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FLOUR AS FOUNDATION a. Whole Fresh Milk- cow’s milk containing a minimum of milk
Flour is a finely ground meal or powdery product obtained fat and non-fat milk solids
from milling cereal grains, root crops, starchy vegetables and b. Evaporated Milk- made from fresh whole milk
other foods. There are different kinds of flour depending on the c. Skim Milk- varying amounts of milk fat is removed from
raw materials used such as rice flour, potato flour, soya flour, whole milk
cassava flour and several others. d. Condensed Milk- with sugar added and water removed
The protein content of flour is called gluten exist in dry e. Filled Milk- with added vitamins
form. Gluten is responsible for the tough, rubbery and elastic f. Buttermilk- a low-fat or fat-free milk to which a bacterial
property when flour is mixed with water and other liquids. culture has been added. It has a mildly acidic taste. Sour
Gluten is composed of approximately equal proportions of milk, made from milk and lemon juice or vinegar, can be
glutenin and gliadin. Glutenin gives the dough strength to hold substituted in baking recipes.
leavening gases and determines the structure of the bakes g. Fat-free half-and-half:- Made mostly from skim milk, with
products. Gliadin gives elastic or stretching properties of gluten. carrageenan for body, this product can bring a creamy flavor
FLOUR to recipes without added fat.
- the main ingredient or framework of baked products h. Light cream and half-and-half:- Light cream contains 18 to
- contributes color, texture and flavor 30 percent milk fat. Half-and-half is a mixture of milk and
- improve the nutritive value cream.
- use for various cooking products like thickening agent, i. Non-fat dry milk powder- When reconstituted, this milk
binding, dredging and stiffening agent product can be used in cooking.
Types of Flour: j. Sour cream and yogurt- Sour cream is traditionally made
a. Bread Flour-BF (Hard Wheat) from light cream with a bacterial culture added, while
- Strong Flour or First Class Flour yogurt is made from milk with a bacterial culture added.
- contains 12% or more gluten Both are available in low-fat and fat-free varieties.
- Used in breads, rolls and almost all yeast-raised k. Whipping cream- It contains at least 30 percent milk fat and
dough production because of its high protein can be beaten into whipped cream.
content. c. Fruit Juice
- When rubbed between fingers it feels rough or - can be a substitute for water and milk
sandy, dry and granular - add flavor to baked products- example: pineapple
- Has a creamy color. juice, orange juice
- When pressed together, does not lump easily. SUGAR AND RELATED PRODUCTS
b. All- Purpose Flour- APF (Semi Hard Wheat) - aside from sweet taste, it gives appetizing golden
- Family Flour or General Flour and sometimes color
referred to as Pastry Flour. - makes baked products tender because of its
- contains 10 to 12% gluten and it is used in almost all property to retain moisture
bakery goods from breads, pastries, cookies and - acts as food of the yeast in yeast bread
cakes - add aroma and energy value to the baked products
- good substitute for bread flour or cake flour Types of Sugar
- if used for bread, it needs more kneading and less a. Granulated Sugar- it is refined sugar that is
mixing to prevent gluten development commonly used at home.
- when you rub it between your fingers it feels b. Brown Sugar- it is partially purified product
smooth and if pressed hardly on your hands, it holds ranging from light to dark brown. Regular
its shape granulated sucrose containing various
c. Cake Flour- CF (Soft Wheat) impurities that give distinctive flavor
- Soft Flour c. Confectioner’s Sugar/ Powdered Sugar-
- 10% or less gluten combination of sugar and cornstarch, with the
- used in cakes, cookies and other baked goods that latter added to prevent caking. Its fine, smooth,
need little or no gluten at all and powder- like quality makes it excellent for
- its color is usually white and it feels glossy and making candies, icings, frostings and dessert
smooth like powder sauces.
