in concrete;
 late 1850s – Elisha Graves Otis - the first safe steam-powered roped elevator with toothed guide
rails and catches; 1867 – Léon Édoux – steam-powered hydraulic elevator; 1889 – high-speed electric-
powered roped elevator; 1890s – escalator (electric-powered moving staircase);
 1858 – Michael Faraday – the first steam-powered electric generator to operate a large carbon-arc
lamp; 1879 – Thomas Edison and Joseph Swan – simultaneous invention of the carbon-filament bulb;
1908 – George Coolidge – tungsten-filament incandescent bulb; 1930 – double-coiled filament bulb
used today; 1938 – General Electric and Westinghouse - first commercial fluorescent discharge lamps
using mercury vapour and phosphor-coated tubes;
 the forced-air heating system (air replaced steam or water as the fluid medium of heat transfer)
replaced the steam and hot-water heating systems of the late 19th century, but needed powered fans to
move the air  by 1860s – crude fans for the ventilation of ships and mines; 1890s – electric-powered
fans; development of refrigeration machines for food storage; 1906 – Willis Carrier – a patent that
solved the problem of humidity removal by condensing the water vapour on droplets of cold water

130
UNIT SIX: CIVIL ENGINEERING

sprayed into an airstream  1922 – he developed his system of “man-made weather” – air-
conditioning system;
 1920s – first commercial insulations from mineral wools and vegetable-fiberboards; 1930 – foam
glass; 1938 – fiberglass wool;
 after World War II – the idea of a tall building as a glass prism, which employed the glass curtain
wall, a non-load-bearing “skin” attached to the exterior structural elements of the building (e.g. Hallidie
Building, San Francisco, 1918);
 1886 – aluminum began to be produced in the USA; 1950s – the development of extruded-
aluminum mullion and muntin shapes (to support the glass) and the use of stainless steel;
 1940s – the dome and the shell vault remained the major forms of long-span structures: e.g.
geodesic dome (R. Buckminster Fuller), lamella dome and concrete dome or shell (1950s);
 after 1945 – improvements in the high-rise structural systems of reinforced concrete: introduction of
the shear wall to stiffen concrete frames against lateral deflection resulting from wind or earthquake
loads;
 after 1950 – new forms of long-span roof based on: steel cables (e.g. bridges), cable-stayed roof
(e.g. hangars) and air-supported plastic membranes (e.g. swimming pools, warehouses, exhibition
buildings).

VI.3. Architectural Wonders of the World

VI.3.1. The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World

1) Great Pyramid of Giza (built 2584-2561 BC by the Egyptians) – the oldest of the seven
wonders, it was presumably built as a tomb for 4th dynasty Egyptian pharaoh Khufu and
constructed over a 20-year period;

2) Hanging Gardens of Babylon (built ~ 600 BC by the Babylonians and destroyed by


earthquakes after 1st century AD) – they are the only wonder whose location has not been
definitely established; they were said to have been built in the ancient city of Babylon (near
present-day Hillah, in Iraq) by the Neo-Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II for his Persian
wife, queen Amytis, who missed the green hills and valleys of her homeland;

131
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

3) Temple of Artemis at Ephesus (built ~ 550 BC and again at 323 BC by the Lydians, Greeks
and arsoned by Herostratus in 356 BC and then plundered by the Goths in 262 AD) – it was a
Greek temple dedicated to the goddess Artemis, located in Ephesus (near the modern town of
Selçuk, Turkey) and completely rebuilt three times before its final destruction in 401;

4) Statue of Zeus at Olympia (the temple was built between 466-456 BC and the statue in 435
BC by the Greeks and destroyed by fire during the 5th century AD) – it was a giant seated figure
(~ 13 m tall) made by the Greek sculptor Phidias in ~ 435 BC at the sanctuary of Olympia,
Greece and erected in the Temple of Zeus there; it was a sculpture of ivory plates and gold
panels over a wooden framework, which represented the god Zeus sitting on an elaborate
cedarwood throne ornamented with ebony, ivory, gold, and precious stones;

5) Mausoleum at Halicarnassus (built between 353-350 BC by the Carians, Greeks and


destroyed by 1494 AD by earthquakes) – a tomb (~ 45 m in height and with its four sides
adorned with sculptural reliefs) built at Halicarnassus (present-day Bodrum, Turkey) for
Mausolus, a satrap in the Persian Empire and Artemisia II of Caria, his wife and sister;

6) Colossus of Rhodes (built between 292-280 BC by the Greeks and destroyed in 226 BC by an
earthquake) – a statue (over 30 m high) of the Greek Titan Helios, erected in the city of Rhodes
to celebrate Rhodes` victory over the ruler of Cyprus, Antigonus I Monophthalmus, whose son
unsuccessfully besieged Rhodes in 305 BC;

7) Lighthouse (Pharos) of Alexandria (built between 280-247 BC by the Ptolemanic Egyptians


and destroyed by a series of earthquakes between 956-1323 AD) – a lofty tower of ~ 120-140
m, presumably built with solid rocks of limestone and a light-producing furnace at the top of it
served a a prototype for all later lighthouses in the world;

7`) Ishtar Gate (built ~ 575 BC) – the 8th gate to the inner city of Babylon, constructed (using
glazed brick with alternating rows of bas-relief dragons and aurochs) by order of King
Nebuchadnezzar II on the north side of city and dedicated to the Babylonian goddess Ishtar.
[originally considered the 7th wonder of the ancient world]

132
UNIT SIX: CIVIL ENGINEERING

VI.3.2. Other Wonders of the World

 Stonehenge (England)
 Colosseum of Rome (Italy)
 Great Wall of China (China)
 Hagia Sophia (Turkey)
 Leaning Tower of Pisa (Italy)
 Taj Mahal (India)
 Petra (Jordan)
 Machu Picchu (Peru)
 Chichen Itza (Mexico)
 Christ the Redeemer (Brazil)
 Potala Palace (Lhasa, Tibet, China)
 Old City of Jerusalem (Israel)

VI.3.3. The Seven Wonders of the Modern World20

1) Channel Tunnel (Strait of Dover, between UK and France)


2) CN Tower (Toronto, Canada)
3) Empire State Building (New York, USA)
4) Golden Gate Bridge (San Francisco, USA)
5) Itaipu Dam (Parana River, between Brazil and Paraguay)
6) Delta Works / Zuiderzee Works (Netherlands)
7) Panama Canal (Isthmus of Panama)

VI.4. Megastructures21

 World`s tallest building – BURJ KHALIFA (829.8m), Dubai, United Arab Emirates
 World`s tallest self supporting tower – TOKYO SKY TREE (634m), Tokyo, Japan
 World`s tallest clock building – ABRAJ AL BAIT TOWERS (601m), Mecca, Saudi Arabia

20
According to the American Society of Civil Engineers (2010);
21
http://natgeotv.com/uk/megastructures, accessed 27.12.2013;
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_largest_hotels_in_the_world, accessed 27.12.2013;
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_tallest_hotels_in_the_world, accessed 27.12.2013;
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Megastructures_(architecture), accessed 27.12.2013;
133
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

