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Engineering Mechanics Statics

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STATICS

Special Thanks

to

Mr. Vibhor Sharma, Assistant Professor, Transportation,

MIT Institute of Design, Pune

for

drawing artful illustrations and figures using Photoshop software

which has enhanced the effectiveness of the text.

ENGINEERING MECHANICS

STATICS

Vikrant Sharma

Atul Kumar

N S Baruaole†

Mukesh Kumar

α

Alpha Science International Ltd.

Oxford, U.K.

Engineering Mechanics Statics

292 pgs. | 478 figs. | 11 tbls.

Vikrant Sharma

Atul Kumar

N S Baruaole†

Mukesh Kumar

Mechanical and Engineering Department

Mody University

Lakshmangarh

Copyright © 2018

ALPHA SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL LTD.

7200 The Quorum, Oxford Business Park North

Garsington Road, Oxford OX4 2JZ, U.K.

www.alphasci.com

ISBN 978-1-78332-356-2

E-ISBN 978-1-78332-432-3

a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,

mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written

permission of the publisher.

Sincerely Dedicated

to

The Lord Ganesha

&

to our loving parents, family and friends

In the loving memory of our Co-Author

& former Head of Department

(Late) Sh. Nitin S. Baruaole

Preface

Engineering Mechanics: Statics, deals with the behavior of bodies under the action of

forces. It is the foundation of engineering disciplines hence, necessary for the students

of engineering. The objective of this book is to develop a fundamental knowledge of

‘Statics’ and ability to analyze problems in real life with a simple and logical manner

for carrying out substantial engineering design.

Based on our classroom experiences, we have designed this textbook in a clear

and concise language. The purpose is to present the concepts and principles of

‘Statics’ in a systematic approach to help the students understand the subject. We have

invested a great deal of attention to learn the fundamental principles of statics and

the development of problem-solving skills. The book would be useful for engineering

students and the professionals as well.

Large numbers of solved problems are selected to help students understand the

intricacies of engineering problems and to analysis. Practice problems are provided

for each unit, based on principles of statics and real-life engineering problems that

are applicable to engineering designs. Each unit also lists a summary of key concepts

to facilitate further learning.

We wish to express our thanks to all colleagues and friends who have provided

valuable inputs during preparation of this text book. Our special thanks to Dr. V. K.

Jain, Dean, Mr. Satyajeet Anand and Mr. Mukul Kant Paliwal, Assistant Professors,

CET Mody University for their valuable guidance. We also thank all of our students

at CET, Mody University.

Finally, our sincere thanks to Narosa Publishing House, for taking interest and

publishing this book in the best possible form.

Vikrant Sharma

Atul Kumar

N S Baruaole†

Mukesh Kumar

Contents

Preface vii

0. Introduction 0.1—0.5

0.1 Mechanics 0.3

0.2 Basic Concept 0.3

0.3 Fundamental Laws 0.4

0.4 Units 0.5

1.1 Introduction to Force 1.3

1.2 Classification of Force 1.4

1.2.1 System of Forces 1.4

1.3 Resultant Force 1.7

1.3.1 Resultant of Collinear Forces 1.7

1.3.2 Resultant of Concurrent Forces 1.7

1.4 Resolution of a Force 1.10

1.5 Moment 1.13

1.5.1 Resultant Moment 1.14

1.5.2 Varignon’s Theorem (Principle of Moment) 1.14

1.5.3 Resultant of Parallel Force System 1.15

1.6 Couple 1.16

1.6.1 Moment of a Couple 1.17

1.6.2 Force–Couple System 1.17

1.7 Equivalent Systems of Forces 1.18

Solved Examples Based on Parallelogram Law of Forces 1.18

Solved Examples Based on Resolution of Forces 1.26

Solved Examples Based on Co-planer Concurrent Forces 1.35

Solved Examples Based on Moment & Non-Concurrent Forces 1.43

Solved Examples Based on Parallel Forces 1.55

Solved Examples Based on Force-Couple System and Equivalent System 1.59

Summary 1.70

Problems 1.71

2.1 Equilibrium 2.3

2.2 Free Body Diagram (F.B.D.) 2.3

2.2.1 General Procedure for Constructing a Free Body Diagram 2.6

2.2.2 Examples on Free Body Diagram (FBD) 2.6

2.3 Equilibrium for Different Force System (Based on Number of Forces) 2.8

x Engineering Mechanics Statics

Summary 2.34

Problems 2.35

3.1 Trusses 3.3

3.2 Types of Truss 3.3

3.3 Analysis of Truss 3.4

3.3.1 Assumptions in Truss Analysis 3.4

3.3.2 Methods of Truss Analysis 3.4

Solved Examples Based on Method of Joints 3.5

Solved Examples Based on Method of Sections 3.13

Summary 3.19

3.4 Beam 3.19

3.5 Types of Beams 3.19

3.6 Types of Loading 3.20

3.7 Shear Force (V) and Bending Moment (M) 3.21

3.7.1 Sign Convention 3.22

3.8 Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams 3.22

Solved Examples Based on Simply Supported Beam 3.22

Solved Examples Based on Cantilever Beam 3.34

Solved Examples Based on Overhang Beam 3.44

Summary 3.48

Problem 3.48

4.1 Introduction 4.3

4.2 Determination of Centroid 4.3

4.3 Centroid of Wire 4.5

4.4 Procedure to Determine Coordinates of Centroid of Composite Areas 4.5

4.5 Centroid of Common Areas Using Method of Integration 4.5

4.6 Centroid and Area of Some Common Plane Areas 4.7

Solved Examples Based on Centroid 4.8

Summary 4.18

Problems 4.19

4.7 Area Moment of Inertia 4.19

4.8 Perpendicular Axis Theorem 4.20

4.9 Parallel Axis Theorem 4.21

4.10 Radius of Gyration 4.22

4.11 Area Moment of Inertia of Common Areas 4.22

Solved Examples Based on Area Moment of Inertia 4.26

Summary 4.32

Problems 4.33

Contents xi

5. Friction 5.1—5.40

5.1 Introduction 5.3

5.2 Coulomb’s Theory of Dry Friction 5.3

5.3 Coefficient of Friction 5.4

5.4 Angle of Friction 5.5

5.5 Angle of Repose 5.5

5.6 Applications of Friction 5.6

5.6.1 Ladder Friction 5.6

5.6.2 Wedge Friction 5.7

5.6.3 Belt Friction 5.7

Solved Examples Based on Block Friction 5.9

Solved Examples Based on Ladder Friction 5.20

Solved Examples Based on Wedge Friction 5.26

Solved Examples Based on Belt Friction 5.34

Summary 5.38

Problem 5.38

6.1 Stress 6.3

6.1.1 Types of Stress 6.3

6.2 Strain 6.4

6.2.1 Shear Strain 6.5

6.2.2 Longitudinal and Lateral Strains 6.5

6.3 Poisson’s Ratio 6.6

6.4 Volumetric Strain 6.6

6.5 Hooke’s Law and Elastic Moduli 6.6

6.6 Bar of Varying Cross-Section 6.6

6.7 Stress-Strain Diagram for Mild Steel 6.7

6.8 Temperature Stress and Strain 6.8

6.9 Composite System 6.9

6.10 Factor of Safety 6.9

Solved Examples Based on Stress and Strain 6.9

Summary 6.18

Problems 6.19

Objective Type Questions OTQ.1—OTQ.10

Review Problems R.1—R.3

Index I.1–I.2

Unit 0

Introduction

0.1 Mechanics

echanics is that branch of physics which deals with the state of rest or motion of

M

bodies under the action of forces. No other subject plays a bigger role in engineering

analysis than mechanics. Though the principles of

mechanics are few, they have varied application Mechanics is the study of

in engineering. A detailed understanding of this forces and their effects.

subject is an essential prerequisite for work in

many fields of engineering.

Mechanics is divided into three parts:

1. Mechanics of Rigid Bodies

2. Mechanics of Deformable Bodies and

3. Mechanics of Fluid.

In this book, we will concentrate on mechanics of rigid bodies.

Mechanics of rigid body deal with perfectly rigid bodies. It may be classified

as follow:

Statics deals with the equilibrium of bodies under action of forces and

Dynamics deals with the motion of bodies. Dynamics is further classified as,

Kinematics and Kinetics. Kinematics is the study of motion of bodies without any

reference to the cause of motion. (i.e. without any reference to effects of forces

and masses). Kinetics is the study of bodies with reference to effects of forces

and masses.

In this book, we will concentrate on Statics.

The following concepts are important to understand before studying mechanics.

1. Space: It is the boundless three-dimensional region occupied by bodies

which have relative position and direction. The position of the bodies

0.4 Engineering Mechanics Statics

lengths (in three dimensional problems). These lengths are known as the

coordinates of bodies.

Time: Time provides a measure of when an event or sequence of events

2.

occurs.

Mass: Mass is the amount of matter in an object. It is a measure of inertia

3.

of a body, which is resistance of matter to a change of velocity.

Particle: A particle is a body of negligible mass and dimensions. Objects

4.

that are small compared to other objects can be idealized as particles.

Rigid body: A rigid body is non-deformable body i.e. the distance between

5.

any points in the body remains fixed.

The study of mechanics is based on following fundamental laws:

1. Newton’s Laws of Motion: Sir Isaac Newton in seventeenth century

stated three laws of motion as follow,

Law I: A particle remains at rest, or continuous to move in a straight line

with uniform velocity, if there is no unbalanced force acting on it.

Law II: The acceleration of a particle is proportional to the resultant force

acting on the particle and is in the direction of this force.

Law III: The forces of action and reaction between interacting bodies are

equal in magnitude, opposite in direction, and collinear.

2. Newton’s Law of Gravitation: This law states that two particles of mass

m1 and m2 are mutually attracted with equal and opposite forces P and – P

of magnitude P given by the formula,

m1m2

P = G

r2

Where, m1 and m2 = masses of two particles

r = distance between two particles

G = constant of gravitation

3. Law of Transmissibility: It state that, the point of application of a force

can be transmitted to any other point along its line of action within the

body. Force P acting at point O can be transmitted to point O’ along its line

of action as shown in Figure 1.

Introduction 0.5

Fig. 1

0.4 Units

In mechanics we use four fundamental measures. These are length, mass, force,

and time. Although there are a number of different systems of units, only the two

systems are most commonly used in engineering. They are shown in Table 1.

Table 1. Fundamental Units

Length L Meter (m) Foot (ft)

Mass M Kilogram (kg) Slug

Force P Newton (N) Pound (lb)

Time T Second (s) Second (s)

Unit 1

rigid bodies in detail. Particularly, we learn how to determine

resultant force of different force systems. The moment of force and

couple and concept of equivalent system are also introduced in this

unit. Systematically understanding of these concepts is important to

the design engineers.

Co-planer System of Forces

1.1 Introduction to Force

Study of Statics and the whole study of Mechanics is actually the study about the

actions of forces or force systems and the effect of these actions on bodies. So it

is important to understand the action of forces, characteristics of force systems,

and particular methods to analyze them.

What is force? Force is an action that

Force is the action of a body about another body, has the ability to change

and it changes or tends to changes the state of rest motion

or motion of a body. Forces exist because of an

interaction of one object with another object. Whenever there is an interaction

between two objects, there is a force upon each of the objects.

Force is measured using standard metric unit known as the Newton; Newton

is abbreviated as ‘N’, so 15 N means 15 Newton of force. One Newton equals 1

kilogram multiplied by 1 meter per second squared. This means that a force of one

Newton causes a 1-kilogram mass to have an acceleration of 1 m/sec2.

1 N = (1 kg) (1 m/s2) = 1 kg-m/s2.

The force is a vector quantity as its effect

depends on the direction as well as on the Force is a vector quantity

magnitude of the action. Thus, for example 15 N

is not a full description of the force acting on an object, in contrast 15 N acting in

downward direction (or any direction) is a complete description of the force acting

on an object.

Force acting on an object may cause the object to change its shape, to start

moving, to stop moving, to accelerate or decelerate.

As shown in figure 1.1,

the effect of the force

applied to the bracket

depends on P, the angle

θ and the location of the

point of application. If

any of these specifications

will change, it alters the

effect on the bracket. So Fig. 1.1

magnitude, direction, sense

and point of application are characteristics of the force.

Magnitude represents the value of force, like, 15 N, 10 KN etc. It is also

expressed in Pounds (lbs). The Magnitude can be represented graphically by

drawing a vector to scale.

1.4 Engineering Mechanics Statics

Direction of the force is represented by line of action and angle it forms with

some reference axis. The line of action is indefinitely long line on which the force

is laying.

Sense of the force is represented by an arrowhead; it specifies the direction

in which the force moves along the line of action. The direction relates to the line

of action of the force, and the sense is the way in which the force moves along

that line.

Point of application is the exact contact point (location) at which a force is

applied to a body. Graphically it is represented by the tip of the arrowhead (it may

be situated in the opposite end as the arrowhead) and it is unique to each force. It

may happen that different forces share same point of application.

1.2 Classification of Force

Forces are classified as either contact or body forces. Contact force is produced

by direct physical contact of two objects, and they are distributed over a surface

area of the body; examples of contact forces include applied force, frictional

forces, normal forces etc. Body force is produced when body (object) is located

in a force field such as a gravitational, electric or magnetic field. These types of

forces results when the two interacting objects are not in physical contact with

each other and they are distributed over the volume of the body.

Forces are also considered as an external force or internal force. External

force is applied externally to an object; they are either applied or reactive forces.

Internal force is developed inside the body to resist deformation of body.

Forces may be further classified as concentrated or distributed force. When

the area over which contact force is applied is very small like a point, the force

may be considered as concentrated on a point. The force which is distributed over

an area is considered as distributed force.

1.2.1 System of Forces

When two or more forces act on a body they are System of forces is simply

called to form a system of forces. Most practical a particular set of forces

problems of statics involve system of force.

System of forces is simply a term used to describe a group of forces. System of

forces may be classified as follows,

Co-planer System of Forces 1.5

Coplanar forces are those forces whose lines of action lies on the same plane.

Coplanar forces may be collinear, concurrent, non-concurrent, and parallel. Non-

Coplanar forces are those forces whose lines of action does not lie on the same

plane. Non-Coplanar forces may be concurrent, non-concurrent, and parallel.

Non-coplanar forces are also known as space forces or spatial force system, as

forces passes through space when they change their plane. Table 1.1 shows types

and characteristics of different system of forces.

Table 1.1. Characteristics of Different System of Forces

lines of action lies on the same line. As

shown in figure, forces P1 and P2 acting

in same plane and having a common

line of action, this system is coplanar

collinear force system. Similarly forces

P3 and P4 are collinear forces.

forces whose lines of action passes

through the same point and also lie on

the same plane. The concurrent forces

may or may not be collinear. As shown

in figure, line of action of forces P1, P2

and P3 meet at common point O and

also these forces lie on the same plane,

this system is coplanar concurrent force

system.

are those forces whose lines of action

does not pass through the same point

but lie on the same plane. As shown in

figure, forces P1, P2, P3 and P4 lie in the

same plane but their lines of action do

not meet at same point, this system is

coplanar non-concurrent force system.

1.6 Engineering Mechanics Statics

forces whose lines of action are parallel

to each other and also lie on the same

plane. As shown in figure, forces P1, P2,

and P3 lie in the same plane and their

lines of action are parallel to each other,

this system is coplanar parallel force

system. Parallel forces can be in the

same or in opposite directions. Parallel

forces which are having same direction

are known as like parallel forces

and parallel forces which are having

different directions are known as unlike

parallel forces.

Non-Coplanar Concurrent Forces are

those forces whose lines of action passes

through the same point but do not lie on

the same plane. As shown in figure, line

of action of forces P1, P2 and P3 meet at

common point O but do not lie on the

same plane, this system is non-coplanar

concurrent force system.

are those forces whose lines of action

does not pass through the same point and

also not lie on the same plane. As shown

in figure, line of action of forces P1, P2

and P3 do not pass through the same point

and also not lie on the same plane, this

system is non-coplanar non-concurrent

force system.

those forces whose lines of action are

parallel to each other but do not lie in the

same plane. As shown in figure, forces

P1, P2, and P3 are parallel to each other

but do not lie in the same plane.

Co-planer System of Forces 1.7

1.3 Resultant Force

Resultant is a single force

When number of forces are acting on an object then

which produces the same

it is possible to replace them with a single force

effect as produced by

which produces the same effect as produced by

number of forces when

all the given forces, this single force is known as

acting together

resultant force.

Composition is the

Resultant force is denoted by R. The procedure

procedure to find out

to find out single resultant force of a system of

single resultant force of a

forces is known as composition of forces.

system of forces

The resultant of two or more collinear forces is simply their algebraic sum and

acts on the same line on which lines of action of all collinear forces lie. If two

forces P1 and P2 act in same direction as shown in figure 1.2, their resultant

R = P1 + P2. If two forces P1 and P2 act in opposite direction as shown in figure 1.3,

their resultant R = P1 – P2. As a matter of convenience, force acting towards right

is considered as positive and force acting toward left is considered as negative.

Here we may consider two cases of concurrent forces. Case I, resultant of two

concurrent forces and Case II, resultant of more than two concurrent forces.

CASE I. Resultant of two concurrent forces:

Resultant of two concurrent forces can be found out by means of the parallelogram

law or the triangle law. These methods are discussed in following section:

Parallelogram Law of Forces (Analytical method)

It state, “If two forces acting

simultaneously at a point be

represented in magnitude and

direction by two adjacent sides of

a parallelogram, their resultant

may be represented in magnitude

and direction by the diagonal

of the parallelogram passing

through that point.”

In figure 1.4, two forces P1 and

P2 acting at point O are represented Fig. 1.4

1.8 Engineering Mechanics Statics

resultant R is represented in magnitude and direction by OC.

We now find magnitude and direction of resultant as below:

Let, θ be the angle between two forces P1 and P2 and α is the angle between

force P1 and resultant R.

Now from C draw a perpendicular CD to OA produced.

Now < DAC = < AOB = θ …(Corresponding angle)

In ∆DAC, CD = P2 sin θ and AD = P2 cos θ

In ∆DOC,

OC2 = OD2 + CD2 = (OA +AD)2 + CD2

\ R2 = (P1 + P2 cos θ)2 + (P2 sin θ)2

\ R2 = P12 + 2P1P2 cos θ + P22 cos2 θ + P22 sin2 θ

\ R2 = P12 + 2P1P2 cos θ + P22 (cos2 θ + sin2 θ)

Now in ∆DOC,

CD CD

tan α = =

OD OA + AD

P2 sin θ

\ tan α = ... Direction of resultant ...(1.2)

P1 + P2 cos θ

Particular Cases

1. If θ = 90°, i.e. when the two forces act at right angle, then

P

R = P12 + P22 and tan α = 2 (since cos 90° = 0 and sin 90° = 1)

P1

2. If the two forces are equal, i.e. P1 = P2

θ 2 θ

= 2 P12 × 2cos 2 (since 1 + cos q = 2 cos )

2 2

θ

= 4 P12 cos 2

2

θ

∴ R = 2 P1 cos

2

Triangle Law of Forces (Graphical method)

It state, “If two forces acting simultaneously at a point be represented in

magnitude and direction by two sides of triangle taken in order, their resultant

may be represented in magnitude and direction by the third side of triangle taken

in opposite order”

Co-planer System of Forces 1.9

in figure 1.5; this figure is one-half of the parallelograms. Here the tail of P2 is

placed at the tip of P1 and R (resultant) is the vector that completes the triangle,

drawn from the tail of P1 to tip the tip of P2. The result is identical if the tail of

P1 is placed at the tip of P2 and R is drawn from the tail of P2 to the tip of P1.

Fig. 1.5

If three or more forces are acting at a point then their resultant is found analytically

by a method known as rectangular components method. In this method all the

forces acting at a point are resolved (resolution of force is discussed in detail in

next section) into horizontal and vertical components and then algebraic sum of

horizontal components (written as SH) and vertical components (written as SV)

found separately.

Then the resultant R is calculated as,

R= (ΣH )2 + (ΣV )2 ... Magnitude of resultant ...(1.3)

Let θ be the angle of resultant R with x-axis, then

ΣV

tan θ = ... Direction of resultant ...(1.4)

ΣH

Polygon Law of forces (Graphical method)

The resultant of three or more forces acting at a point is found graphically by

polygon law of forces, it state,

“If a number of forces acting simultaneously at a point be represented in

magnitude and direction by the sides of a polygon taken in order, their resultant

may be represented in magnitude and direction by the closing side of the polygon

taken in opposite order”

If four forces P1, P2, P3 and P4 are acting at a point as shown in figure 1.6,

then the resultant of these forces is obtained by drawing a polygon of forces as

explained below and shown in figure 1.7.

1.10 Engineering Mechanics Statics

With suitable scale from any convenient point A, draw AB parallel and equal

to P1. From B draw BC parallel and equal to P2. From C draw CD parallel and

equal to P3. From D draw DE parallel and equal to P4. Draw AE from the tail of P1

to the tip of P4, then AE represents resultant of four forces P1, P2, P3 and P4. Also

AC represents resultant of P1 and P2 and AD represents resultant of AC and CD.

ABCDEA is the force polygon and it can be extended to any number of forces.

1.4 Resolution of a Force

Any force can be resolved into individual component forces in the same way as

individual component forces can be composed Resolution is the process

together. It is often convenient to decompose of splitting up the given

a single force into two distinct forces; they are force into components,

known as components. These forces, when without changing its

acting together, have the same external effect on effect on the body

a body as the original force.

There are mainly two methods of resolving a force.

1. Perpendicular resolution

2. Non-perpendicular resolution

1. Perpendicular Resolution: Perpendicular resolution is the general

method of splitting up a single force into two mutually perpendicular

directions. Two perpendicular components are acting along x-axis and

y-axis or any two perpendicular axes.

Table 1.2 illustrates the resolution of a force into perpendicular

components.

Following sign conventions are used in drawing components,

(a) Components acting horizontally towards right are positive and

components acting horizontally towards left are negative.

(b) Components acting vertically upward are positive and components

acting vertically downwards are negative.

Co-planer System of Forces 1.11

Table 1.2

1.12 Engineering Mechanics Statics

When body is placed on an inclined plane, its weight ‘mg’ can be resolved

into two components i.e. parallel to incline plane and perpendicular

to incline plane. Here we can select x-axis along the plane and y-axis

perpendicular to plane as shown in figure 1.8.

Fig. 1.8

is resolved into two directions which are not perpendicular to each other.

If force P is to be resolved into two non-perpendicular directions let

say along OA and OB as shown in

figure 1.9, where OA and OB are

not perpendicular to each other.

Now construct a parallelogram

by keeping two components (i.e.

components along OA and OB) along

two adjacent sides of parallelogram

and original given force along the

diagonal of parallelogram. Fig. 1.9

Now apply sine rule in triangle OAC,

P P P

OB = OA =

sin α sin β sin[180 – (α + β)]

Co-planer System of Forces 1.13

P sin β

\ POA = ... This is component of force P along OA

sin[180 - (α + β)]

P sin α

\ POB = ... This is component of force P along OB

sin[180 - (α + β)]

1.5 Moment

The rotational effect

When a force causes an object to turn, this turning

producead by force is

effect is called moments. So the moment of a

known as moment of the

force is a measure of its tendency to cause a body

force

to rotate around a specific point or axis. Moment

is the product of the force multiplied by the perpendicular distance from the line

of action of the force to the pivot or point where the object will turn. The point

about which moment is taken is known as moment center and the perpendicular

distance is known as moment arm, as shown in figure 1.10. If moment arm d is

zero, i.e. the line of action of the force P is passing through the moment center

then moment due to this force will be zero.

Fig. 1.10

M = F × d ...(1.5)

Since moment is product of force and perpendicular distance, its S.I. unit is

N-m or KN-m.

The direction of the rotation resulting from a moment is either clockwise or

anticlockwise. When force causes an object to turn in clockwise direction, it is

called clockwise moment and when force causes an object to turn in anticlockwise

direction, it is called anticlockwise moment. Anticlockwise moments are regarded

as positive, while clockwise moments are negative. (We shall assume this sign

convention throughout this book)

Anticlockwise moment → Positive

1.14 Engineering Mechanics Statics

1.5.1 Resultant Moment

When two or more than two forces are acting about a point their combined effect

is represented by the “Resultant Moment”. To find out the resultant moment about

a point, first find the sum of the anticlockwise moments and clockwise moments

about the point, than take the lesser of these two moments from the greater and the

difference is the magnitude of the resultant moment. The direction of the resultant

moment will be that of the greater of the two component moments.

The Varignon theorem is a theorem given by French mathematician Pierre

Varignon in 1687. It states, “The moment of resultant of a force system about any

point is equal to the algebraic sum of moments of all other forces about the same

point”.

Let R be the resultant of two concurrent forces P1 and P2. Let R, P1 and

P2 make angles θ, α and β with axis respectively as shown in figure 1.11. The

moment of R about an arbitrary point A is, R × d, where d is the perpendicular

distance from line of action of R to point A. Similarly if we consider d1 and d2 are

perpendicular distances from line of action of P1 and P2 to point A, then the sum

of moments of P1 and P2 about point A are P1 × d1 + P2 × d2.

Fig. 1.11

component of their resultant R. (As R is the resultant of P1 and P2)

i.e., Ry = P1 + P2

y y

But, from figure, Ry = R cos θ, P1 = P1 cos α and P2 = P2 cos β

y y

\ R cos θ = P1 cos α + P2 cos β

Co-planer System of Forces 1.15

R × OA cos θ = P1 × OA cos α + P2 × OA cos β

But, from figure, OA cos θ = d, OA cos α = d1 and OA cos β = d2

\ R × d = P1 × d1 + P2 × d2 ...(1.6)

Hence, it is proved that, the moment of resultant of a force system about any

point is equal to the algebraic sum of moments of all other forces about the same

point.

Case I: Like Parallel Forces

When two parallel forces are acting in same direction they are known as like

parallel forces. Their resultant can be find out using following steps, consider

figure 1.12.

1. Find resultant R = P1 + P2

2. Take the algebraic sum moment of forces about point O,

Moment of P1 about O = P1 × AO (clockwise moment)

Moment of P2 about O = P2 × BO (anticlockwise moment)

3. Position of resultant R can be obtained by applying Varignon’s theorem

about point O.

– P1 × AO + P2 × BO = R × CO

In above equation, CO is the perpendicular distance between line of action of

resultant R and reference point O.

Fig. 1.12

When two parallel forces are acting in opposite direction they are known as unlike

parallel forces. Their resultant can be find out using following steps, consider

figure 1.13.

1. Find resultant R = P1 – P2

2. Take the algebraic sum moment of forces about point O,

Moment of P1 about O = P1 × AO (clockwise moment)

Moment of P2 about O = P2 × BO (clockwise moment)

1.16 Engineering Mechanics Statics

about point O.

–P1 × AO – P2 × BO = –R × CO

In above equation, CO is the perpendicular distance between line of action of

resultant R and reference point O.

Fig. 1.13

1.6 Couple

A couple consists of a pair of two forces which

Two equal, unlike parallel,

has the following properties:

non-collinear forces form

• Equal magnitude and opposite in a couple

direction

• Act along parallel lines of action

• Separated by a perpendicular distance d, known as arm of couple. A

couple is shown in figure 1.14.

Since the two forces cancels out each other giving zero resultant, a couple

produces purely rotational effect in the body without translation motion. A couple

cannot be balanced by a single force but it can be balanced only by another couple

of opposite nature.

Fig. 1.14

Co-planer System of Forces 1.17

Consider a couple as shown in figure 1.15.

The moment of couple about point A is,

MA = P × d2 – P × d1

MA = P (d2 – d1)

But from figure 1.15, d2 – d1 = d

MA = P × d

The moment of a couple is the product

of magnitude of one of the forces and arm Fig. 1.15

of couple.

d

Now consider point B at distance from force P, the moment of couple

about point B is, 2

d d

MB = P ´ + P´

2 2

æ d d ÷ö

MB = P ççç + ÷÷

è 2 2ø

MB = P × d ...(1.7)

From above we see that, the moment of couple about any pivot point is P × d.

It is important to note here that a couple does not have moment center, like

moment of force. A couple has the same moment about all points on a body.

The concept of couple is useful in application of parallel transfer of a force.

Refer to figure 1.16, consider a force P is acting at point A and it is required

to transfer from point A to point B without changing its magnitude and direction.

Now apply two forces of equal magnitude (their magnitude are same as that

of force P acting at point A) and opposite in direction at point B, as shown in

figure 1.17.

Observing figure 1.17, we see that two forces are acting in opposite direction

at point A and B form a couple. Moment of this couple is P × d, anticlockwise.

Thus, to shift a force to point B, a couple is required to be added to the system.

1.18 Engineering Mechanics Statics

figure 1.18 is known as force-couple system. So we can transfer a force parallel

to itself at any point with force-couple system.

It is also possible to replace a force-couple system into a single force by

following exactly the reverse procedure as discuss above.

Two force systems that produce the same external effects on a rigid body are said

to be equivalent, i.e. the sums of the forces and sums of the moments about a

point are equal. Equivalent system consists of a single resultant force R through

the given point and single resultant moment.

Two systems are equivalent only when,

1. The sum of the forces in system 1 is equal to the sum of the forces in

system 2

2. The sum of the moments about any point O in system 1 is equal to the

sum of the moments about same point O in system 2.

Example 1. Two forces 20 N and 25 N are acting at a point with an angle of 60°

between them. Find the magnitude and direction of resultant.

Solution: Here P1 = 20 N, P2 = 25 N and θ = 60°

As we know from parallelogram law of forces,

R = P12 + P22 + 2 P1P2 cos θ

R = 39.05 N ...Magnitude of resultant (Ans.)

Now we know that

P2 sin θ

tan α =

P1 + P2 cos θ

25sin 60

\ tan α =

20 + 25cos60

\ α = 33.66° ...Direction of resultant (Ans.)

Example 2. Force P1 of magnitude 10 N is acting along horizontal direction and

force P2 acting along vertical direction. The resultant of P1 and P2 has magnitude

of 20 N. Determine the magnitude of force P2 and direction of resultant.

Solution: Here P1 = 10 N, R = 20 N and θ = 90°

As we know that when θ = 90° in parallelogram then,

R = P12 + P22

Co-planer System of Forces 1.19

∴ 20 = 102 + P22

\ 202 = 102 + P22

\ P2 = 17.32 N (Ans.)

Now we also know that when θ = 90° in parallelogram then

P

tan α = 2

P1

17.32

\ tan α =

10

\ α = 59.5° (Ans.)

Example 3. Two forces acting at point and angle between them is 120°.

The larger force is of magnitude 80 N and the resultant of these two forces is

perpendicular to the smaller force. Find magnitude of smaller force and resultant.

Solution: Here, P1 = 80 N, θ = 120°, and angle between smaller force i.e. P2 and

resultant is 90°.

As we know from parallelogram law of forces,

P2 sin θ

tan α =

P1 + P2 cos θ

In above equation α = 30°.

P2 sin120

\ tan 30° =

80 + P2 cos120

P2 0.8660 P 0.8660

\ 0.5773 = = 2

80 + P2 (–0.50) 80 – 0.5 P2

\ 80 – 0.5P2 = 1.5P2

\ 2P2 = 80

\ P2 = 40 N (Ans.)

Now from parallelogram law of forces,

R = P12 + P22 + 2 P1P2 cos θ

\ R = 69.28 N (Ans.)

Example 4. The maximum resultant of two forces P1 and P2 is 1000 N and

minimum magnitude is 400 N. Find values of P1 and P2.

Solution: The resultant of two forces will be maximum only when the two forces

will act in same direction as shown in Figure Ex. 4 (a) and resultant is minimum

only when the two forces will act in opposite direction as shown in Figure Ex. 4(b).

1.20 Engineering Mechanics Statics

O 400 N O

From parallelogram law of forces,

R = P12 + P22 + 2 P1P2 cos θ

Substituting θ = 0

R = P12 + P22 + 2 P1P2

\ R = ( P1 + P2 ) 2

\ R = P1 + P2

\ P1 + P2 = 1000 ...(Maximum resultant) ...(Eq. 1)

Now from figure Ex. 4(b), angle between two forces θ = 180°

From parallelogram law of forces,

R = P12 + P22 + 2 P1P2 cos θ

Substituting θ = 180°

R = P12 + P22 – 2 P1P2

\ R = ( P1 – P2 ) 2

\ R = P1 – P2

\ P1 – P2 = 400 ...(Minimum resultant) ...(Eq. 2)

Solving Eq. 1 and Eq. 2, we get

P1 = 700 N and P2 = 300 N (Ans.)

Example 5. Two forces of 375 N and 250 N are acting on a hook and passing

through point O as shown in figure Ex. 5. Determine magnitude and direction of

resultant of these two forces.

250 N 375 N

45°

30°

Fig. Ex. 5

Co-planer System of Forces 1.21

As we know from parallelogram law of forces,

R = P12 + P22 + 2 P1P2 cos θ

\ R = 393.18 N ...Magnitude of resultant (Ans.)

Now, as we know from parallelogram law of forces,

P2 sin θ

tan α = R 375 N

P1 + P2 cos θ

250 N 105°

250 sin105°

\ tan α =

375 + 250 cos105°

\ α = 37.9° ...Direction of resultant (Ans.)

Example 6. Find the magnitude of the two forces, such that if they act at right

angles, their resultant is 5 N but when they act at 60°, their resultant is 37 N.

Solution: First consider two forces P1 and P2 acting at right angle,

\ angle between two forces θ = 90°.

As we know that when θ = 90° in parallelogram then

R = P12 + P2 2

\ 5 = P12 + P2 2

\ 25 = P12 + P22 ...(Eq. 1)

Similarly, when the angle between the two forces is 60°, then resultant force

from parallelogram law is,

R = P12 + P22 + 2 P1P2 cos θ

\ 37 = P12 + P22 + 2P1P2 × 0.5

Substituting P12 + P22 = 25 from Eq. 1

\ 37 = 25 + 2P1P2 × 0.5

\ P1P2 = 37 – 25 \ P1P2 = 12 ...(Eq. 2)

Now we know that,

(P1 + P2)2 = P12 + P22 + 2P1P2

Substituting values from Eq. 1 and Eq. 2

(P1 + P2)2 = 25 + 2 × 12 = 49

\ P1 + P2 = 49 = 7 ...(Eq. 3)

1.22 Engineering Mechanics Statics

(P1 – P2)2 = P12 + P22 – 2P1P2

Substituting values from Eq. 1 and Eq. 2

(P1 – P2)2 = 25 – 2 × 12 = 1

\ P1 – P2 = 1 = 1 ... (Eq. 4)

Solving Eq. 3 and Eq. 4 we get,

P1 = 4 N and P2 = 3 N (Ans.)

Example 7. A disabled automobile is pulled using ropes subjected to the two

forces as shown in figure Ex. 7. Determine the magnitude and direction of their

resultant.

8 kN

30°

25°

4 kN

Fig. Ex. 7

Solution: Here, P1= 4 kN, P2 = 8 kN and θ = 55°

8 KN

R 55°

4 KN

As we know from parallelogram law of forces,

R = P12 + P22 + 2 P1P2 cos θ

\ R = 42 + 82 + 2 × 4 × 8cos55°

\ R = 10.80 kN ...Magnitude of resultant (Ans.)

Similarly we know from parallelogram law of forces,

P2 sin θ

tan α =

P1 + P2 cos θ

8sin 55°

tan α =

8 + 4cos55°

α = 32.49° ...Direction of resultant (Ans.)

Co-planer System of Forces 1.23

Example 8. Two forces of 240 N and 200 N are acting at point O as shown in

figure Ex. 8. Determine magnitude of resultant and direction of resultant from

positive x-axis.