- clumps a bit and tends to hold its shape if pressed d. Caster Sugar-it is refined white sugar with size
with your hands between that of granulated and confectioner’s
- whiter than bread and all-purpose flour. sugar. It is used in cakes and dessert-making
d. Other types- rye, buckwheat, corn flour and others are because it easily dissolves without forming
often used only for specialized types of baking. Each lumps.
imparts a distinct quality to the finished product. SHORTENING
e. Durum flour – it is usually enriched and used to make  May be single fat or oil or a combination of several fats and
noodles oils.
f. Self-rising flour- basically ordinary all-purpose flour that  general term used for fats or oils used to tenderized baked
has baking powder and salt added to it. products
LIQUID INGREDIENTS  contributes to the fluffy and tender texture of pie crust and
a. Water cookies
- it helps disperse other ingredients  assists in the uniform dispersions of leavening gas
- the cheapest among all liquid ingredients  increase volume, give shape and texture to baked products
- used to hold the batter or dough together and to Classification of Shortening
blend all the ingredients a. Butter – this is mainly used for cakes and cookies. Its
b. Milk shortening value is inferior to that of lard. Butter does not
- gives delightful aroma cream well and lacks uniformity. Butter contributes a
- provides improve nutrition, flavour and eating desirable sweet “buttery” flavor to food.
quality b. Margarine- An artificial butter product made from various
- helps improve color of the crust hydrogenated fats and flavorings, unlike butter, margarine
- improve texture and (increases) volume due to the mainly consists of vegetable fat and skim milk. Margarine
increased ability of milk to absorb water and butter may look the same. However, margarine lacks
the distinct flavour that butter has. 80 percent vegetable oil c. Chocolate – popularly used in the baking of cakes, pies and
that is partially hydrogenated to hold a solid form. The cookies. They provide variety as well as body and bulk to the
remaining 20 percent is liquids, flavoring, coloring, and mix or icing.
other additives. Margarine may be salted or unsalted. Milk chocolate is at least 10-percent pure chocolate with added
c. Lard – this is best for breads, biscuits, pie crust and a few cocoa butter, sugar, and milk solids.
types of cakes and cookies. Hog fat or lard is usually solid Semisweet and bittersweet chocolate can be used interchangeably.
even at room temperature. Also use for greasing pans. They contain at least 35-percent pure chocolate with added cocoa
EGGS butter and sugar.
- one of the best protein foods Sweet chocolate is dark chocolate that contains at least 15-percent
- used for added structure, richness and nutrition, and good pure chocolate with extra cocoa butter and sugar.8
keeping quality Unsweetened chocolate is used for baking and cooking rather than
- help to support the weight of the sugar and shortening, thus snacking. This ingredient contains pure chocolate and cocoa butter
keep the product from becoming heavy with no sugar added.
- serves as a means of incorporating air Unsweetened cocoa powder is pure chocolate with most of the
- supply liquid to batter and dough cocoa butter removed. Dutch-process or European-style cocoa
LEAVENING AGENT powder has been treated to neutralize acids, making it mellower in
– gas added or produced during the mixing and/or heating flavor.
of a batter or dough making the mixture rise. White chocolate, which has a mild flavor, contains cocoa butter,
- makes baked product light and porous sugar, and milk solids. Products such as white baking bars, white
- volume increases as the air entrapped in the flour mixture baking pieces, white candy coating, and white confectionery bars are
expands when heated sometimes confused with white chocolate. While they are often used
Three Types of Leavening Agents interchangeably in recipes, they are not truly white chocolate
a. Biological/ Natural Enzyme because they do not contain cocoa butter.
- Yeast is a single-celled plant capable of MEASUREMENTS, CONVERTIONS AND SUBSTITUTION
converting sugar to alcohol and carbon ABBREVIATIONS USED IN RECIPES
dioxide in a process known as p. = pinch
Fermentation. sp. = speck
b. Chemical/Commercial f.g. = few grains
- Baking Powder-A leavening t., tsp., TSP. = teaspoon
agent containing both baking T., tbs., tbsp., TBSP = tablespoon
soda and one or two acids - Oz. = ounce
c = cup
citric or tartaric. It reacts
pt. = pint
without acid from the other
qt. = quart
ingredients when wet and when
gal. = Gallon