 World`s tallest twin towers – PETRONAS TWIN TOWERS (452m), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
 World`s tallest dam – NUREK DAM (300m), Nurek, Tajikistan; ROGUN (355m), Tajikistan –
under construction
 World`s longest dam – HIRAKUD (4,8 km), India
 World`s tallest monument – GATEWAY ARCH (192m), St. Louis, USA
 World`s tallest inclined structure – OLYMPIC STADIUM (175m), Montreal, Canada
 World`s tallest church – CHICAGO TEMPLE BUILDING (173m), Chicago, USA
 World`s tallest wooden church – CHURCH OF THE HOLY ARCHANGELS (72m high, 54m
tower), Şurdeşti, Romania
 World`s tallest church tower – ULM MINSTER (162m), Ulm, Germany
 World`s tallest industrial hall – VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING (160m), Kennedy Space
Centre, USA
 World`s tallest and fastest rollercoaster – KINGDA KA (138.98m), Jackson, USA
 World`s tallest tomb – GREAT PYRAMID OF GIZA (138.8m), Giza, Egypt
 World`s tallest lighthouse – JEDDAH LIGHT (133m), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 World`s tallest statue (with pedestal) – SPRING TEMPLE BUDDHA (128m), Lushan, China
 World`s tallest storage silo – HENNINGER TURM (120m), Frankfurt, Germany
 World`s longest bridge – DANYANG-KUNSHAN GRAND BRIDGE (164.800m), China
 World`s biggest tent – KHAN SHATYR (150m high, 200m elliptical base), Astana, Kazakhstan
 World`s largest hydro-eletric power plant – ITAIPU DAM (986m long, 112m high, 99m wide,
 World`s largest shopping mall – DUBAI MALL (1,200 shops), Dubai, UAE
 World`s largest hotel – IZMAILOVO HOTEL (7,500 rooms/suites), Moscow, Russia
 World`s tallest hotel – JW MARRIOTT MARQUIS DUBAI (355m, 77 floors), Dubai, UAE
 World`s longest tunnel – DELAWARE AQUEDUCT (137,000m, used for water supply), New
York, USA
 World`s longest road tunnel – LÆRDAL TUNNEL (24,510m), Lærdal-Aurland, Norway
 World`s longest and deepest rail tunnel – SEIKAN (54 km), Japan
 World`s longest undersea tunnel – CHANNEL TUNNEL (section under the sea – 38km),
France-UK
 World`s longest subway system – SEOUL METROPOLITAN AREA (940 km)
 World`s longest underwater pipeline (1,200km) - NORWAY-UK
 World`s longest road – PAN-AMERICAN HIGHWAY (48,000 km)

134
UNIT SIX: CIVIL ENGINEERING

 World`s longest fence – DINGO FENCE (8,500 km), Australia


 World`s largest garbage dump – GREAT PACIFIC GARBAGE PATCH – Pacific Ocean, 1,000
miles north of the Hawaiian Islands
 World`s longest structure – THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA (~6,325)

VI.5. Green Construction

 Green construction – it aims to design buildings or build environments with reduced


overall impact on the human health and the natural environment (e.g. Pearl River Tower
(China), World Trade Centre Bahrain).

Methods:
- efficiently using all sources of energy;
- using renewable resources;
- using low-impact building materials;
- reducing waste and pollution.

 Natural construction – it involves an entire range of building systems and materials that
are meant to ensure durability, using minimally processed, renewable, recycled or
salvaged resources, in order to create healthy living environments; without sacrificing
health, comfort or aesthetics, it relies more on human labour than on technology, with
the purpose of reducing the impact of buildings on the natural environment.

Methods:
- using and reviving traditional building methods and techniques;
- using natural and traditional materials: e.g. clay, sand, stone, adobe, cob, compressed earth
block, cordwood, earthbag, rammed earth, cellulose, stucco, straw bale, rice hulls, bamboo,
hemp, timber frame;
- using recycled or reused materials: e.g. tire bales, discarded bottles, recycled glass, urbanite,
etc.

135
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

Vocabulary

1) BUILDING MATERIALS (Materiale de construcţii)

 Additives (aditivi), adhesives (adezivi), glues (cleiuri), resins (răşini): rust oleum epoxy shield
(răşină epoxidică), gum (gumă, răşină lichidă), synthetic resin (răşină sintetică), anti-
corrosion materials (materiale anti-corozive);
 Composite materials / Composites (materiale compozite);
 Asphalt/bitumen (asfalt, bitum), asphalt concrete (asfalt beton, beton asfaltic), asphalt
cement (ciment asfaltic), asphalt flux (bitum fluxant, fondant, flux), asphalt grout (mortar
asfaltic), asphalt macadam, tarmac/tarmacadam/tar-penetration macadam (amestec din
piatră spartă compactată şi gudron), slag (zgură), pitch/tar (smoală, catran);
 Insulation materials:
a) thermal insulators: earth or soil, wood fibre (fibră lemnoasă), plant fibre (e.g. hemp
(cânepă), flax (in), cotton (bumbac), cork (plută), etc.), plant straw, animal fibre (e.g.
sheep's wool, cashmere wool, angora wool), cellulose, glass wool (vată de sticlă), rock
wool (vată minerală bazaltică), vermiculite (vermiculită), perlite (perlită), fiberglass
(fibră de sticlă), mica, neoprene, polyurethane foam (spumă poliuretanică), expanded
polystyrene (styrofoam) and extruded polystyrene, asphalt-treated paper (carton
asfaltat), asphalt-saturated/asphalted felt (hârtie de izolaţie, pergamin), housewrap
(izolaţie din materiale sintetice), rubber weatherstrip (bandă autoadezivă pentru izolaţie
geamuri sau uşi);
b) acoustic insulators (for soundproofing): porous absorbers (absorbanţi poroşi): rubber
foam (spumă de cauciuc), melamine sponge (burete melamină); resonant absorbers
(absorbanţi rezonatori): resonant panels (panouri rezonatoare);
c) fire protection materials (for fireproofing): asbestos, endothermic materials (e.g.
gypsum, concrete and other cementitious products);
d) water protection materials (for waterproofing): bitumen, bituminous membrane
(membrană bituminoasă), silicate (silicat), PVC, EPDM rubber (cauciuc sintetic
EPDM);
 Surface finishing materials:
a) cement (ciment), asbestos cement (azbociment), concrete (beton);
b) bituminous or wood shingle (şindrilă bituminoasă sau din lemn), wood shake (şindrilă
de lemn mai groasă şi mai puţin finisată), metal or concrete roof tile (ţiglă, olan metalic
sau din beton), porcelain or ceramic wall and floor tile (plăci ceramice sau din porţelan
pentru perete şi podea), quarry tile (placă din piatră de carieră), slabstone (lespede,
dală de piatră), paver (pavea), recomposed stone (piatră reconstituită), wallpaper
(tapet);