Y

200 N

240 N

29°

21°

O X

Fig. Ex. 8

As we know from parallelogram law of forces,

R = P12 + P22 + 2 P1P2 cos θ

\ R = 290.24 N ...Magnitude of resultant (Ans.)

200 N

R

240 N

98°

P2 sin θ

tan α =

P1 + P2 cos θ

200sin 98°

\ tan α =

240 + 200cos98°

\ α = 43.02°

Now direction of resultant from positive x axis is

21° + 43.02° = 64.02° ...Direction of resultant (Ans.)

Example 9. Two forces of 600 N and 700 N are acting at point O as shown in

figure Ex. 9. Determine magnitude of resultant and direction of resultant from

x-axis.

1.24 Engineering Mechanics Statics

600 N

40°

60°

700 N

Fig. Ex. 9

Solution: Here, P1 = 700 N, P2 = 600 N and θ = 100°.

As we know from parallelogram law of forces,

700 N

R = P12 + P22 + 2 P1P2 cos θ

\ R = 839.12 N

...Magnitude of resultant (Ans.) R

Now, as we know from parallelogram law of

forces, 100°

P2 sin θ

tan α =

P1 + P2 cos θ

600 sin 100° 600 N

\ tan α =

700 + 600 cos100°

\ α = 44.76°

Now direction of resultant from x axis is

60° – 44.76° = 15.24° (Ans.)

Example 10. Two forces of 600 N and 500 N are acting at point O as shown in

figure Ex. 10. Determine magnitude of resultant and direction of resultant from x axis.

Fig. Ex. 10

Co-planer System of Forces 1.25

4 2

Solution: Here, P1 = 600 N, P2 = 500 N and θ = tan –1 – tan –1 = 54.16°

1 5

As we know from parallelogram law of forces,

R = P12 + P22 + 2 P1P2 cos θ

\ R = 6002 + 5002 + 2 × 600 × 500 cos 54.16°

\ R = 980.47 N ...Magnitude of resultant (Ans.)

Now, as we know from parallelogram law of forces,

P2 sin θ

tan α =

P1 + P2 cos θ

500 sin 54.16° 500 N

\ tan α =

600 + 500 cos 54.16°

R

\ α = 24.41°

Now direction of resultant from x-axis is 600 N

–1 2

24.41° + tan = 46.22° (Ans.)

5

Example 11. Two forces of 82.5 kN and 74 kN are acting on a bracket as shown

in figure Ex. 11. Determine magnitude of resultant and direction of resultant from

x-axis.

Fig. Ex. 11

65 70

and θ = 180° – tan –1 – tan –1 = 121.30° .

120 120

1.26 Engineering Mechanics Statics

R = P12 + P22 + 2 P1P2 cos θ

\ R = 77.06 kN ...Magnitude of resultant (Ans.)

Now, as we know from parallelogram law of forces,

82.5 N

P2 sin θ

tan α =

P1 + P2 cos θ

74 sin 121.30°

\ tan α =

82.5 + 74 cos121.30° R

\ α = 55.13°

Now direction of resultant from x-axis is

65

55.13° + tan –1 = 83.6° (Ans.)

120

74 N

Example 1. Resolve 100 N force into components along (a) x and y directions

and (b) u and v directions. Refer figure Ex. 1 Y

u

Solution: (a) Components along x and y:

Component along x = 100 cos 40° = 76.60 N (Ans.) 100 N

Component along y = 100 sin 40° = 64.28 N (Ans.)

30°

(b) Component along u and v:

40°

As angle between u and v is 100°, so this is non- X

30°

perpendicular resolution.

Construct parallelogram by considering 100 N force v

as a resultant and its component along u and v as shown Fig. Ex. 1

in figure Ex. 1(a)

B

C

Pu

30°

30° 100N

O 70°

80°

Pv

A

Fig. Ex. 1(a)

Co-planer System of Forces 1.27

100 Pu Pv

= =

sin80° sin 70° sin 30°

100 sin 70°

Pu = = 95.42 N (Ans)

sin 80°

100 sin 30°

Pv = = 50.77 N (Ans)

sin 80°

parallel to the bars AB and BC, the magnitude of the component parallel to bar BC

is 4 kN. What is the magnitudes of P and its component along AB?

P

1.5m

A C

1m 4m

Fig. Ex. 2

taking two side of parallelogram as two component of force P along AB and BC

as shown in figure Ex. 2(a).

Now, from figure Ex. 2

1.5

tan α = \ α = 56.31°

1.0

1.5

tan β = \ β = 20.56°

4.0

From figure Ex. 2(a)

Fig. Ex. 2(a)

θ = 90 – α \ θ = 90 – 56.31° = 33.69°

Φ = 90 – β \ Φ = 90 – 20.56° = 69.54°

Now apply sine rule to figure Ex. 2(a)

P P P

= AB = BC

sin (180 – θ – Φ ) sin Φ sin θ

1.28 Engineering Mechanics Statics

P 4

=

sin (180 – 33.69 - 69.54) sin 33.69

4sin 76.87

\ P = \ P = 7 kN (Ans)

sin 33.69

PAB 4

=

sin 69.54 sin 33.69

4sin 69.54

\ PAB = \ PAB = 6.75 kN (Ans)

sin 33.69

Example 3. A force P is inclined at 60° to the horizontal. If the horizontal

component of force is 50 N find out vertical component of force.

Solution: Here the force P is inclined to the horizontal at an angle θ = 60°.

Horizontal component of force P = P cos θ

50

P cos 60° = 50 \ P = = 100 N

cos60°

Now vertical component of P = P sin θ = 100 sin 60° = 86.60 N (Ans.)

Example 4. A box is to be moved in the direction of OO’ as shown in figure

Ex.4. It is identified that a 20 kN force in this direction is required but obstruction

prevent direct application of such a force. Accordingly, the forces P1 and P2 are

applied as shown. Determine the magnitude of P1 and P2.

Solution: Here it is desired that 20 kN force in the

direction of OO’ is the resultant of P1 and P2.

Now the parallelogram may be constructed

taking a 20 kN force as a resultant and by drawing

lines parallel to the specified direction of P1 and P2 as

shown in figure Ex. 4(a).

Now in triangle OAC, apply sine rule Fig. Ex. 4

Figure Ex. 4(a)

P1

20 P1 P2

= = 20 kN

sin 45° sin 60° sin 75° C

20sin 60° 75°

\ P1 = = 24.5 kN (Ans)

sin 45° 45°

60°

O

20 sin 75°

\ P2 = = 27.32 kN (Ans) A

P2

sin 45° Fig. Ex. 4(a)

Knowing that P must have a 200 N component perpendicular to arm AB of the

crank, determine the magnitude of force P and its component along AB.

Co-planer System of Forces 1.29

35°

40° A

B C

Fig. Ex. 5

and perpendicular to AB are as shown in figure

Ex. 5(a). 75°

Now we know that component of force P

perpendicular to AB is 200 N

\ P sin 75° = 200 N 20

0N

P

200

\ P = = 207 N (Ans)

sin 75° Fig. Ex. 5(a)

Now component of P along AB = P cos 75°

= 207 cos 75° = 53.58 N (Ans.)

Example 6. A vertical force of 50 N acts downward at A as shown in figure

Ex. 6. Determine the magnitudes of the two components of 50 N force along AB

and AC.

Fig. Ex. 6

two adjacent sides of parallelogram as two component of force P along AB and

AC as shown in figure Ex. 6(a).

Now in triangle OAC, apply sine rule

50 PAB P

= = AC

sin 75° sin 60° sin 45°

1.30 Engineering Mechanics Statics

50 sin 60° O

\ PAB = = 44.82 N (Ans) 30° 45°

sin 75° PAC

45°

PAB

50 sin 45°

\ PAC = = 36.6 N (Ans) 50N 75°

A

sin 75°

60°

components along u and v directions as shown Fig. Ex. 6(a)

in figure Ex. 7.

Fig. Ex. 7

its component along u and v as shown in figure Ex. 7(a). Pu

800 Pu Pv

= = O

sin 75° sin 75° sin 30° 75°

C

800N 30°

800 sin 75°

\ Pu = = 800 N (Ans) Pv 75°

sin 75°

800 sin 30° A

\ Pv = = 414.11 N (Ans)

sin 75° Fig. Ex. 7(a)

Example 8. Two forces P1 and P2 are applied to a hook as shown in figure

Ex. 8. The resultant of the two forces has a magnitude of 300 N and makes an angle

of 30° with positive x-axis (anticlockwise direction). Determine the magnitudes

of P1 and P2.

P2 y P1

45° 30°

Fig. Ex. 8

Co-planer System of Forces 1.31

taking P1 and P2 as two adjacent sides of parallelogram as shown in figure

Ex. 8(a).

Now in triangle OAC, apply sine rule

300 P1 P2

= =

sin 75° sin 75° sin 30°

300 sin 75°

\ P1 = = 300 N (Ans)

sin 75°

300 sin 30°

\ P2 = = 155.3 N (Ans) Fig. Ex. 8(a)

sin 75°

Example 9. A bracket is subjected to two forces P1 and P2 as shown in figure

Ex. 9. If the resultant of the two forces has a magnitude of 525 N and direction as

shown in the figure, determine magnitudes of P1 and P2.

P1

525N

2 2 P2

1 1

3 4

Fig. Ex. 9

Solution: Here first consider angle of P2, P1 and resultant force are respectively

θ1, θ2, and θ3 from x-axis.

1 2 2

Now θ1 = tan –1 = 14.03° θ2 = tan –1 = 63.43° θ3 = tan –1 = 33.70°

4 1 3

49.4° A

C

47.73° P1

525 N 82.87°

O

P2

and P2 as two adjacent sides of parallelogram as shown in figure Ex.9 (a).

1.32 Engineering Mechanics Statics

525 P1 P2

= =

sin 49.4° sin 47.73° sin 82.87°

525 sin 82.87°

\ P2 = = 686.11 N

sin 49.4°

525 sin 47.73°

\ P1 = = 511.66 N

sin 49.4°

Example 10. A frame is subjected to a horizontal force of 200 N as shown

in figure Ex. 10. If the component of force along AC is 250 N, directed from

A towards C, determine the component of force along member AB and angle

θ (00 ≤ θ ≤ 900) of member AB.

Fig. Ex. 10

taking two adjacent sides of parallelogram as two component of force along AC

and AB as shown in Figure Ex. 10(a) PAB

Now in triangle OAC, apply sine rule B

40°

200 250 PAB A

= = O

200N

sin 40° sin θ sin (140 – θ)°

PAC (140–)

C

250 sin 40°

\ sin θ = = 0.8034 Fig. Ex. 10(a)

200

\ θ = 53.46° (Ans.)

250 sin (140 - 53.46)°

\ PAB = = 310.6 N (Ans.)

sin 53.46°

Example 11. A wooden log is to be hoisted using two chains as shown in figure

Ex. 11. If the resultant force is to be 1200 N in vertical upward direction determine

the magnitudes of P1 and P2 acting on each chain and angle θ of P2 so that

magnitude of P2 is to be minimum.

Co-planer System of Forces 1.33

P2 P1

30°

Fig. Ex. 11

Solution: Here taking a force 1200 N as a resultant, construct a parallelogram

taking two adjacent sides of parallelogram as two component of force along AC

and AB as shown in figure Ex.11 (a).

Now in triangle OAC, apply sine rule 1200N

C

1200 P P2

= 1 = (150–)

sin (150 – θ)° sin θ sin 30° A

P1

1200 sin 30°

\ P2 = P2 30°

sin (150 – θ)°

Now, for P2 to be minimum the denominator O

sin (150 – θ) must be maximum. Fig. Ex. 11(a)

\ (150 – θ) = 90° \ θ = 60°

1200 sin 30°

\ P2 = = 600 N (Ans.)

sin (150 – 60)°

P2 sin 60° 600 sin 60°

Now P1 = = = 1039.23 N (Ans.)

sin 30° sin 30°

Example 12. The line of action of the 1000 N force is passing through the

point A (–6, –2) and B (7,5) as shown in Figure Ex. 12. Determine the x and y

components of 1000 N force.

Y

1000N

B(7,5)

A(–6,–2)

Fig. Ex. 12

–1 7

Solution: Here angle made by 1000 N force with x axis is θ = tan \ θ = 28.3°

13

Now x component of 1000 N force = 1000 cos 28.3° = 880.48 N (Ans.)

y component of 1000 N force = 1000 sin 28.3° = 474 N (Ans.)

1.34 Engineering Mechanics Statics

Example 13. Resolve 500 N force acting on bar into components along OA and

perpendicular to OA. Refer figure Ex. 13.

A

20°

500N

30°

O

Fig. Ex. 13

Component along OA = 500 cos 50° = 321.4 N (Ans.)

Component perpendicular to OA = 500 sin 50° = 383 N (Ans.)

Example 14. A frame is subjected to two forces as shown in figure Ex. 14 .

Replace them by equivalent forces along x and a direction.

400N

105°

450N

Fig. Ex. 14 Fig. Ex. 14(a)

Solution: Here first find out resultant of given two forces using parallelogram

law. Refer figure Ex. 14 (a)

Now take P1 = 450 N, P2 = 400 N and angle θ between P1 and P2 = 105°

As we know from parallelogram law of forces,

R = P12 + P22 + 2 P1P2 cos θ

\ R = 519 N

Now, as we know from parallelogram law of forces,

P2 sin θ

tan α =

P1 + P2 cos θ

400 sin105°

\ tan α = \ α = 48.11°

450 + 400 cos105°

Co-planer System of Forces 1.35

adjacent sides of parallelogram as two component of force along x and a direction

as shown in figure Ex. 14(b).

PX O

A

45°113.1°

21.9°

PA

C

519N

Fig. Ex.14 (b)

519 Pa Px

= =

sin 45° sin113.1° sin 21.9°

519 sin113.1°

\ Pa = = 675.13 N (Ans.)

sin 45°

519 sin 21.9°

\ Px = = 273.76 N (Ans.)

sin 45°

Example 1. Determine resultant of the force system shown in the figure Ex. 1

Fig. Ex. 1

Solution: Resolving the forces along x and y-axes, and then determine algebraic

sum of horizontal components and vertical components.

+

→ΣH = 5 cos 30° + 10 cos 60° + 12 cos 40°

= 18.52 kN

1.36 Engineering Mechanics Statics

= 3.45 kN

Now we know that resultant R is calculated as,

R = ( ΣH ) 2 + ( Σ V ) 2

\ R = (18.52) 2 + (3.45) 2

\ R = 18.84 kN (Ans.)

Let θ be the angle of resultant R with x-axis, then

ΣV

tan θ =

ΣH

3.45

\ tan θ = θ = 10.55° (Ans.)

18.52

Example 2. A hook is subjected to three forces as shown in the figure Ex. 2.

Determine the magnitude of the resultant force and its direction from x-axis.

200N

2

500N 1 300N

1 1

2 2

Fig. Ex. 2

Solution: Consider θ1, θ2 and θ3 are the angles of forces 300 N, 200 N and 500

N respectively.

–1 1

Now, θ1 = tan = 26.57°

2

–1 2

θ2 = tan = 63.43°

1

–1 1

θ3 = tan = 26.57°

2

Now resolving the forces along x and y-axes, and then determine algebraic

sum of horizontal components and vertical components.

+

→ΣH = 300 cos 26.57° – 200 cos 63.43° – 500 cos 26.57°

Co-planer System of Forces 1.37

\ SH = – 268.33 N

(here ‘–’ sign indicate that SH is acting toward negative x direction)

+↑SV = 300 sin 26.57° + 200 sin 63.43° + 500 sin 26.57°

\ SV = 536.71 N

Now we know that resultant R is calculated as,

R = ( ΣH ) 2 + ( Σ V ) 2

\ R = (268.33) 2 + (536.71) 2

\ R = 600 N

Let θ be the angle of resultant R with x-axis, then

ΣV

tan θ =

ΣH

536.71

\ tan θ = \ q = 63.43° (Ans.)

268.33

Example 3. Determine resultant of the force system shown in the figure Ex. 3.

Fig. Ex. 3

Solution: Resolving the forces along x and y-axes, and then determine algebraic

sum of horizontal components and vertical components.

+

→ΣH = –300 sin 20° + 350 cos 20° + 250 cos 30° – 600 sin 30°

= 142.79 N

+↑SV = –300 cos 20° + 350 sin 20° – 250 sin 30° + 600 cos 30°

= 232.41 N

Now we know that resultant R is calculated as,

R = ( ΣH ) 2 + ( Σ V ) 2

\ R = (142.79) 2 + (232.41)2

\ R = 272.77 N (Ans.)

1.38 Engineering Mechanics Statics

ΣV

tan θ =

ΣH

232.41

\ tan θ = \θ = 58.43° (Ans.)

142.79

Example 4. The following forces act at a point: 30 N towards East, 20 N towards

North, 35 N towards North West, 25 N inclines at 40° towards South of West,

40 N towards South. Determine the magnitude of the resultant force and its

direction from East.

Fig. Ex. 4

Resolving the forces along x and y-axes, and then determine algebraic sum of

horizontal components and vertical components:

+

→ΣH = 30 – 35 cos 45° – 25 cos 40°

= –13.90 N (here ‘–’ sign indicate that SH is acting toward negative x direction

i.e. towards West)

+↑SV = 20 + 35 sin 45° – 25 sin 40° – 40

= –11.32 N (here ‘–’ sign indicate that SV is acting toward negative y direction

i.e. towards South)

Now we know that resultant R is calculated as,

R = ( ΣH ) 2 + ( Σ V ) 2

\ R = (13.90) 2 + (11.32) 2

\ R = 17.92 N (Ans.)

Let θ be the angle of resultant R with x-axis, then

ΣV

tan θ =

ΣH

Co-planer System of Forces 1.39

11.32

\ tan θ = \ θ = 39.15°

13.90

Now angle of resultant with East = 180° + 39.15° = 219.15° (Ans.)

Example 5. Three forces act as shown in figure Ex. 5. Determine the magnitude

of the force P if the resultant is along x-axis. Also determine magnitude of resultant.

Y

75N

45N

25°

25°

O X

35°

P

Fig. Ex. 5

Solution: As resultant is acting along x-axis, its vertical component become zero

i.e. SV = 0.

\ Resolving the forces along y-axes, and then equating sum of vertical

components to zero,

\ 75 sin 50° + 45 sin 25° – P sin 35° = 0

\ P = 133.32 N (Ans.)

Now as resultant is acting along x-axis, its magnitude is equal to SH

R = SH = 75 cos 50° + 45 cos 25° + 133.32 cos 35°

\ R = 198.20 N (Ans.)

Example 6. Three forces are acting on a bracket as shown in figure Ex. 6.

Determine the magnitude and direction of resultant force.

200N 150N

3

4 30°

200mm

400mm

100N

Fig. Ex. 6

Solution: Consider θ1, and θ2 are the angles of forces 100 N, and 200 N respectively

from horizontal.

1.40 Engineering Mechanics Statics

–1 400

Now θ1 = tan = 63.43°

200

–1 3

θ2 = tan = 36.86°

4

Resolving the forces along x and y-axes, and then determine algebraic sum of

horizontal components and vertical components:

+

→ΣH = 100 cos 63.46° + 150 cos 30° – 200 cos 36.86°

= 14.56 N

+↑SV = –100 sin 63.43° + 150 sin 30° + 200 sin 36.86°

= 105.53 N

Now we know that resultant R is calculated as,

R = ( ΣH ) 2 + ( Σ V ) 2

\ R = (14.56) 2 + (105.53) 2

\ R = 106.52 N (Ans.)

Let θ be the angle of resultant R with x-axis, then

ΣV

tan θ =

ΣH

105.53

\ tan θ = \ q = 82.14° (Ans.)

14.56

Example 7. Four concurrent forces acts on the centre of mass during landing of

airplane as shown in figure Ex. 7. Determine the magnitude of the resultant force

and its direction from x-axis

2kN 8.9kN

45°

4.5 kN

30°

8.9 kN

Fig. Ex. 7

Solution: Resolving the forces along x and y-axes, and then determine algebraic

sum of horizontal components and vertical components.

+

→ΣH = 2 sin 45° – 4.5 – 8.9 sin 30°

Co-planer System of Forces 1.41

= –7.53 kN (here ‘–’ sign indicate that SH is acting toward negative x direction)

+↑SV = –2 cos 45° – 8.9 + 8.9 cos 30°

= –2.60 kN (here ‘–’ sign indicate that SV is acting toward negative y direction)

Now we know that resultant R is calculated as,

R = ( ΣH ) 2 + ( Σ V ) 2

\ R = (7.53) 2 + (2.60) 2

\ R = 7.97 kN (Ans.)

Let θ be the angle of resultant R with x-axis, then

ΣV

tan θ =

ΣH

2.60

\ tan θ = \ θ = 19° (Ans.)

7.53

Example 8. Bracket AB is supported by cable BC as shown in figure Ex. 8. If

the tension in cable BC is 150 N, determine magnitude of the resultant of the three

forces and direction of resultant from x-axis.

C

T = 150N

45° B

A

40°

40°

100N 125N

Fig. Ex. 8

Solution: Resolving the forces along x and y-axes, and then determine algebraic

sum of horizontal components and vertical components:

+

→ΣH = –150 cos 45° – 100 sin 40° + 125 cos 40°

= –74.58 N (here ‘–’ sign indicate that SH is acting toward negative x direction)

+↑SV = 150 sin 45° – 100 cos 40° – 125 sin 40°

= –50.88 N (here ‘–’ sign indicate that SV is acting toward negative y direction)

Now we know that resultant R is calculated as,

R = ( ΣH ) 2 + ( Σ V ) 2

\ R = (74.58) 2 + (50.88) 2

1.42 Engineering Mechanics Statics

\ R = 90.28 N (Ans.)

Let θ be the angle of resultant R with x-axis, then

ΣV

tan θ =

ΣH

50.88

\ tan θ = \ θ = 34.30° (Ans.)

74.58

Example 9. Three forces are acting on a hook as shown in figure Ex. 9. If

the magnitude of the resultant force is 400 N and acting along positive y-axis,

determine the magnitude of force P and the angle α.

Fig. Ex. 9

–1 3

Now θ = tan = 36.86°

4

As resultant is acting along y-axis, its horizontal component become zero i.e.

SH = 0.

\ Resolving the forces along x-axes, and then equating sum of horizontal

components to zero,

\ – P sin α + 250 cos 30° + 200 cos 36.86° = 0

\ P sin α = 376.52 (Eq. 1)

Now resultant is acting along y axis, its magnitude is equal to SV

\ 400 = SV

\ 400 = P cos α + 250 sin 30° – 200 sin 36.86°

P cos α = 394.98 (Eq. 2)

Solving Eq. 1 and Eq. 2,

\ a = 43.62° (Ans.)

Now from (Eq. 1), P sin 43.63° = 376.52 P = 545.68 N (Ans.)

Example 10. Three forces are acting on a bracket as shown in figure Ex. 10. If

the magnitude of the resultant force is to be 250 N directed along positive u axis,

determine force P and angle α.

Co-planer System of Forces 1.43

y P

u

30°

x

65° 100N

225N

Fig. Ex. 10

Solution: Here find SH and equate with horizontal component of the resultant

force,

+

\ →ΣH = 250 cos 30°

\ P sin α + 100 + 225 cos 65° = 250 cos 30°

\ P sin α = 21.41 (Eq.1)

Now find SV and equate with vertical component of the resultant force,

\ +↑SV = 250 sin 30°

\ P cos α – 225 sin 65° = 250 sin 30°

\ P cos α = 328.91 (Eq.2)

Solving Eq. 1 and Eq. 2,

\ α = 3.72° (Ans.)

Now from (Eq. 1), P sin 3.72° = 21.41 P = 330 N (Ans.)

Example 1. Determine the moment of the 100 N force about point O as shown

in the figure Ex. 1.

100N

1.5m

Fig. Ex. 1

Solution: Since the perpendicular distance d from the force to the point O is

1.5 m, we use

MO = P × d

Treating anticlockwise moment as positive

MO = –100 × 1.5

(Negative sign is used from our assumed sign convention of moment, as

100 N force tends to rotate the object in clockwise direction)

1.44 Engineering Mechanics Statics

\ MO = – 150 N.m

MO = 150 N.m (Clockwise) (Ans.)

Example 2. Determine the moment of the 100 N force about point O as shown

in the figure Ex. 2

100N

1.5m

60°

0

Fig. Ex. 2

Solution: Here first determine perpendicular distance from line of action of 100

N force to point O as shown in figure Ex. 2(a).

MO = P × d

\ MO = –100 × 1.5 sin 60°

100N

1.5m

60°

O

60°

d

Alternate Approach: Many times it is convenient to resolve the given force

into its components and then take algebraic sum of moment of these components

about given point. In above example given 100 N force can be resolve into

horizontal and vertical components as shown in figure Ex. 2(b).

components about point O is find out as below. (Note that, the line of action of

horizontal component is passing through point O, so it produces zero moment)

\ MO = –100 sin 60° × 1.5

MO = –129.9 N.m = 129.9 N.m (clockwise) (Ans.)

Co-planer System of Forces 1.45

Example 3. Determine the moment of the 100 N force about point O as shown

in the figure Ex. 3.

200 N

5

3

4

1m

O

3m

Fig. Ex. 3

5

3

4

200 cos 36.86°

1m

O

3m

Solution: Here resolved 200 N force into horizontal and vertical components as

shown in figure Ex. 3(a).

Treating anticlockwise moment as positive, sum of moment due to these

components about point O is,

MO = –200 cos 36.86° × 1 – 200 sin 36.86° × 3

\ MO = –520 N.m = 520 N.m (clockwise) (Ans.)

Example 4. Three forces are acting in a plane as shown in figure Ex. 4. Determine

moment of each forces about point A and B.

B

40

50N 70N

30

A

20

100N

10

0 10 20 30 40

Fig. Ex. 4

about point A and B are,

1.46 Engineering Mechanics Statics

MB= –50 × 30 = –1500 N.mm = 1500 N.mm (clockwise) (Ans.)

Moment of 70 N force about point A and B are,

MA = –70 × 10 = –700 N.mm = 700 N.mm (clockwise) (Ans.)

MB = 70 × 10 = 700 N.mm (anticlockwise) (Ans.)

Now resolved 100 N force into horizontal and vertical components and then

find out moment due to these components about point A and B as below,

Horizontal component of 100 N force = 100 cos 45° = 70.71 N

Vertical component of 100 N force = 100 sin 45° = 70.71 N

MA = (70.71 × 20) + (70.71 × 20) = 2828.4 N.mm (anticlockwise) (Ans.)

MB = (70.71 × 40) – (70.71 × 20) = 1414.2 N.mm (anticlockwise) (Ans.)

Example 5. A bracket is subjected to two forces as shown in figure Ex. 5.

Determine (a) moment of 160 N force about point A, (b) moment of 210 N force

about point A and B.

Fig. Ex. 5

Solution: Treating anticlockwise moment as positive, moment of 160 N force

about point A is,

MA = –160 × 0.7 = –112 N.m = 112 N.m (clockwise) (Ans.)

Moment of 210 N force about point A is,

MA = –210 × 0.6 = –126 N.m = 126 N.m (clockwise) (Ans.)

MB = 210 × 0.4 = 84 N.m (anticlockwise) (Ans.)

Example 6. Force P is acting in a plane as shown in figure Ex. 6. If the magnitude

of the moment due to the force P about O is 300 N-m, determine magnitude of

force P.

Y

P

50°

(5,1)

O X

Fig. Ex. 6

Co-planer System of Forces 1.47

Solution: Here first find out horizontal and vertical components of force P as

shown in figure Ex. 6(a).

Y

P P sin 50°

50°

(5,1)

P cos 50°

O X

components about point O is,

MO = (P sin 50° × 5) + (P cos 50° × 1)

Now it is given that moment due to the force P about O is 300 N-m

\ 300 = (P sin 50° × 5) + (P cos 50° × 1)

\ 300 = P [(0.7660 × 5) + ( 0.6427 × 1)]

\ P = 67 N (Ans.)

Example 7. Two equal forces of 150 N are applied as shown in figure Ex. 7. If

the length of the bar AB is 500 mm and radius of pulley is 100 mm, determine sum

of the moments of the forces (a) about point A and (b) about point B.

Fig. Ex. 7

these forces about point A is,

SMA = (150 × 100) – (150 × 100)

\ MA = 0 (Ans.)

Now sum of moment about B is

SMB = (150 × 100) – (150 cos 35°) (500 sin 45° + 100 cos 35°) – (150 sin

35°) (500 cos 45° + 100 sin 35°)

\ MB = – 73860.57 N.mm = –73.86 N.m = 73.86 N.m (clockwise) (Ans.)

1.48 Engineering Mechanics Statics

Determine the value of θ for which the moment about O is (a) zero and (b) a

maximum.

3m

A

5m

2000N

Fig. Ex. 8

the given force must pass through point O as shown in figure

Ex. 8 (a).

–1 5

\ θ = tan = 59° (Ans.)

3

Now for moment about O to be a maximum, the line of

action of the given force must perpendicular to distance OA as Fig. Ex. 8(a)

shown in figure Ex. 8 (b).

–1 5

\ q = tan + (90°) = 149° (Ans.)

3

figure Ex. 9. Determine the sum of moment of these two

forces about point O.

400N

600N Fig. Ex. 8(b)

60°

1m 1m

2m

O

Fig. Ex. 9

these forces about point O is,

Co-planer System of Forces 1.49

\ MO = 146.41 (anticlockwise) (Ans.)

Example 10. Cable AB and AC are used to support a pole as shown in figure

Ex. 10. If the tension in cable AC is 250 N and the sum of the moments about O

by the two cables is zero, determine the tension in cable AB.

A

9m

5m 4m

B O C

Fig. Ex. 10

Solution: Let θ1 and θ2 are the angles of cable AB and AC with horizontal

respectively.

–1 9 –1 9

θ1 = tan = 61° and θ2 = tan = 66°

5 4

Now find out components of the cable tensions at point A.

As sum of the moments about point O is zero, SMO = 0

Treating anticlockwise moment as positive and T be the tension in cable AB,

T cos 61° × 9 – 250 cos 66° × 9 = 0

\ T = 209.74 N (Ans.)

Example 11. Square ABCD is subjected to four forces and clockwise moment

as shown in figure Ex. 11. Determine (a) magnitude and direction of the resultant

force and (b) position of the resultant force from point A.

Fig. Ex. 11

1.50 Engineering Mechanics Statics

Solution: Here first resolve the forces along x and y-axes, and then determine

algebraic sum of horizontal components and vertical components,

+

→ΣH = 10 – 30 = – 20 N (here ‘–’ sign indicate that SH is acting toward

negative x Direction)

+↑SV = 20 – 40 = – 20 N (here ‘–’ sign indicate that SV is acting toward

negative y Direction)

Now we know that resultant R is calculated as,

R = ( ΣH ) 2 + ( ΣV ) 2

\ R = (20) 2 + (20) 2

\ R = 28.28 N (Ans.)

Let θ be the angle of resultant R with x-axis, then

ΣV

tan θ =

ΣH

20

\ tan θ = \ θ = 45° (Ans.)

20

Now position of resultant force is determine by applying Varignon’s theorem

about point A. Let x be the perpendicular distance between line of action of the

resultant force and point A.

\ Rx = SMA, treating anticlockwise moment as positive

\ 28.28 x = 30 × 0.05 + 20 × 0.05 – 1.5 (note that the moment of 10 N and

40 N forces about point A is zero, as the line of action of these forces are passing

through point A)

D C

45°

35

.36

28.28N

mm

A B

Fig. Ex. 11(a)

Example 12. A rectangular block ABCD is subjected to four forces as shown

in figure Ex. 12. Determine (a) magnitude and direction of the resultant force and

(b) position of the resultant force from point A.

Co-planer System of Forces 1.51

Fig. Ex. 12

Solution: Here first resolve the forces along x and y-axes, and then determine

algebraic sum of horizontal components and vertical components,

+

→ΣH = 100 – 400 – 100 cos 30° + 200 cos 30° = – 213.39 N

(here ‘–’ sign indicate that SH is acting toward negative x Direction)

+↑SV = –200 sin 30° – 100 sin 30° = –150 N

(here ‘–’ sign indicate that SV is acting toward negative y Direction)

Now we know that resultant R is calculated as,

R = (ΣH )2 + (ΣV )2

\ R = (213.39) 2 + (150) 2

\ R = 260.83 N (Ans.)

Let θ be the angle of resultant R with x-axis, then

ΣV

tan θ =

ΣH

150

\ tan θ = \ θ = 35.10° (Ans.)

213.39

Now position of resultant force is determine by applying Varignon’s theorem

about point A. Let x be the perpendicular distance between line of action of the

resultant force and point A.

D C

35.1°

260.83N

15

0m

m

A B

Fig. Ex. 12(a)

1.52 Engineering Mechanics Statics

\ 260.83 x = (400 × 200) – (100 × 300) – (100 sin 30° × 100)

– (200 cos 30° × 400) – (200 sin 30° × 150)

\ x = 0.150 m = 150 mm from point A, refer figure Ex. 12(a) (Ans.)

Example 13. Three forces are acting on member AB as shown in figure Ex. 13.

Determine (a) magnitude and direction of the resultant force, (b) point where line

of action of resultant intersect member AB.

Solution: Here first resolve the forces along x and y-axes, and then determine

algebraic sum of horizontal components and vertical components,

+

→ΣH = – 25 cos 45° + 20 sin 25° = –9.22 N

(here ‘–’ sign indicate that SH is acting toward negative x Direction)

+↑SV = – 30 – 25 sin 45° – 20 cos 25° = – 65.80 N

(here ‘–’ sign indicate that SV is acting toward negative y Direction)

Now we know that resultant R is calculated as, 30N 20N25°

R = ( ΣH ) 2 + ( Σ V ) 2 25N

45°

2 2 A B

\ R = (9.22) + (65.80)

1m 1m 2m

\ R = 66.44 N (Ans.)

Fig. Ex. 13

Let θ be the angle of resultant R with x-axis, then

ΣV

tan θ = 82°

ΣH A B

2.07m C

65.80

\ tan θ = \ θ = 82° (Ans.)

9.22

Now position of resultant force is determine by 66.44N

applying Varignon’s theorem about point A. Let x be

Fig. Ex. 13(a)

the perpendicular distance between line of action of the

resultant force and point A.

\ R x = SMA, treating anticlockwise moment as positive

\ 66.44 x = (–30 × 1) – (25 sin 45° × 2) – (20 cos 25° × 4)

\ x = 2.07 m from point A, refer figure Ex.13(a)

Now point where line of action of resultant intersect member AB from A as

shown in figure Ex.13(a) is determine by again applying Varignon’s theorem as

below,

SV × horizontal distance AC = SMA

65.80 × distance AC = (–30 × 1) – (25 sin 45° × 2) – (20 cos 25° × 4)

\ distance AC = 2.09 m (Ans.)

Co-planer System of Forces 1.53

Example 14. A bracket is subjected to four forces as shown in figure Ex. 14.

Determine (a) magnitude and direction of the resultant force and (b) position

of the resultant force from point O.

0.5 kN

2 kN

3

4

1.5 kN

1m

O

1m 1m 1m

1.5m

45°

1kN

Fig. Ex. 14

–1 3

θ = tan = 36.86°

4

Now resolving the forces along x and y-axes, and then determine algebraic

sum of horizontal components and vertical components,

+

→ΣH = 2 cos 36.86° – 1 sin 45° = 0.8931 kN

+↑SV = 1.5 + 0.5 + 2 sin 36.86° – 1 cos 45° = 2.49 kN

Now we know that resultant R is calculated as,

R = (ΣH )2 + (ΣV )2

\ R = (0.8931)2 + (2.49)2

\ R = 2.65 kN (Ans.)