it becomes hot. The baking powder used at home is pk. = peck
"double-acting" because it has two types of acid - one reacts bu. = bushel
when liquids are added in the bowl and the other reacts lb., # = pound
when it becomes hot during baking. Carbon dioxide is the doz., dz. = dozen
gas produced that "lifts" the batter and makes a light min. = minute
product in the end. hr. = hour
- Baking Soda (Sodium Bicarbonate) A chemical leavening C. = degrees Celsius
agent that releases carbon dioxide when acids or acid F. = degrees Fahrenheit
sources are added to it such as sour milk, molasses and STANDARD OF WEIGHT AND MEASURES
cream of tartar. Baking soda has one other advantage in the 1 tablespoon = 3 teaspoon
kitchen -- it's a natural fire extinguisher.Always mix with 2 tablespoon = 1/8 cup = 28.35 grams = 1 ounce
other dry ingredients before adding any liquid, since 4 tablespoon = ¼ cup
leavening begins as soon as soda comes in contact with 5T+1t = 1/3 cup
liquid. ½ cup+1/4 cup = ¾ cup
c. Water Vapor or Steam contributes to the improvement of ¾ cup plus2 T = 7/8 cup
the texture and volume of the dough. 16 tablespoon = 1 cup = 8 ounces
d. Cream of Tartar (potassium hydrogen tartrate) - used to 2 cups = 1 pint
4 cups = 1 quart = 2 pints
stabilized the egg whites and allow them to reach its full
16 ounces = 1 pound
8 cups = ½ gallon = 2 quarts
1 pound ( lb.) = 463.59 grams
- (Sodium Chloride) 1 kilogram ( kg. ) = 2.21 pounds
- enhance and correct the flavor of other ingredients in the 1 gram = .035 ounces
dough 1 medium orange = ¼ to ½ cup ( slice )
- used to control and regulate the fermentation process in the 1 medium apple = 1 cup slice
bread making 14 oz. can condensed milk = 1 ¼ cups
- it toughens the gluten , thus permits greater volume 14 oz, can evaporated milk= 1 2/3 cups
- allows absorption or more water, sugar caramelizes more 1 lb. brown sugar = 2 ¼ cups (packed)
readily 1 lb. confectioner sugar = 3 ½ cups
FLAVORING AGENTS 1 lb. confectioner sugar = 2 ½ cups
- the amount to be used depends on the customer’s desire and 1 lb. nuts = 4 ½ cups
the baker’s knowledge of their concentration 1 lb. dried nuts = 2 cups
a. Spices and Seeds- finely ground, aromatic vegetable products 5 whole eggs = 1 cup
to improve the quality of cooked food (example: mace, 12 egg yolks = 1 cup
cinnamon, nutmeg) 8 egg whites = 1 cup
b. Flavorings- extracts are solutions of the flavors in ethyl 1 bar butter = 1 cup = ½ pound
alcohol or other solvent (example: orange, lemon and 1 stick butter = ½ cup
vanilla extract)
1 gallon (gal.) = 4 quarts
1 quart = 2 pints = 964.4 milliliters 2. Check if it is filled up to the measuring mark. Do
1 teaspoon ( tsp. or t.) = 4.9 milliliters not lift the cup when measuring
1 tablespoon (T. or tbsp. ) = 14.8 milliliters E. Milk
15 ounces raisins = 3 cups a. Liquid form
CONVERSION / SUBSTITUTION OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 1. Pour milk into the glass measuring cup up to the
1 cup all-purpose flour............ 1 cup + 2 tbsp cake flour measuring mark. Do not lift the cup.
1 tablespoon cornstarch.......... 2 tablespoon all-purpose flour
1 cup sifted cake flour.............. 7/8 cup all-purpose flour sifted
b. Powdered milk
……………. 1 cup all purpose flour minus 2 tablespoon 1. Remove lumps in milk by stirring
1 cup sugar granulated ........... 1 1/3 cup brown sugar, lightly packed 2. Scoop lightly to fill the measuring cup or spoon
1 cup honey .............................1 ¼ cup sugar plus 1 /2cup liquid without shaking until it overflows
1 ounce chocolate .................. 3 tablespoon cocoa plus 1 tablespoon fat 3. Use the spatula or straight edge of the knife to
1 teaspoon baking powder..... ½ teaspoon cream of tartar + ¼ tsp. baking soda level the measurement
1 teaspoon active dry yeast .....1 package (7gram) dry yeast compressed yeast
Accuracy in measuring basic ingredients is especially
1 square unsweetened chocolate....... 3 tablespoon cocoa plus 1 tablespoon fat necessary when baking bread, pies and cakes. Ingredients are
1 cup butter ...... 1 cup margarine ………….. 7/8 cup of lard plus ½ teaspoon salt measured by weight, volume and some other convenient means:
1 c. whole milk ..... 1/2 c.p evap milk + ½ c. water…1 c. water + ¼ c. powdered 1. Weight Measurement- the usual scale used for weighing is the
milk dietetic scale (500 grams) of the spring balance type. The knob on
1 cup milk........ 3 tbsp. of sifted non - fat dry milk plus 1 c. water, 6 tbsp of sifted
the numbered face may be “zeroed” after placing an empty
crystals plus 1 cup water
1 cup butter milk or sour milk .......1 ¾ tsp. of cream of tartar plus 1 c. of sweet container can then be read directly.