136
UNIT SIX: CIVIL ENGINEERING

c) marble (marmură), andesite (andezit), porphyry (porfir), granite (granit), terrazzo,


travertine (travertin), marmo-antico (finisaj decorativ mineral cu aspect poros şi
brăzdat, care imită travertinul), mosaic, sandstone (gresie), faience (faianţă), porcelain
(porţelan), wide plank (pardoseală din scânduri late de lemn), parquet, carpet-
flooring/carpeting (acoperire cu mochetă), linoleum, tarkett (tarchet);
d) laminated sheet (melaminat), metal or PVC profiles/sections (profile metalice sau din
plastic), plasterboard/gypsum board (rigips, gips carton), support board (placă suport),
corrugated board (placă ondulată), polycarbonate board (placă din policarbonat),
particleboard/chipboard (PAL, placă aglomerată din lemn), plywood panel (panel din
placaj);
e) lacquer (lac), waxy lacquer (lac cerat), acrylic protective lacquer (lac acrilic protector),
varnish/enamel (email, smalţ), shellac (şerlac), paint (vopsea), oil-based paint (vopsea
pe bază de ulei), water-based paint (vopsea pe bază de apă), washable paint (vopsea
lavabilă), super washable paint (vopsea superlavabilă), semi-glossy or glossy paint
(vopsea semilucioasă sau lucioasă), matt paint (vopsea mată), paint additive (aditiv
pentru vopsea), paint stripper/remover/cleaner (soluţie pentru decapare, curăţare
vopsea), paint thinner (diluant vopsea): acetone, MEK (methyl ethyl ketone), xylene,
mineral spirits/white spirit (alcool mineral), naphta solvent (solvent nafta), denaturated
alcohol (alcool denaturant), turpentine (terebentină);
f) wood finish (substanţă pentru lustruirea lemnului), wood paint (vopsea de lemn), wood
stain (baiţ, vopsea pentru lemn), wood glaze (substanţă pentru glazurarea lemnului),
wood primer (grund), wood preserver (substanţă pentru protejarea lemnului), wood
sealer (substanţă de etanşare a lemnului), wood pore fillers (substanţă pentru umplerea
porilor lemnului), anti-fungal paint (e.g. against wood borers (anti-carii) and mould
(anti-mucegai), etc.), anti-slip floor paint (vopsea de podea anti-alunecare);
 Masonry materials:
a) mortar (mortar), plaster (tencuială, glet), gypsum (gips), gypsum plaster (ipsos), grout
(tencuială subţire pentru umplerea găurilor din perete, pastă de ciment sau mortar),
lime (var), loam (humă), putty (chit), primer paint (amorsă), saw dust (rumeguş), sand
(nisip), gravel (pietriş), pebble stone (piatră-bolovan), ballast (balastru), coarse
aggregate (agregat grosier), rubble stone (piatră brută), quarry stone (piatră brută de
carieră), crushed rock (piatră concasată), ashlar (piatră cioplită în diferite forme),
square stone (piatră cubică), bluestone (piatră de apă, calcantit), curbstone / kerbstone
(piatră de bordură), rag (piatră dură de construcţii), riprap (anrocament, pereu);
b) natural materials: adobe/cob (chirpici), shale/slate (ardezie), clay (lut, argilă), fireproof
clay (şamotă), terra-cotta (teracotă, argilă arsă), animal dung/dirt (bălegar), mud (glod,
noroi), silt/loess (nămol), peat (turbă), mud brick (a firefree brick, made of a mixture of
clay, mud, sand, and water mixed with a binding material such as rice husks or straw),
compressed earth block (CEB = a mix of dirt, non-expansive clay, and an aggregate
formed into a compressed block), rammed earth (a mixture of raw materials such as
earth, chalk, lime and gravel), straw bale (balot de paie), wattle and daub (a composite
building material used for making walls, in which a woven lattice of wooden strips
137
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

called wattle is daubed with a sticky material usually made of some combination of wet
soil, clay, sand, animal dung and straw), thatch (stuf), bamboo (bambus), rice hulls (coji
de orez), hide (piele de animal), wood (lemn), stone (piatră), rock (rocă, bucăţi mari de
piatră), rubber (cauciuc), ice (gheaţă), water (apă);
c) synthetic materials: brick (cărămidă), checker-brick (cărămidă cu goluri), glass brick
(cărămidă de sticlă), glass (sticlă), matt glass (sticlă mată), plexiglass sheet (placă
acrilică Plexiglass), artificial stone (piatră de beton, artificială), cement, concrete,
concrete masonry unit (CMU)/concrete block/cement block/foundation
block/prefabricated block (bolţar), autoclaved cellular concrete (ACC)/autoclaved
aerated concrete (AAC) (BCA, beton celular autoclavizat), concrete slab (placă de
beton), steel concrete (oţel beton), reinforced concrete (beton armat), fiber reinforced
concrete (beton armat cu fibre), precast concrete (beton prefabricat), prestressed
concrete (beton pretensionat, precomprimat), self-compacting concrete (SCC) (beton
autocompactat), translucent concrete (beton translucid), prefabricated materials
(materiale prefabricate);
d) geosynthetics/geosynthetic materials (polymeric products): geotextile (produs geotextil),
geogrid (geogrilă), geonet (georeţea), geomembrane (geomembrană), geofoam (bloc
din polistiren expandat sau extrudat), geocell (geocelulă), geocomposite (geocompozit);
e) reused or recycled materials: urbanite (salvaged chunks of used concrete), tires, tire
bales (“cărămizi” din anvelope), discarded bottles and other recycled glass;
 Metal: metal sheet/plate (tablă), corrugated sheet (tablă ondulată), galvanized/zinc-plated
sheet (tablă zincată), alloys (aliaje):
 non-ferrous metals: alumin(i)um (aluminiu); beryllium (beriliu); copper (cupru); lead
(plumb); magnesium (magneziu); nickel (nichel); precious metals (metale preţioase):
gold, silver, platinum; refractory metals (metale refractare): tungsten, tantalum,
molybdenum, columbium (niobium); tin (staniu); titanium (titan); zinc;
 ferrous metals: iron (fier), wrought iron (fier forjat), argentan/alpaca (alpaca), bronze
(bronz), brass (alamă), cast iron/pig iron (fontă), steel (oţel), carbon steel (oţel carbon),
alloy steel (oţel aliat), stainless steel (oţel inoxidabil), tool steel (oţel de scule), high-
strength low-alloy (HSLA) (oţel de înaltă rezistenţă slab aliat);
 Plastics: film/coat/coating (peliculă), thin film (peliculă subţire), fiber (fibră), elastomer
(elastomer);
 Ceramics: metallic oxides (oxizi de metal): e.g. alumina, beryllium oxides, zirconia; glass
ceramics, nitrides and carbides (e.g. silicon nitrides, boron carbide, silicon carbides, tungsten
carbides), glass (sticlă), carbon and graphite (e.g. carbons, graphites, carbon composites),
porcelain (porţelan), ceramic fibers;
 Composites: polymer-matrix composites, ceramic-matrix composites, metal-matrix
composites;
 Wood:
1) types of wood:
a) hardwood (lemn de esenţă tare): ash (frasin), aspen/poplar (plop), birch
(mesteacăn), cherry (cireş), elm (ulm), hazel (alun), mahogany (mahon),
138
UNIT SIX: CIVIL ENGINEERING

maple (arţar), oak (stejar), teak (tek), ebony (abanos);