Let θ be the angle of resultant R with x-axis, then

ΣV

tan θ =

ΣH

2.49

\ tan θ = \ q = 70.26° (Ans.)

0.8931

Now position of resultant force is determine by applying Varignon’s theorem

about point O. Let x be the perpendicular distance between line of action of the

resultant force and point O.

\ R x = SMA, treating anticlockwise moment as positive

1.54 Engineering Mechanics Statics

– (1 cos 45° × 3) – (1 sin 45° × 1.5)

\ x = 0.0442 m from point O (Ans.)

Example 15. A bracket is subjected to four forces and a moment as shown in

figure Ex. 15. Determine (a) magnitude and direction of the resultant force, (b)

point where line of action of resultant intersect member OA measured from O.

Fig. Ex. 15

Solution: Resolving the forces along x and y-axes, and then determine algebraic

sum of horizontal components and vertical components,

+

→ΣH = 300 N

+↑SV = –200 – 100 – 150 = –450 N

(here ‘–’ sign indicate that is acting toward negative y direction)

Now we know that resultant R is calculated as,

R = ( ΣH ) 2 + ( Σ V ) 2

\ R = (300) 2 + (450) 2

\ R = 541 N (Ans.)

Let θ be the angle of resultant R with x-axis, then

ΣV

tan θ = Fig. Ex. 15(a)

ΣH

450

\

tan θ = \ θ = 56.30° (Ans.)

300

Now let x be the distance where line of action of resultant intersect member

OA from O as shown in figure Ex.15(a) is determine by applying Varignon’s

theorem as below,

SH x = ∑ MO treating anticlockwise moment as positive

300 x = – (300 × 2) – (100 × 2) – (150 × 4) + 200

\ x = 4 m from O (Ans.)

Co-planer System of Forces 1.55

Example 1. Determine the magnitude of the resultant of parallel force system

shown in figure Ex. 1. Also determine the position of the resultant force from

point O.

30N 60N 20N 40N

O

2m 3m 2m 4m

Fig. Ex. 1

R = +↑SV = – 30 – 60 + 20 – 40

\ R = –110 N = 110 N downward (Ans.)

Now position of resultant is finding out by applying Varignon’s theorem at

point O.

\ Moment due to resultant R about point O = Sum of moment due to all

forces about point O

R

O

Fig. Ex. 1(a)

(Treating anticlockwise moment as positive)

–110 × d = –660

\ d = 6 m Refer figure Ex.1(a)

Example 2. A pole is subjected to parallel forces as shown in figure Ex. 2.

Determine (a) magnitude and direction of the resultant force and (b) position of

the resultant force from point O.

Fig. Ex. 2

1.56 Engineering Mechanics Statics

+

R = →ΣH = 200 – 800 – 100 + 150

\ R = –550 N = 550 N acting towards left (Ans.)

Now position of resultant is finding out by applying Varignon’s theorem at

point O.

\ Moment due to resultant R about point O = Sum of moment due to all

forces about point O

\ 550 × d = –150 × 2 + 100 × 3 + 800 × 4 – 200 × 5

(Treating anticlockwise moment as positive)

\ d = 4 m from O Refer figure Ex.2(a) (Ans.)

Example 3. Three parallel forces are acting on the lever as shown in figure Ex.3.

Determine (a) magnitude and direction of the resultant force and (b) position of

the resultant force from point O.

Fig. Ex. 3

Solution: Here magnitude of resultant is algebraic sum of all parallel forces.

R = +↑SV = – 180 – 100 + 40

\ R = –240 N = 240 N downward (Ans.)

Now position of resultant is finding out by applying Varignon’s theorem at

point O. 240N

\ Moment due to resultant R about point O 2.125m

= Sum of moment due to all forces about point O

\ –R × d = –(180 × 2) – (100 × 3.5) + (40 × 5) O

(Treating anticlockwise moment as positive)

Fig. Ex. 3(a)

–240 × d = –510

\ d = 2.125 m Refer figure Ex.3(a) (Ans.)

Co-planer System of Forces 1.57

Example 4. Four parallel forces are acting on the lever as shown in figure Ex.4.

Determine (a) magnitude and direction of the resultant force and (b) position of

the resultant force from point O.

25N 25N 15N 20N

3m 2m 2m 3m

Fig. Ex. 4

R = +↑SV = –25 + 25 + 15 – 20

\ R = – 5 N = 5 N downward (Ans.)

Now position of resultant is finding out by applying Varignon’s theorem at

point O.

\ Moment due to resultant R about point O = Sum of moment due to all

forces about point O

5N

1m

(Treating anticlockwise moment as positive)

5 × d = 5

\ d = 1 m to the left of point O Refer figure Ex.4(a) (Ans.)

Example 5. Four parallel forces are acting on lever as shown in figure Ex.5.

Determine magnitude of P1 and P2 so that the four forces produce downward

resultant of 150 N acting at 4 m from O

Fig. Ex. 5

1.58 Engineering Mechanics Statics

R = +↑SV = 100 – P2 + P1 – 50

Now it is given that magnitude of resultant force is 150 N

\ – 150 = – 50 + P1 – P2 + 100

\ P1 – P2 = – 200 \ P1 = P2 – 200 (Eq. 1)

Now by applying Varignon’s theorem at point O,

\ Moment due to resultant R about point O = Sum of moment due to all

forces about point O

\ 150 × 4 = – 2P1 + 5P2 – 700

(Treating anticlockwise moment as positive)

2P1 – 5P2 + 1300 = 0

2(P2 – 200) – 5P2 + 1300 = 0 Substituting value of P1 from (Eq. 1)

2P2 – 400 – 5P2 + 1300 = 0

900 = 5P2 – 2P2

900 = 3P2

\ P2 = 300 N (Ans.)

Substituting value of P2 in (Eq. 1)

P1 = 300 – 200 P1 = 100 N (Ans.)

Example 6. Four parallel forces are acting on circle of diameter 2 m as shown

in figure Ex.6. Determine (a) magnitude and direction of the resultant force and

(b) position of the resultant force from point O.

30N 50N

45° 30°

60°

30°

80N 40N

Fig. Ex. 6

Solution: Here magnitude of resultant is algebraic sum of all parallel forces.

R = +↑SV = 50 + 30 + 40 – 80

\ R = 40 N upward (Ans.)

Now position of resultant is finding out by applying Varignon’s theorem at

point O.

\ Moment due to resultant R about point O = Sum of moment due to all

forces about point O

\ 40 × d = (50 × 1 cos 30°) – (30 × 1 cos 45°) + (80 × 1 cos 60°) + (40 × 1

sin 30°) (Treating anticlockwise moment as positive)

40 × d = 82

\ d = 2.05 m from point O (Ans.)

Co-planer System of Forces 1.59

couple at point A.

Fig. Ex. 1

Solution: Here transfer the force parallel to itself along with its moment at A as

below:

Introduce a system of 100 N forces at point A as shown in figure Ex. 1(a)

Now force 100 N acting at point O is replaced at point A by keeping 100 N

force as it is and a couple moment as shown in figure Ex. 1(b)

M = 100 × 5 = 500 N.m anticlockwise. (Ans.)

Example 2. Two systems of forces are shown in figure Ex. 2. Are they equivalent?

50N 25N

2m 2m 4m

System 1 System 2

25N

Fig. Ex. 2

1.60 Engineering Mechanics Statics

Solution: As we know that two systems are equivalent only when the sum of the

forces and sum of the moments about an arbitrary point are equal.

Now check for sum of the forces of two systems.

+↑SFSystem 1 = 25 – 50 = –25 N

+ ↑SFSystem 2 = –25 N

Now check for sums of the moments of two systems about left end. Treating

anticlockwise moment as positive

SMSystem 1 = –50 × 2 = –100 N.m = 100 N.m clockwise

SMSystem 2 = –25 × 4 = –100 N.m = 100 N.m clockwise

As sums of the forces of two systems are equal and sum of the moments of

two systems about an arbitrary point are equal. Two systems are equivalent.

Example 3. Replace the 200 N force shown in figure Ex. 3 by equivalent force

couple at point A.

200N

50° B A

2m

Fig. Ex. 3

Solution: Here transfer the force parallel to itself along with its moment at A as below:

Introduce a system of 200 N forces at point A as shown in figure Ex. 3(a)

200N 200N 200 N

B A

200N 460 Nm

Fig. Ex. 3(a) Fig. Ex. (b)

force as it is and a couple moment as shown in figure Ex. 3(b)

M = 200 sin 50° × 3 = 460 N.m clockwise. (Ans.)

Example 4. The 50 N force is acting on lever as shown in figure Ex. 4. Replace

the force by force and couple moment at point O that will have an equivalent

effect.

Co-planer System of Forces 1.61

50N

2m

60°

O

Fig. Ex. 4

Solution: Here transfer the force parallel to itself along with its moment at O as

below:

Introduce a system of 50 N forces at point O as shown in figure Ex. 4(a)

50N

50N 50N

Fig. Ex. 4(a) Fig. Ex. 4(b)

Now force 200 N acting at point A is replaced at point O by keeping 50 N

force as it is and a couple moment as shown in figure Ex. 4(b)

M = 50 × 2 sin 60° = 86.60 N.m anticlockwise. (Ans.)

Example 5. A plate is subjected to two couples as shown in figure Ex.5.

Determine the sum of the moments exerted on the plate by the two couples.

Fig. Ex. 5

Solution: Here, 60 N couple acts in clockwise direction and 40 N couple acts in

anticlockwise direction. Now treating anticlockwise as positive,

\ SM = –60 × 100 + 40 × 180

= – 6000 + 7200

\ SM = 1200 N.mm anticlockwise (Ans.)

1.62 Engineering Mechanics Statics

Determine the magnitude of force P if the resultant couple moment is 300 N.m

anticlockwise.

Fig. Ex. 6

1

\ tan θ = \ θ = 26.57°

2

Now resultant couple moment = sum of the moments exerted on the plate by

the two couples.

Treating anticlockwise moment as positive,

\ 300 = (P cos 26.57° × 2) + (P sin 26.57° × 1) – (150 × 0.5)

\ P = 168.16 N (Ans.)

Example 7. A rectangular plate is subjected to a force – couple moment system

as shown in figure Ex.7. Replace this system by a single force and determine its

position from x-axis.

Fig. Ex. 7

Solution: Here first replace clockwise couple moment by two equal and opposite

forces of magnitude 1500 N as shown in left hand part of figure Ex.7(a). The 1500

N force acting towards left at point O and another 1500 N force acting towards

right at point A, forms a couple. Here arm of couple is d and moment of couple is

given by M = P × d, where M =180 N.m clockwise, P = 1500 N and d is unknown.

Co-planer System of Forces 1.63

M 150

\d= = = 0.1 m = 100 mm from x-axis as shown in the right hand

P 1500

part of figure Ex.7(a). (Ans.)

Example 8. Replace the 100 N force actin at A on a square plate as shown in

figure Ex. 8 by equivalent force and couple moment at point O.

Fig. Ex. 8

Solution: Here transfer the force parallel to itself along with its moment at O as

below:

Introduce 100 N forces at point O as shown in the left hand part of figure Ex. 8(a).

Now calculate the moment of a 100 N force about point O, (treating

anticlockwise as positive)

50°

100N

100N

281.75Nm

O

50° 50° 100N

100N

Fig. Ex. 8(a)

M = –281.75 = 281.75 N.m clockwise. (Ans.)

equivalent force and couple moment at point O is shown in the right hand

part of figure Ex.8(a).

1.64 Engineering Mechanics Statics

Example 9. Two couples act on a pole as shown in figure Ex. 9. Determine the

magnitude of P so that resultant couple moment is 300 N.mm clockwise.

Fig. Ex. 9

\ – 300 = sum of moments of two couples (treating anticlockwise as positive)

\ – 300 = 150 × 500 – P × 800 sin 30° ( here 800 sin 30° is the arm of couple P)

\ P = 188.25 N (Ans.)

Example 10. Replace the force system as shown in figure Ex. 10 by resultant

force and couple moment at point O that will have an equivalent effect.

300N

0.75m

O

300N 1m 1m

900N

Fig. Ex. 10

Solution: Here first determine the resultant force as below,

+

→ΣH = –300 + 300 = 0

+↑SV = –900 N (here ‘–’ sign indicate that SV is acting toward negative y direction)

Now we know that resultant R is calculated as,

R = ( ΣH ) 2 + ( Σ V ) 2 O

\ R = 2

(0) + (900) 2 1125Nm

\ R = 900 N

900N

Now determine sum of moments of all forces

Fig. Ex. 10(a)

about point O, (treating anticlockwise as positive)

SMO = 300 × 0.75 + 900 × 1 = 1125 N.m anticlockwise

Co-planer System of Forces 1.65

figure Ex.10(a).

Example 11. Replace the force system acting on a bracket as shown in figure

Ex. 11 by resultant force and couple moment at point A that will have an equivalent

effect.

Fig. Ex. 11

Solution: Here first resolve the forces along x and y-axes, and then determine

algebraic sum of horizontal components and vertical components,

+

→ΣH = 200 cos 20° – 100 sin 30° = 138 N

+↑SH = 200 sin 20° – 100 cos 30° = –18.19 N

(here ‘–’ sign indicate that SV is acting toward negative y direction)

Now we know that resultant R is calculated as,

R = ( ΣH ) 2 + ( Σ V ) 2 7.50°

1036.34

Nm 139.20N

\ R = (138) 2 + (18.19) 2

\ R = 139.19 N

Let θ be the angle of resultant R with x-axis, then

ΣV

tan θ =

ΣH

18.19

\ tan θ = \ θ = 7.50° Fig. Ex. 11(a)

138

Now determine sum of moments of all forces about point A, (treating

anticlockwise as positive)

SMA = 350 + 100 cos 30° × 2.5 + 200 cos 20° × 2.5 = 1036.34 N.m anticlockwise

Resultant force and couple moment at point A of given system is shown in

figure Ex.11 (a).

1.66 Engineering Mechanics Statics

Example 12. A square plate of 800 mm side is subjected to a couple and force as

shown in figure Ex.12. Replace the force system acting on plate with an equivalent

force – couple system at O. (O is center of square plate)

Fig. Ex. 12

Solution: It is identifying from given figure that two 60 N forces form a couple,

therefore resultant force of the given force system is the remaining force i.e. 50 N.

\ R = 50 N and its inclination θ with horizontal axis is 20°.

For moment purpose first determine distance ab and cd. Refer figure Ex.12.

In triangle oab

oa cos 40° = 400 \ oa = 522.16 mm

ab = 522.16 sin 40° \ ab = 335.64 mm

In triangle ocd

oc cos 30° = 400 \ oc = 461.89 mm

cd = 461.89 sin 30° \ cd = 230.94 mm

Now determine sum of moments of all forces about O, (treating anticlockwise

as positive),

50N

866.73

Nm

SMO = – (50 cos 20° × 335.64) + (50 sin 20° × 400) – (60 sin 45° × 400)

+ (60 cos 45° × 230.90) + (60 cos 45° × 400)

= 866.73 N.m anticlockwise

Resultant force and couple moment at point O of given system is shown in

figure Ex.12 (a).

Co-planer System of Forces 1.67

Replace the force system with an equivalent force – couple system at B.

6m

A

200N

1m

30°

400N

2m

45°

300N

B 3m

Fig. Ex. 13

Solution: Here first resolve the forces along x and y-axes, and then determine

algebraic sum of horizontal components and vertical components,

+

→ΣH = 400 cos 30° + 300 sin 45° = 558.54 N

+↑SV = 200 – 400 sin 30° – 300 cos 45° = – 212.13 N

(here ‘–’ sign indicate that SV is acting toward negative y direction)

Now we know that resultant R is calculated as,

A

R = ( ΣH ) 2 + ( Σ V ) 2

\ R = (558.54) 2 + (212.13) 2

\ R = 597.47 N

Let θ be the angle of resultant R with x-axis, then

ΣV

tan θ =

ΣH

212.13 1541.34 N.M

\ tan θ = \ θ = 20.80

558.54 B

Now determine sum of moments of all forces 597.47N

about B, (treating anticlockwise as positive)

Fig. Ex. 13(a)

SMB = (200 × 6) – (400 cos 30° × 2)

3

– (400 sin 30° × 6) – (300 sin 45° × 2 – × 2 – (300 cos 45° × 3)

6

= –1541.34 N.m = 1541.34 N.m clockwise

Resultant force and couple moment at point A of given system is shown in

figure Ex.13 (a).

1.68 Engineering Mechanics Statics

Example 14. Two systems of forces are shown in figure Ex. 14. Determine the

value of R and P if these two systems are equivalent.

A 150 A

3m 1m 3m 1m

200N C C

B B R

2m 2m

D E

250N D E

1m 1m

System 1 System 2

P P

Fig. Ex. 14

Solution: As we know that two systems are equivalent only when the sum of the

forces and sum of the moments about an arbitrary point are equal.

SHSystem 1 = SHSystem 2

\ –150 + 200 – 250 = – R \ R = 200 N (Ans.)

Now determine sums of the moments of two systems about B and equate

them. (Treating anticlockwise moment as positive)

SMSystem 1B = SMSystem 2B

150 × 1 – 250 × 2 = – P × 1 \ P = 350 N (Ans.)

Example 15. Two systems of forces are shown in figure Ex. 15. Are they

equivalent?

Fig. Ex. 15

Solution: As we know that two systems are equivalent only when the sum of the

forces and sum of the moments about an arbitrary point are equal.

Co-planer System of Forces 1.69

+

→ ΣFSystem1 = 100 – 200 = –100 N

+

→ ΣFSystem 2 = –200 + 100 = –100 N

Now check for sums of the moments of two systems about O. (Treating

anticlockwise moment as positive)

SMSystem 1 = –100 × 3 + 500 = 200 N.m anticlockwise

SMSystem 2 = 200 × 3 – 100 × 1.5 – 300 = 150 N.m anticlockwise

As sums of the forces of two systems are equal but sum of the moments of two

systems about an arbitrary point are not equal. Two systems are not equivalent.

Example 16. Two equivalent system of forces and moments act on the plate are

shown in figure Ex. 16. Determine the force P and couple M.

Fig. Ex. 16

Solution: As we know that two systems are equivalent only when the sum of the

forces and sum of the moments about an arbitrary point are equal.

+ +

→ ΣH System1 = → ΣH System 2

60 N = 60 N

+↑SVSystem 1 = +↑SVSystem 2

\ 100 – 20 = P – 60 \ P = 140 N (Ans.)

Now determine sums of the moments of two systems about A and equate

them. (Treating Anticlockwise moment as positive)

+ +

→ΣM System1A = →ΣM System 2 A

1.70 Engineering Mechanics Statics

SUMMARY

• Force is the action of a body about another body.

♦ Unit of the force is N, kN

♦ 1 N = (1 kg) (1 m/s2) = 1 kg-m/s2

• Magnitude, Direction, Sense and Point of application are characteristics

of the force.

• When two or more forces act on a body they are called to form a system

of forces.

♦ Coplanar forces are those forces whose lines of action lie on the same

plane.

♦ Non-Coplanar forces are those forces whose lines of action do not lie

on the same plane

• Resultant is a single force which produces the same effect as produced by

number of forces when acting together.

• The resultant of two or more collinear forces is simply their algebraic

sum.

• The resultant of two concurrent forces can be found out by means of the

parallelogram law or the triangle law.

R = P12 + P22 + 2 P1P2 cos θ .......... Magnitude of resultant

P2 sin θ

tan α = .......... Direction of resultant

P1 + P2 cos θ

• The resultant of more than two concurrent forces can be found out by

means of rectangular components method or the polygon law.

R = (ΣH )2 + (ΣV )2 .......... Magnitude of resultant

ΣV

tan θ = .......... Direction of resultant

ΣH

• Resolution is the process of splitting up the given force into components,

without changing its effect on the body.

• The rotational effect produced by force is known as moment of the force.

Moment = Force × Distance

M = F × d

• The location of the resultant of parallel force system is found out by

means of Varignon’s Theorem (Principle of Moment)

• Two equal, unlike parallel, non-collinear forces form a couple.

• Force can be transfer parallel to itself by means of force couple system.

• Two force systems that produce the same external effects on a rigid body

are said to be equivalent.

Co-planer System of Forces 1.71

PROBLEMS

acting on a hook as shown in figure

Prob.1.Determine magnitude resultant of

these two forces.

Fig. Prob. 1

2. Two forces of 375 N and P are acting

on a hook as shown in figure Prob.2. If

the magnitude of the resultant force is to

be 200 N, directed along positive y-axis,

determine the magnitude of force P.

Fig. Prob. 2

3. Two forces of 150 N and 200 N are y

acting on a plate as shown in figure Prob.3.

Determine magnitude and direction of

resultant of these two forces. 150 N 50° 200 N

30°

x

Fig. Prob. 3

4. Two forces of 160 N and 200 N are acting 160 N

on a bracket as shown in figure Prob.4. 1m

Determine magnitude and direction of O

resultant of these two forces. 0.5m

200 N

2m

Fig. Prob. 4

1.72 Engineering Mechanics Statics

along u and v directions. Refer figure

Prob.5. 70° 300 N

30°

u

Fig. Prob. 5

6. Resolve 300 N force in to components

along u and v directions. Refer figure 60° 30°

Prob.6. O

u

v

Fig. Prob. 6

7. Two forces of 150 N and 110 N are V Y

acting on a hook as shown in figure Prob.7. 20°

U

Determine (a) magnitude and direction 40°

of resultant of these two forces. (b) The 150 N

magnitudes of two other forces Pu and Pv 110 N 20° 20°

that would have the same resultant. X

Fig. Prob. 7

8. Determine magnitude of the resultant

force and its direction from x-axis of

three concurrent forces as shown in figure

Prob.8.

Fig. Prob. 8

9. A rectangular plate is subjected to three

concurrent forces as shown in figure Prob.9. 60 N 50 N

Determine magnitude of the resultant force 35°

and its direction from x-axis. 45°

55°

50 N

Fig. Prob. 9

Co-planer System of Forces 1.73

force and its direction from x-axis of

three concurrent forces as shown in figure 4

Prob.10. 250 N

3

1

O 3

1

1

400 N

Fig. Prob. 10

11. Determine magnitude of the resultant

force and its direction from x-axis of

four concurrent forces as shown in figure

Prob.11.

Fig. Prob. 11

12. The magnitude of the resultant of three Y

concurrent forces is 45 N and directed 60 N

along positive y axis. Determine magnitude 30°

P

of force P. Refer figure Prob.12

30°

X

30°

50 N

Fig. Prob. 12

13. Determine the moments of the 120 N A B C

force shown in figure Prob.13 about points

A, B and C.

Fig. Prob. 13

14. Determine moment of each forces

shown in figure Prob.14 about points O.

Fig. Prob. 14

1.74 Engineering Mechanics Statics

as shown in figure Prob.15. Determine 150 N

the sum of the moments of the two forces

1.5 m

about point A and point B.

100 N

A

1.5 m

B

Fig. Prob. 15

16. Three forces are applied to a bracket 200 N 30°

as shown in figure Prob.16. Determine the

400 N

sum of the moments of the three forces

about point O. 0.5 m

O

0.5 m 0.5 m 1m

200 N

Fig. Prob. 16

17. The moment exerted by the weight W

about point B is 300 N.m. Determine the

moment by the weight W about point A.

Refer figure Prob.17.

Fig. Prob. 17

18. Two forces are applied to a circular 30° 50 N

plate as shown in figure Prob.18. determine

moment of each forces about point O.

R = 0.8 m O 45°

30 N

Fig. Prob. 18

19. Determine the resultant of the three 30 N 50 N

1.4 m

forces and the couple C acting on a

65° 50°

rectangular plate as shown in figure

Prob.19.

1,2 m

40 N

45 Nm

Fig. Prob. 19

Co-planer System of Forces 1.75

forces acting on a beam as shown in figure

Prob.20.

Fig. Prob. 20

21. Three parallel forces are acting on 4 kN

3.5 kN

4.5 kN

a beam as shown in figure Prob.21.

Determine the resultant force and its A B

location with respect to support A.

Fig. Prob. 21

22. The resultant of the force system shown 300 mm

in figure Prob.22 is a 120 N.mm anticlock-

wise couple. Determine magnitude of P1, 40°

P2 and C. 200 mm

P1

C

50 N

200 mm

P2

40°

Fig. Prob. 22

23. Determine the moment of the couple y

shown in figure Prob.23. Also determine

perpendicular distance between the two 150 N 150 N

forces.

30° 30°

x

100 m m

Fig. Prob. 23

1.76 Engineering Mechanics Statics

moment produced. Refer figure Prob.24. 0.1 m 0.1 m

P

Fig. Prob. 24

25. In Prob. No.24, If the couple moment produced by two forces P is 30 N.m. Determine

magnitude of P.

26. A rectangular plate is subjected to two

forces and the couple as shown in figure

Prob. 26. Replace the force system with an

equivalent force – couple system at point O

Fig. Prob. 26

27. A bracket is subjected to three forces as 6.5 kN

shown in figure Prob. 27. Replace the force 30°

system with an equivalent force – couple

system at point A.

1m

60°

1m

4.5 kN 3.5 kN

A

1m 1m

Fig. Prob. 27

Unit 2

system and concept of free body diagram, which is perhaps the most

important tool of mechanics. We then discuss analysis procedure for

finding out unknown forces and moments using free body diagram and

equilibrium equations.

Equilibrium of System of Forces

2.1 Equilibrium

Equilibrium is the state of rest of a body i.e. the body does not move and also

does not rotate about any point under the action of forces. For a rigid body in

static equilibrium, the external forces and moments are balanced and will impart

no translational or rotational motion to the body;

Static equilibrium is the

however it could be translating or rotating at a

state in which the sum of

constant velocity.

the forces and moments

When object is in equilibrium under the on each particle of the

action of system of forces, following conditions system is zero

are satisfied:

1. The algebraic sum of the components of the forces in any direction must

equal to zero.

2. The algebraic sum of the moments of the forces about any point must

equal zero.

Equilibrium conditions for different force system are shown in Table 2.1

Table 2.1 Equilibrium Conditions for Different Force Systems

Collinear force system SP = 0

\ Resultant, R = 0

Concurrent force system SH = 0 (sum of horizontal components) and

SV = 0 (sum of vertical components)

\ Resultant, R = 0

Parallel force system SP = 0 and

SMO = 0

(O is any point in the plane of the forces)

Non-concurrent force system SH = 0 (sum of horizontal components)

SV = 0 (sum of vertical components) and

SMO = 0 (O is any point in the plane of the forces)

Free body diagram is one of the most important tools of mechanics. Free-body

diagrams are fundamental to all engineering disciplines that are concerned with

the effects that forces have on bodies.

A free-body diagram of a body is a diagrammatic representation or a sketch

of a body in which the body is shown completely separated from all surrounding

bodies, including supports. The term free implies that all supports have been

2.4 Engineering Mechanics Statics

removed and replaced by the forces (reactions) that they exert on the body.

Forces that we show on a free body diagram can be divided into two categories:

(a) Reactive Forces: Reactive forces known as reactions are those forces

that are exerted on a body by the supports to which it is attached.

Reactions at supports and connections are of only two types:

1. If a support or connection prevents translation in some direction, then

a force may be developed in that direction.

2. If a support or connection prevents rotation about some axis, then a

moment may be developed around that axis

(b) Applied forces: Forces acting on a body that are not provided by the

supports are called applied forces.

Different supports and their reactions are shown in Table 2.2

Table 2.2 Supports and their Reactions

Free Body

Support Example Description

Diagram (F.B.D.)

Normal W Normal force

contact on oriented

horizontal perpendicular to

smooth W surface.

surface Direction of normal

force is towards the

N body.

Normal Normal force

contact on oriented

inclined perpendicular to

smooth W inclined surface.

surface Direction of normal

force is towards the

body.

Rope, cable, Cable

T Tension oriented

wire

along cable.

Direction of tension

is away from the

body.

Spring Spring force

oriented along

long axis of spring.

Spring Force is pull

P

if spring is in

tension, and force

is push if spring is

in compression.

Equilibrium of System of Forces 2.5

contact on oriented

horizontal P W P perpendicular to

surface with surface.

friction Friction force

Rough Surface F

parallel to the

N surface.

Normal W Normal force

contact on oriented

inclined perpendicular to

surface with W inclined surface.

friction Rough Surface

Friction force

F

parallel to the

N

inclined surface.

Link Force oriented

P along the link.

Link

Force can be push

or pull

Roller

Normal force

oriented

N perpendicular to the

surface supporting

the roller.

N

Pin/Hinge Force in terms

A of components

oriented along x

and y-axes.

Fixed Force in terms of

Ax

components

A M oriented along x

Ay

and y-axes. Moment

about z-axis.

Sliding in

guide

Normal force

oriented

perpendicular to

guide.

N

2.6 Engineering Mechanics Statics

Diagram

1. Choose the free body to be used, isolate it from any other body and sketch

its outline.

2. Locate all external forces on the free body and clearly mark their

magnitude and direction. This should include the weight of the free body,

which is applied at the centre of gravity.

3. Locate and mark unknown external forces and reactions on the free-body

diagram.

4. Include all dimensions that indicate the location and direction of forces.

The free-body diagram of a rigid body can be reduced to that of a particle.

The free-body of a particle is used to represent a point and all forces acting on it.

Some examples on free body diagram are shown in Table 2.3

Table 2.3 Examples on Free Body Diagrams

W

2 1 2 1

N2 N1

T

W

W N

W

W W

N5 N6

W W N1 N4

N2 N3

Equilibrium of System of Forces 2.7

W

B

W

30°

A Ax 30° NB

Ay

10 N

10 N 20 Nm

20 Nm A B

A B

Ax

3m 3m 4m 3m 3m 4m

Ay By

T

A

Ax

1m 2m

Ay

W

(Smooth

Surface)

2.8 Engineering Mechanics Statics

10 N 15 N

1m 2m

10 N 15 N

C

A B

30° 1m Ax

30°

PCD

D Ay

10 N N

1.5m 1m 1m

Ax

M

25 Nm

Ay

W B

A

2m 1m

10 kN

(Based on number of forces)

1. Equilibrium under Two Force System: If a body is in equilibrium

under the action of two forces, then two forces must be collinear, of equal

magnitude and act in opposite direction as shown in figure 1.

P

Fig. 1

A body will not be in equilibrium under the action of two equal and

opposite parallel forces, because these forces produce a couple.

Equilibrium of System of Forces 2.9

under the action of three forces, then three forces acting on a body must

be concurrent or parallel.

To satisfy the condition SM = 0 the line of action of three non-parallel forces

P1, P2 and P3 must pass through the same point i.e. P1

the three force must be concurrent as shown in

figure 2.

When the three forces P1, P2 and P3 acting on

a body are parallel and acts in same direction then

body will not be in equilibrium, as their resultant

R = P1 + P2 + P3. If the three forces are acting P3

in opposite direction and their magnitude is so P2

adjusted that the resultant force is zero and sum of Fig. 2

moment of three forces about any point is zero then

body will be in equilibrium.

Lami’s Theorem:

It states, “If a body is in equilibrium under the action of three concurrent forces,

then each force is proportional to the sine of angle between the other two forces”

P1

P3

P2

Let P1, P2 and P3 are three forces acting at point O. Let the angle between

P1 and P2 is α, angle between P2 and P3 is γ and P3 and P1 is β, then according

to Lami’s theorem,

P1 P P

= 2 = 3 (Eq 2.1)

sin γ sin β sin ∝

Below steps are following in equilibrium analysis of a body,

1. Draw a free-body diagram of the body which shows all of the forces and

moment that act on the body.

2. Write the equilibrium equations for all the forces and moments that

appear on the free-body diagram.

3. Solve the equilibrium equations for the unknowns.

2.10 Engineering Mechanics Statics

Example 1. The system of forces shown in figure Ex. 1 is in equilibrium. String

BC is horizontal. Determine tension in string AB (T1), tension in string BC (T2)

and tension in string CD (T3).

A B

35° 30°

B C

40 N 50 N

Fig. Ex. 1

Solution: Consider the free body diagram at point B and C as shown in figure Ex.

1(a). Since the system is in equilibrium and three concurrent forces are acting at

point B and C, we can use Lami’s theorem at point B and C.

40 T1 T2

= =

sin 125° sin 90° sin 145°

40 sin 90°

\ T1 = \ T1 = 48.83 N (Ans.)

sin 125°

40 sin 145°

T2 = \ T2 = 28 N (Ans.)

sin 125°

Consider point C from F.B.D. and apply Lami’s theorem.

28 T3 50

= =

sin150° sin 90° sin120°

28sin 90°

\ T3 = \ T3= 56 N (Ans.)

sin150°

Equilibrium of System of Forces 2.11

are in equilibrium. Find out the magnitude of force P and angle θ.

Fig. Ex. 2

Solution: Since the system is in equilibrium and three concurrent forces are acting

at point O we can use Lami’s theorem at point O.

P 15 20

= = ...(Eq. 1)

sin 90° sin (180 − θ) sin (90 + θ)

Now from Trigonometry formulas we know,

sin (180 – θ) = sin θ and sin (90 + θ) = cos θ, putting these in Eq. 1,

P 15 20

\ = = ...(Eq. 2)

sin 90° sin θ cos θ

15 sin θ 15

\ = \ tan θ = \ θ = 37° (Ans.)

20 sin θ 20

Now from equation (2),

P 15

=

sin 90° sin 37°

15sin 90°

\ P = \ P = 25 N (Ans.)

sin 37°

Alternate Approach: The above problem can also be solved by applying

conditions of equilibrium,

+

i.e. →ΣH = 0 and +↑SV = 0

SH = 0: P cos θ – 20 = 0

20

\ P = ...(Eq. 1)

cos θ

SV = 0: P sin θ – 15 = 0

15

\ P = ...(Eq. 2)

sin θ

2.12 Engineering Mechanics Statics

15 20

=

sin θ cosθ

15 sin θ 15

\ = \ tan θ = \ θ = 37° (Ans.)

20 cos θ 20

Now from Eq. 1

20

P = \ P = 25 N (Ans.)

cos37°

Example 3. Check whether two systems of forces shown in figure Ex. 3 are in

equilibrium or not.

Fig. Ex. 3

equilibrium, i.e.

+

→ΣH = 0, +↑SV = 0 and SM = 0 (Treating anticlockwise moment as positive)

Now consider system 1 and apply equation of equilibrium,

4 3

SH = 60 – 80

5 5

= 48 – 48 \ SH = 0

4 3

SV = 100 – 80 – 60

5 5

= 100 – 64 – 36 \ SV = 0

As system 1 is concurrent force system, the sums of moment about point O

is zero,

i. e. SM = 0. So system 1 satisfies all equations of equilibrium,

\ System 1 is in equilibrium (Ans.)

Now consider system 2 and apply equation of equilibrium,

4 3

SH = 60 – 80

5 5

= 48 – 48 \ SH = 0

Equilibrium of System of Forces 2.13

4 3

SV = 100 – 80 – 60

5 5

= 100 – 64 – 36 \ SV = 0

As system 2 is non-concurrent force system, taking the sum of moments

about point O. Here since line of action of forces 60 N and 80 N passing through

point O, they produces zero moment, but the 100 N force will cause a clockwise

moment of 200 N.m.

\ SMO = 200 N.m clockwise.

So system 2 satisfies sum of forces equations of equilibrium but it does not

satisfy sum of moment equation of equilibrium,

\ System 2 is not in equilibrium (Ans.)

Example 4. A 250 N block rest on an incline smooth surface as shown in figure

Ex.4. Determine normal reaction at contact and force P to maintain equilibrium.