milk 2. Volume Measurement- cups are used in measuring the volume of
ingredients. The glass cup with headspace above the calibrated level
MEASURING DRY AND LIQUID INGREDIENTS ACCURATELY is used for liquid ingredients and the metal cup with no headspace
A. Flour above is used for dry ingredients.
1. Sift the flour 3. Other Means- a convenient means of measuring portions is by
2. Scoop to fill the measuring cup to overflow. DO NOT SHAKE. noting down weights and volume of manufactured foods as indicated
3. Level off with spatula on the label of standard packages, which is on cans, cartons, bags
and the like. For example: 1 pound of butter means to 2 cups, and a
THE MOST ACCURATE WAY TO MEASURE FLOUR IS BY WEIGHT: number 2 can liquid contains 2 cups.
All-Purpose Flour: 1 cup = 120-130 grams = 4¼ ounces
Bread Flour: 1 cup = 130 grams = 4½ ounces STORAGE OF INGREDIENTS
Cake Flour: 1 cup = 110 grams = 4 ounces FLOUR
Whole Wheat Flour: 1 cup = 120 grams = 4¼ ounces  Store in tightly covered containers to keep out dust,
moisture and insects.
B. Sugar  Store in a dry place at room temperature. It may be stored
a. White sugar for 2-3 months.
1. Sifting is not necessary before measuring unless it is lumpy
2. Fill the measuring cup until overflowing. DO NOT SHAKE THE MILK
CUP.  Unopened cans of evaporated or sweetened condensed
3. Level off with spatula milk may be stored at room temperature.
b. Brown sugar  Once opened, they should be refrigerated immediately.
1. Check if the sugar is lumpy before measuring. Roll out the
lumps. Remove the dirt. SUGAR
2. Scoop into the measuring cup and pack compactly until it  Sugar should be stored in a covered container and in dry
follows the shape when inverted. place.
THE MOST ACCURATE WAY TO MEASURE SUGAR IS BY WEIGHT:  Brown sugar should be stored in an airtight container to
Granulated Sugar: 1 cup = 200 grams = 7 ounces keep the sugar from drying out.
Caster Sugar: 1 cup = 200 grams = 7 ounces
Light Brown Sugar: 1 cup = 215 grams = 7½ ounces EGGS
Dark Brown Sugar: 1 cup = 230 grams = 8 ounces  Eggs should be stored in the refrigerator with large end up.
Confectioners’ Sugar: 1 cup = 120 grams = 4½ ounces  When stored at room temperature, eggs lose more quality
in a day than a week in the refrigerator.For best quality,
C. Powdered food (baking powder and baking soda) eggs should be used within a week.
1. Remove the lumps in the powder by stirring  To store leftover yolks, cover with cold water and
2. Dip the measuring spoon into the powder refrigerate in a tightly covered containers. Pour off water
3. Level with spatula or back edge of the knife or right when ready to use the yolks. Use within one or two days.
in the can opening  To store egg whites, refrigerate in a tightly covered
D. Shortening containers and use within one or two days.
a. Solid Fats
1. Fill the measuring cup/spoon with the shortening SHORTENING
while pressing until it is full A. BUTTER
2. Level the fat with a straight of a knife or spatula  Leave butter in its original package and keep it in the food
compartment of the refrigerator or freezer, it will last up to
2 weeks.
 Placed partially used portions of butter in a covered dish,
refrigerate and use up within a few days.
 Store home-rendered fats such as pork fat in the
 Vegetable shortenings should be kept at room
temperature for shorter periods of time as when
refrigerated. Under refrigeration, they keep for several
b. Liquid fats months.
1. Pour oil in the glass measuring cup
 Store baking powder, baking soda and cream of tartar
tightly in a covered containers in a dry place. To test if
baking powder is active: place ½ tsp. in ¼ cup water. It
should bubble up if it’s still good. For baking soda, pour a
few drops of vinegar in ¼ tsp. It should bubble up if it’s still
 Check the label on yeast products for the date of expiry.