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Important considerations when design protection system.

1. Types of fault and abnormal Conditions to be protected

2. Quantities available for measurement
3. Types of protection available
4. Speed
5. Fault position discrimination
6. Dependability / reliability
7. Security / stability
8. Overlap of protections
9. Phase discrimination / selectivity
10.CT’s and VT’s ratio required
11. Auxiliary supplies
12. Back-up protection
13. Cost
14. Duplication of protection
Types of protection
A - Fuses
For LV Systems, Distribution Feeders and Transformers, VT’s, Auxiliary

B - Over current and earth fault

Widely used in All Power Systems
1. Non-Directional
2. Directional.

For feeders, Bus-bars, Transformers, Generators etc
1. High Impedance
2. Low Impedance
3. Restricted E/F
4. Biased
5. Pilot Wire

D - Distance
For transmission and sub-transmission lines and distribution feeders, also used
as back-up protection for transformers and generators without signaling with
signaling to provide unit protection e.g.:
1. Time-stepped distance protection
2. Permissive underreach protection (PUP)
3. Permissive overreach protection (POP)
4. Unblocking overreach protection (UOP)
5. Blocking overreach protection (BOP)
6. Power swing blocking
7. Phase comparison for transmission lines
8. Directional comparison for transmission lines

E - Miscellaneous:
1. Under and over voltage
2. Under and over frequency
3. A special relay for generators, transformers, motors etc.
4. Control relays: auto-reclose, tap change control, etc.
5. tripping and auxiliary relays

Fast operation: minimizes damage and danger
Very fast operation: minimizes system instability discrimination and security
can be costly to achieve.
1. differential protection
2. differential protection with digital signaling
3. distance protection with signaling
4. directional comparison with signaling

Fault position discrimination

Power system divided into protected zones must isolate only the faulty
equipment or section

Dependability / reliability
Protection must operate when required to Failure to operate can be extremely
damaging and disruptive Faults are rare. Protection must operate even after
years of inactivity Improved by use of:
1. Back-up Protection and
2. duplicate Protection

Security / Stability
Protection must not operate when not required to e.g. due to:
1. Load Switching
2. Faults on other parts of the system
3. Recoverable Power Swings
Overlap of protections
1. No blind spots
2. Where possible use overlapping CTs
Phase discrimination / selectivity
Correct indication of phases involved in the fault Important for Single Phase
Tripping and auto-Reclosing applications

Current and voltage transformers

These are an essential part of the Protection Scheme. They must be suitably
specified to meet the requirements of the protective relays.
1A and 5A secondary current ratings, Saturation of current transformers during
heavy fault conditions should not exceed the limits laid down by the relay
Current transformers for fast operating protections must allow for any offset in
the current waveform. Output rating under fault conditions must allow for
maximum transient offset. This is a function of the system X/R ratio.
Current Transformer Standards/Classes:
British Standards: 10P, 5P, X
American: C, T.
Location of CTs should, if possible, provide for overlap of protections. Correct
connection of CTs to the protection is important. In particular for directional,
distance, phase comparison and differential protections. VT’s may be
Electromagnetic or Capacitor types. Busbar VT’s: Special consideration needed
when used for Line Protection.

Auxiliary supplies

Required for:
1. Tripping circuit breakers
2. Closing circuit breakers
3. Protection and trip relays
• AC. auxiliary supplies are only used on LV and MV systems.
• DC. auxiliary supplies are more secure than ac supplies.
• Separately fused supplies used for each protection.
• Duplicate batteries are occasionally provided for extra security.
• Modern protection relays need a continuous auxiliary supply.
• During operation, they draw a large current which increases due
to operation of output elements.
Relays are given a rated auxiliary voltage and an operative auxiliary voltage
the rated value is marked on the relay. Refer to relay documentation for details
of operative range. it is important to make sure that the range of voltages which
can appear at the relay auxiliary supply terminals is within the operative range.
IEC recommended values (IEC 255-6):
Rated battery voltages:
12, 24, 48, 60, 11 0, 125, 220, 250, 440
Preferred operative range of relays:
80 to 10% of voltage rated
AC. component ripple in the dc supply:
<10% of voltage rated

The cost of protection is equivalent to insurance policy against damage to plant,
and loss of supply and customer goodwill.
Acceptable cost is based on a balance of economics and technical factors. Cost
of protection should be balanced against the cost of potential hazards there is an
economic limit on what can be spent.

Minimum cost:
Must ensure that all faulty equipment is isolated by protection
Other factors:
1. Speed
2. Security/Stability
3. Sensitivity:
Degree of risk in allowing a low level fault to develop into a more
severe fault
4. Reliability

Total cost should take account of:

1. Relays, schemes and associated panels and panel wiring
2. Setting studies
3. Commissioning
4. CT’s and VT’s
5. Maintenance and repairs to relays
6. Damage repair if protection fails to operate
7. Lost revenue if protection operates unnecessarily

Distribution systems
1. Large number of switching and distribution points, transformers and
2. Economics often overrides technical issues
3. Protection may be the minimum consistent with - statutory safety
4. Speed less important than on transmission systems
5. Back-up protection can be simple and is often inherent in the main
6. Although important, the consequences of maloperation or failure to
operate are less
serious than for transmission systems.

Transmission systems
1. Emphasis is on technical considerations rather than economics
2. Economics cannot be ignored but is of secondary importance compared
with the need for highly reliable, fully discriminative high speed
3. Higher protection costs justifiable by high capital cost of power system
elements protected.
4. Risk of security of supply should be reduced to the lowest practical
5. High speed protection requires unit protection
6. Duplicate protections used to improve reliability
7. Single phase tripping and auto-reclose may be required to maintain
system stability