Fig. Ex. 4

the free body diagram shown in figure Ex. 4 (a), 250 N

P

SH = 0: P – 250 sin 30° = 0 30°

\ P = 125 N (Ans.)

SV = 0: N – 250 cos 30° = 0

\ N = 216.5 N (Ans.)

Alternate Approach: Since the system is in

30°

equilibrium and three concurrent forces are acting at point N

O as shown in figure Ex. 4 (b), we can use Lami’s theorem

Fig. Ex. 4(a)

at point O.

N

30°

P

30°

O

250 N

2.14 Engineering Mechanics Statics

P 250 N

= =

sin150° sin 90° sin120°

P 250

=

sin150° sin 90°

\ P = 125 N (Ans.)

250 N

=

sin 90° sin120°

\ N = 216.5 N (Ans.)

Example 5. A 100 N block rest on an incline smooth surface as shown in figure

Ex.5. If θ = 40°, determine normal reaction at contact and force P to maintain

equilibrium.

P

100 N

20°

Fig. Ex. 5

to the free body diagram shown in figure Ex. 5(a),

SH = 0: P cos 40° – 100 sin 20° = 0

\ P = 44.65 N (Ans.)

SV = 0: N – P sin 40° – 100 cos 20° = 0

N = 44.65 sin 40° + 100 cos 20°

\ N = 122.66 N (Ans.)

Alternate Approach: Since the system is in

equilibrium and three concurrent forces are acting Fig. Ex. 5(a)

at point O as shown in figure Ex. 5 (b), we can use

Lami’s theorem at point O.

P 100 N

= =

sin160° sin130° sin 70°

P 100

=

sin160° sin130°

\ P = 44.65 N (Ans.)

100 N

=

sin130° sin 70°

Fig. Ex. 5(b)

\ N = 122.67 N (Ans.)

Equilibrium of System of Forces 2.15

equilibrium.

Solution: Applying conditions of equilibrium i.e. +SH = 0 and +SV = 0 to

the free body diagram shown in figure Ex. 5(a),

SH = 0: 60 cos θ – 100 sin 20° = 0 \ θ = 55.24° (Ans.)

Example 7. Determine the tension in each cord for equilibrium of 1000 N and

3 m long wooden log as shown in figure Ex.7.

Fig. Ex. 7

equal to weight of wooden log, i.e. 1000 N. Consider the free body diagram at

point B figure Ex. 7(a). Since the system is in equilibrium and three concurrent

forces are acting at point B, we can use Lami’s theorem, 1000 N

1000 PBC PBD

= =

sin 75° sin150° sin135°

1000 PBC

=

sin 75° sin150° 45° 60°

\ PBC = 517.64 N (Ans.)

1000 PBD PBC

= PBD

sin 75° sin135°

\ PBD = 732.05 N (Ans.) Fig. Ex. 7(a)

Example 8. Four forces are acting at point O as shown in figure Ex.8. Determine

magnitude of P1 and P2 for equilibrium.

Fig. Ex. 8

2.16 Engineering Mechanics Statics

+

Solution: Applying conditions of equilibrium i.e. →ΣH = 0 and +↑SV = 0

SH = 0: 80 + 60 cos 40° – P2 cos 30° = 0 \ P2 = 145.44 N (Ans.)

SV = 0: P1 – P2 sin 30° – 60 sin 40° = 0

P1 = 145.44 sin 30° + 60 sin 40° \ P1 = 111.29 N (Ans.)

Example 9. A circular plate is subjected to three concurrent forces as shown in

figure Ex.9. Determine magnitude of force P1 and P2 for equilibrium.

100 N

P1 2

3

P2

Fig. Ex. 9

Solution: Since the system is in equilibrium and three concurrent forces are acting

at point O we can use Lami’s theorem at point O. Refer figure Ex.9(a)

2

Let θ be the angle of 90 N force with horizontal, tan θ =

3

\ θ = 33.69° 100 N

100 P1 P2

= =

sin 90° sin146.3° sin123.69°

100 P1 33.69 ° 56.3 °

=

sin 90° sin146.3°

\ P1 = 55.48 N (Ans.) P1 P2

= \ P2 = 83.20 N (Ans.)

sin 90° sin123.69°

Alternate Approach: The above problem can also be solved by applying

conditions of equilibrium,

+

i.e. →ΣH = 0 and +↑SV = 0

SH = 0: P2 cos 56.30° – P1 cos 33.69° = 0

P2 cos 56.30° = P1 cos 33.69°

\ P2 = 1.499 P1 ...(Eq.1)

SV = 0: 100 – P2 sin 56.30° – P1 sin 33.69° = 0

100 = P2 sin 56.30° + P1 sin 33.69°

Substitute value of P2 from Eq. 1

Equilibrium of System of Forces 2.17

100 = 1.8023 P1 \ P1 = 55.48 N (Ans.)

Now from equation Eq. 1

P2 = 1.499 × 55.48 \ P2 = 83.17 N (Ans.)

Example 10. A 100 kg mass is supported by cables as shown in figure Ex.10.

determine tension in each cables.

Fig. Ex. 10

Solution: Consider the free body diagram as shown in figure Ex. 10 (a)

diagram,

SV = 0 : TAB – 100 × 9.81 = 0 \ TAB = 981 N (Ans.)

Now since the system is in equilibrium and three concurrent forces are acting

at point B and D, we can use Lami’s theorem at point B and D. First applying

Lami’s theorem at point B,

TAB TBC T

= = BD

sin120° sin150° sin 90°

2.18 Engineering Mechanics Statics

981 TBC

= \ TBC = 566.38 N (Ans.)

sin120° sin150°

981 TBD

= \ TBD = 1132.76 N (Ans.)

sin120° sin 90°

Now applying Lami’s theorem at point D,

TBD TDE T

= = DF

sin105° sin165° sin 90°

1132.76 TDE

= \ TDE = 303.52 N (Ans.)

sin105° sin165°

1132.76 TDF

= \ TDF = 1172.71 N (Ans.)

sin105° sin 90°

Example 11. Block A is supported by two weights of 100 N and 50 N as shown

in figure Ex.11. Determine the weight of block A and angle θ for equilibrium.

50N 50°

100N

Fig. Ex. 11

+

Solution: Applying conditions of equilibrium i.e. →ΣH = 0 and +↑SV = 0 to

free body diagram as shown in figure Ex.11(a)

50N

100N

50°

W

Fig. Ex. 11(a)

SV = 0: 50 sin 50° + 100 sin 71.25° – W = 0 \ W = 133 N (Ans.)

Equilibrium of System of Forces 2.19

Example 12. A roller 400 N rests against vertical and inclined smooth surfaces

as shown in figure Ex.12. Determine the normal reactions at A and B.

A

30°

Fig. Ex. 12

Solution: Consider free body diagram as shown in figure Ex.12 (a). Since the

system is in equilibrium and three concurrent forces are acting at the centre of

roller, we can use Lami’s theorem at point O.

400 N

30° NA

NB

NB

400N

30°

NA

400 NA NB

= =

sin120° sin 90° sin150°

400 NA

= \ NA = 461.88 N (Ans.)

sin120° sin 90°

400 NB

= \ NB = 230.94 N (Ans.)

sin120° sin150°

Alternate Approach: The above problem can also be solved by applying

conditions of equilibrium,

+

i.e. →ΣH = 0 and +↑SV = 0

SH = 0: NA sin 30° – NB = 0

NB = NA sin 30° ...(Eq. 1)

SV = 0: NA cos 30° – 400 = 0 \ NA = 461.88 N (Ans.)

Now from Eq. 1

NB = 461.88 sin 30° \ NB = 230.94 N (Ans.)

2.20 Engineering Mechanics Statics

Example 13. Two smooth sphere of weight 150 N and radius 200 mm each rest

in a channel as shown in figure Ex.13. Assuming all contact surfaces as smooth,

determine reactions at points of contacts.

Fig. Ex. 13

O1O2 = 200 + 200 = 400 mm, m O2

0m

40

O1E = 750 – 200 – 200 = 350 mm

E

O1

O E 350

cos α = 1 = \ a = 29° 350mm

O1O2 400

Fig. Ex. 13(a)

Now applying conditions of equilibrium i.e.

+

→ΣH = 0 and +↑SV = 0 to the right hand side roller

of free body diagram shown in figure Ex. 13(b),

SV = 0: NC sin 29° – 150 = 0 \ NC = 309.39 N (Ans.)

From Eq. 1, ND = 309.39 cos 29° \ ND = 270.60 N (Ans.)

+

Applying conditions of equilibrium i.e. →ΣH = 0 and +↑SV = 0 to the left

hand side roller of free body diagram shown in figure Ex. 13(b),

Equilibrium of System of Forces 2.21

SH = 0: NA – NC cos 29° = 0

\ NA = 309.39 cos 29° \ NA = 270.6 N (Ans.)

SV = 0: NB – 150 – NC sin 29° = 0

\ NB = 150 – 309.39 sin 29° \ NB = 0 N (Ans.)

Example 14. Two smooth sphere of weight 400 N and 200 N respectively rest

on an inclined surface as shown in figure Ex.14. Assuming all contact surfaces as

smooth, determine reactions at points of contacts.

Fig. Ex. 14

+

Solution: Applying conditions of equilibrium i.e. →ΣH = 0 and +↑SV = 0 to the

left hand side roller of free body diagram shown in figure Ex. 14(a),

200 N

400 N

NB

NB

40°

NC

NA

10°

Fig. Ex. 14(a)

SV = 0: NA cos 10° – 400 – NB sin α = 0 ...(Eq.2)

+

Applying conditions of equilibrium i.e. →ΣH = 0 and +↑SV = 0 to the right

hand side roller of free body diagram shown in figure Ex. 14(a),

SH = 0: NB cos α – NC sin 40° = 0 ...(Eq.3)

SV = 0: NB sin α – 200 + NC cos 40° = 0 ...(Eq.4)

Now from Eq. 1 and Eq. 3

NA sin 10° – NC sin 40° = 0

NA sin 10° = NC sin 40° \ NA = 3.7016 NC ...(Eq.5)

2.22 Engineering Mechanics Statics

NA cos 10° + NC cos 40° – 200 – 400 = 0

NA cos 10° + NC cos 40° = 600

Substitute value of NA from Eq. 5,

3.7016 NC × cos 10° + NC cos 40° = 600 \ NC = 136 N (Ans.)

From Eq. 5,

NA = 3.7016 × 136 \ NA = 503.41 N (Ans.)

Now from Eq. 3,

NB cos α = 136 sin 40° = 87.419 ...(Eq. 6)

From Eq. 4,

NB sin α = 200 – 136 cos 40° = 95.817 ...(Eq.7)

Dividing Eq. 7 by Eq. 6,

N B sin α 95.817

=

N B cos α 87.419

\ tan α = 1.096 \ α = 47.62°

Now from Eq. 6,

NB cos 47.62° = 87.419 \ NB = 129.69 N (Ans.)

Example 15. A roller of weight 800 N and radius 240 mm is pushed by force

P over a step at A as shown in figure Ex.15. Determine magnitude of force P to

just start the roller over the step.

P

240mm

25°

O

30mm

Fig. Ex. 15

Consider the equilibrium state when roller just start over the step. Now since the

system is in equilibrium, three forces acting on the roller must be concurrent at

the centre of roller, and we can use Lami’s theorem.

Equilibrium of System of Forces 2.23

OA = 240 mm and OB = 240 – 30 = 210 mm

Now in ∆OAB,

AB 116.18

Now tan α = \ tan α = \ α = 28.950

OB 210

Now using Lami’s theorem,

800 P NA

= =

sin143.95° sin151.05° sin 65°

800 NA

= \ NA = 1232 N

sin143.95° sin 65°

800 P

= \ P = 658 N (Ans.)

sin143.95° sin151.05°

Example 16. The boom OA and cable AC support a load of 300 N as shown in

figure Ex.16. Knowing that boom AO exerts on pin A a force along OA, determine

magnitude of force along OA and tension in cable AC.

Fig. Ex. 16

Solution: As three concurrent forces are acting at pin A, we can apply Lami’s

theorem at A. Consider free body diagram at A as shown in figure Ex.16 (a)

300 PAO TAC

= = PAO TAC

sin110° sin 120° sin 130°

40° 30°

300 PAO

=

sin 110° sin 120°

\ PAO = 276.48 N (Ans.)

300 N

300 TAC

= Fig. Ex. 16(a)

sin 110° sin130°

\ TAC = 244.56 N (Ans.)

Example 17. A man is holding up the 600 N bar AB by applying perpendicular

force of 400 N as shown in figure Ex.17. Determine angle θ at which he can

support the bar.

2.24 Engineering Mechanics Statics

B 3.5

m

1.5

m

A

Fig. Ex. 17

Solution: Consider free body diagram of bar as shown in figure Ex.17 (a).

B

600 N

2.5

m

1.5

m

Ax

400 N A

Ay

moment as positive,

SMA = 0: 600 × 2.5 cos θ – 400 × 1.5 = 0

600 × 2.5 cos θ = 400 × 1.5 \ θ = 66.42° (Ans.)

Example 18. The homogeneous bar AB of 300 N is resting as shown in figure

Ex.18. Assuming contact surface as smooth, determine the forces acting at A and B.

Fig. Ex. 18

Equilibrium of System of Forces 2.25

+

Solution: Applying conditions of equilibrium i.e. →ΣH = 0, +↑SV = 0 and SM

= 0 to free body diagram shown in figure Ex. 18(a),

NB

B

2.5

300 N

m

60°

Ax A

Ay

+

→ΣH = 0: NB + Ax = 0 ...(Eq.1)

+↑ SV = 0: Ay – 300 = 0 \ Ay = 300 N (Ans.)

SMA = 0: 300 × 2.5 cos 60° – NB × 5 sin 60° = 0

300 × 2.5 cos 60° = NB × 5 sin 60° \ NB = 86.60 N (Ans.)

Now from Eq. 1, 86.60 + AX = 0 \ AX = –86.60 N (Ans.)

Here, ‘–ve’ sign indicate that force AX will act in negative x direction.

Example 19. The homogeneous bar AB of 1000 N is resting as shown in figure

Ex.19. Assuming contact surface as smooth, determine the tension in the rope CD.

Fig. Ex. 19

+

Solution: Applying conditions of equilibrium i.e. →ΣH = 0 and SM = 0 (Treating

anticlockwise moment as positive) to free body diagram shown in figure Ex. 19(a),

T C

NB 25°

25° A

1000 N

NA

Fig. Ex. 19(a)

2.26 Engineering Mechanics Statics

+

→ΣH = 0: NB sin 25° – T = 0

T = NB sin 25° ...(Eq.1)

SMA = 0: T × 1225 sin 25° – NB × 800 + 1000 × 612.5 cos 25° = 0

Substituting value of T from Eq. 1

NB sin 25° × 1225 sin 25° – × 800 + 1000 × 612.5 cos 25° = 0

\ NB = 955 N

Now from Eq. 1, T = 955 sin 25° \ T = 403.60 N (Ans.)

Example 20. The homogeneous bar AB of 600 N is resting as shown in figure

Ex.20. Assuming contact surface as smooth, determine the reactions at A and B.

Fig. Ex. 20

+

equilibrium i.e. →ΣH = 0, +↑SV = 0 and NA T

SM = 0 (Treating anticlockwise moment

as positive) to free body diagram shown 30

360mm

0m 20

0m

in figure Ex. 20(a),

m

m

SH = 0: NA – NB = 0

\ NA = NB ...(Eq.1) 600 N

NB

SV = 0: T – 600 = 0 480 mm

\ T = 600 N ...(Eq.2)

Fig. Ex. 20(a)

360

Now from free body diagram tan θ = \ θ = 36.86°

480

SMB = 0: –T × 200 cos 36.86° + 600 × 600 cos 36.86° – NA × 360 = 0

Substituting T = 600 N from Eq. 2,

–600 × 200 cos 36.86° + 600 × 600 cos 36.86° = NA × 360

\ NA = 533.40 N (Ans.)

Now from Eq. 1, NA = NB \ NB = 533.40 N (Ans.)

Equilibrium of System of Forces 2.27

figure Ex.21. If weight of the bar is concentrate at G, determine the reactions at

A and tension T.

A

T

1m

0.5m

G

C

2m

Fig. Ex. 21

+

i.e. →ΣH = 0, +↑SV= 0 and SM = 0 (Treating A Ax

anticlockwise moment as positive) to free T

body diagram shown in figure Ex. 21(a), 1m

SH = 0: Ax = 0 (Ans.) G

C

SV = 0: Ay + T – 20 × 9.81 = 0 1.5m 0.5m

SMA = 0: 20 × 9.81 × 0.5 – T × 2 = 0 Fig. Ex. 21(a)

\ T = 49 N (Ans.)

Now from Eq. 1,

Ay + 49 = 196.2 \ Ay = 147.2 N (Ans.)

Example 22. The homogeneous bar ABC of is attached to a pin at A and rest

on roller support at B as shown in figure Ex.22. Neglecting the weight of the bar,

determine the reactions at A and B.

150N

A B 1m

3m 1m

Fig. Ex. 22

+

Solution: Applying conditions of equilibrium i.e. →ΣH = 0, +↑SV = 0 and

SM = 0 (Treating anticlockwise moment as positive) to free body diagram shown

in figure Ex. 22(a),

2.28 Engineering Mechanics Statics

150N

A B 1m

Ax

3m

45°

Ay NB

SH = 0: Ax – NB sin 45° = 0

\ Ax = NB sin 45° ...(Eq.1)

SV = 0: Ay + NB cos 45° – 150 = 0 ...(Eq.2)

SMB = 0: –Ay × 3 – 150 × 1 = 0

\ Ay = –50 N (Ans.)

Here, ‘–ve’ sign indicate that force Ay will act in negative y direction.

Now from Eq. 2,

–50 + NB cos 45° – 150 = 0

NB cos 45° = 200 \ NB = 282.84 N (Ans.)

Now from Eq. 1,

Ax = 282.82 sin 45° \ Ax = 200 N (Ans.)

Example 23. The 100 N load is attached to one and of a rope and the load is

held at rest by the force T applied to the other end of the rope as shown in figure

Ex.23. Assuming pulley as frictionless, determine the reactions at A and force T.

Fig. Ex. 23

+

Solution: Applying conditions of equilibrium i.e. →ΣH = 0, +↑SV = 0 and

SM = 0 (Treating anticlockwise moment as positive) to free body diagram shown

in figure Ex. 23(a),

Equilibrium of System of Forces 2.29

Ay

30°

A Ax

100N

SH = 0: Ax + T cos 30° = 0

\ Ax = –T cos 30° ...(Eq.1)

SV = 0: –100 – T sin 30° + Ay = 0

Ay = 100 + T sin 30° ...(Eq.2)

SMA = 0: –T × 100 + 100 × 100 = 0 \ T = 100 N (Ans.)

Now from Eq. 1,

Ax = – 100 cos 30° \ Ax = –86.60 N (Ans.)

Here, ‘–ve’ sign indicate that force AX will act in negative x direction.

Now from Eq. 2,

Ay = 100 + 100 sin 30° \ Ay = 150 N (Ans.)

Example 24. A 2 m long cantilever of negligible weight is used to support 200

N load as shown in figure Ex. 24. Determine the reactions at A.

A B

2m

200N

Fig. Ex. 24

+

Solution: Applying conditions of equilibrium i.e. →ΣH = 0, +↑SV = 0 and

SM = 0 (Treating anticlockwise moment as positive) to free body diagram shown

in figure Ex. 24(a),

SH = 0: Ax = 0 (Ans.) Ax

B

CA

SH = 0: Ay – 200 = 0

2m

\ Ay = 200 N (Ans.) Ay 200N

\ CA = 400 N.m (anticlockwise) (Ans.)

2.30 Engineering Mechanics Statics

50 N/m distributed load as shown in figure Ex.25. Determine the reactions at A.

Fig. Ex .25

+

Solution: Applying conditions of equilibrium i.e. →ΣH = 0, +↑SV = 0 and

SM = 0 (Treating anticlockwise moment as positive) to free body diagram shown

in figure Ex. 25(a),

downward direction is 50 × 2 = 100 N and for moment purpose the total load (as

a point load) is assume to act at the centre of distribution as shown by dash line

in free body diagram.

SH = 0: Ax = 0 (Ans.)

SV = 0: Ay – 50 × 2 = 0 \ Ay = 100 N (Ans.)

SMA = 0: CA – 50 × 2 × 1 = 0 \ CA = 100 N.m (anticlockwise) (Ans.)

Example 26. The bar AB is pinned at A and rest on roller at B. The bar AB is

loaded as shown in figure Ex.26. Neglecting the weight of the bar, determine the

reactions at A and B.

10N

30° 15Nm

A B

1m 1m 1m

Fig. Ex. 26

+

Solution: Applying conditions of equilibrium i.e. →ΣH = 0, +↑SV = 0 and SM

= 0 (Treating anticlockwise moment as positive) to free body diagram shown in

figure Ex. 26(a),

Equilibrium of System of Forces 2.31

SH = 0: Ax – 10 cos 30° = 0

\ Ax = 8.66 N (Ans.)

SV = 0: Ay + By – 10 sin 30° = 0 ...(Eq.1)

SMA = 0: By × 3 – 15 – 10 sin 30° × 1 = 0

Fig. Ex. 26(a)

\ By = 6.67 N (Ans.)

Now from Eq. 1,

Ay + 6.67 – 10 sin 30° = 0 \ Ay = –1.67 N (Ans.)

Here, ‘–ve’ sign indicate that force Ay will act in negative y direction.

Example 27. A bracket is pinned at A and rest on roller at B. It is subjected to

a 100 N force as shown in figure Ex.27. Neglecting the weight of the bracket,

determine the reactions at A and B.

Fig. Ex. 27

+

Solution: Applying conditions of equilibrium i.e. →ΣH = 0, +↑SV = 0 and SM

= 0 (Treating anticlockwise moment as positive) to free body diagram shown in

figure Ex. 27(a), 100N

SV = 0: Ax + 100 = 0

\ Ax = –100 N (Ans.)

Here, ‘–ve’ sign indicate that force AX will act in

negative x direction.

SV = 0: Ay + By = 0 ...(Eq.1)

A

SMA = 0: By × 50 – 100 × 170 = 0 Ax

\ By = 340 N (Ans.) Ay By

Ay + 340 = 0

\ Ay = –340 N (Ans.)

Here, ‘–ve’ sign indicate that force Ay will act in negative y direction.

2.32 Engineering Mechanics Statics

Neglecting the weight of the bracket, determine the reactions at A.

400N

1.5m

300N

200Nm 1.5m

200Nm

2.5m

Fig. Ex. 28

+

Solution: Applying conditions of equilibrium i.e. →ΣH = 0, +↑SV = 0 and SM

= 0 (Treating anticlockwise moment as positive) to free body diagram shown in

figure Ex. 28(a),

SH = 0: Ax – 300 – 200 = 0

\ Ax = 500 N (Ans.)

SV = 0: Ay – 400 = 0

\ Ay = 400 N (Ans.)

SMA = 0:

CA – 200 + 200 × 2.5 + 300 × 4 – 400 × 1.5 = 0

\ CA = – 900 N.m

= 900 N. m (Clockwise) (Ans.)

Fig. Ex. 28(a)

Here, ‘–ve’ sign indicate that moment reaction

CA will act in opposite direction.

Example 29. The weight of the pickup is 3600 N and acting at G as shown in

figure Ex.29. Determine the load W on the pickup for which normal reactions at

front and rear wheels are equal.

Fig. Ex. 29

Equilibrium of System of Forces 2.33

anticlockwise moment as positive) to free body diagram shown in figure Ex. 29(a),

Here given that normal reactions at front and rear wheels are equal,

\ NA = NB = N

SV = 0: 2N – 3600 – W = 0

\ W = 2N – 3600 ...(Eq.1)

SMA = 0: 3600 × 450 – N × 1120 + W × 1280 = 0

Substituting value of W from Eq. 1

3600 × 450 – N × 1120 + (2N – 3600) × 1280 = 0

\ N = 2075 N

Now from Eq. 1

W = 2 × 2075 – 3600

\ W = 550 (Ans.)

Example 30. The motorcycle shown in figure Ex.30, has a mass of 150 kg and

distance between front and rear wheel is 1.6 m. If the rear wheel exerts a 1000 N

force on the ground, determine the location of motorcycle’s centre of gravity from

front wheel also determine reaction at front wheel.

A 1.6m B

Fig. Ex. 30

anticlockwise moment as positive) to free body diagram shown in figure Ex. 30(a),

2.34 Engineering Mechanics Statics

SMA = 0: 1000 × 1.6 – 150 × 9.81 × x = 0 \ x = 1.08 m (Ans.)

Summary

• Equilibrium is the state of rest of a body i.e. the body does not move and

also does not rotate about any point under the action of forces.

• For collinear force system equilibrium conditions are,

SP = 0 \ Resultant, R = 0

• For concurrent force system equilibrium conditions are,

SH = 0 and SV = 0 \ Resultant, R = 0

• For parallel force system equilibrium conditions are,

SP = 0 and SMO = 0

• For non-concurrent force system equilibrium conditions are,

SH = 0, SV = 0 and SMO = 0

• A free body diagram is a sketch of the body showing all the forces acting

on it.

• If a body is in equilibrium under the action of two forces then two forces

must be collinear, of equal magnitude and act in opposite direction.

• If a body is in equilibrium under the action of three forces, then three

forces acting on a body must be concurrent or parallel.

• Lami’s theorem is useful for three concurrent forces.

Equilibrium of System of Forces 2.35

Problems

is in equilibrium. Determine P1 and P2.

50 N

P1

40° 30°

50° 60°

70 N P2

Fig. Prob. 1

2. The system of forces shown in figure Prob. 2 15 N

is in equilibrium. Determine P1 and P2. P1 20° P2

40°

80N 40N

O

Fig. Prob. 2

3. Two cables are tied together and loaded at B

A

as shown in figure Prob. 3. Determine tension in 30° 40°

C

cable AB and cable CB.

B

50

Kg

Fig. Prob. 3

4. A 500 N block is supported by a strut and two

cables as shown in figure Prob. 4. Determine the A

force in strut CB and cable AB.

B 20°

60°

500 N C

Fig. Prob. 4

5. The force P is applied to ring at B as shown

in figure Prob. 5. If the tension in cable AB and

BC is 150 N, determine magnitude of force P.

Fig. Prob. 5

2.36 Engineering Mechanics Statics

E

cable to maintain equilibrium of the 800 N load.

Refer figure Prob. 6 A

4

30°

C 3

B

D

800 45°

N

Fig. Prob. 6

7. The 500 N roller is supported by the cable AB A

rests against a smooth wall as shown in figure

Prob. 7. Determine force in cable and reaction

250mm

on roller from the wall. Radius of roller is

150 mm.

B

Fig. Prob. 7

8. Neglecting the weight of bracket, determine 2m

all reactions at O due to 160 N force acting on

bracket as shown in figure Prob. 8.

60°

3m

160 N

O

Fig. Prob. 8

9. Three cylinders, each of diameter 300 mm

and weight 500 N are stacked as shown in

figure Prob. 9. Determine reactions exerted on

cylinders by the inclined surfaces.

30° 30°

Fig. Prob. 9

Equilibrium of System of Forces 2.37

in figure Prob. 10. Determine reactions at the

fixed support.

Fig. Prob. 10

11. A bracket is subjected to the loading as 15 N

shown in figure Prob. 11. Determine force P and 30°

reactions at pin support O.

2m

3m

O

1m

Fig. Prob. 11

12. A beam is subjected to loading as shown in 20° 80 N

figure Prob. 12. Determine reactions at A and B.

Take AC = 1.5 m and CB = 2 m. 100 N

A B

C

Fig. Prob. 12

13. A bar of 200 N with roller end is supported

by wire CB and two surfaces as shown in figure

Prob. 13. Determine reactions at A and B and

tension in wire CB.

Fig. Prob. 13

2.38 Engineering Mechanics Statics

shown in figure Prob. 14. Determine reactions 400 400 400

at A and B. mm mm mm

A

300 mm

25 N

300 mm

B

500 mm

Fig. Prob. 14

15. A uniform bar AB of length 1.5 m and weight A

200 N resting on two inclined smooth surfaces

as shown in figure Prob. 15. Determine angle θ

B

for equilibrium of bar.

45° 30°

Fig. Prob. 15

Unit 3

we focus on analysis of truss where we determine forces acting on

interconnected members of truss. In second part of this unit, we focus

on analysis of beams where we determine internal forces induced in a

beam because of external transverse loading. Analysis of these forces

is important before design of any members.

Analysis of Structure

3.1 trusses

Truss is one of the important engineering structures. Truss is used to support the

load. A frame which is composed of members

A truss is a structure

joined at their ends to form a structure, called a

composed of

truss. Members of a truss are two-force members

interconnected members

that are subjected to two equal and opposite

joined at their ends.

forces directed along member. Truss structures

are used in buildings, bridges, roofs, transmission

towers etc.

Truss structure in two dimensions, is known as plane truss. Basic triangular

truss is as shown in figure 1, where members of a truss

are connected by a pin joints at their ends. For keeping

the truss structure stationary all degrees of freedom must

be restricted. A truss which does not collapse under

loading is known as rigid or stable truss.

For a stable truss, the following relation exists,

n = 2 j – 3

Where, n is the number of members and j is the

Fig. 1

number of pin joints.

A truss for which above relationship does not satisfy is known as unstable

truss.

Some standard types of truss structure are shown in figure 2.

Warren truss consists of longitudinal members joined by angled cross-

members that forms alternate inverted equilateral triangle-shaped spaces along

its length. Howe truss includes vertical members and diagonals that slope

upward towards the centre of its length. Pratt truss includes vertical members and

diagonals that slope downward towards the centre of its length. K truss includes

vertical members and two tilted members forming K.

3.4 Engineering Mechanics Statics

Fig. 2

When a truss is loaded its members are subjected to either tensile or compressive

forces. In truss analysis we determine these forces induced in members. In

figure 3, a member of a truss is shown with tensile and compressive forces.

Fig. 3.

Following assumptions are made in analysis of a truss,

1. All members of a truss are connected by frictionless pins.

2. Load or forces may be applied at joints only.

3. Each member may have two joints only.

4. Weights of members are assumed to be negligible.

5. The truss is a stable truss.

There are commonly two methods that can be used for the analysis of a truss,

1. Method of joints

2. Method of sections

1. Method of Joints: In method of joints each joint of the members are

treated as a particle. Forces induced in each members of a truss are

determine as follow,

• First, if necessary, determine reactions at the supports considering

entire truss as a single object.

Analysis of Structure 3.5

forces in members as a tensile force.

• Apply conditions of equilibrium i.e. SH = 0, and SV = 0 to the free

body diagram of the joint.

• If the calculated value from equilibrium equations is positive then

our assumption of tensile force in member is valid. If the calculated

value from equilibrium equations is negative then our assumption of

tensile force in member is not valid and nature of the force in member

is compressive.

• Repeat this process for all joints and determine forces in all the

members of a truss.

2. Method of Sections: In method of sections forces induced only in certain

members of a truss are determine as follow,

• First, if necessary, determine reactions at the supports considering

entire truss as a single object.

• Select a section of a truss by cutting maximum three members.

• Draw the free body diagram of the section by showing axial forces in

the members (away from joints).

• Apply conditions of equilibrium i.e. SH = 0, SV = 0 and SM = 0 to the

free body diagram of the section.

Example 1. Determine the forces in all the members of a truss with the loading

and support system shown in figure Ex. 1.

Fig. Ex. 1

Solution: To determine reactions, consider the free body diagram of the entire

truss as shown in figure Ex. 1(a).

The triangle PQR is a right angled triangle with angle PRQ = 90°

3.6 Engineering Mechanics Statics

PR = PQ cos 60°

= 6 × 0.5 = 3 m

Distance of line of action of 50 kN force

from P,

PS = PR cos 60°

= 3 × 0.5 = 1.5 m

Now apply conditions of equilibrium i.e.

SM = 0 about P, (Treating anticlockwise moment

as positive)

Fig. Ex. 1(a)

SMP = 0: RQ × 6 – 50 × 1.5 = 0

\ RQ = 12.5 kN

Now apply conditions of equilibrium i.e. +↑SV = 0 to free body diagram

SV = 0 : RP + RQ = 50 kN

Substituting RQ = 12.5 kN, RP = 37.5 kN

+

Joint P: Now apply conditions of equilibrium i.e. →ΣH = 0, +↑SV = 0 to free

body diagram of joint P as shown in figure Ex. 1(b).

SH = 0: FPQ + FPR cos 60° = 0 ...(Eq. 1)

SV = 0: FPR sin 60° + Rp = 0

Rp

FPR = − = – 43.3 kN (Compression) (Ans.)

sin 60°

Substituting in Eq. 1

FPQ + (–43.3) cos 60° = 0 Fig. Ex. 1(b)

FPQ = 21.65 kN (Tensile) (Ans.)

Joint Q: Now apply conditions of equilibrium i.e. +↑SV = 0 to free body diagram

of joint Q as shown in figure Ex. 1(c).

SV = 0: FRQ sin 30° + 12.5 = 0

12.5

FQR = – = – 25 kN (Compression) (Ans.)

sin 30°

Example 2. Use the method of joints to determine the force

in each member of the truss shown in figure Ex. 2. Fig. Ex. 1(c)

Fig. Ex. 2

Analysis of Structure 3.7

Solution: For this Simple truss, the member forces can be determined without

solving the support reactions.

+

Joint B: Apply conditions of equilibrium i.e. →ΣH = 0, +↑SV = 0 to free body

diagram of joint B as shown in figure Ex. 2(a).

SH = 0:

FBC cos 40° – 1500 – FAB cos 50° = 0 ...(Eq. 1)

SV = 0:

– FAB sin 50° – FBC sin 40° = 0

FAB sin 50° = –FBC sin 40°

FAB = –0.84 FBC ....(Eq. 2) Fig. Ex. 2(a)

Substituting the value of FAB in Eq. 1

FBC cos 40° – 1500 – (–0.84 FBC) cos 50° = 0

Solving, FBC = 1145.03 kN (Tensile) (Ans.)

From Eq. 2,

FAB = –0.84 × 1145.03 = –961.83 kN (Compressive) (Ans.)

+

Joint C: Apply conditions of equilibrium i.e. →ΣH = 0 to free body diagram of

joint C as shown in figure Ex. 2(b).

SH = 0: – FBC cos 40° – FAC = 0

–1145.03 cos 40° – FAC = 0

FAC = –877.14 kN (Compression) (Ans.)

Example 3. Use the method of joints to determine the force

in each member of the truss shown in figure Ex. 3.

Fig. Ex. 2(b)

Fig. Ex. 3

Solution: For this simple truss the member forces can be determined without

solving the support reactions.

3.8 Engineering Mechanics Statics

+

Joint B: Apply conditions of equilibrium i.e. →ΣH = 0, +↑SV = 0 to free body

diagram of joint B as shown in figure Ex. 3(a).

4 3

SH = 0 : – FAB + FBC – 20 cos 45° = 0 ...(Eq. 1)

5 5

3 4

SV = 0 : – FAB – FBC – 20 sin 45° = 0 ...(Eq. 2)

5 5

Solving Eq. 1 and Eq. 2 yields Fig. Ex. 3(a)

FAB = –28.28 kN (compression) (Ans.)

FBC = 20.8 kN (Tensile) (Ans.)

+

Joint C: Apply conditions of equilibrium i.e. →ΣH = 0 to free body diagram of

joint C as shown in figure Ex. 3(b).

3

SH = 0 : – FBC – FAC = 0

5

3 3

FAC = – FBC = – × 20.8 = – 12.48kN

5 5

(Compression) (Ans.)