b) softwood (lemn de esenţă moale): cedar (cedru), spruce (molid), pine (pin);
c) fine wood (lemn nobil)
2) types of carpentry:
a) rough carpentry:
- heavy timber/lumber (cherestea din lemn masiv), log (buştean), raw timber
(lemn brut), heartwood (lemn de duramen), hewn timber (lemn cioplit),
debarked/peeled wood (lemn cojit), worm-eaten/wormy wood (lemn cariat),
fissured wood (lemn cu gelivuri), veined wood (lemn cu nervuri), knotty wood
(lemn noduros), petrified wood (lemn pietrificat), rotted wood (lemn putrezit), ;
- engineered wood (lemn stratificat), dimensional lumber (lemn tăiat la
dimensiunea dorită), square-edged timber/rectangular timber (lemn ecarisat),
round-edged timber (lemn cu secţiune circulară), cordwood (trunchi de copac
decojit), treated lumber (lemn tratat), resinous wood (lemn răşinos);
- plywood (placaj), shiplap (scândură folosită la construirea de barăci,
hambare, grajduri, anexe, etc.), oriented strand board (OSB) (placă
aglomerată orientată), parallel strand lumber (“para-lam”) (placă cu straturi
exterioare paralele), glued laminated timber (“gluelam”)(lemn laminat încleiat);
b) finish carpentry or “architectural woodwork”: veneer (furnir), (plastic)
laminate floor (podea laminată), wood clad/panel/wainscot (lambriu), wood
molding (US)/coving (UK) (cornişă din lemn), baseboard/base molding (plintă),
timber board (scândură), chair rail/dado rail (şină despărţitoare a soclului),
wood lath (şipcă), rung (leaţ), wooden pole (par de lemn), stake (ţăruş);
 Other types of materials:
a) art materials, craft materials (e.g. beads, bones, modeling clay);
b) textile materials: fur (blană), leather (piele), wool (lână), cotton (bumbac), cloth (pânză
obişnuită, stofă), linen (pânză de in), felt (pâslă), tarpaulin (prelată), oil cloth
(muşama), dyes (vopsele pentru materiale textile);
c) packaging materials: bubble wrap (pungă din folie cu bule de aer), Ziploc bag (pungă cu
închidere la un capăt), burlap (pânză groasă de sac), raffia, cardboard (carton), paper,
cellophane, tin foil (staniol), aluminized foil (folie aluminizată), foam (material
spumant, expandat, spongios), jute (iută), straw (paie), plastic, polystyrene, Velcro
(“scai”, “arici”);
d) biodegradable materials (materiale biodegradabile);
e) fuels (combustibili), coolants (fluide, lichide, agenţi de răcire), fibers (fibre), gels
(geluri), oils (e.g. cooking oil, essential oils, motor oil, petroleum), granular materials
(materiale granulare), electrical insulators (materiale electroizolante), thermal
insulators (materiale termoizolante), conductors (materiale conductoare), semi-
conductors (materiale semi-conductoare), heterogeneous mixtures (suspensions),
lubricants (e.g. lanolin, silicone, Teflon, castor oil), waxes (e.g. beeswax, lanolin,
paraffin);

139
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

f) minerals, polymers, nuclear materials (e.g. uranium, plutonium), semiconductor


materials (e.g. silicon, diamond), refractory materials (e.g. graphite), superhard materials
(e.g. diamond, corundum), smart materials (e.g. smart fluid, shape memory alloy, smart
window, smartdust).

2) BUILDING ELEMENTS (Elementele unei construcţii)

 foundation (fundaţie): subgrade (fundaţie naturală a unui drum), footing (talpa fundaţiei),
“stem” walls/foundation walls (pereţii fundaţiei), vertical elements (piers, columns),
piling/sheet-pile (palplanşă), shuttering/formwork (cofraj construcţie), mat (slabs usually of
reinforced concrete):
- deep foundation (fundaţie de adâncime): caisson foundation (fundaţie pe
chesoane), pile foundation (fundaţie pe piloţi);
- shallow foundation (fundaţie superficială): spread footing foundation (fundaţie
cu talpă lată), mat-slab foundation (bloc de fundaţie din beton simplu), slab-on-
grade foundation (fundaţie cu radier general), pad foundation (fundaţie tampon,
intermediară), rubble trench foundation (fundaţie din anrocamente), earthbag
foundation (fundaţie pe pernă de balast), cantilever foundation (fundaţie în
consolă), stepped foundation (fundaţie în trepte), raft foundation (fundaţie pe
radier);
 structural elements (elemente structurale): frame/framing (schelet), shell (schelet de
rezistenţă), timber frame/post and beam frame (schelet de lemn, format din stâlp şi grindă),
bracing (elemente de rigidizare), reinforcement (armătură), stanchion (montant), Iron-beam/I-
beam (grindă de fier), crossbeam (traversă, grindă transversală), truss (used to span the roof
where no attic space is needed (grindă cu zăbrele), metal joist (grindă metalică), column
(coloană), stud (stâlp de susţinere), rebar (reinforced bar), wire rope and cable (cablu de
sârmă), floor (podea), “platform” frames, wall (perete), curtain wall (perete-cortină), roof
(acoperiş), ceiling (plafon): dropped ceiling (plafon fals) or coffered ceiling (plafon casetat);
 retaining walls (ziduri de ranforsare a solului): mechanically stabilized earth, soil nailing,
tieback elements (elemente de suţinere pentru ranforsarea unui zid), gabion (gabion), slurry
wall (zid de ranforsare în zonele din apropierea apelor), slurry trench (ecran de gel-beton),
backfill / mound (rambleu), embankment (terasament);
 building envelope/enclosure (izolaţia unei clădiri): cladding/siding (acoperire metalică sau
prin placare a unei clădiri), bevel siding/lap siding/clapboard/weatherboard (placarea
exterioară a unei clădiri cu scânduri suprapuse), sheathing (placarea exterioară cu lemn a unei
clădiri);
 metal fabrications (elemente metalice): stairway (scară), railing (balustradă), grating (grătar
orizontal), fence grating (grilaj), Strut channel (şină pentru suporturi), hanger (agăţător, cârlig
de agăţare);

140
UNIT SIX: CIVIL ENGINEERING

 masonry (zidărie): brick (cărămidă), concrete block (bolţar/BCA), cavity wall (zid dublu, zid
cu gol), wythe (strat de zidărie), joint (rost), expansion joint (rost de dilataţie), quoin (colţar
din cărămidă);
 thermal, noise, fire and moisture protection (damp proofing): fire hydrant (hidrant de
incendiu);
 roofing (acoperiş): top plate/roof wall plate (cosoroabă), joist (pop, stâlp vertical de susţinere),
roof truss/framing (şarpantă), rafter (căprior), roof girder (grindă de sub acoperiş), roof beam
(grindă de planşeu), strut (contrafişă/contrafort), roof rake (muchia înclinată a acoperişului,
care coboară perpendicular de la coamă la straşină), soffit (intrados), gable (fronton), eaves
(streaşină, jgheab), roof valley (dolie la învelitoare), roof boarding/batten (astereală), anti-
condensation film (foaie anticondens), roof covering (învelitoare), roll roofing/membrane
(învelitoare sub fomă de sul), single-ply roof covering (învelitoare dintr-un singur strat), built-
up roofing (învelitoare din mai multe straturi), shingle (şindrilă), roof tile (ţiglă), sheet metal
(tablă), terne metal roof (acoperiş din tablă cositorită împotriva coroziunii), fascia board
(pazie), coping/ridge (creastă, coamă), ridge purlin/hip jack rafter (pană de coamă, grindă
orizontală);
 water draining system (sistem de evacuare a apei): rain gutter (jgheab),
downspout/waterspout (burlan), splash block/guard (tăviţă de beton sau plastic aşezată sub
burlan, pentru a controla scurgerea apei), catch basin (bazin de captare a apei), storm
drain/storm sewer (gură de canal), access manhole (cămin de apă, gură de vizitare), manhole
ring (inel de cămine), manhole cover (capac de canal), street gutter (rigolă), underground drain
(conductă subterană de evacuare), sewer/sewage system (conductă de evacuare a apei
menajere, sistem de canalizare), culvert (canal de scurgere pe sub şosele, linii ferate, etc.);
 doors (uşi): door frame (ancadrament uşă), frame and panel door/rail and stile door (uşă cu
ramă şi panel), access door (uşă de acces), glass door (uşă cu sticlă), French window
(fereastră-uşă, uşă dublă din sticlă de sus până jos), tambour door (uşă cu rulou), folding door
(uşă retractabilă), garage door (uşă de garaj), access hatch (trapă/uşă vizitare), trapdoor
(trapă), door stopper/door stop (opritor uşă), gate (poartă), fence (gard), threshold (prag);
 windows (ferestre): window pane (denumire generic pentru geam, compus din sticlă şi ramă),
glazing (sticla/vitrajul unei ferestre), double-glazing (vitraj/strat dublu de sticlă al unei
ferestre), heat-mirror (insulating) glass (sticlă termoizolantă), window frame (ancadrament,
rama ferestrei), window sash (tocul ferestrei), window head (partea superioară orizontală a
ramei ferestrei), window jambs (părţile laterale verticale ale ramei ferestrei), window grilles
(şipcile care împart sticla ferestrei în mai multe ochiuri), window sill (pervaz, glaf), window
casement (cerceveaua/rama părţii mobile a ferestrei), double hung window (fereastră a cărei
parte inferioară mobilă culisează vertical peste cea superioară fixă), bay window (fereastră
ornamentală în formă de trapez, ieşită în afara zidului), bow-window (bovindou, fereastră
ornamentală în formă de arc de cerc, ieşită în afara zidului), curtainwall (perete-cortină din
sticlă), skylight (luminator), dormer-window (lucarnă, fereastră de fronton), wooden
shutters/blinds (obloane din lemn), plastic shutters/blinds (jaluzele din plastic), roller shutters
(jaluzele cu rulou);