Example 4. Use the method of joints to determine the Fig. Ex. 3(b)

force in each member of the truss shown in figure Ex. 4

Fig. Ex. 4

be determined without solving the support reactions.

+

Joint D: Apply conditions of equilibrium i.e. →ΣH

= 0, +↑SV = 0 to free body diagram of joint D as

shown in figure Ex. 4(a).

SH = 0: –FAD + FCD = 0 ...(Eq. 1)

SV = 0: FBD – 2000 = 0

FBD = 2000 kN (Tensile) (Ans.) Fig. Ex. 4(a)

Analysis of Structure 3.9

+

Joint B: Apply conditions of equilibrium i.e. →ΣH = 0,

+↑SV = 0 to free body diagram of joint B as shown in

figure Ex. 4(b).

3 4

SH = 0 : FBC – FAB – 1500 = 0 ...(Eq. 2) Fig. Ex. 4(b)

5 5

4 3

SV = 0 : – FBC – FAB – 2000 = 0 ...(Eq. 3)

5 5

Solving Eq. 2 and Eq. 3 yields,

FAB = –2400 kN (Compressive)

FBC = –700 kN (Compressive)

+

Joint C: Apply conditions of equilibrium i.e. →ΣH = 0 to free body diagram of

joint D as shown in figure Ex. 4(c).

3

SH = 0 : – FCD – FBC = 0

5

3

– FCD – (–700) = 0

5

FCD = 420 kN (Tensile) (Ans.)

Fig. Ex. 4(c)

Now from Eq. 1,

– FAD + 420 = 0 FAD = 420 kN (Tensile) (Ans.)

Example 5. Use the method of joints to determine the force in each member of

the truss shown in figure Ex. 5.

Fig. Ex. 5

Solution: To determine reactions, consider the free body diagram of the entire

+

truss as shown in figure Ex. 5(a) and apply conditions of equilibrium i.e. →ΣH

= 0, +↑SV = 0 and SM = 0 about A, (Treating anticlockwise moment as positive)

3.10 Engineering Mechanics Statics

SH = 0: Ax = 0

SV = 0: Ay + Dy – 5 – 7 = 0

Ay + Dy = 12 ...(Eq. 1)

SMA = 0: Dy × 8 – 7 × 6 – 5 × 2 = 0

Dy = 6.5 kN

From Eq. 1,

Ay + 6.5 = 12 Ay = 5.5 kN

+

Joint D: Apply conditions of equilibrium i.e. →ΣH = 0, +↑SV = 0 to free body

diagram of joint D, as shown in figure Ex. 5(b).

SH = 0: –FDE – FCD cos 60° = 0 ...(Eq. 2)

SV = 0: FCD sin 60° + 6.5 = 0

FCD = –7.50 kN (Compressive) (Ans.)

From Eq. 2,

–FDE – (–7.50) cos 60° = 0

Fig. Ex. 5(b)

FDE = 3.752 kN (Tensile) (Ans.)

+

Joint A: Apply conditions of equilibrium i.e. →ΣH = 0, +↑SV = 0 to free body

diagram of joint A as shown in figure Ex. 5(c).

SH = 0: FAE + FAB cos 60° = 0 ...(Eq. 3)

SV = 0: FAB sin 60o + 5.5 = 0

FAB = –6.35 kN (Compressive) (Ans.)

Substituting the value in Eq. 3,

FAE + (–6.35) cos 60° = 0

FAE = 3.175 kN (Tensile) (Ans.)

Fig. Ex. 5(c)

Analysis of Structure 3.11

+

Joint B: Apply conditions of equilibrium i.e. →ΣH = 0, +↑SV = 0 to free body

diagram of joint B as shown in figure Ex. 5(d).

SH = 0: FBC + FBE cos 60° – FAB cos 60° = 0 ...(Eq. 4)

SV = 0: –FAB sin 60° – FBE sin 60° – 5 = 0

Substituting value of FAB,

–(-6.35) sin 60° – FBE sin 60° – 5 = 0

FBE = 0.576 kN (Tensile) (Ans.)

Fig. Ex. 5(d)

Substituting value of FAB and FBE in Eq. 4,

FBC + (0.576) cos 60° – (–6.35) cos 60° = 0

FBC = –3.4763 kN (Compressive) (Ans.)

+

Joint C: Apply conditions of equilibrium i.e. →ΣH = 0

to free body diagram of joint C as shown in figure Ex. 5(e).

SH = 0: FCD cos 60° – FCE cos 60° – FBC = 0

Substituting value of FCS and FBC

(–7.5) cos 60° – FCE cos 60° – (–3.476) = 0

Fig. Ex. 5(e)

FCE = – 0.548 kN (Compressive) (Ans.)

Example 6. Use the method of joints to determine the force in each member of

the truss shown in figure Ex. 6.

Fig. Ex. 6

Solution: For this simple truss the member forces can be determined without

solving the support reactions.

+

Joint A: Apply conditions of equilibrium i.e. →ΣH = 0, +↑SV = 0 to free body

diagram of joint A as shown in figure Ex. 6(a).

SH = 0: FAE + FAB cos 30° = 0 ...(Eq. 1)

SV = 0: FAB sin 30° – 800 = 0

FAB = 1600 kN (Tensile) (Ans.)

3.12 Engineering Mechanics Statics

FAE + 1600 cos 30° = 0

FAE = –1385.64 kN (Compressive) (Ans.)

Joint B: Apply conditions of equilibrium i.e., +SH = 0

and +SV = 0 to free body diagram of joint B as shown

in figure Ex. 6(b).

Fig. Ex. 6(a)

SH = 0: FBC – FAB = 0

FBC = FAB = 1600 kN (Tensile) (Ans.)

SV = 0: –FBE – 650 = 0

FBE = –650 kN (Compressive) (Ans.)

+

Joint E: Apply conditions of equilibrium i.e. →ΣH = 0

and +↑SV = 0 to free body diagram of joint E as shown in

Fig. Ex. 6(b)

figure Ex. 6(c).

SH = 0: FEF – FEA – FBE cos 60° + FCE cos 60° = 0 ...(Eq. 2)

SV = 0: FBE sin 60° + FCE sin 60° – 1000 = 0

Substituting value of FBE,

–650 sin 60° + FCE sin 60° = 1000

FCE = 1804.70 kN (Tensile) (Ans.)

Substituting values of FEA, FBE and FCE in Eq. 2

FEF – (–1385.64) – (–650) cos 60° + (1804.70)

cos 60° = 0

FEF = –2613 kN (Compressive) (Ans.) Fig. Ex. 6(c)

+

Joint C: Apply conditions of equilibrium i.e. →ΣH = 0

and +↑SV = 0 to free body diagram of joint C as shown in figure Ex. 6(d).

SH = 0: FCD + FCF cos 60° – FCE cos 60° – FCB cos 30° = 0 ...(Eq. 3)

SV = 0: –FCF sin 60° – FCE sin 60° – FCB sin 30° = 0

Substituting value of FCE and FCB,

–FCF sin 60° – 1804.70 sin 60° – 1600 sin 30° = 0

FCF = –2728.45 kN (Compressive) (Ans.)

Substituting values of FCF, FCE and FCB in Eq. 3

FCD + (–2728.45) cos 60° – 1804.70 cos 60° – 1600 cos 30° = 0

FCD = 3652.21 kN (Tensile) (Ans.)

Analysis of Structure 3.13

Example 1. The length of each truss member in figure Ex. 1 is 7 m. Find the

forces in members CD, DE & EF using method of sections.

Fig. Ex. 1

Solution: To determine reactions, consider the free body diagram of the entire

+

truss as shown in figure Ex. 1(a) and apply conditions of equilibrium i.e. →ΣH

= 0, +↑SV = 0 and SM = 0 about A, (Treating anticlockwise moment as positive)

SH = 0: Ax = 0

SV = 0: Ay + By –1200 – 1000 – 800 – 1000 = 0

Ay + By = 4000 ...(Eq.1)

SMA = 0: By × 35 – 1200 × 7 – 1000 × 14 – 800 × 21 – 1000 × 28 = 0

By = 1920 kN

From Eq. 1,

Ay + 1920 = 4000 Ay = 2080 kN

Now consider free body diagram of the cut part of the truss to the left section

of member DF as shown in figure Ex. 1(b) and apply conditions of equilibrium

i.e. +↑SV = 0 and SM = 0 (Treating anticlockwise moment as positive)

3.14 Engineering Mechanics Statics

FCD = –3418 kN (Compressive) (Ans.)

SMD = 0: 1000 × 3.5 + 1200 × 10.5 – 2080 × 17.5 + FEF × (7 Sin 60°) = 0

FEF = 3348.6 kN (Tensile) (Ans.)

SV = 0: FDE sin 60° – 1000 – 1200 + 2080 = 0

FDE = 138.56 kN (Tensile) (Ans.)

Example 2. Find the forces in members CD, CF, and FG of the truss shown in

figure Ex. 2 using method of sections.

Fig. Ex. 2

Solution: To determine reactions, consider the free body diagram of the entire

truss as shown in figure Ex. 2(a) and apply conditions of equilibrium SM = 0

about A, (Treating anticlockwise moment as positive)

Analysis of Structure 3.15

Ey = 1333.33 kN

Now consider free body diagram of the cut part of the truss to the right section

of member CG as shown in figure Ex. 2(b) and apply conditions of equilibrium

i.e. SM = 0 (Treating anticlockwise moment as positive),

FCF = 1732.10 kN (Tensile) (Ans.)

SMF = 0: FCD × (10 sin 30°) + 1333.33 × 10 = 0

FCD = –2666.66 kN (Compressive) (Ans.)

SMC = 0: –FFG × (15 tan 30°) – 1500 × 5 + 1333.33 × 15 = 0

FFG = 1443.49 kN (Tensile) (Ans.)

Example 3. Find the forces in members BC, BF and EF of the truss shown in

figure Ex. 3 using the member of sections.

3.16 Engineering Mechanics Statics

Fig. Ex. 3

Solution: For this truss, the forces in members can be determined without solving

for the support reactions.

Now consider free body diagram of the cut part of the truss to the right section

of member BE as shown in figure Ex. 3(a) and apply conditions of equilibrium

i.e. +↑SV = 0 and SM = 0 (Treating anticlockwise moment as positive),

−1 7

q = tan = 54.46°

5

SMB = 0: –FEF × 7 – 5 × 10 = 0

FEF = –7.14 kN (Compressive) (Ans.)

SMF = 0: FBC × 7 – 5 × 5 = 0

FBC = 3.57 kN (Tensile) (Ans.)

SV = 0: FBF sin 54.46° – 5 = 0

FBF = 6.14 kN (Tensile) (Ans.) Fig. Ex. 3(a)

Example 4. Find the forces in members AB and FG of the truss shown in figure

Ex. 4, using method of sections.

Fig. Ex. 4

Analysis of Structure 3.17

Solution: For this truss, the forces in members can be determined without solving

for the support reactions. Now consider free body diagram of the cut part of the

truss to the right section as shown in figure Ex. 4(a) and apply conditions of

equilibrium i.e. SM = 0 (Treating anticlockwise moment as positive),

SMF = 0: FAB × 5 – 6 × 3 – 4 × 6 = 0

FAB = 8.4 kN (Tensile) (Ans.)

SMB = 0: – FFG × 5 – 6 × 3 – 4 × 6 = 0

FFG = –8.4kN (Compression) (Ans.)

Example 5. Find the forces in members BC, CF and EF of the truss shown in

figure Ex. 5. using method of sections.

Fig. Ex. 5

Solution: To determine reactions, consider the free body diagram of the entire

truss as shown in figure Ex. 5(a) and apply conditions of equilibrium SM = 0

about A, (Treating anticlockwise moment as positive)

3.18 Engineering Mechanics Statics

SM = 0: Dy × 48 – 50 × 12 – 35 × 36 = 0

Dy = 38.75 kN

Now consider free body diagram of the cut part of the truss to the right

of joint F as shown in figure Ex. 5(b) and apply conditions of equilibrium i.e.

SM = 0 (Treat ing anticlockwise moment as positive),

−1 6

q = tan = 26.57°

12

SMF = 0: FBC × 6 – 35 × 12 + 38.75 × 24 = 0

FBC = –85 kN (Compressive) (Ans.)

SMC = 0: –FEF × (12 cos 26.57°) + 38.75 × 12 = 0

FEF = 43.33 kN (Tensile) (Ans.)

SMB = 0: –FCF × (24 sin 26.57°) – 35 × 24 + 38.75 × 36 = 0

FCF = 51.73 kN (Tensile) (Ans.)

Analysis of Structure 3.19

SUMMARY

• A truss is a structure composed of interconnected members joined at their

ends.

• Truss structure in two dimensions, is known as plane truss.

• A truss which does not collapse under loading is known as rigid or stable

truss.

• For a stable truss, the following relation exists,

n = 2 j – 3

Where, n is the number of members and j is the number of pin joints.

• A truss for which above relationship does not satisfy is known as unstable

truss.

• In truss analysis we determine forces induced in members due to loading.

• When a truss is loaded its members are subjected to either tensile or

compressive forces.

• There are commonly two methods that can be used for the analysis of a

truss.

Method of joints: This method is used to determine forces induced in all

members of a truss

Method of sections: This method is used to determine forces induced

only in certain members of a truss.

• A truss member that supports no forces is known as zero force member.

3.4 Beam

Beam is a slender* structural member subjected to lateral loads that is, line of

action of forces perpendicular to the axis. Internal forces are developed inside

structural member when they are subjected to external forces. Knowledge

of internal forces that structural member must support is important before the

members are designed.

* A structural member is said to be slender when the dimensions of its cross

section are small compared to its length.

3.5 Types of Beams

Beams are generally designated by the way in which they are supported.

Table 3.1 describe different types of beam and their free body diagram, which

shows reactions at support.

3.20 Engineering Mechanics Statics

Simply A beam with a pin support at

Supported one end (A) and a roller support

Beam at the other (B). Horizontal

and vertical reactions at pin

support and vertical reaction

at roller support.

Cantilever Beam A beam which is fixed at one

end (A) and free at the other.

Horizontal, vertical and

moment reactions at fixed

support.

Overhang supported at one end (A)

intermediate support/supports

(B) and also projects beyond

the support.

All types of beam discussed in previous section are subjected to one or more than

one types of loading. Table 3.2 describe different types of loading on the beam.

Table 3.2 Types of Loading on Beam

Loading

Concentrated Concentrated load is acts over

Load or Point a very small area. Its intensity

Load is N or kN.

Distributed Load acts uniformly over a finite

area of the beam. Its intensity

is expressed in per unit length

i.e. N/m, kN/m etc. For finding

reactions, this load is assumed

as total load (product of

intensity of distributed load

and spreading distance) acting

at the centre of gravity of

distribution of load.

Analysis of Structure 3.21

Varying Load linearly over a finite area of

the beam. Its intensity is zero

at one end, and maximum at

other end of distribution which

is expressed in per unit length

i.e. N/m, kN/m etc. For finding

reactions, this load is assumed

as total load (total area of

distribution i.e. area of the

triangle) acting at the centre of

gravity of distribution of load

i.e. centroid of the triangle.

Concentrated Concentrated moment is the

Moment external moment acts at certain

points on the beam.

Shear force and bending moment are internal

forces, and internal moment induced within

beam because of loading. To determine the

forces and moments within the beam, we ‘cut’

the beam by plane at an arbitrary cross section

and isolate left-hand part of the beam as a free

body from right-hand part of the beam. Fig. 3.1(a)

As an illustration, consider a cantilever

beam AB loaded by a force P at its free

end as shown in Figure 3.1 (a). We cut the

beam at cross section C at distance x from

fixed end, and isolate left-hand part as free

body as shown in Figure 3.1 (b). To Fig. 3.1(b)

maintain equilibrium of the free body, it is

subjected to some system of forces and moments at the cut

cross section as shown.

The component V perpendicular to the beam’s axis is

called the shear force and the couple M is called the bending

moment. (Because the load P is perpendicular to the axis of Fig. 3.1(c)

the beam, no axial force i.e. force parallel to the beam’s axis

exists at the cross section). Both V and M act in the plane of the beam. The shear

force and bending moment on the part of the beam to the right of the cross section

C are shown in Figure 3.1 (c). Note that V and M are equal in magnitude but

opposite in direction to the internal forces and moment on the free body diagram

as shown in Figure 3.1 (b).

3.22 Engineering Mechanics Statics

3.7.1 Sign Convention

For the sake of consistency, it is required to adopt sign conventions for shear force

and bending moment. The direction of the shear force and bending moment shown

in Figure 3.1 (b) and Figure 3.1 (c) are the established positive directions of

these quantities. A positive shear force V tends to rotate beam element clockwise.

A positive bending moment M tends to bend beam element concave upward

(smiling of the beam).

Shear force and bending moment diagrams are plots of V and M as functions of

position x. These diagrams help us understand how the shear force and bending

moment change throughout a beam and show locations where these have maximum

and minimum values.

Example 1. The simply supported beam AB is subjected to concentrated load as

shown in figure Ex. 1. Determine, (a) reactions at supports A and B, and (b) value

of shear force and bending moment at C and D.

Fig. Ex. 1

+

Solution: To determine reactions, apply conditions of equilibrium i.e. →ΣH = 0,

+↑SV = 0 and SM = 0 (Treating anticlockwise moment as positive) to the free

body diagram of the entire beam as shown in figure Ex. 1(a).

SH = 0: Ax = 0

SV = 0: Ay + By – 20 = 0 ...(1)

SMA = 0: By × 6 – 20 × 3 = 0

\ By = 10 kN (Ans.)

From Eq. (1),

Ay + 10 = 20

Fig. Ex. 1(a)

\ Ay = 10 kN (Ans.)

Now to determine shear force and bending moment at C, first cut the beam

by a plane at C and then apply equilibrium equations to the free body diagram of

the part of the beam to the left of the plane. Refer figure Ex. 1(b).

Analysis of Structure 3.23

SH = 0: Ax = 0

SV = 0: Ay – V = 0

10 – V = 0

\ V = 10 kN (Ans.) Fig. Ex. 1(b)

SMC = 0: M – Ay × 2 = 0

M = Ay × 2 = 10 × 2

\ M = 20 kN.m (Ans.)

Now to determine shear force and bending moment at D, first cut the beam

by a plane at D and then apply equilibrium equations to the free body diagram of

the part of the beam to the left of the plane. Refer figure Ex. 1(c).

SH = 0: Ax = 0

SV = 0: Ay – 20 – V = 0

V = Ay – 20 = 10 – 20

\ V = –10 kN (Ans.)

SMD = 0: M + 20 × 2 – Ay × 5 = 0

M = Ay × 5 – 20 × 2 Fig. Ex. 1(c)

= 10 × 5 – 20 × 2 \ M = 10 kN.m (Ans.)

Alternate Approach: Shear force and bending moment at C, also determine

by considering the free body diagram of the part of the beam to the right of the

plane. Refer figure Ex. 1(d).

SV = 0: V – 20 + By = 0

V = 20 – By = 20 – 10

\ V = 10 kN (Ans.)

SMC = 0: –M – 20 × 1 + By × 4 = 0

M = –20 × 1 + By × 4

= –20 × 1 + 10 × 4 Fig. Ex. 1(d)

\ M = 20 kN.m (Ans.)

Shear force and bending moment at D, also determine by considering the

free body diagram of the part of the beam to the right of the plane. Refer figure

Ex. 1(e).

SV = 0: V + By = 0

V = – By \ V = –10 kN (Ans.)

SMD = 0: –M + By × 1 = 0 Fig. Ex 1(e)

M = By × 1 = 10 × 1 \ M = 10 kN.m (Ans.)

Example 2. The simply supported beam AB is subjected to two concentrated

load as shown in figure Ex. 2. Determine, (a) reactions at supports A and B, and

(b) draw the shear force and bending moment diagrams for this beam.

3.24 Engineering Mechanics Statics

Fig. Ex. 2

+

→ΣH = 0, +↑SV= 0 and SM = 0 (Treating anticlockwise moment as positive) to

the free body diagram of the entire beam as shown in figure Ex. 2(a).

SH = 0: Ax = 0

SV = 0: Ay + By – 20 – 30 = 0 ...(1)

SMA = 0: By × 5 – 30 × 3.5 – 20 × 1.5 = 0

\ By = 27 N (Ans.)

From Eq. (1),

Ay + By = 50 \ Ay + 27 = 50 Fig. Ex. 2(a)

Ay = 23 N (Ans.)

Part 2: First cut the beam by a plane at point E between A and C (0 < x < 1.5)

and then apply equilibrium equations to the free body diagram of the part of the

beam to the left of the plane. Refer figure Ex. 2(b).

SV = 0: 23 – V = 0

\ V = 23 N (Ans.)

SME = 0: M – 23 x = 0

\ M = 23 x Fig. Ex. 2(b)

Substituting x = 0 m,

\ M = 0 N.m (Ans.)

Substituting x = 1.5 m,

\ M = 34.5 N.m (Ans.)

Now cut the beam by a plane at point F between C and D (1.5 < x < 3.5) and

then apply equilibrium equations to the free body diagram of the part of the beam

to the left of the plane. Refer figure Ex. 2(c).

SV = 0: 23 – 20 – V = 0

\ V = 3 N (Ans.)

SMF = 0: M + 20 (x – 1.5) – 23 x = 0

\ M = 23 x - 20 (x – 1.5)

Substituting x = 3.5 m, Fig. Ex. 2(c)

M = 23 × 3.5 – 20 (3.5 – 1.5)

\ M = 40.5 N.m (Ans.)

Analysis of Structure 3.25

Next cut the beam by a plane at point G between D and B (3.5 < x < 5) and

then apply equilibrium equations to the free body diagram of the part of the beam

to the left of the plane. Refer figure Ex. 2(d).

SV = 0: 23 – 20 – 30 – V = 0

\ V = –27 N (Ans.)

SMG = 0:

M + 30 (x – 3.5) + 20 (x – 1.5) – 23 x = 0

Fig. Ex. 2(d)

\ M = 23 x – 20 (x – 1.5) – 30 (x – 3.5)

Substituting x = 5 m,

M = 23 × 5 – 20 (5 – 1.5) – 30 (5 – 3.5) \ M = 0 N.m (Ans.)

The shear force and bending moment diagrams are shown in figure Ex. 2(e)

and figure Ex. 2(f). These are the plots of V and M as a function of position x for

different segments of beam derived in Part 2. Note that for each concentrated

force, the shear force diagram jumps by an amount equal to the force, and remain

constant between two concentrated forces. The bending moment diagram is an

inclined straight line between two concentrated forces.

3.26 Engineering Mechanics Statics

and a moment as shown in figure Ex. 3. Determine, (a) reactions at supports A

and B, and (b) draw the shear force and bending moment diagrams for this beam.

Fig. Ex. 3

Solution: Part 1

+

To determine reactions, apply conditions of equilibrium i.e. →ΣH = 0,

+↑SV = 0 and SM = 0 (Treating anticlockwise moment as positive) to the free

body diagram of the entire beam as shown in figure Ex. 3(a).

SH = 0: Ax = 0

SV = 0: Ay + By – 25 = 0 ...(1)

SMA = 0: By × 4 – 25 × 1 – 35 = 0

\ By = 15 N (Ans.)

From Eq. (1),

Fig. Ex. 3(a)

Ay + By = 25

\ Ay + 15 = 25

\ Ay = 10 N (Ans.)

Part 2: First cut the beam by a plane at point E between

A and C (0 < x < 1) and then apply equilibrium equations

to the free body diagram of the part of the beam to the left Fig. Ex. 3(b)

of the plane. Refer figure Ex. 3(b).

SV = 0: 10 – V = 0

\ V = 10 N (Ans.)

SME = 0: M – 10 x = 0

\ M =10 x

Substituting x = 0 m,

\ M = 0 N.m (Ans.)

Substituting x = 1 m,

\ M = 10 N.m (Ans.) Fig. Ex. 3(c)

Analysis of Structure 3.27

between C and D (1 < x < 2) and then apply

equilibrium equations to the free body diagram

of the part of the beam to the left of the plane.

Refer figure Ex. 3(c).

SV = 0: 10 – 25 – V = 0 \ V = –15 N (Ans.)

SMF = 0: M + 25 (x – 1) – 10 x = 0 \ M = 10 x – 25 (x – 1)

Substituting x = 2 m,

M = 10 × 2 – 25 (2 – 1) \ M = –5 N.m (Ans.)

Next cut the beam by a plane at point G between D and B (2 < x < 4) and then

apply equilibrium equations to the free body diagram of the part of the beam to

the left of the plane. Refer figure Ex. 3(d).

3.28 Engineering Mechanics Statics

SV = 0: 10 – 25 – V = 0 \ V = –15 N (Ans.)

SMG = 0: M – 35 + 25 (x – 1) – 10 x = 0

\ M = 35 – 25 (x – 1) + 10 x

Substituting x = 2 m,

M = 35 – 25 (2 – 1) + 10 × 2 \ M = 30 N.m (Ans.)

Substituting x = 4 m,

M = 35 – 25 (4 – 1) + 10 × 4 \ M = 0 N.m (Ans.)

The shear force and bending moment diagrams are shown in figure Ex. 3(e)

and figure Ex. 3(f). These are the plots of V and M as a function of position x

for different segments of beam derived in Part 2. Note that for a concentrated

moment, the bending moment diagram jumps by an amount equal to the moment.

Example 4. The simply supported beam AB is subjected to uniformly distributed

load as shown in figure Ex. 4. Determine, (a) reactions at supports A and B, and

(b) draw the shear force and bending moment diagrams for this beam.

Fig. Ex. 4

+

→ΣH = 0, +↑SV = 0 and SM = 0 (Treating anticlockwise moment as positive) to

the free body diagram of the entire beam as shown in figure Ex. 4(a).

As discussed in section 3.6, distributed load

is assumed as total load (product of intensity of

distributed load and spreading distance) acting

at the centre of gravity of distribution of load.

SH = 0: Ax = 0

SV = 0: Ay + By – 10 × 5 = 0 ...(1) Fig. Ex. 4(a)

SMA = 0: By × 5 – 10 × 5 × 2.5 = 0

\ By = 25 N (Ans.)

From Eq. (1),

Ay + By = 50

\ Ay + 25 = 50

Fig. Ex. 4(b)

\ Ay = 25 N (Ans.)

Part 2: Now cut the beam by a plane at point C between A and B (0 < x < 5) and

then apply equilibrium equations to the free body diagram of the part of the beam

Analysis of Structure 3.29

SV = 0: 25 – 10x – V = 0

\ V = 25 – 10x ...(2)

Substituting x = 0 m,

\ V = 25 N (Ans.)

Substituting x = 5 m,

\ V = –25 N (Ans.)

The location of the section on beam where shear force is zero is found by

substituting V = 0 in Eq. (2),

x = 2.5 m

x

Now, SMC = 0 : M + 10 x – 25 x = 0

2

x

\ M = 25 x – 10 x

2

Substituting x = 0 m, \ M = 0 N.m (Ans.)

Substituting x = 5 m, \ M = 0 N.m (Ans.)

Substituting x = 2.5 m,

3.30 Engineering Mechanics Statics

2.5

M = 25 × 2.5 – 10 × 2.5 \ M = 18.75 N.m (Ans.)

2

The shear force and bending moment diagrams are shown in figure Ex. 4(c)

and figure Ex. 4(d). These are the plots of V and M as a function of position x

for different segments of beam derived in Part 2. Note that for distributed load,

the shear force diagram is an inclined straight line between start and end of

distribution. The bending moment diagram is a parabola between start and end of

distribution. The maximum bending moment occurs where the shear force is zero.

Example 5. The simply supported beam AB is subjected to uniformly varying

load as shown in figure Ex. 5. Determine, (a) reactions at supports A and B, and

(b) draw the shear force and bending moment diagrams for this beam.

Fig. Ex.5

Solution: Part 1

+

To determine reactions, apply conditions of equilibrium i.e. →ΣH = 0,

+↑SV = 0 and SM = 0 (Treating anticlockwise moment as positive) to the free

body diagram of the entire beam as shown in

figure Ex. 5(a).

As discussed in section 3.6, uniformly

varying load is assumed as total load (total

area of distribution i.e. area of the triangle)

acting at the centre of gravity of distribution

of load i.e. centroid of the triangle.

Fig. Ex. 5(a)

SH = 0: Ax = 0

1

SV = 0 : Ay + By – × 3 × 24 = 0 ...(1)

2

1 2

SMA = 0 : By × 3 – × 3 × 24 × × 3 = 0

2 3

\ By = 24 N (Ans.)

Ay + By = 36

\ Ay + 24 = 36

\ Ay = 12 N (Ans.) Fig. Ex. 5(b)

Analysis of Structure 3.31

Part 2: Now cut the beam by a plane at point C between A and B (0 < x < 3) and

then apply equilibrium equations to the free body diagram of the part of the beam

to the left of the plane. Refer figure Ex. 5(b).

w 24

Let w be the intensity at section C, we have from similar triangle, = or w = 8 x

x 3

1

SV = 0 : 12 – × x × 8 x – V = 0

2

\ V = 12 – 4x2 ...(2)

Substituting x = 0 m, \ V = 12 N (Ans.)

Substituting x = 3 m, \ V = –24 N (Ans.)

The location of the section on beam where shear force is zero is found by

substituting V = 0 in Eq. (2),

\ x = 1.73 m

x

SMC = 0 : M + 4 x 2 × – 12 x = 0

3

2 x

\ M = 12 x – 4 x

3

Substituting x = 0 m, \ M = 0 N.m (Ans.)

Substituting x = 3 m, \ M = 0 N.m (Ans.)

Substituting x = 1.73 m,

3.32 Engineering Mechanics Statics

1.73

\ M = 12 × 1.73 – 4 × 1.732 × \ M = 13.86 N.m (Ans.)

3

The shear force and bending moment diagrams are shown in figure Ex. 5(c)

and figure Ex. 5(d). These are the plots of V and M as a function of position x for

different segments of beam derived in Part 2. Note that for uniformly varying

load, the shear force diagram is a parabola between start and end of distribution.

The bending moment diagram is a third-degree polynomial between start and end

of distribution. The maximum bending moment occurs where the shear force is

zero.

Example 6. The simply supported beam AB is subjected to uniformly distributed

load and concentrated load as shown in figure Ex. 6. Determine, (a) reactions at

supports A and B, and (b) draw the shear force and bending moment diagrams

for this beam.

Fig. Ex. 6

+

→ΣH = 0, +↑SV = 0 and SM = 0 (Treating

anticlockwise moment as positive) to the free

body diagram of the entire beam as shown in

figure Ex. 6(a).

As discussed in section 3.6, distributed load

is assumed as total load (product of intensity of Fig. Ex. 6(a)

distributed load and spreading distance) acting

at the centre of gravity of distribution of load.

SH = 0: Ax = 0

SV = 0: Ay + By – 30 – 15 × 2 = 0 ...(1)

SMA = 0: By × 5 – 30 × 2 – 15 × 2 × 4 = 0

Fig. Ex. 6(b)

\ By = 36 N (Ans.)

From Eq. (1),

Ay + By = 60 \ Ay + 36 = 60

\ Ay = 24 N (Ans.)

Part 2: First cut the beam by a plane at point E

between A and C (0 < x < 2) and then apply equilibrium

equations to the free body diagram of the part of the

beam to the left of the plane. Refer figure Ex. 6(b). Fig. Ex. 6(c)

Analysis of Structure 3.33

SV = 0: 24 – V = 0 \ V = 24 N (Ans.)

SME = 0: M – 24x = 0 \ M = 24x

Substituting x = 0 m, \ M = 0 N.m (Ans.)

Substituting x = 2 m, \ M = 48 N.m (Ans.)

Now cut the beam by a plane at point

F between C and D (2 < x < 3) and then

apply equilibrium equations to the free

body diagram of the part of the beam to

the left of the plane. Refer figure Ex. 6(c).

SV = 0: 24 – 30 – V = 0

\ V = –6 N (Ans.) Fig. Ex. 6(d)

SMF = 0: M + 30 (x – 2) – 24x = 0

\ M = 24x – 30 (x – 2)

Substituting x = 3 m, \ M = 42 N.m (Ans.)

3.34 Engineering Mechanics Statics

Next cut the beam by a plane at point G between D and B (3 < x < 5) and then

apply equilibrium equations to the free body diagram of the part of the beam to

the left of the plane. Refer figure Ex. 6(d).

SV = 0: 24 – 30 – 15 (x – 3) – V = 0

\ V = 24 – 30 – 15 (x – 3)

Substituting x = 5 m, \ V = –36 N (Ans.)

x – 3

SMG = 0 : M + 15( x – 3) + 30( x – 2) – 24 x = 0

2

x – 3

\ M = 24 x – 30( x – 2) – 15( x – 3)

2

Substituting x = 5 m, \ M = 0 N.m (Ans.)

The shear force and bending moment diagrams are shown in figure Ex. 6(e)

and figure Ex. 6(f). These are the plots of V and M as a function of position x for

different segments of beam derived in Part 2.

Example 1. A cantilever beam AB is subjected to concentrated load at free end

B as shown in figure Ex. 1. Determine, (a) reactions at fixed support A, and (b)

draw the shear force and bending moment diagrams for this beam.

Fig. Ex. 1

+

apply conditions of equilibrium i.e. →ΣH = 0,

+↑SV= 0 and SM = 0 (Treating anticlockwise

moment as positive) to the free body diagram

of the entire beam as shown in figure Ex. 1(a). Fig. Ex. 1(a)

SH = 0: Ax = 0

SV = 0: Ay – 10 = 0

\ Ay = 10 kN (Ans.)

SMA = 0: CA – 10 × 4 = 0

\ CA = 40 kN.m (Ans.) Fig. Ex. 1(b)

Analysis of Structure 3.35

Part 2: Now cut the beam by a plane at point C between A and B (0 < x < 4) and

then apply equilibrium equations to the free body diagram of the part of the beam

to the left of the plane. Refer figure Ex. 1(b).

SV = 0: 10 – V = 0 \ V = 10 kN (Ans.)

SMC = 0: M + 40 – 10 x = 0

\ M =10 x – 40

Substituting x = 0 m, \ M = – 40 kN.m (Ans.)

Substituting x = 4 m, \ M = 0 N.m (Ans.)

The shear force and bending moment diagrams are shown in figure Ex. 1(c)

and figure Ex. 1(d). These are the plots of V and M as a function of position x for

different segments of beam derived in Part 2.

Example 2. A cantilever beam AB is subjected to two concentrated load as

shown in figure Ex. 2. Determine, (a) reactions at fixed support A, and (b) draw

the shear force and bending moment diagrams for this beam.

Fig. Ex. 2

3.36 Engineering Mechanics Statics

+

→ΣH = 0, +↑SV = 0 and SM = 0 (Treating anticlockwise moment as positive) to

the free body diagram of the entire beam as shown in figure Ex. 2(a).

SH = 0: Ax = 0

SV = 0: Ay – 5 – 8 = 0

\ Ay = 13 kN (Ans.)

SMA = 0: CA – 5 × 2 – 8 × 4 = 0

\ CA = 42 kN.m (Ans.) Fig. Ex. 2(a)

Part 2: First cut the beam by a plane at point E between A and C (0 < x < 2) and

then apply equilibrium equations to the free body diagram of the part of the beam

to the left of the plane. Refer figure Ex. 2(b).

SV = 0: 13 – V = 0 \ V = 13 kN (Ans.)

SME = 0: M + 42 – 13x = 0

\ M = 13x – 42

Substituting x = 0 m,

\ M = – 42 kN.m (Ans.)

Substituting x = 2 m,

\ M = – 16 kN.m (Ans.)