141
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

 window and door hardware (feronerie): lock (încuietoare, zăvor, broască), padlock (lacăt),
trick lock / puzzle lock (lacăt cu cifru), door knob (clanţă rotundă), door lever (clanţă clasică),
window lever (mâner al ferestrei), window pull (băţ ataşat de o fereastră, care ajută la
deschiderea acesteia), hinge (balama), shutters blocker (blocator obloane);
 interior & exterior surface finishing (finisare interioară & exterioară): painting (zugrăvire):
3D murals/bas relief (basoreliefuri), faux finishing, fresco (frescă), gilding (poleire, aurire),
wall stenciling (aplicarea pe pereţi a unor desene cu ajutorul unor şabloane), trompe l`oeil),
plaster boarding/gypsum boarding (aplicarea plăcilor de rigips), floor and wall tiling (aplicare
de gresie şi faianţă), floor screeding (nivelare podea);
 interior & exterior trimming:
- interior trimming: baseboard / base molding (plintă), casing (ancadramente
ferestre şi uşi), dado (soclu de cameră), chair rail (şină despărţitoare a soclului),
ceiling rose (rozetă de tavan), crown mould (cornişă de tavan);
- exterior trimming: shingle mould (cornişă de acoperiş), skirting board (şipca
soclului de pe marginea unei scări), shutters (jaluzele);
 furnishing: wood decking (acoperirea unei terase cu scânduri de lemn); subflooring
(amenajarea podelei oarbe); parqueting/wood flooring (amenajarea pardoselei): high/heavy
traffic parquet (parchet de trafic intens), layered parquet (parchet stratificat), click-lock system
laminate parquet (parchet laminat cu click); sheathing (placarea exterioară cu lemn a unei
clădiri); paneling (lambrisare); tongue and groove joint (T&G) (îmbinarea în lambă şi uluc);
carpentry (tâmplărie); ornamental woodwork (produse ornamentale din lemn); millwork:
bookcase (bibliotecă), cabinet, window casing (toc de fereastră), mantelpiece (poliţă deasupra
căminului), moulding (fâşie decorativă folosită în diferite zone ale pereţilor);
 HVAC (heating, ventilation and air-conditioning): ducted air-conditioning;
 electrical systems and equipment (sisteme şi echipamente electrice): power grid (reţea
electrică), transformer (transformator), panelboard (tablou electric, de distribuţie), electrical
wiring (circuite electrice), fuse switch (disjunctor cu fuzibil), conduit (conductor, tub protector),
grounding (împământare), power plug and socket (ştecher şi priză), jack (mufă), circuit breaker
(întrerupător, disjunctor), electrical connector (conector electric), switch (comutator), fuse
(siguranţă), blown fuse (siguranţă arsă);
 lighting system (sistem de iluminare): light bulb (bec), light fitment (corp de iluminat), lighting
trough (scafă pentru iluminat indirect), lamp (lampă), lampshade (abajur);
 plumbing (instalaţii sanitare): well (puţ, fântână), hose (furtun), pipe/tube (ţeavă), pipeline
(conductă), sillcock (robinet al unei ţevi), conduit (colector), siphon conduit/main (colector în
sifon), siphon (sifon), fixtures (baterii sanitare, dispozitive sanitare fixe), fittings (garnituri,
accesorii), water-supply systems (sisteme de alimentare cu apă), drainage/sewarage system
(sistem de evacuare a apei menajere), wastewater treatment plant (staţie de epurare);
 conveyor systems (sisteme de transport): elevator/lift (ascensor), escalator (scară rulantă),
moving sidewalk (US)/ travelator (UK) (bandă rulantă orizontală sau înclinată);
 security systems (sisteme de siguranţă);
 telecommunication systems (sisteme de telecomunicaţii);

142
UNIT SIX: CIVIL ENGINEERING

 other elements: abacus (abacă), apse/apsis (absidă), acanthus (acantă), entablement


(antablament), architrave (arhitravă), arch (arcadă), trussed arch (arc rigidizat cu grinzi), wing
(aripă), railing (balustradă), baluster (balustru, stâlp scurt de susţinere a balustradei), edge
(cant), column (coloană), counterfort/buttress (contrafort), counterscarp (contraescarpă), cornice
(cornişă), dome (dom, cupolă), frieze (friză), fronton (gable), architectural rod (lansetă), vault
(boltă, construcţie care acoperă ceva), corbel (brâu de perete, consolă), corbel vault (arc gotic,
ascuţit), round arch and vault (arc şi boltă rotunde), keystone (cheie de boltă), flying buttress
(arc butant), ogive/pointed arch (ogivă), cradle vault (boltă în leagăn), barrel vault (boltă în
formă de semi-cilindru), groin vault (boltă în cruce), rib vault (boltă cu nervuri), fan vault (boltă
pe care nervurile se întâlnesc sub forma unui „ventilator”), isle (navă), rose window (rozetă),
wheel window (geam fără sticlă, traversat de „spiţe” de piatră), oculus (sg.)/oculi (pl.)
(deschidere circulară în vârful unui dom sau în perete), passage (culoar de trecere),
palisade/stakewall (palisadă), skywalk/skyway/skybridge (pasarelă suspendată care
interconectează două clădiri), landing (suprafaţă aflată în partea de sus a scărilor), pilaster
(pilastru), pylon (pilon), spire (turn), radio or TV mast (stâlp pe care se montează antene radio-
TV), naos/cella and pronaos (naos şi pronaos), stairway/staircase (scară), stairwell (casa scării),
pillar/post (montant, stâlp principal), bay (travee), lintel (buiandrug), ornament (ornament),
statue (statuie), gargoyle (gargui), mihrab (nişă semi-circulară în peretele unei moschei, care
indică direcţia în care se află Mecca), fence (gard), fence post (stâlp de gard), fence panel
(panou de gard), kerb/curb (bordură);
 rooms and spaces of a house: street frontage (front stradal), facade (faţadă), floor (etaj văzut
din interior), storey (etaj văzut din exterior), garret/loft (mansardă), attic (pod), mezzanine
(mezanin), basement (subsol, beci, pivniţă), semi-basement (demisol), groundfloor (parter),
physical plant (întreaga infrastructură, totalitatea sistemelor care funcţionează într-o clădire),
room (cameră, încăpere), bedroom (dormitor), living-room (cameră de zi), dining-room
(sufragerie), drawing-room/sitting-room (salon), nursery (cameră pentru copii), study (birou,
cameră de lucru), kitchen (bucătărie), pantry (cămară), bathroom (baie), lumber room (debara),
balcony (balcon), terrace (terasă), yard (curte), courtyard (curte interioară), garden (grădină),
orchard (livadă), lawn (peluză), porch (verandă), walkway/alley (alee), canopy/sunblind
(copertină), windbreak (protecţie împotriva vântului), pergola (pergolă), garden pavilion (foişor
de grădină), moat (şantul unei cetăţi);