Fig. Ex. 2(b) Fig. Ex. 2(c)

Now cut the beam by a plane at point F between C and D (2 < x < 4) and then

apply equilibrium equations to the free body diagram of the part of the beam to

the left of the plane. Refer figure Ex. 2(c).

Analysis of Structure 3.37

SV = 0: 13 – 5 – V = 0 \ V = 8 kN (Ans.)

SMF = 0: M + 42 + 5 (x – 2) – 13 x = 0

=13 x – 42 - 5 (x – 2)

\ M

Substituting x = 4 m,

\ M = 0 kN.m (Ans.)

Next cut the beam by a plane at point G between D and B (4 < x < 5) and then

apply equilibrium equations to the free body diagram of the part of the beam to

the left of the plane. Refer figure Ex. 2(d).

SV = 0: 13 – 5 – 8 – V = 0 \ V = 0 kN (Ans.)

SMG = 0: M + 42 + 8 (x – 4) + 5 (x – 2) – 13 x = 0

\ M =13 x – 42 – 8 (x – 4) – 5 (x – 2)

Substituting x = 5 m,

\ M = 0 kN.m (Ans.)

The shear force and bending moment diagrams are shown in figure Ex. 2(e)

and figure Ex. 2(f). These are the plots of V and M as a function of position x for

different segments of beam derived in Part 2.

3.38 Engineering Mechanics Statics

shown in figure Ex. 3. Determine, (a) reactions at supports A, and (b) draw the

shear force and bending moment diagrams for this beam.

Fig. Ex. 3

+

→ΣH = 0, +↑SV = 0 and SM = 0 (Treating anticlockwise moment as positive) to

the free body diagram of the entire beam as shown in figure Ex. 3(a).

of intensity of distributed load and spreading distance) acting at the centre of

gravity of distribution of load.

SH = 0: Ax = 0

SV = 0: Ay – 20 × 5 = 0

\ Ay = 100 N (Ans.)

SMA = 0: CA – 20 × 5 × 2.5 = 0

\ CA = 250 N.m (Ans.)

Part 2: Now cut the beam by a plane at point C between A and B (0 < x < 5) and

then apply equilibrium equations to the free body diagram of the part of the beam

to the left of the plane. Refer figure Ex. 3(b).

SV = 0: 100 – 20 x – V = 0

\ V = 100 – 20 x

Substituting x = 0 m,

\ V = 100 N (Ans.)

Fig. Ex. 3(b)

Analysis of Structure 3.39

Substituting x = 5 m,

\ V = 0 N (Ans.)

x

SMC = 0 : M + 250 + 20 x – 100 x = 0

2

x

\ M = 100 x – 20 x – 250

2

Substituting x = 0 m,

\ M = –250 N.m (Ans.)

Substituting x = 5 m,

\ M = 0 N.m (Ans.)

The shear force and bending moment diagrams are shown in figure Ex. 3(c)

and figure Ex. 3(d). These are the plots of V and M as a function of position x for

different segments of beam derived in Part 2.

3.40 Engineering Mechanics Statics

shown in figure Ex. 4. Determine, (a) reactions at supports A, and (b) draw the

shear force and bending moment diagrams for this beam.

Fig. Ex.4

Solution: Part 1

+

To determine reactions, apply conditions of equilibrium i.e. →ΣH = 0, +↑SV = 0

and SM = 0 (Treating anticlockwise moment as positive) to the free body diagram

of the entire beam as shown in figure Ex. 4(a).

(total area of distribution i.e. area of the triangle) acting at the centre of gravity of

distribution of load i.e. centroid of the triangle.

SH = 0: Ax = 0

1

SV = 0: Ay – × 12 × 60 = 0

2

\ Ay = 360 N (Ans.)

SMA = 0: C A – × 12 × 60 × × 12 = 0

2 3

\ CA = 1440 N.m (Ans.)

Analysis of Structure 3.41

Part 2: Now cut the beam by a plane at point C between A and B and then apply

equilibrium equations to the free body diagram of the part of the beam to the right

of the plane. Refer figure Ex. 4(b). Here we measure x from B towards C.

1

SV = 0: V – × 5 x × x = 0

2

1

\ V = × 5x × x

2

Substituting x = 0 m,

\ V = 0 N (Ans.)

Substituting x = 12 m,

\ V = 360 N (Ans.)

3.42 Engineering Mechanics Statics

1 x

SMC = 0: – M – × 5x × x = 0

2 3

1 x

\ M = – × 5 x × x

2 3

Substituting x = 0 m,

\ M = 0 (Ans.)

Substituting x = 12 m,

\ M = –1440 N.m (Ans.)

The shear force and bending moment diagrams are shown in figure Ex. 4(c)

and figure Ex. 4(d). These are the plots of V and M as a function of position x for

different segments of beam derived in Part 2.

Example 5. A cantilever beam AB is subjected to uniformly distributed load and

a concentrated load as shown in figure Ex. 5. Determine, (a) reactions at supports

A, and (b) draw the shear force and bending moment diagrams for this beam.

Fig. Ex. 5

+

→ΣH = 0, +↑SV = 0 and SM = 0 (Treating anticlockwise moment as positive) to

the free body diagram of the entire beam as shown in figure Ex. 5(a).

As discussed in section 3.6, distributed

load is assumed as total load (product of

intensity of distributed load and spreading

distance) acting at the centre of gravity of

distribution of load.

SH = 0: Ax = 0

SV = 0: Ay – 10 × 3 – 5 = 0

\ Ay = 35 kN (Ans.)

Fig. Ex. 5(a)

SMA = 0: CA – 10 × 3 × 1.5 – 5 × 6 = 0

\ CA = 75 kN.m (Ans.)

Part 2: First cut the beam by a plane at point D between A and C (0 < x < 3) and

then apply equilibrium equations to the free body diagram of the part of the beam

to the left of the plane. Refer figure Ex. 5(b).

SV = 0: 35 – 10 x – V = 0 \ V = 35 – 10 x

Analysis of Structure 3.43

Substituting x = 0 m,

\ V = 35 kN (Ans.)

Substituting x = 3 m,

\ V = 5 kN (Ans.)

x

SMD = 0: M + 75 + 10 x – 35 x = 0

2 Fig. Ex. 5(b)

x

\ M = 35 x – 10 x – 75

2

Substituting x = 0 m,

\ M = –75 kN.m (Ans.)

Substituting x = 3 m,

\ M = –15 kN.m (Ans.)

Now cut the beam by a plane at point E between A and B (3 < x < 6) and then

apply equilibrium equations to the free body diagram of the part of the beam to

the left of the plane. Refer figure Ex. 5(c).

SV = 0: 35 – 10 × 3 – V = 0 \ V = 5 kN (Ans.)

SME = 0:

M + 75 + 10 × 3 × (x – 1.5) – 35 x = 0

\ M = 35x – 75 – 10 × 3 × (x – 1.5)

Substituting x = 6 m,

\ M = 0 kN.m (Ans.)

Fig. Ex. 5(c)

3.44 Engineering Mechanics Statics

The shear force and bending moment diagrams are shown in figure Ex. 5(d)

and figure Ex. 5(e). These are the plots of V and M as a function of position x for

different segments of beam derived in Part 2.

Example 1. A overhanging beam AC is subjected to a concentrated load as

shown in figure Ex. 1. Determine, (a) reactions at supports A and B, and (b) draw

the shear force and bending moment diagrams for this beam.

Fig. Ex. 1

+

→ΣH = 0, +↑SV = 0 and SM = 0 (Treating anticlockwise moment as positive)

to the free body diagram of the entire beam as shown in figure Ex. 1(a).

SH = 0: Ax = 0

SV = 0: Ay + By – 10 = 0 ...(1)

SMA = 0: By × 3 – 10 × 5 = 0

\ By = 16.67 kN (Ans.)

From Eq. (1),

Ay + By = 10 Fig. Ex. 1(a)

\ Ay + 16.67 = 10

\ Ay = –6.67 kN (Ans.)

Here ‘–ve’ sign indicate that, reaction at A will act in

negative y direction.

Part 2: First cut the beam by a plane at point D between

A and B (0 < x < 3) and then apply equilibrium equations

to the free body diagram of the part of the beam to the left

Fig. Ex. 1(b)

of the plane. Refer figure Ex. 1(b).

Analysis of Structure 3.45

SMD = 0: M + 6.67 x = 0 \ M = –6.67 x

Substituting x = 0 m,

\ M = 0 kN.m (Ans.)

Substituting x = 3 m,

\ M = –20 kN.m (Ans.)

Now cut the beam by a plane at point E between B and C (3 < x < 6) and then

apply equilibrium equations to the free body diagram of the part of the beam to

the left of the plane. Refer figure Ex. 1(c).

SV = 0: –6.67 + 16.67 – V = 0

\ V = 10 kN (Ans.)

SME = 0: M + 6.67 x – 16.67 (x – 3) = 0

\ M = 16.67 (x – 3) – 6.67 x

Substituting x = 5 m,

M = 16.67 (5 – 3) – 6.67 × 5

\ M = 0 kN.m (Ans.)

The shear force and bending moment diagrams are shown in figure Ex. 1(d)

and figure Ex. 1(e). These are the plots of V and M as a function of position x for

different segments of beam derived in Part 2.

3.46 Engineering Mechanics Statics

uniformly distributed load as shown in figure Ex.2. Determine, (a) reactions at

supports A and B, and (b) draw the shear force and bending moment diagrams

for this beam.

Fig. Ex.2

+

apply conditions of equilibrium i.e. →ΣH

= 0, +↑SV = 0 and SM = 0 (Treating

anticlockwise moment as positive) to the

free body diagram of the entire beam as

shown in figure Ex. 2(a).

Fig. Ex. 2(a)

SH = 0: Ax = 0

SV = 0: Ay + By – 20 × 4 – 10 = 0 ...(1)

SMA = 0: By × 4 – 20 × 4 × 2 – 10 × 6 = 0

\ By = 55 N (Ans.)

From Eq. (1),

Ay + By = 90

\ Ay + 55 = 90

\ Ay = 35 N (Ans.)

Part 2: First cut the beam by a plane at point D between A and B (0 < x < 4) and

then apply equilibrium equations to the free body diagram of the part of the beam

to the left of the plane. Refer figure Ex. 2(b).

SV = 0: 35 – 20x – V = 0

\ V = 35 – 20x ...(2)

Substituting x = 0 m,

\ V = 35 N (Ans.)

Substituting x = 4 m, Fig. Ex. 2(b)

\ V = –45 N (Ans.)

The location of the section on beam where shear force is zero is found by

substituting V= 0 in Eq. (2),

\ x = 1.75 m

Analysis of Structure 3.47

x

SMD = 0: M + 20 x – 35 x = 0

2

x

\ M = 35 x – 20 x

2

Substituting x = 0 m,

\ M = 0 N.m (Ans.)

Substituting x = 4 m,

\ M = –20 N.m (Ans.)

Fig. Ex. 2(c)

Substituting x = 1.75 m,

\ M = 30.625 N.m (Ans.)

Now cut the beam by a plane at point E between B and C (4 < x < 6) and then

apply equilibrium equations to the free body diagram of the part of the beam to

the left of the plane. Refer figure Ex. 2(c).

3.48 Engineering Mechanics Statics

SV = 0: 35 – 20 × 4 + 55 – V = 0 \ V = 10 N (Ans.)

SME = 0: M – 55 (x – 4) + 20 × 4 (x – 2) – 35 x = 0

\ M = 35 x – 20 × 4 (x – 2) + 55 (x – 4)

Substituting x = 6 m,

\ M = 0 kN.m (Ans.)

The shear force and bending moment diagrams are shown in figure Ex. 2(d)

and figure Ex. 2(e). These are the plots of V and M as a function of position x for

different segments of beam derived in Part 2.

SUMMARY

• Beam is a slender structural member subjected to lateral loads.

• Simply supported beam, Cantilever, beam with overhang, Fixed beam etc

are different types of beam.

• Shear Force (V) and Bending Moment (M) are internal forces and moment

induced in a beam.

• Internal forces are forces and moments develop within beam due to

external loading.

• A positive shear force V tends to rotate beam element clockwise. A positive

bending moment M tends to bend beam element concave upward.

• Shear force and bending moment diagrams are plots of V and M as

functions of position x.

Problem

Determine shear force and bending moment equations for different sections of the beam

and draw complete shear force and bending moment diagrams for the beam shown in

figure Prob. 1 to figure Prob. 8.

Analysis of Structure 3.49

Fig. Prob. 7

Fig. Prob. 8

Unit 4

In first part of this unit, we focus on center of gravity and centroid

and show how to determine location of centroid for composite areas.

In second part of this unit, we focus on area moment of inertia that

measures how an area is distributed about particular axes. These

concepts are useful in distributed force system. We show how to

determine area moment of inertia of composite areas.

Centroid and Moment of Inertia

4.1 Introduction

The force of attraction exerted by the earth on body is known as force of gravity

or weight of the body, denoted by W. This force

on free body diagram is represented at the center The weight of the body

of gravity of the body. Actually a rigid body is is distributed force.

collection of particles and earth exerts a force on

each of the particles. Thus weight of the body is distributed over the entire volume

of the object, but it is represented by single equivalent force.

It is convenient to find resultant of distributed force system so that all the

forces may be assumed to be concentrated on a point. Distributed quantities like

length, area, mass and weight may be assumed to be concentrated on a point for

the ease in the analysis. This point for length and area is called as Centroid, for

mass, is called as Center of Mass and for weight, is called as Center of Gravity.

Center of Gravity

Center of gravity of a body is a point through

which the resultant of the gravity forces act C.G. is the average

irrespective of the orientation of the body. For position of a distribution

symmetrical object C.G. would be in the exact of weight.

center of object. However for non-symmetrical

objects C. G. would be in any number of positions, depending on weight

distribution. The location of the C.G. remains fixed as long as the body does not

change shape. If an object’s shape changes, the location of the C.G. also changes.

Center of Mass

Center of mass of a body is a point where the entire mass of a body is concentrated.

In a uniform gravitational field the center of gravity coincides with center of mass.

The center of mass may lie outside the object.

Centroid

Centroid is geometrical center of area or shape. It is also defined as a point where

the whole area of the shape is assumed to be concentrated.

4.2 Determination of Centroid

To determine mathematically the coordinates of centroid, we apply principle of

moment.

Consider the area A shown in figure 1. Let area ‘A’ is composed of a number

of small areas a1, a2, a3, a4, .... etc.

4.4 Engineering Mechanics Statics

\ A = a1 + a2 + a3 + a4 + ... + an

Let, x1 = the distance of the centroid of the area a1 from y axis

x2 = the distance of the centroid of the area a2 from y axis

x3 = the distance of the centroid of the area a3 from y axis

x4 = the distance of the centroid of the area a4 from y axis

The moments of all small areas about y axis is

= a1 x1 + a2 x2 + a3 x3 + a4 x4 + ...

Let G be the centroid of the total area whose distance from the y axis is x

Y

a a4

a2 3

a1 AA

G

x1

x2

x3

x4

x

X

Fig. 1

The moment of all small areas about the y axis must be equal to the moment

of total area about the same axis.

a1 x1 + a2 x2+ a3 x3 + a4 x4 + ... = Ax

a1 x1 + a2 x2 + a3 x3 + a4 x4 + ....

x =

A

In the same way if we apply principle of moment about the x axis, then

y = a1 y1 + a2 y2 + a3 y3 + a4 y4 + ....

A

\ Using following expressions centroid of any given irregular shape may

be found.

n

x =

∑ i=1 xi Ai ...(Eq. 4.1)

n

∑ i=1 Ai

n

y =

∑ i=1 yi Ai ...(Eq. 4.2)

n

∑ i=1 Ai

By taking the limits of Eq. 4.1 and Eq. 4.2, as Ai → 0, the summations become

integrals

x =

∫ x dA and y = ∫ y dA ...(Eq. 4.3)

∫ dA ∫ dA

Centroid and Moment of Inertia 4.5

Here x and y are the location of the centroid of area element dA. ∫ x dA

is known as first moment of area about the y axis and ∫ y dA is known as first

moment of area about the x axis.

4.3 Centroid of Wire

Centroid of a linear element like when wire bent into some shape may be found

using expression;

l x + l x + .... + ln xn ∑ lx

X = 1 1 2 2 = ...(Eq. 4.4)

l1 + l2 + ..... + ln ∑l

l1 y1 + l2 y2 + ..... + ln yn ∑ ly

Y = = ...(Eq. 4.5)

l1 + l2 + ..... + ln ∑l

where l1, l2, ..., ln are the lengths of such regular line elements for which centroid

coordinates (x1, y1), (x2, y2),..., (xn, yn) are known.

Centroid of Composite Areas

Many engineering objects can be considered as composite bodies made up of

connected simple shapes like a rectangle, triangle, circle and semicircle. Knowing

the location of the centroid of the simple shapes, we can easily determine the

location of the centroid of complex composite areas.

1. Divide the given area into different simple shapes having known

centrodial distance.

2. Establish the coordinate axes and determine the coordinates x , y of the

centroid of each part.

3. Determine x , y by applying the center of gravity equations.

4. If section is symmetric about its own x axis we can find y coordinate of

centroid directly without any calculations as it lie on x axis. If section is

symmetric about its own y axis we can find x coordinate directly without

any calculations as it lie on y axis.

Integration

1. Centroid of a triangular area: Consider a triangle shown in figure 2. We

have to determine the x coordinate of centroid of this triangle.

Now consider area dA in the form of vertical strip of width dx as shown

h

in figure 3. Here height of the strip is x.

b

4.6 Engineering Mechanics Statics

y y

dA

h h

x x

b x dx

Fig. 2 Fig. 3

b h

∫ x dA ∫o b

x dx

x = =

∫ dA ∫ dA

2

Solving, x = b

3

1

Similarly considering a horizontal strip we can determine y = h.

3

Here it is important to understand the orientation of the area. If the

orientation of triangular area will change, the coordinates of centroid will

also change.

2. Centroid of Semicircular Area: Consider a semicircular lamina with

radius r as shown in figure 4. Here semicircular area is symmetric about

y-axis, therefore x = 0.

Select an elementary area in form of strip as shown in figure 4.

The strip can be considered as a triangle whose base is rdq and altitude

is r.

The location of the centroid of the elementary sector is A.

Fig. 4

2r

\ Distance O A =

(Centroid of triangle)

3

2

\ y coordinate the centroid of element is y =

r sin θ

3

Centroid and Moment of Inertia 4.7

1 1

Area of the strip, dA = × r × rd θ = r 2 d θ

2 2

Using Eq. 4.3,

π π 2 1 r3 π

∫0 3 r sin θ ⋅ 2 r ∫0 sin θd θ

2

dθ

y =

∫0 y dA

= = 3 2

π π 1 r π

∫0 dA ∫0 2 r

2

dθ

2 ∫0

dθ

r3 r3

[ − cos θ]0π ×2

3 = 3

=

r2 π r2

[θ]0 π

3 2

4r

\ y =

3π

Centroid and area of some common plane areas are shown in table 4.1.

Table 4.1 Centroid and Area

b

h x =

y 2

b×d h

x y =

b 2

b

x =

1 3

bh

2

y = h

3

y pr2 x =0 y =0

x

4.8 Engineering Mechanics Statics

r π⋅ r2 4r

x = r, y =

y 2 3π

x

d

π⋅ r2 4r 4r

x = y =

4 3π 3π

Example 1. Determine coordinates of centroid of the shaded area shown in

figure Ex. 1. All dimensions are in mm.

Y

200

80

40

40

20

X

300

Fig. Ex. 1

Solution: First divide the given area into three parts i.e. rectangle, semicircle and

triangle.

Rectangle: a1 = 300 × 140 = 42000 mm2

300 140

x1 = = 150 mm, y1 = = 70 mm

2 2

πr 2 π × 202

Semicircle: a2 = = = 628.31 mm 2

2 2

4r

x2 = 300 – = 291.5 mm

3π

40

y2 = 20 + = 40 mm

2

Centroid and Moment of Inertia 4.9

1 1

Triangle: a2 = b × h = × 100 × 100 = 5000 mm 2

2 2

b 100

x3 = = = 33.33 mm

3 3

h 100

y3 = 140 – = 140 – = 106.67 mm

3 3

Now coordinates of the centroid are

a x − a2 x2 – a3 x3

x = 1 1

a1 – a2 – a3

42000 ×150 − 628.31× 291.5 − 5000 × 33.33

= = 163.59 mm (Ans.)

42000 − 628.31 − 5000

a1 y1 − a2 y2 – a3 y3

y =

a1 – a2 – a3

42000 × 70 − 628.31× 40 − 5000 ×106.67

= = 65.47 mm

42000 − 628.31 − 5000

Example 2. Determine coordinates of centroid of the shaded area shown in

figure Ex. 2. All dimensions are in mm.

Fig. Ex. 2

Solution: First divide the given area into two parts i.e. rectangle 1 and rectangle 2.

Rectangle 1: a1 = 30 × 160 = 4800 mm2

30

x1 = = 15 mm

2

160

y1 = = 80 mm

2

4.10 Engineering Mechanics Statics

90

x2 = 30 + = 30 + 45 = 75 mm

2

40

y2 = = 20 mm

2

Now coordinates of the centroid are

a x +a x 4800 × 15 + 3600 × 75

x = 11 2 2 = = 40.71 mm (Ans.)

a1 + a2 4800 + 3600

a1 y1 + a2 y2 4800 × 80 + 3600 × 20

y = = = 54.28 mm (Ans.)

a1 + a2 4800 + 3600

Example 3. Determine coordinates of centroid of the shaded area shown in

figure Ex. 3.

25 mm 25 mm

50 mm

m

m

30

X

O

50 mm 50 mm

Fig. Ex. 3

Solution: Here it is important to note that given area is symmetric about its own

vertical axis therefore x coordinate of centroid of area will lie on its own vertical

axis and we have to determine only y coordinate of centroid.

Now divide the given area into four parts i.e. rectangle, triangle 1, triangle 2

and semicircle.

Rectangle: a1 = 50 × 100 = 5000 mm2

50

y1 = = 25 mm

2

1

Triangle 1: a2 = × 25 × 50 = 625 mm

2

2

y2 = × 50 = 33.33 mm

3

1

Triangle 2: a3 = × 25 × 50 = 625 mm

2

2

y3 = × 50 = 33.33 mm

3

Centroid and Moment of Inertia 4.11

πr 2 3.14 × 302

Semicircle: a4 = = = 1413.71 mm 2

2 2

4r 4 × 30

y4 = = = 12.73 mm

3π 3 × 3.14

Now y coordinate of the centroid is

a y − a y − a3 y3 − a4 y4

y = 1 1 2 2

a1 − a2 − a3 − a4

5000 × 25 – 625× 33.33 − 625× 33.33 − 1413.71×12.73

= = 27.96 mm (Ans.)

5000 − 625 − 625 − 1413.71

Example 4. Determine coordinates of centroid of the shaded area shown in

figure Ex. 4.

Y

R 2 cm

O

R 1 cm

X

3 cm

10 cm

Fig. Ex. 4

Solution: First divide the given area into four parts i.e. rectangle, triangle,

semicircle and circle.

Rectangle: a1 = 7 × 4 = 28 cm2

7

x1 = 3 + = 6.5 cm

2

4

y1 = = 2 cm

2

1

Triangle: a2 = × 3 × 4 = 6 cm 2

2

2

x2 = × 3 = 2 cm

3

1

y2 = × 4 = 1.33 cm

3

πr 2 π × 22

Semicircle: a3 = = = 6.28 cm 2

2 2

4.12 Engineering Mechanics Statics

4r

x3 = 10 + = 10.84 cm

3π

y3 = 2 cm

Circle: a4 = pr2 = 3.14 cm2

x4 = 10 cm

y4 = 2 cm

Now coordinates of the centroid are

a x + a x + a3 x3 − a4 x4

x = 1 1 2 2

a1 + a2 + a3 − a4

28× 6.5 + 6 × 2 + 6.28×10.84 − 3.14 ×10

= = 6.21cm (Ans.)

28 + 6 + 6.28 − 3.14

a1 y1 + a2 y2 + a3 y3 − a4 y4

y =

a1 + a2 + a3 − a4

28× 2 + 6 ×1.33 + 6.28× 2 − 3.14 × 2

= = 1.89 cm (Ans.)

28 + 6 + 6.28 − 3.14

Example 5. Determine coordinates of centroid of the shaded area shown in

figure Ex. 5. All dimensions are in mm.

Fig. Ex. 5

Solution: First divide the given area into two parts i.e. quarter circle and semicircle

πr 2 π × 302

Quarter circle: a1 = = = 706.5 mm 2

4 4

4r 4 × 30

x1 = = = 12.73 mm

3π 3 × 3.14

4r 4 × 30

y1 = = = 12.73 mm

3π 3 × 3.14

πr 2 3.14 × 152

Semicircle: a2 = = = 353.25 mm 2

2 2

Centroid and Moment of Inertia 4.13

x2 = 15 mm

4r 4 ×15

y2 = = = 6.37 mm

3π 3 × 3.14

Now coordinates of the centroid are

a x −a x

x = 1 1 2 2

a1 − a2

706.5 × 12.73 − 353.25 × 15

= = 10.46 mm (Ans.)

706.5 − 353.25

a1 y1 − a2 y2

y =

a1 − a2

706.5 × 12.73 − 353.25 × 6.37

= = 19.1 mm (Ans.)

706.5 − 353.25

Example 6. Determine coordinates of centroid of the shaded area shown in

figure Ex. 6.

18 cm

3 cm

2 cm 2 cm

9 cm

Fig. Ex. 6

Solution: Here it is important to note that given area is symmetric about its own

vertical axis therefore x coordinate of centroid of area will lie on its own vertical

axis and we have to determine only y coordinate of centroid.

Now divide the given area into two parts i.e. rectangle 1 and rectangle 2

Rectangle 1: a1 = 18 × 9 = 162 cm2

18

y1 = = 9 cm

2

Rectangle 2: a2 = 2 × 3 = 6 cm2

3

y2 = 2 + = 3.5 cm

2

4.14 Engineering Mechanics Statics

a y −a y

y = 1 1 2 2

a1 − a2

162 × 9 − 6 × 3.5

= = 9.21cm (Ans.)

162 − 6

Example 7. Determine coordinates of centroid of the shaded area shown in

figure Ex. 7. All dimensions are in mm.

Y 800

200

200 1200

200

X

600

Fig. Ex. 7

Solution: First divide the given area into two parts i.e. rectangle 1, rectangle 2

and rectangle 3

Rectangle 1: a1 = 600 × 200 = 120000 mm2

600

x1 = = 300 mm

2

200

y1 = = 100 mm

2

Rectangle 2: a2 = 1200 × 200 = 240000 mm2

200

x2 = 200 + = 300 mm

2

1200

y2 = 200 + = 800 mm

2

Rectangle 3: a3 = 8000 × 200 = 160000 mm2

800

x3 = = 400 mm

2

200

y3 = 1400 + = 1500 mm

2

Centroid and Moment of Inertia 4.15

a x + a x + a3 x3

x = 1 1 2 2

a1 + a2 + a3

120000 × 300 + 240000 × 300 + 160000 × 400

= = 330.76 mm (Ans.)

120000 + 240000 + 160000

a1 y1 + a2 y2 + a3 y3

y =

a1 + a2 + a3

120000 ×100 + 240000 × 800 + 160000 ×1500

= = 853.84 mm (Ans.)

120000 + 240000 + 160000

Example 8. Determine coordinates of centroid of the shaded area shown in

figure Ex. 8.

10 cm

10 cm

4

cm 5 cm

20 cm

Fig. Ex. 8

Solution: Here it is important to note that given area is symmetric about its own

vertical axis therefore x coordinate of centroid of area will lie on its own vertical

axis and we have to determine only y coordinate of centroid.

Now divide the given area into two parts i.e. triangle and rectangle

1 2

Triangle: a1 = × 20 × 25 = 250 cm

2

25

y1 = = 8.33 cm

3

Rectangle: a2 = 4 × 10 = 40 cm2

10

y2 = 5 + = 10 cm

2

Now y coordinate of the centroid is

a y −a y

y = 1 1 2 2

a1 − a2

4.16 Engineering Mechanics Statics

= = 8.01cm (Ans.)

250 − 40

Example 9. Determine coordinates of centroid of the shaded area shown in

figure Ex. 9.

Fig. Ex. 9

Solution: First divide the given area into two parts i.e. triangle 1 and triangle 2

1 2

Triangle 1: a1 = × 40 × 50 = 1000 cm

2

50

x1 = = 16.67 cm

3

40

y1 = = 13.33 cm

3

1

Triangle 2: a2 = × 40 × 30 = 600 cm 2

2

30

x2 = = 10 cm

3

40

y2 = = 13.33 cm

3

Now coordinates of the centroid are

a x −a x

x = 1 1 2 2

a1 − a2

1000 × 16.67 − 600 × 10

= = 26.67 cm (Ans.)

1000 − 600

a1 y1 − a2 y2

y =

a1 − a2

1000 × 13.33 − 600 × 13.33

= = 13.33 cm (Ans.)

1000 − 600

Centroid and Moment of Inertia 4.17

of the shaded area shown in figure Ex. 10. All

dimensions are in mm.

Solution: Here it is important to note that given

area is symmetric about its own vertical axis 100 200

X

therefore x coordinate of centroid of area will lie

on its own vertical axis and we have to determine Fig. Ex. 10

only y coordinate of centroid.

Now divide the given area into two parts i.e. semicircle 1 and semicircle 2

πr 2 π × 2002

Semicircle 1: a1 = = = 62831.85 mm 2

2 2

4r 4 × 200

y1 = = = 84.88 mm

3π 3π

πr 2 π ×1002

Semicircle 2: a2 = = = 15707.96 mm 2

2 2

4r 4 ×100

y2 = = = 42.44 mm

3π 3π

Now y coordinate of the centroid is

y = a1 y1 − a2 y2

a1 − a2

62831.85× 84.88 − 15707.96 × 42.44

= = 99.02 mm (Ans.)

62831.85 − 15707.96

Example 11. Determine location of centroid of homogeneous bend wire shown

in figure Ex. 11. All dimensions are in mm.

Fig. Ex. 11

Segment AB: l1 = 120 mm

x1 = 0

4.18 Engineering Mechanics Statics

120

y1 = = 60 mm

2

l2 = 130 mm

Segment BC:

50

x1 = = 25 mm

2

120

y1 = = 60 mm

2

Segment CA:

l3 = 50 mm

50

x3 = = 25 mm

2

y3 = 0

Now coordinates of the centroid are

l x +l x +l x 120 × 0 + 130 × 25 + 50 × 25

x = 1 1 2 2 3 3 = = 15 mm (Ans.)

l1 + l2 + l3 120 + 130 + 50

l y +l y +l y 120 × 60 + 130 × 60 + 50 × 0

y = 1 1 2 2 3 3 = = 50 mm (Ans.)

l1 + l2 + l3 120 + 130 + 50

SUMMARY

• Weight of the body is distributed force system.

• Center of gravity is the average position of a distribution of weight.

• Center of mass is the average position of a distribution of mass.

• Centroid is the average position of a distribution of area or shape.

• If an area has symmetry about one axis its centroid lies on the axis.

• If an area has symmetry about two axes its centroid lie at the intersection

of axes.

• Coordinates of centroid of composite areas are determined using following

equations

n

x =

∑ i=1xi Ai

n

∑ i=1 Ai

n

y =

∑ i=1yi Ai

n

∑ i=1 Ai

Centroid and Moment of Inertia 4.19

PROBLEMS

y

3 cm 12 cm

6 cm

x

18 cm 6 cm

y 12 cm

4 cm

4 cm

3 cm

2 cm

x

5 cm 2 cm 2 cm 3 cm

y y

60 mm

40 mm

20 mm

75 mm

60 mm

x

75 mm x

20 mm

Moment of inertia is a measure of an object’s resistance to changes to its rotation.

It is also defined as the capacity of a cross section

to resist bending. Moment of inertia depends Moment of Inertia is the

upon how the mass is distributed relative to the second moment of area.

axis of rotation.

The moment of inertia of an area about any axis is the second moment of

area about that axis.

Consider an area A in the X – Y plane as shown in figure 5.

4.20 Engineering Mechanics Statics

x dA

O X

Fig. 5

∫y

2

Ix = dA , ...(Eq. 4.6)

here y is the y coordinate of differential element of area dA.

Moment of inertia of area A about the y axis is defined as,

Iy = ∫ x dA ,

2

...(Eq. 4.7)

here x is the x coordinate of differential element of area dA.

The moment of inertia is denoted by I and its unit is mm4, m4.

Consider a plane area ‘A’ lying in plane XY as shown in figure 6. X and Y are two

mutually perpendicular axes and Z is perpendicular axis.

Y

x dA

r y

O X

Z

Fig. 6

Centroid and Moment of Inertia 4.21

axis, y be the distance of dA from X axis and r be the distance of dA from Z axis.

Now moment of inertia of area A about Z axis which is also known as Polar

moment of inertia is defines as,

∫r

2

Iz = dA ...(Eq. 4.8)

2 2 2

Now from figure, r = x + y

Therefore Eq. 4.8 can be written as,

Iz = ∫ ( x 2 + y 2 )dA

∫y dA + ∫ x 2 dA ,

2

=

From Eq. 4.6 and Eq. 4.7 we can write,

Iz = Ix + Iy ...(Eq. 4.9)

Theorem of perpendicular axis states that if Ix and Iy be the moment of inertia

of a plane area about two mutually perpendicular axis X and Y in the plane of the

area then the moment of inertia of the area Iz about the axis Z perpendicular to the

plane and passing through the intersection of X and Y is given by Eq. 4.9.

Sometime the moments of inertia of an area are known for a particular coordinate

system but we need their values in terms of some other coordinate system. When

the coordinate systems are parallel, the desired moments of inertia can be obtained

using parallel axis theorem.

Consider a plane area ‘A’ lying in plane XY as shown in figure 7.

Centroidal axis y

dA

A

y

G Centroidal axis x

A B

Parallel axis

Fig. 7

Let, Centroidal axis x in the plane of area A and passing through the centroid

of the area.

AB is the axis in the plane of area ‘A’ and parallel to the centroidal axis x

h be the distance between axis AB and centroidal axis x.

4.22 Engineering Mechanics Statics

axis. Moment of inertia of the area dA about AB,

IAB = ∫ ( y + h) dA

2

Expanding above integration,

∫y dA + ∫ 2 y h dA + ∫ h 2 dA

2

IAB =

∫y dA + 2h ∫ y dA + h 2 ∫ dA

2

=

∫y

2

From above we see that the first integral dA is moment of inertia of area

A about centroidal axis x = Ix

Second integral ∫ y dA = Ay = 0, as y =0

IAB = Ix + h2 A ...(Eq. 4.10)

This is a parallel-axis theorem which relates the moment of inertia of A about

the centroidal axis through the centroid to the moment of inertia about the parallel

axis AB.

4.10 Radius of Gyration

Consider an area A which has a moment of inertia IAB with respect to the AB axis

as shown in figure 8. Let us imagine that we concentrate this area into a thin strip

parallel to the AB axis as shown in right hand part of figure 8. If the area A is

to have the same moment of inertia with respect to the AB axis, the strip should

be placed at a distance k from the AB axis, where k is defined by the radius of

gyration.

I AB

k =

A

A A

A

A

k

B B

Fig. 8

1. Area M.I. of rectangle about base: Consider a rectangle of base b and

height h. X is the reference axis passing through base.

Centroid and Moment of Inertia 4.23

from the reference axis X as shown in figure 9.