3) TYPES OF BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES (Tipuri de construcţii şi structuri)

a) Agricultural buildings: farmhouse (fermă), storm cellar/storm shelter (adăpost subteran


împotriva furtunii), shed (magazie), well house (construcţie ridicată în jurul unei fântâni sau al
altei surse de apă), chicken coop (coteţ pentru găini), pigsty (coteţ pentru porci), cow-shed
(grajd pentru vaci), stable (grajd pentru cai), greenhouse/hothouse (seră), hayloft (şură, pod cu
fân), barn (hambar), grainery (grânar), silo (siloz), root cellar (spaţiu subteran sau semi-
subteran de sine stătător, pentru depozitarea alimentelor), watermill (moară de apă), wind mill

143
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

(moară de vânt), tide mill (moară acţionată de flux şi reflux), horse mill (moară acţionată de
cal);
b) Commercial buildings: low-rise building (clădire care are până la 3 etaje), high-rise building
(clădire cu mai mult de 3 etaje), skyscraper (zgârie-nori), multi-storey building (clădire cu mai
multe etaje), office building, bank, stock exchange, warehouse, gas station, center, forum,
drinking & eating establishments (e.g. bar, club, coffee house, pub, restaurant), accommodation
(e.g. hotel, motel), entertainment facilities (e.g. brothel (bordel), casino, nightclub), shop, store,
market, supermarket, shopping mall;
c) Residential buildings: house, mansion (conac), villa, semi-detached house (duplex), apartment
block, flat/apartment (apartament obişnuit), condominium (apartament în clădire comună),
bed-sitting room/bedsit (apartament închiriat de mai multe persoane, unde fiecare chiriaş
ocupă o cameră, iar baia şi bucătăria sunt comune), studio apartment (garsonieră), railroad
apartment (apartament tip vagon), separate-room apartment (apartament decomandat), loft
apartment (apartament la mansardă), penthouse apartment (apartament de lux, care ocupă
toată suprafaţa ultimului eatj al unei clădiri), dormitory (dormitor comun în internate, cămine,
etc.), nursing home (sanatoriu, azil pentru persoane vârstnice sau cu diferite probleme), asylum
(azil pentru persoane cu probleme mintale);
d) Educational buildings: school, gymnasium, college, university, students` union, library,
museum, art gallery, theater, amphitheater, concert hall, movie theater/cinema, opera house,
symphony;
e) Government buildings: city hall (primărie), consulate (consulat), courthouse (tribunal),
embassy (ambasadă), Parliament, fire station, police station, post office, prison (închisoare);
f) Industrial buildings: factory (fabrică), plant (uzină), power plant (centrală electrică), brewery
(fabrică de bere), distillery (distilerie), foundry (turnătorie), mine (mină), refinery (rafinărie),
mill (moară);
g) Military buildings: command centre (centru de comandă), barracks (cazarmă), bunker
(buncăr), blockhouse (fort mic, izolat, compus dintr-o singură clădire), fort (fort), fortification
(fortificaţie), defensive wall (zid de apărare);
h) Parking and storage: aircraft hangar (hangar), boathouse (adăpost pentru bărci), garage
(garaj), warehouse (depozit);
i) Religious buildings: shrine/sanctuary (altar, sanctuary, loc sfânt), church (biserică), basilica
(bazilică), cathedral (catedrală), dome (dom), chapel (capelă), oratory (paraclis, loc de
rugăciune), martyrium (edificiu religios construit deasupra sau lângă mormântul unui martir),
abbey/priory/monastery (abaţie, mănăstire), temple (templu), mosque/”masjid” (moschee),
musalla (moschee neoficială, improvizată), minaret (minaret), pyramid (piramidă), synagogue
(sinagogă), pagoda (pagodă), stupa (stupă), gopura (sg.)/gopuram (pl.) (turn bogat ornamentat,
aflat la intrarea într-un templu indian), vihara (mănăstire budistă), wat (temple-mănăstire din
Cambogia şi Thailanda);
j) Transit stations: cosmodrome (cosmodrom), airport (aeroport), airport terminal (terminal de
aeroport), marina (port turistic, pentru ambarcaţiuni de agrement), port/harbor (port
commercial), bus station, trolley-bus station, train/railway station, signal box (haltă), subway
station;

144
UNIT SIX: CIVIL ENGINEERING

k) Other:
a) wall (zid), tower (turn), lattice tower/truss tower (turn în zăbrele), guyed tower (turn
ancorat), water tower (turn de apă), aqueduct (apeduct), viaduct (viaduct), dam (baraj),
sluice (canal de derivaţie, stavilă de baraj), water lock (ecluză), levee
(US)/dyke/embankment/floodbank (dig), breakwater (dig construit aproape de mal
pentru a proteja un port sau ţărmul), flood barrier/surge barrier (sistem de protecţie
împotriva excesului de apă), wharf/quai (cheu, dană), bridge (pod), arch bridge (pod în
arc), cantilever bridge (pod în consolă), truss bridge (pod de grinzi cu zăbrele), girder
bridge (pod cu grinzi longitudinale), slab bridge (pod cu dale), suspension bridge (pod
suspendat), floating bridge (pod suspendat), bascule bridge (pod basculant), drawbridge
(pod care se ridică manual, întâlnit în special la cetăţi), tunnel (tunel), lighthouse (far);
b) observatory (observator), meteo station (staţie meteo);
c) citadel (cetate), castle (castel), palace (palat);
d) bathhouse (clădire care găzduieşte băi publice), aquarium, oceanarium, planetarium,
zoo, casino;
e) hospital (spital), asylum (sanatoriu de boli mintale), nursing home (azil), hospice
(centru de îngrijire paliativă), prison (închisoare);
f) stadium (stadion), sports arena (arenă sportivă);
g) shipyard (şantier maritim), oil rig (platformă petrolieră);
h) archaeological site (sit arheologic), historic monument (monument istoric), museum
(muzeu), memorial house (casă memorială), triumphal arch (arc de triumf), obelisk
(obelisc).

4. CIVIL ENGINEERING VEHICLES AND OTHER EQUIPMENT


(Utilaje şi alte echipamente folosite în construcţii civile)

a) tractor, truck (camion), dumper (autobasculantă, vagonet basculant);


b) bulldozer (buldozer), excavator/digger → scoop/bucket (cupă) and drill (picon), caterpillar
(maşină pe şenile), earth mover (utilaj pentru terasamente);
c) earth rammer (compactor pentru pământ), plate compactor (placă compactoare), road roller
(rulou, cilindru compresor rutier), steamroller (cilindru, tăvălug compresor cu aburi), road
leveler/grader (maşină de nivelat suprafaţa drumurilor);
d) crane (macara), winch (troliu), piler (motostivuitor);
e) wheelbarrow (roabă), pail/bucket (găleată), shovel (lopată);
f) concrete mixer (betonieră), high-frequency concrete vibrator/jolter (vibrator de beton de înaltă
frecvenţă), jolt rammer (mai compactor), electric generator (generator de curent), weighing
machine (basculă, cântar pentru greutăţi mari);
g) ladder (scară), scaffolding (schelă);
h) toolbox/tool kit (trusă de scule), hand tools (unelte de mână);
i) wall scraper (maşină de răzuit), caulking gun (maşină de astupat găuri), lacquer impregnation
and drying system (sistem de impregnare şi uscare a lacurilor);
145
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

j) paint brush (pensulă), whitewashing brush (bidinea), wire brush (perie de sârmă), (plastering)
trowel (mistrie), grouter (gletieră), wall roller (trafalet), chisel (daltă), putty knife (şpaclu, cuţit
pentru chituire);
k) wire (sârmă, fir), barbed wire (sârmă ghimpată), tube (tub), insulating tube (tub izolator), lead
wire/cable (cablu), aerial cable (cablu aerian), armoured cable (cablu armat), ribbon cable
(cablu-bandă, acoperit cu benzi sudate), tape cable (cablu pat-bandă), screened cable (cablu
ecranat), coaxial cable (cablu coaxial), insulated cable (cablu izolat), uncovered cable (cablu
neizolat), extension cablu (cablu prelungitor), punctured cable (cablu străpuns), crossover
cable (cablu încrucişat), nails (cuie), brad (cui fără cap), flat headed nail (cui cu cap plat), core
nail (cui pentru miezuri), splint/cotter (cui spintecat), dowel (diblu), rivet (nit), tacks/drawing
pins (piuneze), staples (capse), drill (burghiu), screw (şurub), wood-screw (şurub pentru lemn,
holţ-şurub), ball screw (şurub cu bile), bolt (bolt), nut (piuliţă), collar (şaibă), metal cramps
(crampe metalice), tile spacers (distanţieri gresie şi faianţă), mesh tape (plasă pentru
crăpăturile din pereţi), wall reinforcement mesh (plasă de armare perete), adhesive tape
(bandă adezivă), self-adhesive tape (bandă autoadezivă), insulating electrical tape (bandă
izolatoare), parcel tape (bandă pentru colete), masking tape (bandă de hârtie, folosită pentru
mascare), sandpaper (şmirghel), sanitary silicone (silicon sanitar);
l) dust sheet (material cu care se acoperă mobila sau diferite obiecte pentru a le proteja de praf),
dust cloth (cârpă de praf), dust wipe (şerveţel pentru şters praful), dust sponge (burete de şters
praful), dust mask (mască anti-praf).

5. HAND TOOLS (Unelte de mână)

a) knife (cuţit), dagger (pumnal), scalpel (bisturiu), clasp knife/penknife (briceag), Swiss army
knife (cuţit multifuncţional), wire stripper/wire stripping knife (cuţit pentru dezizolarea
cablurilor), cutter;
b) hammer (ciocan), mallet (mai, ciocan de lemn), sledgehammer (baros, ciocan de spart piatră),
ball-peen hammer (ciocan cu cap sferic, rotund), claw hammer (ciocan cu vârf spintecat, pentru
scos sau bătut cuie), upholstery hammer (ciocan de tapiţerie), anvil (nicovală);
c) axe (topor), hatchet (bardă), machete (macetă), ice axe (piolet);
d) screwdriver (şurubelniţă), spanner (cheie pentru piuliţe), wrench (cheie franceză): double open-
end wrench (cheie fixă), double handled tap wrench (cheie cu două mânere), adjustable wrench
(cheie reglabilă), pipe wrench (cheie pentru ţevi), plumber wrench (cheie pentru instalaţii),
skeleton key (şperaclu);
e) scissors/shears (foarfece), pinking shears (foarfece cu lamă tip ferăstrău, pentru materiale
textile), loppers/hand pruners (foarfece pentru tufe, crengi), pliers/tongs (patent, cleşte), dog
nose pliers (cleşte cu vârful lung şi subţire), pincers (cleşte de scos cuie şi tăiat sârmă), nippers
(cleşte de tăiat sârmă), tweezers (pensetă), wire cutter (cleşte de tăiat sârmă), wire stripper
(cleşte pentru îndepărtarea izolaţiei de pe fire), file (pilă), stapler (capsator de hârtie), staple
gun (capsator de cuie), staple remover (dispozitiv pentru îndepărtarea capselor sau a cuielor);

146
UNIT SIX: CIVIL ENGINEERING

f) woodworking hand tools: wood sanding machine (maşină de îndreptat lemn/răzuit şi de


rindeluit), planer (rindea), (wood) saw (ferăstrău), backsaw (ferăstrău cu coadă), two-man saw
(ferăstrău manual cu dublă acţionare), coping saw (ferăstrău cu pânză subţire), plane (rindea),
rasp (raşpilă de lemn), caliper (şubler), spirit level/bubble level (poloboc, nivelă cu bule de
aer);
g) agricultural hand tools: shears (cleşte), secateurs (foarfece scurt de grădină), shovel (lopată),
hoe (sapă), rake (greblă), spade (hârleţ), pickaxe/mason`s pick (târnăcop), hand sprinkler
(stropitoare de mână), hosepipe (furtun pentru irigaţii), sprinkler (aspersor).

Additional Vocabulary

zoning = planificare teritorială, zonare


urban planning = planificare urbană
real estate developer = dezvoltator imobiliar, care asigură fondurile necesare unui proiect imobiliar
surveyor = topograf
construction managers = manageri care coordonează diferite echipe implicate în proiect
consultants & (construction) site supervisors (consultanţi şi diriginţi de şantier) → consulting &
(construction) site supervising / management (consultanţă şi dirigenţie de şantier)
licensed architect = architect autorizat
landscape architect = architect peisagist
interior designer = designer de interior
contractor = contractor, care prestează anumite servicii de construcţie sau asigură instalarea
diferitelor sisteme într-o clădire
facility manager = persoana care răspunde de buna funcţionare a unei clădiri
building design = proiect de construcţie
floor plan = schiţă de imobil
construction documents = documente necesare în construcţii
 building plans/drawings (e.g. architectural drawings and elevations, floor plans,
structural & mechanical & electrical drawings, finish selections) (schiţe de construcţie)
 construction permits = autorizaţii de construcţie
 construction warranty expiry date = expirarea garanţiei unei construcţii
bid = licitaţie → bid specifications = caiet de sarcini
→ tender documentation = documentaţie de licitaţie, documentaţie referitoare la apelul
de oferte
land (p)lot = parcelă de teren
construction site = şantier
turnkey project = proiect la cheie
to lay out / to set up = a amenaja
147
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

siting = amplasare, amplasament


design = proiectare
construction = construire
operation = exploatare
maintenance = întreţinere
repair = reparare
renovation = renovare
decoration = decorare
demolition = decorare
refurbishment and extension = reabilitare şi extindere
retrofitting = îmbunătăţirea unor sisteme sau echipamente vechi din locuinţe cu elemente sau
tehnologie de ultimă generaţie
hydrotechnical works = lucrări hidrotehnice
to lay asphalt = a aşterne covor asfaltic
to patch potholes = a plomba gropile de pe şosele
to raise the height of the manhole cover = a ridica la cotă capacul de canal
structural height = înălţime structurală a unei clădiri, măsurată de la nivelul străzii până la ultimul
element architectural
road camber / cross slope = bombament, pantă transversală a unui drum
construction flaw = viciu de construcţie