Using Eq. 4.6

∫y

2

Ix = dA

dy

Area of elemental strip dA = b dy h

h

h h y3 y

∫0 y b dy = b ∫0

2 2

Ix = y dy = b

3 0 X

3

bh b

Ix = ...(Eq. 4.11)

3 Fig. 9.

of rectangle about its centrodial x’ axis (horizontal axis passing through

centroid of rectangle) is determine by applying parallel axis theorem.

By parallel axis theorem,

Ix = Ix′ + Ah2

Where h = Distance between the reference axis and parallel centroidal

axis.

Ix′ = Ix – Ah2

bh3

From Eq. 4.11, Ix =

3 2

bh3 h bh

3

bh3

Ix = – b×h× = –

3 2 3 4

bh3

Ix′ = ...(Eq. 4.12)

12

3. Area M.I. of triangle about base: Consider a triangle of base b and

height h. X is the reference axis passing through base. Now consider an

elemental strip of thickness dy located at a distance y from the reference

axis as shown in figure 10.

h dy

l

y

X

b

Fig. 10

4.24 Engineering Mechanics Statics

∫y

2

Ix = dA

b

Area of elemental strip dA = (h – y )dy

h

2b

Ix = ∫ y (h − y ) dy

h

h

b 2 b y 3h y 4

Ix = ∫ y (h − y ) dy = −

h h 3 4 0

bh3

Ix = ...(Eq. 4.13)

12

4. Area M.I. of triangle about centrodial axis: Area moment of inertia

of triangle about its centrodial x’ axis (horizontal axis passing through

centroid of rectangle) is determine by applying parallel axis theorem.

By parallel axis theorem,

Ix = Ix′ + Ah2

Where h = Distance between the reference axis and parallel centroidal axis.

Ix′ = Ix – Ah2

bh3

From Eq. 4.13, Ix =

12

2

bh3 1 h bh

3

bh3

Ix′ = – b×h× = –

12 2 3 12 18

bh3

Ix′ =

36

Area moment of inertia of some common plane areas are shown in table 4.2.

Table 4.2 Area Moment of Inertia of Plane Area.

Rectangle

y

b y

1 3 1

2

Ix′ = bh Ix = bh3

12 3

1 3 1

h C x Iy′ = b h Iy = b 3 h

12 3

h

2

x

b

Centroid and Moment of Inertia 4.25

Right Triangle

y

b y

3

1 3 1 3

Ix′ = bh Ix = bh

36 12

h

x 1 3 1 3

C Ix′ = hb Iy = hb

h

3 36 12

x

b

Isosceles Triangle

1 3 1 3

Ix′ = bh Ix = bh

36 12

1 3

Iy′ = hb

48

Circle

y

r 1 4

Ix′ = I y ′ = πr

C

x 4

Semicircle

y

1

Ix = I y = πr 4

C 8

x

r 4r

3 x Ix′ = 0.1098r4

Quarter Circle

y

1 4

Ix = I y = πr

16

r

x

C

Ix′ = Iy′ = 0.05488r4

x

r

4.26 Engineering Mechanics Statics

Example 1. Determine Ix and Iy of the shaded area shown in figure Ex. 1. All

dimensions are in mm.

y

60

x

20 40

Fig. Ex.1

Solution: Here the x axis is passing through the base of rectangle so we use

following expression to determine Ix

bh3 40 × 603

Ix = = = 2880000 mm 4 (Ans.)

3 3

Now to determine Iy we use parallel axis theorem.

Iy = Iy’ + Ah2

Here h is the distance between y axis and y’ axis (vertical axis passing through

centroid of rectangle)

60 × 403

= + 60 × 40 × 402 = 4160000 mm 4 (Ans.)

12

Example 2. Determine IxC of the shaded area shown in figure Ex. 2. All

dimensions are in mm.

20

80

Xc

35

20

80

Fig. Ex. 2

Centroid and Moment of Inertia 4.27

Solution: Here first we divide the given area into two parts i.e. rectangle 1 and

rectangle 2 then we apply parallel axis theorem to both rectangle about

Rectangle 1: IX = Ix′ + Ah2

C

20 × 803

= + 20 × 80 × (60 – 35) 2

12

IX = 1853333.33 mm4

C

Rectangle 2: IX = Ix′ + Ah2

C

80 × 203

= + 20 × 80 × (35 – 10) 2

12

IX = 1053333.33 mm4

C

Total IX = (IX of rectangle 1) + (IX of rectangle 2)

C C C

Total IX = 1853333.33 + 1053333.33

C

\ Moment of inertia of given area about x = 2906666.66 mm4 (Ans.)

C

Example 3. A 20 × 20 mm square is removed from a 40 × 40 mm square as

shown in figure Ex. 3. Determine IxC and IyC.

Solution: Here first we divide the given area into two parts i.e. square 1 and

square 2. As xC is centroidal axis which is passing through centroid of given area

we can apply Eq. 4.12 to both rectangle.

bh3 Yc

Square 1: IX = I x , =

C 12

40 × 403

=

12 Xc

4

IX = 213333.33 mm

C

bh3

Rectangle 2: IX = I x , =

C 12 Fig. Ex. 3

3

20 × 20

=

12

IX = 13333.33 mm4

C

Total IX = (IX of square 1) – (IX of square 2)

C C C

Total IX = 213333.33 – 13333.33

C

\ Moment of inertia of given area about xC = 200000 mm4 (Ans.)

4.28 Engineering Mechanics Statics

Example 4. Determine IxC and IyC of the shaded area shown in figure Ex. 4.

yc

0.165 m

0.8 m

C

xc

0.1m

0.265 m

0.1m 0.5 m

Fig. Ex. 4

Solution: Here first we divide the given area into two parts i.e. rectangle 1 and

rectangle 2. Now we apply parallel axis theorem to both rectangle about xC.

Rectangle 1: IX = Ix’ + Ah2

C

0.1× 0.83

= + 0.1 × 0.8 × (0.4 – 0.265) 2

12

IX = 5.72 × 10–3 m4

C

Rectangle 2: IX = Ix’ + Ah2

C

0.5× 0.13

= + 0.5 × 0.1 × (0.265 – 0.05) 2

12

IX = 2.35 × 10–3 m4

C

Total IX = (IX of rectangle 1) + (IX of rectangle 2)

C C C

–3 –3

Total IXC = 5.72 × 10 + 2.35 × 10

\ Moment of inertia of given area about xC = 8.07 × 10–3 m4 (Ans.)

Now we apply parallel axis theorem to both rectangle about yC

0.8× 0.13

Rectangle 1: Iy = Iy’ + Ah2 = + 0.1 × 0.8 × (0.165 – 0.05) 2

C 12

Iy = 1.12 × 10–3 m4

C

0.1× 0.53

Rectangle 2: Iy = Iy’ + Ah2 = + 0.5 × 0.1 × (0.35 – 0.165) 2

C 12

Iy = 2.75 × 10–3 m4

C

Total Iy = (Iy of rectangle 1) + (Iy of rectangle 2)

C C C

Total Iy = 1.12 × 10–3 + 2.75 × 10–3

C

\ Moment of inertia of given area about yC = 3.87 × 10–3 m4 (Ans.)

Centroid and Moment of Inertia 4.29

Fig. Ex. 5

Solution: Here first we divide the given area into two parts i.e. triangle and rectangle.

Triangle: Here the x axis is passing through the base of triangle so we use

following expression to determine Ix

bh3 20 × 253

Ix = = = 26041.7 cm 4

12 12

Rectangle: Here we apply parallel axis theorem about x

Ix = Ix’ + Ah2

4 × 103

= + (4 × 10) × 52 = 1333.3 cm4

12

Total Ix = (Ix of triangle) – (Ix of rectangle)

= 26041.7 – 1333.3

\ Moment of inertia of given area about x = 24708.4 cm4 (Ans.)

Example 6. Determine area moment of inertia about centroidal axes of shaded

area shown in figure Ex. 6.

Fig. Ex. 6

4.30 Engineering Mechanics Statics

Solution: Centroidal axes means the x’ and y’ axis which are passing through

centroid of given area. Therefore, first we determine centroid of given area.

It is important to note that given area is symmetric about its own vertical axis

therefore x coordinate of centroid of area will lie on its own vertical axis and we

have to determine only y coordinate of centroid.

a y + a y + a3 y3

y = 1 1 2 2 (y distance is measured from base of given area)

a1 + a2 + a3

(18 × 2) × 15 + (2 × 12) × 8 + (2 × 5) × 1

=

(18 × 2) + (2 × 12) + (2 × 5)

y = 10.6 cm

Now we divide the given area into three parts i.e. rectangle 1, rectangle 2 and

rectangle 3. Apply parallel axis theorem to all rectangles about xC.

Rectangle 1: IXC = Ix’ + Ah2

1

= (18 × 23 ) + (18 × 2) (15 – 10.6) 2

12

IX = 708.96 cm4

C

Rectangle 2: IX = Ix’ + Ah2

C

1

= (2 × 123 ) + (2 × 2) (10.6 – 8) 2

12

IX = 315.04 cm4

C

Rectangle 3: IX = Ix’ + Ah2

C

1

= (5 × 23 ) + (2 × 5) (10.6 – 1) 2

12

IX = 924.93 cm4

C

Total IX = (IX of rectangle 1) + (IX of rectangle 2) + (IX of rectangle 3)

C C C C

C

\ Moment of inertia of given area about xC = 1948.93 cm4 (Ans.)

Now we apply parallel axis theorem to all rectangles about yC. In following

calculation, distance h is zero because the vertical axis of individual areas coincide

with vertical axis of composite area.

Rectangle 1: Iy = Iy’ + Ah2

C

1

= (2 × 183 ) + 0

12

Iy = 972 cm4

C

Centroid and Moment of Inertia 4.31

C

1

= (12 × 23 ) + 0

12

Iy = 8 cm4

C

Rectangle 3: Iy = Iy’ + Ah2

C

1

= (2 × 53 ) + 0

12

Iy = 20.83 cm4

C

Total Iy = (Iy of rectangle 1) + (Iy of rectangle 2) + (Iy of rectangle 3)

C C C C

Total Iy = 972 + 8 + 20.83

C

\ Moment of inertia of given area about yC = 1000.83 cm4 (Ans.)

Example 7. Determine area moment of inertia about centroidal x’ axes of shaded

area shown in figure Ex. 7.

40 cm

14 cm

20 cm

18 mm

Fig. Ex. 7

Solution: Centroidal x’ means the axis which are passing through centroid of

given area. Therefore first we determine centroid of given area.

It is important to note that given area is symmetric about its own vertical axis

therefore x coordinate of centroid of area will lie on its own vertical axis and we

have to determine only y coordinate of centroid.

a y − 2[a2 y2 ]

y = 1 1 (y distance is measured from base of given area)

a1 − 2a2

(18 × 74) × 37 − 2 × [(3.14 × 7 × 7) × 27]

=

(18 × 74) − 2 × (3.14 × 7 × 7)

y = 40 mm

4.32 Engineering Mechanics Statics

Now we divide the given area into three parts i.e. rectangle and two semicircles.

Apply parallel axis theorem to all areas about xC.

Rectangle: IX = Ix’ + Ah2

C

18 × 743

= + (18 × 74) × (40 – 37) 2

12

IX = 619824 mm4

C

Two semicircle: IX = 2[Ix’ + Ah2]

C

3.14 × 7 4 3.14 × 7 2 2

= 2 + (40 − 27)

8 2

4

IX = 27887.125 mm

C

Total IX = (IX of rectangle ) + (IX of two semicircle)

C C C

Total IX = 619824 + 27887.125

C

\ Moment of inertia of given area about xC = 647711.125 mm4 (Ans.)

SUMMARY

• Moment of inertia is a measure of an object’s resistance to changes to its

rotation.

• Moment of inertia measures how an area is distributed about particular

axes.

• Area moment of inertia is defined as,

Ix = ∫ y dA, ,

2

∫ x dA

2

Iy =

I

k =

A

• The parallel-axis theorem is usually used to calculate the moment of

inertia about a second axis which is parallel to first axis and moment of

inertia about first axis is known.

Centroid and Moment of Inertia 4.33

PROBLEMS

Fig. Prob. 1

2. Determine Ix , and Iy, of shaded area shown in figure Prob. 2.

y 60 mm

20 mm

60 mm

x

20 mm

Fig. Prob. 2

3. Determine Ix, and Iy, of shaded area shown in figure Prob. 3. All dimensions are in mm.

y

800

200

200 1200

200

x

600

Fig. Prob. 3

4.34 Engineering Mechanics Statics

4. Determine Ix¢ and Iy¢ of shaded area shown in figure Prob. 4. All dimensions are in mm.

y

20

160

40

x

90

Fig. Prob. 4

5. Determine area moment of inertia about centroidal axes of shaded area shown in

figure Prob. 5.

2 cm 12 cm 2 cm

18 cm 5 cm

2 cm

Fig. Prob. 5

Unit 5

contact surfaces assumed to be smooth or frictionless. Actually when

two objects are come in contact, generally friction force develop

between them. In this unit, we focus on friction force and models for

calculating friction forces. We discuss methods of analysing problems

that involve friction and sliding.

Friction

5.1 Introduction

Friction is defined as the resistance force which

Frictional force is tangent

one body offers to the motion of a second body

to the surfaces of contact

when the second body tends to slide or slide over

of the bodies.

the former.

In many situations, friction forces are helpful. On the other hand, friction can

also be unfavourable.

Friction may be classified into two types, Dry friction and Fluid friction.

In this book, we will concentrated on Dry friction

Friction

Dry friction refers to the friction force that exists between two un-lubricated

solid surfaces. Fluid friction acts between moving surfaces that are separated by

a layer of fluid. Static friction experienced by a body when it is at rest under the

action of forces. Kinetic friction experienced by a body when it is moving.

Consider the block of weight W rest on rough horizontal surface and subjected to

horizontal force P as shown in left hand part of Figure 1. The free body diagram

of the block is shown in right hand part of Figure 1.

W

P P

W

N

Fig. 1

If applied force P is small, static friction force F balance P and the block

will not move. If the force P is increased, the friction force F also increases to

5.4 Engineering Mechanics Statics

Maximum frictional force

a maximum value Fmax. When P exceeds Fmax

Fmax is called as limiting

the friction force cannot balance it and the block

friction.

start sliding and friction force F drops to a kinetic

value. [There are irregularities of the surfaces

in contact. When one surface comes in contact

At limiting friction body

with other, the actual area of contact is very less

is said to have impending

than the surface area of contact. Because of this,

motion.

pressure due to the reaction force is very high,

hence irregularities deform a little and cold

welds are formed at contact points. So to start relative sliding between surfaces

enough force is required to break these cold welds. Once the welds break when

one surface start sliding over other, a smaller force is enough to keeps it moving

with uniform velocity. This is one of the reason that coefficient of static friction

is more than coefficient of kinetic friction.] If P is further increased F remains

constant. The plot of F verses P is shown in Figure 2.

F

No Motion

Fs Fmax

Motion

Fk

F=P

P

Fig. 2

5.3 Coefficient of Friction

In order to determine the maximum frictional force corresponding to any normal

force, a certain experimental constant known as the coefficient of friction (μ),

is used. Coefficient of friction does not depend upon the area of the surface in

contact but depend on nature of the surfaces in contact.

The coefficient of static friction μs is defined as the ratio of limiting friction

(Fmax) to corresponding normal force,

F

μs = max or Fmax = μs N ...(Eq. 5.1)

N

Typical values of μs for various materials are shown in Table 5.1.

Friction 5.5

Wood on wood 0.25 to 0.50

Wood on leather 0.25 to 0.50

Metal on metal 0.15 to 0.30

Metal on wood 0.20 to 0.60

Metal on stone 0.30 to 0.70

Metal on leather 0.30 to 0.60

Stone on stone 0.40 to 0.65

Rubber on concrete 0.60 to 0.90

If two surfaces move relative to each other, the ratio of the friction developed

to the corresponding normal force is known as coefficient of kinetic friction μk.

F

μk = k ...(Eq. 5.2)

N

5.4 Angle of Friction

The angle of static friction (fs) is defined as the angle between normal reaction

and resultant force when motion is impending. W

It is evident from Figure 3,

F

tan ∅s = max P

N

But from Eq. 5.1,

Fmax Fmax

μs =

N s

R

\ μs = tan fs ...(Eq. 5.3) N

The angle of kinetic friction (∅k) is defined as the

angle between normal reaction and resultant force when two surfaces move

relative to each other.

Angle of kinetic friction ∅k = tan–1 μk ...(Eq. 5.5)

Angle of repose is the maximum angle of an inclined plane from horizontal at

which body is at impending motion. Consider a block of weight W on an inclined

plane as shown in left hand part of Figure 4. The free body diagram at impending

motion (block is about to slide down the inclined plane) is shown in right hand

part of Figure 4.

5.6 Engineering Mechanics Statics

W

N

F

Fig. 4

to plane,

SH = 0: F – W sin α = 0

Replacing friction force by μs N from (Eq. 5.1),

μs N – W sin α = 0 \ μs N = W sin α ...Eq. (a)

SV = 0: N – W cos α = 0 \ N = W cos α

Substitute value of N in Eq. (a)

μs W cos α = W sin α \ μs = tan α

But from (Eq. 5.3), μs = tan ∅s

\ tan ∅s = tan α

\ ∅s = α ...(Eq. 5.6)

From (Eq. 5.6), we can say that, Angle of repose (α) = Angle of static friction

(∅s).

The various equations discussed in previous sections have a number of applications

in engineering practices. Following are some of the important applications of

friction.

5.6.1 Ladder Friction

A ladder is a device used for climbing on the walls. A ladder only stands if there

is friction between ladder and the wall, and ladder and the ground. The left hand

part of Figure 5 shows a ladder AB of weight W with its end A resting on the

ground and end B leaning against a wall. The free body diagram of the ladder

shown in right hand part of Figure 5 is a non-concurrent force system. Now

by applying equilibrium equations assuming ladder impending, we can solved

problem of ladder friction.

Friction 5.7

B B

NB

FB

A

A

FA

NA

Fig. 5

A wedge is a simple device of triangular cross-section used for small adjustment

in the position of a body or to apply large forces. Wedges mainly depend on

friction during functioning. When a wedge is pushed forward, its faces exert large

normal forces which can be used to lift the load. The left hand part of Figure 6

shows a wedge used to lift a large load W. The free body diagram of the wedge

and load is shown in right hand part of Figure 6. The force P necessary to start

raising the load can be determined by applying equations of equilibrium assuming

weight and wedge are impending.

W

F3

N3

W N2

F2

P P F2

N2

F1

N1

Fig. 6

5.6.3 Belt Friction

Friction is useful in belt or rope and driving surfaces for the transmission of

power. If a belt or rope passes over a rough cylinder or pulley, the tension on the

two sides of the pulley will not be equal. The tension in the belt or rope on the

two sides of a rough pulley is determined as follow.

5.8 Engineering Mechanics Statics

The left hand part of the Figure 7 shows a thin flexible flat belt passing over a

cylinder. The angle of contact is β and belt tensions are T1 and T2. T1 is the force

on low tension side and T2 is the force on high tension side. Here we assume that

tension T1 is known, and we have to determine largest force T2 that is acting on

another end of belt.

Fig. 7

The free body diagram of the differential element is shown in right hand part

of the Figure 7. As tension in the belt varies with position, the belt tension on the

right side of the element is T and tension on the left side of the element is T + ∆T.

The force ∆N is the normal force exerted on the element by cylinder. As we have

to determine largest value of T2 that will not cause the belt to slip, we assume that

friction force is equal to its maximum value μs ∆N.

Now applying equilibrium equations,

+

∆α ∆α

→ΣH = 0: –(T + ∆T )cos + T cos + µ s ∆N ...(Eq. 5.7)

2 2

∆α ∆α

+↑SV = 0: –(T + ∆T )sin – T cos + ∆N ...(Eq. 5.8)

2 2

dα dα dα dα dα

Since is small, cos ≈ 1 and sin ≈ . The term dT sin

2 2 2 2 2

is small quantity of the second order and may be neglected.

μs dN – dT = 0

dN – T da = 0

Eliminating dN,

dT

= μsda ...(Eq. 5.9)

T

This expression is a differential equation that describes how the force T

changes with position α. By integrating (Eq. 5.9) the relationship between T1 and

T2 is determined as follow,

Friction 5.9

T2 dT β

∫T1 T

= ∫0 µ s d α

T2

\ In = msb

T1

T2

\ = ems b ...(Eq. 5.10)

T1

Where, e is the base of natural logarithms and b is angle of contact measured

in radians.

Example 1. A 400 N block is resting on rough horizontal surface is subjected

to 80 N force as shown in Figure Ex. 1. Determine the friction force between the

block and the surface. Assume ms = 0.5.

80 N

400 N

Fig. Ex. 1

i.e.

+

→ΣH = 0, and +↑SV = 0 to the free body diagram of the block as shown in

figure Ex.1(a).

SH = 0: 80 – F = 0 400 N

\ F = 80 N 80 N

SV = 0: N – 400 = 0

\ N = 400 N

F

Now from (Eq. 5.1), Fmax = μs N, we can

check our assumption of equilibrium of the block N

as below, Fig. Ex. 1(a)

Fmax = 0.5 × 400

\ Fmax = 200 N

Since calculated value of friction force from equilibrium analysis is less than

Fmax (F < Fmax), we conclude that the block is in static equilibrium and the value

of the friction force is,

F = 80 N (Ans.)

5.10 Engineering Mechanics Statics

friction force between the block and the surface. Assume ms = 0.25 and mk = 0.20.

Solution: Assume equilibrium of the block and apply conditions of equilibrium

+

i.e. →ΣH = 0, and +↑SV = 0 to the free body diagram of the block as shown in

figure Ex. 2.

SH = 0: 120 – F = 0 400 N

\ F = 120 N 120 N

SV = 0: N – 400 = 0

\ N = 400 N

F

Now from (Eq. 5.1), Fmax = μs N, we can

check our assumption of equilibrium of the block N

as below, Fig. Ex. 2(a)

Fmax = 0.25 × 400

\ Fmax = 100 N

Since calculated value of friction force from equilibrium analysis is greater

than Fmax (F > Fmax), we conclude that the block will not be in equilibrium and

slide to the right and the value of the friction force is determined from (Eq. 5.2),

F = Fk = μk N

Fk = 0.20 × 400 = 80 N (Ans.)

Example 3. A 60 kg block is subjected to force P = 400 N as shown in Figure

Ex. 3. Determine the friction force between the block and the surface. Assume

ms = 0.6.

400 N

30°

Fig. Ex. 3

+

i.e. →ΣH = 0, and +↑SV = 0 to the free body diagram

of the block as shown in figure Ex. 3(a).

SH = 0: 400 cos 30° – F = 0

\ F = 346.41 N

SV = 0: N – 60 × 9.81 – 400 sin 30°

\ N = 788.6 N

Fig. Ex. 3(a)

Friction 5.11

Now from (Eq. 5.1), Fmax = μs N, we can check our assumption of equilibrium

of the block as below,

Fmax = 0.6 × 788.6 \ Fmax = 473.16 N

Since calculated value of friction force from equilibrium analysis is less than

Fmax (F < Fmax), we conclude that the block is in static equilibrium and the value

of the friction force is,

F = 346.41 N (Ans.)

Example 4. Determine the force P required to start moving the 250 N block as

shown in Figure Ex. 4 up the inclined surface. Assume ms = 0.3.

P

30º

Fig. Ex. 4

Solution: Here we can consider impending motion of the block up the plane and

then apply conditions of equilibrium i.e. SH = 0 250 N

along the inclined plane, and SV = 0 perpendicular

30°

to the inclined plane. Free body diagram of the

block is shown in figure Ex 4(a).

F

SV = 0: N – 250 cos 30° = 0

\ N = 216.50 N P

SH = 0: P – F – 250 sin 30° = 0 N

Now for impending motion from (Eq. 5.1), we

Fig. Ex. 4(a)

know Fmax = μs N.

\ P – μs N – 250 sin 30° = 0

P = 0.30 × 216.50 + 250 sin 30° \ P = 190 N (Ans.)

Example 5. Determine the horizontal force P required to start moving the

500 N block as shown in Figure Ex. 5 up the inclined surface. Assume ms = 0.3.

30º

Fig. Ex. 5

Solution: Here we can consider impending motion of the block up the plane and

then apply conditions of equilibrium i.e. SH = 0 along the inclined plane, and

5.12 Engineering Mechanics Statics

shown in figure Ex 5(a).

SH = 0: P cos 30° – F – 500 sin 30° = 0 500 N

know Fmax = μs N. 30° F

\ P cos 30° = μs N + 500 sin 30° ...(Eq. 1)

Now, SV = 0: N – P sin 30° – 500 cos 30° = 0 N

\ N = P sin 30° + 500 cos 30° Fig. Ex. 5(a)

Substituting value of N in to Eq. 1,

P cos 30° = 0.30 (P sin 30° + 500 cos 30°) + 500 sin 30°

\ P = 530.58 N (Ans.)

Example 6. The 50 N force as shown in Figure Ex. 6 is required to produce

impending motion of the block down the inclined surface. If the weight of the

block is 250 N, determine the coefficient of static friction (ms) between the block

and the inclined surface.

50 N

30°

Fig. Ex. 6

Solution: Here we can consider impending motion of the block down the plane

and then apply conditions of equilibrium i.e. SH = 0 along the inclined plane,

and SV = 0 perpendicular to the inclined plane. Free body diagram of the block

is shown in figure Ex 6(a).

SH = 0: 50 cos 30° + 250 sin 30° – F = 0

250 N

30°

50 N

30°

F

N

Fig. Ex. 6(a)

Friction 5.13

Now for impending motion from (Eq. 5.1), we know Fmax = μs N.

\ μs N = 50 cos 30° + 250 sin 30° ...(Eq. 1)

Now, SV = 0: N – 250 cos 30° + 50 sin 30° = 0

\ N = 250 cos 30° – 50 sin 30°

Substituting value of N in to Eq. 1,

μs (250 cos 30° – 50 sin 30°) = 50 cos 30° + 250 sin 30°

\ μs = 0.8788 (Ans.)

Example 7. A 150 N block is subjected to the horizontal force P as shown in

Figure Ex. 7. Determine the range of horizontal force P that will keep the 150 N

block in equilibrium. Assume ms = 0.25.

Fig. Ex. 7

Solution: Here it is clear that slipping of the block down or up the inclined plane

will impend when the magnitude of force P reaches to 150 N

its minimum value or maximum value respectively.

45°

At minimum value of P, the block will impend down

the plane and at maximum value of P, the block will

impend up the plane. P

45°

Now first consider impending motion of the

block down the plane and then apply conditions of N

F

equilibrium i.e. SH = 0 along the inclined plane, and

SV = 0 perpendicular to the inclined plane. Free body Fig. Ex. 7(a)

diagram of the block is shown in figure Ex 7(a).

SH = 0: P cos 45° + F – 150 sin 45° = 0

Now for impending motion from (Eq. 5.1), we know Fmax = μs N.

\ P cos 45° + μs N – 150 sin 45° = 0 ...(Eq. 1)

Now, SV = 0: N – 150 cos 45° – P sin 45° = 0

\ N = 150 cos 45° + P sin 45°

Substituting value of N in to Eq. 1,

P cos 45° + 0.25 (150 cos 45° + P sin 45°) – 150 sin 45° = 0

\ P = Pmin = 90 N (Ans.)

5.14 Engineering Mechanics Statics

150 N

45°

P F

45°

Now consider impending motion of the block up the plane and then apply

conditions of equilibrium i.e. SH = 0 along the inclined plane, and SV = 0

perpendicular to the inclined plane. Free body diagram of the block is shown in

figure Ex 7(b).

SH = 0: P cos 45° – F – 150 sin 45° = 0

Now for impending motion from (Eq. 5.1), we know Fmax = μs N.

\ P cos 45° – μs N – 150 sin 45° = 0 ...(Eq. 2)

Now, SV = 0: N – 150 cos 45° – P sin 45° = 0

\ N = 150 cos 45° + P sin 45°

Substituting value of N in to Eq. 2,

P cos 45° – 0.25 (150 cos 45° + P sin 45°) – 150 sin 45° = 0

\ P = Pmax = 250 N (Ans.)

\ Range of horizontal force P is from 90 N to 250 N that can keep the block

in equilibrium.

Example 8. A 50 kg block is attached to mass M using string which is passing

over a smooth pulley as shown in Figure Ex. 8. Determine the range of mass M

that will keep the block in equilibrium. Assume ms = 0.30.

Fig. Ex. 8

Solution: Here it is clear that slipping of the block down or up the inclined plane

will impend when the mass M reaches to its minimum value or maximum value

respectively. At minimum value of mass M, the block will impend down the plane

and at maximum value of mass M, the block will impend up the plane. Also as

pulley is smooth, the tension in string (M × 9.81) will remain same throughout.

Friction 5.15

Now first consider impending motion of the block down the plane and then

apply conditions of equilibrium i.e. SH = 0 along the

inclined plane, and SV = 0 perpendicular to the inclined

plane. Free body diagram of the block is shown in

figure Ex 8(a).

SH = 0: F + M × 9.81 – 50 × 9.81 × sin 30° = 0

Now for impending motion from (Eq. 5.1), we

know Fmax = μs N.

Fig. Ex. 8(a)

\ μs N + M × 9.81 – 50 × 9.81 × sin 30° = 0

M × 9.81 = 50 × 9.81 × sin 30° – 0.30 × N ...(Eq.1)

Now, SV = 0: N – 50 × 9.81 × sin 30° = 0

\ N = 245.25

Substituting value of N in to Eq. 1,

M × 9.81 = 50 × 9.81 × sin 30° – 0.30 × 245.25

\ M = Mmin = 17.5 kg (Ans.)

Now consider impending motion of the block up the plane and then apply

conditions of equilibrium i.e. SH = 0 along the inclined plane, and SV = 0

perpendicular to the inclined plane. Free body diagram of the block is shown in

figure Ex 8(b).

SH = 0: – F + M × 9.81 – 50 × 9.81 × sin 30° = 0

Now for impending motion from (Eq. 5.1), we know Fmax = μs N.

\ – μs N + M × 9.81 – 50 × 9.81 × sin 30° = 0

M × 9.81 = 50 × 9.81 × sin 30° + 0.30 × N ...(Eq.2)

Now, SV = 0: N – 50 × 9.81 × sin 30° = 0

\ N = 245.25

Substituting value of N in to Eq. 2,

M × 9.81 = 50 × 9.81 × sin 30° + 0.30 × 245.25

\ M = Mmax = 32.5 kg (Ans.)

\ Range of mass M is from 17.5 kg to 32.5 kg that can keep the block in

equilibrium.

5.16 Engineering Mechanics Statics

surface as shown in Figure Ex. 9. Determine magnitude of horizontal force P

applied to block A to initiate motion. Assume coefficient of static friction between

block A and horizontal surface as 0.20.

B

P

A

Fig. Ex. 9

Solution: Here we can consider impending motion of the block A towards right

+

and then apply conditions of equilibrium i.e. →ΣH = 0, and +↑SV = 0. Free body

diagram of the entire system is shown in figure Ex 9(a).

SH = 0: P – F = 0

50 N

\ P = F

Now for impending motion from (Eq. 5.1), we

know Fmax = μs N. 100 N P

\ P = μs N ...(Eq.1)

F

SV = 0: N – 50 – 100 = 0

\ N = 150 N N

Substituting value of N in to Eq. 1, Fig. Ex. 9(a)

P = 0.2 × 150

\ P = 30 N (Ans.)

Example 10. In Ex. 9 if the horizontal force P is applied to Block B as shown

in Figure Ex. 10. Determine magnitude of horizontal force P to initiate motion.

Assume coefficient of static friction between block A and horizontal surface as

0.20 and between block A and block B as 0.30.

P

B

Fig. Ex. 10

Solution: Here there are two possible ways in which motion can impend:

impending motion of entire system on horizontal surface, or impending motion

of block B on block A.

First consider impending motion of the entire system towards right and then

+

apply conditions of equilibrium i.e. →ΣH = 0, and +↑SV = 0. Free body diagram

of the entire system is shown in figure Ex 10(a).

Friction 5.17

SH = 0: P – F = 0 50 N

\ P = F P

100 N

know Fmax = μs N.

\ P = μs N ...(Eq.1) F

SV = 0: N – 50 – 100 = 0 \ N = 150 N

N

Substituting value of N in to Eq. 1,

Fig. Ex. 10(a)

P = 0.2 × 150

\ P = 30 N

Now consider impending motion of the block B on block A and then apply

+

conditions of equilibrium i.e. →ΣH = 0, and +↑SV = 0 to block A and block B

separately. Free body diagram of block B and block A are shown in figure Ex 10(b).

Block B: SH = 0: P – F2 = 0

\ P = F2 ...(Eq.2)

Now for impending motion from (Eq. 5.1), we know Fmax = μs N.

\ P = μs N2 ...(Eq. 3)

SV = 0: N2 – 50 = 0 \ N2 = 50 N

Substituting value of N in to Eq. 3,

P = 0.3 × 50 \ P = 15 N

From Eq. 2, P = F2 \ F2 = 15 N

Block A: SH = 0: F2 – F1 = 0

\ F2 = F1 \ F1 = 15 N

SV = 0: N1 – 50 – 100 = 0 \ N1 = 150 N

Now for impending motion from (Eq. 5.1), we know Fmax = μs N.

\ (F1)max = μs N = 0.2 × 150 \ (F1)max = 30 N

5.18 Engineering Mechanics Statics

surface, P = 30 N and for impending motion of block B on block A, P = 15 N.

Therefore, the motion will initiate of block B on block A at P = 15 N (Ans.)

It is also clear from analysis of block A that calculated value of F1 = 15 N <

(F1)max = 30 N. Therefore at P = 15 N motion will not initiate between block A

and horizontal surface.

Example 11. Two boxes A and B of weight 250 N and 150 N respectively are

placed on an inclined surface as shown in Figure Ex. 11. Determine value of θ so

that motion of boxes impend down the plane. Assume coefficient of static friction

between block A and inclined surface as 0.30 and between block B and inclined

surface as 0.20.

Fig. Ex. 11

Solution: Considering impending motion of the blocks down the plane and

then apply conditions of equilibrium i.e. SH = 0 along the inclined plane, and

SV = 0 perpendicular to the inclined plane to blocks A and B separately. Free body

diagram of the blocks are shown in figure Ex. 11(a).

250 N

150 N

R

F

N

N F

R = F – 250 sin θ

Now for impending motion from (Eq. 5.1), we know Fmax = μs N.

\ R = 0.30 N – 250 sin θ ...(Eq. 1)

Now, SV = 0: N – 250 cos θ = 0

\ N = 250 cos θ

Friction 5.19

R = 0.30 × 250 cos θ – 250 sin θ ...(Eq. 2)

Block B: SH = 0: – R + 150 sin θ – F = 0

R = 150 sin θ – F

Now for impending motion from (Eq. 5.1), we know Fmax = μs N.

\ R = 150 sin θ – 0.20 N ...(Eq. 3)

Now, SV = 0: N – 150 cos θ = 0

\ N = 150 cos θ

Substituting value of N in to Eq. 3,

R = 150 sin θ – 0.20 × 150 cos θ ...(Eq. 4)

From Eq. 2 and Eq. 4,

0.30 × 250 cos θ – 250 sin θ = 150 sin θ – 0.20 × 150 cos θ

75 cos θ – 250 sin θ = 150 sin θ – 30 cos θ

\ 105 cos θ = 400 sin θ

\ θ = 14.70° (Ans.)

Example 12. A 300 N crate is subjected to 80 N force as shown in Figure Ex.

12. Does the crate slide, tip or remains in equilibrium? Assume ms = 0.3.

1m

80 N

2m

1m

Fig. Ex. 12

Solution: Here we have to understand that there are two possibility of impending

motion: impending sliding or impending

tipping (In all previous examples possibility

of tipping was neglected).