Exercises

Translate into English:

1) Oamenii primitivi locuiau vara afară, în colibe, însă odată cu venirea iernii, ei se mutau în
peşteri, în faţa cărora construiau protecţii de piatră împotriva vântului.
2) O “casă în roşu” reprezintă o construcţie care include fundaţia, pereţii şi structura acoperişului,
dar care nu beneficiază încă de finisaje şi de partea exterioară a acoperişului.
3) În Egiptul antic, doar templele erau construite din piatră, în timp ce locuinţele şi chiar palatele
regale erau ridicate din cărămizi de pământ.
4) Cu ajutorul unei echipe profesioniste, firma noastră vă pune la dispoziţie “case la cheie”,
garantându-vă în acelaşi timp un excelent raport preţ-calitate.

148
UNIT SIX: CIVIL ENGINEERING

5) De obicei mici şi modeste, casele grecilor antici erau construite din cărămizi de pământ, având
acoperişurile din ţigle de lut iar podeaua din chirpici, var sau mozaic.
6) Realizarea instalaţiilor electrice, sanitare, de încălzire şi gaze, precum şi racordarea la utilităţi
presupun toate costuri suplimentare pentru client.
7) Romanii înstăriţi locuiau în locuinţe private, ale căror încăperi erau proiectate în aşa fel încât să
aibă vedere către o curte interioară deschisă, numită atrium, sau către o grădină înconjurată de
ziduri.
8) Turnarea fundaţiei şi a planşeului a fost realizată folosind cel mai utilizat material de construcţie
– betonul.
9) Locuinţele aztecilor şi mayaşilor erau sărăcăcios mobiliate, acestea neavând mese, scaune,
perdele sau covoare, ci doar un mic altar închinat zeilor, alături de câteva rogojini, pe care
oamenii din toate clasele sociale se aşezau şi dormeau.
10) În ultimii ani, compania a ridicat în mai multe zone din ţară case din lemn rotund, calibrat şi
necalibrat, dar şi din lemn ecarisat.
11) Ridicată din blocuri de piatră şi acoperită cu o iarbă rezistentă numită ichu, o locuinţă tipică
incaşă avea de obicei un singur etaj şi era locuită de o singură familie, care însă împărţea
aceeaşi curte interioară cu alte familii din acelaşi clan.
12) Amprenta la sol a viitoarei noastre cabane este mult mai mare decât a fost proiectată iniţial.
13) În China imperială, orientarea unei locuinţe, dispunerea şi dimensiunea încăperilor, numărul de
scări şi toate elementele interioare erau gândite pentru a fi în deplină armonie cu natura.
14) Lucrările de dulgherie şi tâmplărie implică nu doar stăpânirea unor tehnici de lucru, ci şi un
simţ estetic bine dezvoltat.
15) Folosirea pe o scară tot mai largă a lemnului şi a pietrei naturale decorative trădează tendinţa
unei categorii de persoane de reîntoarcere la natură şi origini.
16) Proiectul oricărei case bogate chinezeşti includea, în antichitate, grădini luxuriante, livezi,
iazuri, foişoare sau turnuri de observaţie.
17) Deoarece o construcţie fără izolaţie termică poate pierde până la 70% din căldură, în ultimii
cinci ani s-a înregistrat un avânt în termoizolarea clădirilor.
18) Pentru renovarea şi mansardarea casei noastre, am contractat o firmă de construcţii care ne-a
înaintat o ofertă foarte avantajoasă din perspectiva preţului şi a timpului de execuţie.

149
Ioana Raluca Crăciun - E N G L I S H F O R T E C H N I C A L P U R P O S E S – P A R T I –

19) Din cauza mediului natural foarte dificil, japonezii construiau case cu un singur etaj şi din
materiale uşoare, cum ar fi paie, hârtie sau lemn, fiindcă în caz de cutremur sau inundaţii,
acestea nu produceau răni foarte grave persoanelor aflate în interior.
20) Eleganţa fierului forjat este rezultatul măiestriei împletirii metodelor de prelucrare tradiţionale
cu cele moderne.

Discussion point

1. What is the difference between civil engineering and architecture?


2. Where did early humans live?
3. Name some important moments in the history of building construction.
4. Comment upon one of the wonders of the ancient world.
5. Comment upon one of the wonders of the modern world.
6. What megastructures do you know?
7. How do you define a green building?
8. Where would you like to live: in a house or in a flat?
9. Make a description of your own house/flat.
10. What hand tools do you usually need in your household activities?

150
BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Mahajan, Shobhit, The Story of Inventions. From Antiquity to the Present, h.f.ullmann, Tandem
Verlag GmbH, 2008;
2. Marea enciclopedie a cunoaşterii, vol. 2 – Ştiinţă şi progres, Editura Litera Internaţional, 2009;
3. Stiinţa şi tehnologia, Editura Reader`s Digest, Colecţia Cheia cunoaşterii, Bucureşti, 2008;
4. Brookes, Michael; Lagoutte, François, Engleza pentru informatică, Editura Teora, Bucureşti, 2001;
5. Schmenk, Andreas; Wätjen, Arno; dr. Köthe Rainer, Multimedia şi lumile virtuale, traducere din
limba germană de Mihai Moroiu, Colecţia CE ŞI CUM, Enciclopedia RAO, 2000;
6. Niculescu, Gabriela; Dobre, Romaniţa-Christina (coordonator); Cincu, Corneliu; Costescu, Radu,
Dicţionar tehnic ROMÂN – ENGLEZ, Editura Tehnică, Bucureşti, 2004;
7. Cincu, Cornel; Cismaş, Ioan; Croitoru, Marcel; Dobre, Romaniţa; Mândrescu, Nicolae; Petrescu,
Cristina; Petrescu, Dragoş; Niculescu, Gabriela (coordonator), Dicţionar tehnic ENGLEZ – ROMÂN,
Ediţia a II-a revăzută şi adăugită, Editura Tehnică, Bucureşti, 2004;
8. Savu, Nicolae F.; Ionescu, Marian C., Dicţionar tehnic ROMÂN – ENGLEZ de metalurgie, auto,
construcţii de maşini, Editura Fast Print, Bucureşti, 2000;
9. Dănilă, Viorica, Engleza Tehnică şi Dicţionar de termeni şi expresii, Editura Colosseum, Bucureşti,
1995;
10. Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners. International Student Edition, 2006.

* Revista DESCOPERĂ, anul VI, nr. 2 (54), martie 2008.


* Revista ŞTIINŢĂ ŞI TEHNICĂ, anul LXII, nr. 31, decembrie 2013, Ediţie specială.

www.wikipedia.com
www.britannica.com
www.stiintasitehnica.com
www.engineershandbook.com
www.slideshare.net
www.infoplease.com
www.nbcnews.com
www.geniusstuff.com
www.omgtoplists.com
www.toptenz.net
www.infoniac.com
Encarta Encyclopedia 2008

151