Now assume equilibrium of the crate

and apply conditions of equilibrium i.e.

+

→ΣH = 0, +↑SV = 0 and SM = 0 (Treating

anti-clockwise moment as positive) to the free

body diagram of the crate as shown in figure

Ex.12(a). Note that the normal reaction must

act at a distance x from the crate’s centre line

in order to counteract tipping effect caused by

Fig. Ex. 12(a)

applied force.

5.20 Engineering Mechanics Statics

SH = 0: 80 – F = 0 \ F = 80 N

SV = 0: N – 300 = 0 \ N = 300 N

SMO = 0: 300x – 80 × 1 = 0 \ x = 0.27 m

Now from (Eq. 5.1), Fmax = μs N,

Fmax = 0.3 × 300 \ Fmax = 90 N

Since calculated value of friction force from equilibrium analysis is less than

Fmax (F < Fmax), we conclude that the crate will not slide.

Now largest possible value for x is 0.5 i.e. half the width of the crate. Since

calculated value of x from equilibrium analysis is less than largest possible value

of x, we conclude that the crate will not tip.

\ Crate remains in equilibrium when subjected to 80 N force (Ans.)

Example 1. A 5 m ladder of weight 300 N is placed against a smooth vertical

wall as shown in Figure Ex. 1. Does the ladder remains in equilibrium? Assume

ms between ladder and horizontal surface as 0.3.

Fig. Ex. 1

+

i.e. →ΣH = 0, +↑SV = 0 and SM = 0 (Treating anticlockwise moment as positive)

to the free body diagram of the ladder as shown in Figure Ex. 1(a).

SH = 0: FA – NB = 0 \ FA = NB ...(Eq.1)

SV = 0: NA – 300 = 0 \ NA = 300 N

SMA = 0: NB × 5 sin 60° – 300 × 2.5 cos 60° = 0 \ NB = 86.60 N

From Eq. 1, FA = 86. 60 N

Friction 5.21

Now from (Eq. 5.1), Fmax = μs N, we can check our assumption of equilibrium

of the ladder as below,

Fmax = 0.3 × NA = 0.3 × 300 \ Fmax = 90 N

Since calculated value of friction force from equilibrium analysis is less than

Fmax (86.60 < 90), we conclude that the ladder is in static equilibrium. (Ans.)

Example 2. A 800 N man starts climbing a ladder that placed against a wall as

shown in Figure Ex. 2. Neglecting the weight of the ladder, determine how far up

the ladder the man can climb before the ladder starts slipping. Assume ms at both

surfaces as 0.25.

30°

8m

Fig. Ex. 2

+

equilibrium i.e. →ΣH = 0, +↑SV = 0 and SM = 0 (Treating anticlockwise moment

as positive) to the free body diagram of the ladder as shown in figure Ex.2(a).

5.22 Engineering Mechanics Statics

B

NB

30°

FB

800 N

A

FA

NA

SH = 0: FA – NB = 0

\ FA = NB

Now for impending motion we know from (Eq. 5.1), Fmax = μs N

\ 0.25 NA = NB ...(Eq. 1)

SV = 0: NA – 800 + FB = 0

\ NA = 800 – FB = 800 – 0.25 NB

Substituting the value of NA in Eq. 1,

0.25 (800 – 0.25 NB) = NB

\ NB = 188.23 N

From Eq. (1), 0.25 NA = 188.23

\ NA = 752.94 N

SMA = 0: NB × 8 cos 30° + 0.25 NB × 8 sin 30° – 800 × x sin 30° = 0

Substituting the value NB ,

188.23 × 8 cos 30° + 0.25 × 188.23 × 8 sin 30° = 800 × x sin 30°

Solving, \ x = 3.73 m (Ans.)

Example 3. A 600 N man starts climbing a ladder of weight 100 N that placed

against a wall as shown in Figure Ex. 3. The centre of mass of 10 m ladder is

at its midpoint. What is the largest value of α for which a man can climb to the

top of the ladder without slipping? Assume coefficient of static friction between

ladder and floor as 0.4 and coefficient of static friction between ladder and the

wall as 0.3.

Friction 5.23

A

Fig. Ex. 3

+

equilibrium i.e. →ΣH = 0, +↑SV = 0 and SM = 0 (Treating anticlockwise moment

as positive) to the free body diagram of the ladder as shown in figure Ex.3(a).

600 N

NB

FB

5m

100 N

FA

NA

SH = 0: NB – FA = 0

\ NB = FA

Now for impending motion we know from (Eq. 5.1), Fmax = μs N

\ NB = 0.4 NA ...(Eq. 1)

SV = 0: NA – 600 – 100 + FB = 0

\ NA = 700 – FB = 700 – 0.3 NB

Substituting the value of NA in Eq. 1,

NB = 0.4 (700 – 0.3 NB) \ NB = 250 N

From Eq. 1, 250 = 0.4 NA \ NA = 625 N

5.24 Engineering Mechanics Statics

Substituting the value NB,

100 × 5 cos α + 600 × 10 cos α – 250 × 10 sin α – 0.3 × 250 × 10 cos α = 0

Solving, \ α = 66.50° (Ans.)

Example 4. A 600 N man starts climbing a ladder of weight 100 N that placed

against a smooth wall as shown in Figure Ex. 4. The centre of mass of 10 m ladder

is at its midpoint. Determine the minimum coefficient of static friction between

the ladder and the floor for which a man can climb to the top of the ladder without

slipping.

30°

Fig. Ex. 4

+

equilibrium i.e. →ΣH = 0, +↑SV = 0 and SM = 0 (Treating anticlockwise moment

as positive) to the free body diagram of the ladder as shown in figure Ex.4(a).

Friction 5.25

SH = 0: NB – FA = 0

\ NB = FA

Now for impending motion we know from (Eq. 5.1), Fmax = μs N

\ NB = μs NA ...(Eq. 1)

SV = 0: NA – 600 – 100 = 0

\ NA = 700

Substituting the value of NA in Eq. 1,

NB = μs × 700

SMA = 0: 100 × 5 sin 30° + 600 × 10 sin 30° – NB × 10 cos 30° = 0

Substituting the value NB,

100 × 5 sin 30° + 600 × 10 sin 30° – (μs × 700) × 10 cos 30° = 0

Solving, \ μs = 0.536 (Ans.)

Example 5. A 600 N man starts climbing a ladder that placed against a wall as

shown in Figure Ex. 5. The weight of the ladder is 80 N. Determine how far up

the ladder the person can climb before the ladder starts slipping. Assume ms at

both surfaces as 0.20.

1m

3m

x

4m

Fig. Ex. 5

3

tan α = \ α = 36.87°

4

Now considering impending motion of the ladder, apply conditions of

+

equilibrium i.e. →ΣH = 0, +↑SV = 0 and SM = 0 (Treating anticlockwise

moment as positive) to the free body diagram of the ladder as shown in figure

Ex.5(a).

SH = 0: FA – NB sin 36.87° + FB cos 36.87° = 0

\ FA = NB sin 36.87° – FB cos 36.87°

Now for impending motion we know from (Eq. 5.1), Fmax = μs N

5.26 Engineering Mechanics Statics

NA = 2.20 NB ...(Eq.1)

SV = 0: NA – 600 – 80 + NB cos 36.87° + 0.2 × NB sin 36.87° = 0

\ NA + 0.919 NB = 680

Substituting the value of NA from Eq. 1,

2.20 NB + 0.919 NB = 680 \ NB = 218 N

From Eq. (1), NA = 2.20 × 218 \ NA = 479.6 N

SMA = 0: NB × 5 – 600 × x cos 36.87° – 80 × 3 cos 36.87° = 0

Substituting the value NB,

218 × 5 – 600 × x cos 36.87° – 80 × 3 cos 36.87° = 0

Solving

\ x = 1.87 m (Ans.)

Example 1. The weight of the block A is 500 N. Neglecting the weight of wedge

B, determine the force P required to produce impending motion of block A. Assume

coefficient of static friction at all contact surfaces as 0.3. Refer Figure Ex. 1.

Fig. Ex. 1

Friction 5.27

+

→ΣH = 0, and +↑SV = 0 to the block A and wedge B separately. Free body

diagrams of the block and the wedge are shown in figure Ex 1(a). Here we have

to understand that the wedge is subjected to more number of unknowns compare

to block, therefore we apply equations of equilibrium to block first.

Block A: SH = 0: F2 cos 15° + N2 sin 15° – N3 = 0

Now for impending motion from (Eq. 5.1), we know Fmax = μs N.

0.3 × N2 cos 15° + N2 sin 15° = N3 ...(Eq.1)

Now, SV = 0: – F2 sin 15° + N2 cos 15° – 500 – F3 = 0

– 0.3 × N2 sin 15° + N2 cos 15° – 500 – 0.3 N3 = 0

Substituting value of N3 from Eq. 1,

– 0.3 × N2 sin 15° + N2 cos 15° – 0.3 (0.3 × N2 cos 15° + N2 sin 15°) = 500

Solving, N2 = 690.79 N

Substituting value of N2 in Eq. (1),

N3 = 378.95 N

Now, F2 = 0.3 × N2 = 0.3 × 690.79 \ F2 = 207.23 N

F3 = 0.3 × N3 = 0.3 × 378.95 \ F3 = 113.685 N

W

F3

N3

15° N

2

F2

P F2

N2 15°

F1

N1

P = F1 + F2 cos 15° + N2 sin 15°

Now for impending motion from (Eq. 5.1), we know Fmax = μs N.

P = 0.3 N1 + F2 cos 15° + N2 sin 15° ...(Eq. 2)

Now, SV = 0: N1 – N2 cos 15° + F2 sin 15° = 0

Substituting values of N2 and F2 obtained in previous part,

\ N1 = 690.79 × cos 15° – 207.23 × sin 15°

\ N1 = 613.62 N

5.28 Engineering Mechanics Statics

P = 0.3 × 613.62 + 207.23 × cos 15° + 690.79 sin 15°

\ P = 563 N (considering approximate value) (Ans.)

Alternate Approach: This example can also be solved by considering angle

of static friction, ∅s = tan–1 μs from (Eq. 5.4). Here consider free body diagrams

of the block and the wedge as shown in figure Ex 1(b). R1, R2 and R3 on free

body diagram are the resultant forces of normal reaction and friction force at that

surfaces. Angle of friction is measured in between normal reaction and resultant

force.

Here ∅s = tan–1 0.3 = 16.69°

Now considering equilibrium of block, apply Lami’s theorem to the free body

diagram shown in figure Ex 1(c).

500 R2 R3

= =

sin 138.38° sin 73.31° sin 148.31°

\ R2 = 721.08 N and R3 = 395.46 N

R1

R2

15°+

P

R3 15°+

R2

500 N

Fig. Ex. 1(c) Fig. Ex. 1(d)

body diagram shown in figure Ex 1(d).

P R2

=

sin 131.62° sin 106.69°

\ P = 563 N (considering approximate value) (Ans.)

Friction 5.29

are to be pushed apart by 20° wedge as shown in Figure Ex. 2. Neglecting the

weight of the wedge determine the force P required to start movements of blocks.

Assume coefficient of static friction at all contact surfaces as 0.25.

Fig. Ex. 2

+

i.e. →ΣH = 0, and +↑SV = 0 to the blocks and wedge separately. Free body

diagrams of the blocks and the wedge are shown in figure Ex 2(a). Here we have

to understand that the wedge is subjected to more number of unknowns compare

to block, therefore we apply equations of equilibrium to block first. As two blocks

are identical we can consider only one block for analysis.

P

F2 10° 10° F2

N2 N2

A

N2 N2

10° F2 F2 10°

F1 F1

N1 N1

Fig. Ex. 2(a)

Now for impending motion from (Eq. 5.1), we know Fmax = μs N.

–0.25 N1+ N2 cos 10° – 0.25 N2 sin 10° = 0

\ N1 = 3.76 N2 ...(Eq.1)

Now, SV = 0: N1 – N2 sin 10° – 0.25 N2 cos 10° – 150 = 0

Substituting value of N1 from Eq. 1,

3.76 N2 – N2 sin 10° – 0.25 N2 cos 10° = 150

Solving, N2 = 44.91 N

5.30 Engineering Mechanics Statics

N1 = 168.86 N

Now, F2 = 0.25 × N2 = 0.25 × 44.91

\ F2 = 11.22 N

Wedge: SV = 0: 2 (F2 cos 10°) + 2 (N2 sin 10°) – P = 0

Substituting values of N2 and F2 obtained in previous part,

P = 2 (11.22 × cos 10°) + 2 (44.91 × sin 10°)

\ P = 37.68 N (Ans.)

Example 3. A block of 1000 N is to be raised by means of the wedges A and B as

shown in Figure Ex. 3. Neglecting the weight of the wedges determine the force P

required to produce impending motion of the block upwards. Assume coefficient

of static friction at all contact surfaces as 0.25.

Fig. Ex. 3

Solution: Considering impending motion, apply conditions of equilibrium i.e.

+

→ΣH = 0, and +↑SV = 0 to the block and wedges separately. Free body diagrams

of the block and the wedge are shown in figure Ex 3(a). As two wedges are

identical we can consider only one wedge for analysis.

Friction 5.31

Now, SV = 0: 2 (N2 cos 15°) – 2 (F2 sin 15°) – 1000 = 0

Now for impending motion from (Eq. 5.1), we know Fmax = μs N

2(N2 cos 15°) – 2 (0.25 × N2 sin 15°) = 1000

Solving, N2 = 555.55 N

Now, F2 = 0.25 × N2 = 0.25 × 555.55 \ F2 = 138.88 N

Wedge B: SH = 0: – P + 0.25 N1 + F2 cos 15° + N2 sin 15° = 0

Substituting values of N2 and F2 obtained in previous part,

P = 0.25 N1 + 138.88 cos 15° + 555.55 sin 15° ...(Eq.1)

SV = 0: N1 + 138.88 sin 15° – 555.55 cos 15° = 0

Solving, N1 = 500.68 N

Substituting values of N1 in Eq.1

P = 0.25 × 500.68 + 138.88 cos 15° + 555.55 sin 15°

\ P = 403.1 N (Ans.)

Example 4. A block of 1000 N is rest on horizontal surface as shown in Figure

Ex. 4. Neglecting the weight of the wedge determine the force P required to

produce impending motion of the block. Assume coefficient of static friction at

all contact surfaces as 0.3.

P

1000 N 18°

Fig. Ex. 4

+

i.e. →ΣH = 0, and +↑SV = 0 to the block and wedge separately. Free body

diagrams of the block and the wedge are shown in figure Ex 4(a). Here we have

to understand that the wedge is subjected to more number of unknowns compare

to block, therefore we apply equations of equilibrium to block first.

5.32 Engineering Mechanics Statics

N2 N3

1000 N

F2

F3

F2

N2

F1

N1

Block: SH = 0: F1 – N2 = 0

\ F1 = N2

Now for impending motion from (Eq. 5.1), we know Fmax = μs N

\ 0.3 N1 = N2 ...(Eq.1)

Now, SV = 0: N1 – 1000 – F2 = 0

N1 – 1000 – 0.3 N2 = 0

Substituting value of N2 from Eq. 1

N1 – 0.3 (0.3 N1) = 1000

Solving, N1 = 1098.9 N

From Eq. (1), N2 = 329.6 N

Wedge: SH = 0: N2 – N3 cos 18° + F3 sin 18° = 0

N2 – N3 cos 18° + (0.3 N3) sin 18° = 0

Substituting values of N2 obtained in previous part,

329.6 – N3 cos 18° + (0.3 N3) sin 18° = 0

Solving, N3 = 384.46 N

SV = 0: – P + F2 + F3 cos 18° + N3 sin 18° = 0

P = F2 + F3 cos 18° + N3 sin 18°

P = 0.3 × N2 + 0.3 × N3 cos 18° + N3 sin 18°

Substituting values of N2 and N3

P = 0.3 × 329.6 + 0.3 × 384.46 cos 18° + 384.46 sin 18°

\ P = 327.37 N (Ans.)

Example 5. A beam AB is supported by wedge as shown in Figure Ex. 5.

Neglecting the weight of the wedge and beam determine the force P required to

produce impending motion of the wedge towards left. Assume coefficient of static

friction at all contact surfaces as 0.3.

Friction 5.33

500 N 800 N

B

A P

10°

2m 2m

5m

Fig. Ex. 5

+

→ΣH = 0, +↑SV = 0 and SM = 0 (Treating anticlockwise moment as positive)

to the beam and wedge separately. Free body diagrams of the beam and the

wedge are shown in figure Ex 5(a). Here we have to understand that the wedge

is subjected to more number of unknowns compare to beam, therefore we apply

equations of equilibrium to beam first.

Beam: SH = 0: Ax – F2 cos 10° – N2 sin 10° = 0

Now,

SV = 0: Ay – 500 – 800 + N2 cos 10° – F2 sin 10° = 0

Now for impending motion from (Eq. 5.1), we know Fmax = μs N

Ay – 500 – 800 + N2 cos 10° – 0.3 N2 × sin 10° = 0 ...(Eq.1)

SMB = 0: – 6Ay + 800 × 2 + 500 × 4 = 0

Solving, Ay = 600 N

Substituting value of Ay in Eq. 1

600 – 500 – 800 + N2 cos 10° – 0.3 N2 × sin 10° = 0

Solving, N2 = 750.42 N

As F2 = 0.3 N2 = 0.3 × 750.42 \ F2 = 225.12 N

Wedge:

SH = 0: – P + F1 + F2 cos 10° + N2 sin 10° = 0

Substituting values of N2 and F2 obtained in previous part,

P = 0.3 N1 + 225.126 cos 10° + 750.42 sin 10° ...(Eq.2)

5.34 Engineering Mechanics Statics

N1 + 225.12 sin 10° – 750.42 cos 10° = 0

Solving, N1 = 699.92 N

Substituting values of N1 in Eq. 2

P = 0.3 × 699.92 + 225.12 cos 10° + 750.42 sin 10°

\ P = 561.98 N (Ans.)

Example 1. The 500 N block is attached to a rope that passes over a fixed

cylinder as shown in Figure Ex. 1. Determine the range of the horizontal force P

for which the system will be at rest. Assume coefficient of static friction between

the rope and the cylinder as 0.3.

P

500 N

Fig. Ex. 1

T2

Solution: Considering impending motion, apply (Eq. 5.10) = ems b to figure

T1

Ex 1(a). In this equation T2 is tension on higher side and

π

β= rad.

2

The maximum value of P for equilibrium occurs

when the block is on the verge of moving upward. For

this case, T2 = Pmax and T1 = 500 N

π

0.3

Pmax 2

\ = e Fig. Ex. 1(a)

500

Solving, Pmax = 801 N (Ans.)

The minimum value of P for equilibrium occurs when the block is on the

verge of moving downward. For this case, T2 = 500 N and T1 = Pmax

π

0.3

500 2

\ = e

Pmin

Friction 5.35

\ Range of horizontal force P is from 801 N to 312.30 N that can keep the

block in equilibrium.

Example 2. The 500 N block is attached to a rope that passed over a fixed

cylinder as shown in Figure Ex. 2. If P = 250 N, determine the minimum value of

angle α at which block begins to slip. Assume coefficient of static friction between

the rope and the cylinder as 0.3.

Fig. Ex. 2

T

Solution: Considering impending motion, apply (Eq. 5.10) 2 = ems b to figure

Ex 2(a). T1

Here T2 = 500 N and T1 = 250 N

500

\ = e0.3 b 250 N

250

500

In = 0.3 β

250

180 500 N

Solving, β = 2.31 rad = 2.31

π Fig. Ex. 2(a)

β = 132.38°

Now, α = 132.38° – 90° \ α = 42.4° (Ans.)

Example 3. The 200 N block is suspended from a rope that passes over two

fixed cylinder as shown in Figure Ex. 3. Determine the smallest vertical force P

required to exert on the rope to support the block. Assume coefficient of static

friction between the rope and the right cylinder as 0.2 and between the rope and

the left cylinder as 0.3.

200 N

P

Fig. Ex. 3

5.36 Engineering Mechanics Statics

T2

Solution: Considering impending motion, apply (Eq. 5.10) = emsb to the right

T1

cylinder of figure Ex. 3(a). In this equation T2 = 200 N, T1 = T (tension in the rope

π

between two cylinders) and β = rad.

2

T T

P 200 N

π

0.2

200 2

\ = e

T

Solving, T = 146.08 N

T

Now apply (Eq. 5.10) 2 = emsb to the left cylinder of figure Ex. 3(a). In this

T1

π

equation T2 = T, T1 = P and β = rad.

2

π

0.3

146.08 2

\ = e

P

Solving, P = 91.18 N (Ans.)

Example 4. Two blocks of 175 N and 350 N respectively

are suspended from a rope that passes over a fixed cylinder

as shown in Figure Ex. 4. Determine minimum coefficient 175 N

of friction between rope and the cylinder that keep system 350 N

in equilibrium.

Fig. Ex. 4

Solution: Considering impending motion, apply (Eq. 5.10)

T2

= emsb to figure Ex. 4(a).

T1

Here T2 = 350 N, T1 = 175 N and β = π rad.

350

\ = em(p) 175 N

175 350 N

Solving, μ = 0.2206 (Ans.) Fig. Ex. 4(a)

a rope that passes over a fixed cylinder as shown in Figure Ex. 5. Determine

minimum weight of block B for which no motion occurs. Assume coefficient of

static friction between the rope and the cylinder as 0.2 and between the block A

and horizontal surface as 0.3.

Friction 5.37

140 N

A

Fig. Ex. 5

Solution: Consider impending motion of the block A towards right and apply

+

conditions of equilibrium i.e. →ΣH = 0, and +↑SV = 0 to the free body diagram

of the block A as shown in figure Ex. 5(a)

SH = 0: 140 – F – T = 0

Now for impending motion from (Eq. 5.1), 200 N

we know Fmax = μs N.

T = 140 – 0.3 N ...(Eq.1) T 140 N

SV = 0: N – 200 = 0

\ N = 200 N

F

Substituting value of N in Eq. 1,

N

T = 140 – 0.3 × 200

\ T = 80 N Fig. Ex. 5(a)

Now considering impending motion, apply

T

(Eq. 5.10) 2 = emsb to figure Ex. 5(b).

T1

π

β= rad.

2

π

0.2

80 2

\ = e

w

Solving, w = 58.43 N (Ans.)

5.38 Engineering Mechanics Statics

SUMMARY

• Frictional force is tangent to the surfaces of contact of the two bodies.

• Coulomb’s law of friction before sliding is,

F < μs N

• Coulomb’s law of friction at impending motion is,

Fmax = μs N

• Coulomb’s law of friction after sliding is

F = μk N

• Maximum frictional force Fmax is called as limiting friction.

• At limiting friction body is said to have impending motion.

• The angle of friction is defined as,

∅ = tan–1 μ

• At impending motion, Angle of repose (α) = Angle of static friction (∅s).

• At impending slip between cable/ rope and cylinder, the ratio of tension

on high side and tension on low side are related as,

T2

= eμsβ

T1

PROBLEMS

of 400 N as shown in figure Prob. 1.

Determine the friction force between the 25°

block and the surface. Assume ms = 0.3 and

mk = 0.25.

Fig. Prob. 1

2. The 10 N force as shown in figure Prob. 2 10 N

is required to produce impending motion 20°

of the block up the inclined surface. If the

weight of the block is 5 kg, determine the

coefficient of static friction (ms) between

the block and the inclined surface. 30°

Fig. Prob. 2

3. The 1 kg block is subjected to the load of 2 Kg

2 kg as shown in figure Prob. 3. Determine

the friction force between the block and the

inclined surface. Assume ms = 0.9. 1 Kg

2

4

Fig. Prob. 3

Friction 5.39

are connected with cable that passes over a

frictionless pulley as shown in figure Prob. 4. A

At impending motion of the blocks,

determine coefficient of static friction B

between block B and inclined surface.

Assume ms = 0.25 between block A and B. 30°

Fig. Prob. 4

5. Block A of 200 N and block B of 100 N P

are connected with cable that passes over a

frictionless pulley as shown in figure Prob. 5.

Determine the range of force P that keep A

A

blocks in equilibrium. Assume ms = 0.20

between block A and inclined surface. 30°

B

Fig. Prob. 5

6. Block A weight 100 N and block B weight 50 N

60 N. Horizontal force P is acting to block

A as shown in figure Prob. 6. Determine, 45°

(a) if the system is in equilibrium at P = B

40 N, (b) maximum value of P that keep

the system in equilibrium. Assume ms = P

A

0.30 between block A and B and ms = 0.25

between block A and horizontal surface.

Fig. Prob. 6

7. A crate of weight 500 N is subjected 1m

to horizontal force P as shown in figure

Prob. 7. Determine the force P required to

cause tipping of the crate also determine

P

coefficient of static friction for tipping. 500 N 2m

1m

Fig. Prob. 7

8. A 300 N block is resting on an inclined

P

surface and subjected to the force P

m

0m

50

impending motion will be by tipping or by

slipping. Assume ms = 0.50 between block 80 20°

0m

and inclined surface. m

Fig. Prob. 8

5.40 Engineering Mechanics Statics

in figure Prob. 9. Determine coefficient of

m B

statics friction for impending motion of the 1.2

rod. 0.5 m

30°

A

Fig. Prob. 9

is placed as shown in figure Prob. 10.

Determine maximum value of angle θ at

which the rod can be placed before it slip.

Assume ms = 0.25 for all contact surfaces.

Fig. Prob. 10

11. The weight of block A is 500 N and P

block B is 50 N. Determine the force P

required to produce impending motion of

block A. Assume = 0.30 for all contact B

surfaces. Refer figure Prob. 11. A

70°

Fig. Prob. 11

12 The weight of block A is 800 N and

wedge B is 400 N. Determine the force A

P required to produce impending motion

of block A. Assume = 0.20 for all contact 8°

surfaces. Refer figure Prob. 12. P

B

8°

Fig. Prob. 12

13. A rope is wrapped around a rod as

shown in figure Prob. 13. If tension on one

end of rope is 180 N and on other end is

20 N

20 N, determine the least number of turns 180 N

of rope around rod in order to prevent Fig. Prob. 13

slipping of the rope. Assume ms = 0.20

between rope and rod.

14. Determine the range of weight W that

may be applied without causing the 250 N

block to slip. Assume ms = 0.25 between

block and inclined surface and ms = 0.30

between the rope and the cylinder. W

40°

Fig. Prob. 14

Unit 6

stress induced in the member due to axial loading. We also discuss

the deformation caused by the load. Systematically understanding of

these concepts is important to the design engineers.

Simple Stress & Strain

6.1 stress

All bodies offer an equal internal resistance to the Stress is internal resistance

externally applied forces. The magnitude of the set up by a body when it

resisting force per unit area is called stress. The is deformed.

stress is denoted by Greek letter sigma (σ).

P

s = ...(Eq. 6.1)

A

In above equation P is external force expresses in Newton (N) and A is original

cross section area of the specimen and expresses in square meter or millimetre

(m2 or mm2). So, SI unit of stress is N/m2 or N/mm2.

1 N/m2 is called Pascal (Pa).

1 kPa = 103 Pa = 103 N/ m2

1 MPa = 106 Pa = 106 N/ m2 = 1 N/mm2

1 GPa = 109 Pa = 109 N/ m2

Figure 1 shows square bar subjected to pull force P and internal resistance

at cutting section.

Fig. Ex. 1

6.1.1 Types of Stress

Generally there are two types of stress, (a) Normal Stress (b) Shear Stress

(a) Normal Stress: The stress developed on a plane normal to it is called

normal stress. It is equal to the force acting on the body per unit normal

area. A normal stress is a stress that occurs when a member is loaded by

an axial force and member is placed in tension or compression. If the

member is subjected to axial tension, the stress developed at a section is

called tensile stress.

6.4 Engineering Mechanics Statics

section is called compressive stress.

force that is parallel or tangent to the surface is called shear stress. It is

denoted by Greek letter tau (τ). It is obtained by dividing the magnitude

of the resultant shear force (V) by the cross sectional area (A)

V

t = ...(Eq. 6.2)

A

6.2 Strain

If Lo is the initial gauge length and L is the

observed length under a given load, the gauge Strain is defined as the

elongation, dL = L – Lo as shown in figure 2. The change in length per unit

elongation (or contraction) per unit of the initial length.

gauge length is given as:

δL

e = ...(Eq. 6.3)

L0

Simple Stress & Strain 6.5

Fig. 2

This expression defines the tension (or compression) strain. Since this is

associated with the normal stress, it is usually called the normal strain. It is a

dimensionless quantity (mm/mm). This is also called the nominal or engineering strain.

6.2.1 Shear Strain

Consider a block OABC fixed on horizontal surface A A

P

B B

as shown in figure 3. It is subjected to force P

acting on its upper face. The deformation of the

block because of force P appears as OA’B’C.

Now shear strain is defined as,

BB′

Shear strain = = tan φ O C

CB

Fig. 3

Consider a circular test specimen of diameter d and

length L as shown in figure 4. If a tensile load P is applied

to the specimen its length increases. The increase in

length per unit length is called the longitudinal strain.

Since the volume of the specimen remains constant,

therefore, the increase in length is accompanied by a

decrease in diameter. This decrease in diameter per unit

diameter is called the lateral strain. The longitudinal

and lateral strains are of opposite nature.

δL

eLongitudinal =

L

δd

eLateral = ...(Eq. 6.4)

d

Fig. 4

6.6 Engineering Mechanics Statics

The ratio of the lateral strain to the longitudinal strain is called the Poisson’s ratio.

It is denoted by v (Greek letter Nue).

Poisson’s ratio for most

Lateral strain

Poisson’s ratio = of the materials varies

Longitudinal strain from 0.25 to 0.40.

6.4 Volumetric Strain

It is the ratio of the change in volume of the body to its original volume V0, when

subjected to hydrostatic stress.

∆V

Volumetric strain eV = ...(Eq. 6.5)

V

According to this Law, stress is directly proportional to strain, within the elastic

limits.

σ ∝ ε

or σ = Eε

(a) Modulus of Elasticity, E: It is defined as the ratio of normal stress to

normal strain within the elastic limits. In above equation the constant of

proportionality, E is called modulus of Elasticity.

This equation can be used to find out change in length of the bar as below

P

σ A

E = =

ε δL

L

PL

dL = ...(Eq. 6.6)

AE

(b) Modules of Rigidity, G: It is defined as the ratio of shearing stress to

shearing strain.

τ

G = ...(Eq. 6.7)

γ

(c) Bulk Modulus, K: It is the ratio of hydrostatic stress to volumetric strain.

Consider a bar of varying cross-section shown in figure 5. The free body diagrams

for the various parts are shown in figure 6. The stresses in the various parts are:

P P −P P

sAB = 1 , σ BC = 1 2 , σCD = 3

A1 A2 A3

Simple Stress & Strain 6.7

Fig. 5

Fig. 6

n

PL

δL = ∑ Ai Ei ...(Eq. 6.8)

i =1 i i

Stress-Starin diagram is a graphical representation of the relationship between

stress (σ) and strain (ε). It shows behaviour of material under loading. The curve

varies from material to material.

The stress-strain diagram for a ductile material like mild steel is shown in

figure 7. The curve starts from the origin, showing thereby that there is no initial

stress of strain in the specimen.

Fig. 7

6.8 Engineering Mechanics Statics

A: Upto point A, Hooke s law is obeyed and stress is proportional to strain or

elongation is proportional to the load. Therefore, OA is a straight line. Point A is

called the limit of proportionality or proportional limit.

B: Up to point B, the material remains elastic, i.e. on removal of the load,

deformations are completely recovered. AB is not a straight line. Point B is called

the elastic limit point. Beyond point B, the material goes to the plastic stage until

the upper yield point C is reached.

C & D: Beyond point B plastic deformation occurs and material is not totally

recoverable. Here permanent deformation takes place when load is removed. At

this point the cross-sectional area of the material starts decreasing. Points C & D

are termed as upper and lower yield points respectively. The stress at the yield

point is called the yield strength.

E: Between DE, the specimen elongates by a considerable amount without any

increase in stress. Point E corresponds to ultimate strength of a material. The

maximum load which a specimen can withstand without failure is known as load

at ultimate strength.

F: Beyond point E, the bar begins to form neck and its cross-sectional area

decreases at a rapid rate. The apparent stress deceases but the actual or true

stress goes on increasing until the specimen breaks at point F, called the point of

fracture. The fracture of ductile material is of the cup and cone type.

When the temperature of a material is changed, its dimensions also change. A

stress is setup in the material for change in dimension due to temperature change

is prevented. This is called the temperature stress.

Let,

L be the length of the member at temperature t,

dt is the change in temperature,

α is the coefficient of linear expansion for the material change in length

Now, δL = αLδt

Expanded length = L (1 + α dt)

α L δt

\ Temperature strain et =

L(1 + α δt )

\ Temperature strain et = adt ...(Eq. 6.9)

Temperature stress st = et E

at = a dt E ...(Eq. 6.10)

When the temperature increases, length increases. Since this increase in

length is prevented, compressive stress is developed in the material. The reverse

phenomena occur when the temperature is decreased and tensile stress is developed.

Simple Stress & Strain 6.9

Composite system consists of two or more bar of different materials in parallel.

In such system the sharing of load by each material can be found using equilibrium.

Consider a composite system shown in figure 8

consisting of different materials and area of cross- P

P = P1 + P2 + P3

1 2 3

Now using following compatibility equation we

A1 A2 A3 L

can determine load or stresses in each materials.

P1L PL PL

= 2 = 3

A1E1 A2 E2 A3 E3

Fig. 8

6.10 Factor Of Safety

It is the ratio of the maximum permissible stress to which a member can be

subjected to the allowable or working stress.

ultimate load

Factor of safety =

allowable load

ultimate stress

Factor of safety =

allowable stress

Example 1. A metal wire is 5 mm diameter and 2 m long is subjected to 24 N

tensile force that stretches 0.3 mm. Determine stress and strain in the wire.

Solution: Area of cross-section A = π r2 , where r is radius of wire

\ A = π × (2.5)2 = 19.634 mm2

P 24

Now we know, s = =

A 19.634

\ s = 1.22 N/mm2 (Ans.)

δL 0.3

Now we know, e = = = 0.00015 (Ans.)

L0 2000

Example 2. A circular rod of diameter 8 mm and 300 mm long is subjected to

a tensile force 20 kN. Take E = 200 kN/mm2. Find stress, strain and elongation of

the bar due to applied load.

Solution: Area of cross-section A = πr2, where r is radius of wire

\ A = π × (4)2 = 50.26 mm2

P 20 × 1000

Now we know, s = =

A 50.26

6.10 Engineering Mechanics Statics

σ 397.93

Now we know, e = =

E 200 × 1000

\ e = 0.001989 (Ans.)

dL = e × L = 0.001989 × 300

\ dL = 0.5968 mm (Ans.)

Example 3. A hollow circular tube of 200 mm long is subjected to compressive

load of 26 kN. The inner and outer diameters of the tube are 40 mm and 45 mm

respectively. The shortening of the tube due to load is 0.12 mm. Determine stress

and strain in the tube.

Solution: Area of cross-section A = π (outer radius2 – inner radius2)

\ A = π × (22.52 – 202) = 333.79 mm2

P 26 × 1000

Now we know, s = =

A 333.79

\ s = 77.89 N/ mm2 (Ans.)

δL 0.12

Now we know, e = = = 0.0006 (Ans.)

L0 200

Example 4. A rectangular bar of 100 mm × 40 mm and 2 m long is subjected to

an axial tensile load of 60 kN. If the extension in the length of the bar is 1 mm,

determine stress, strain and modulus of elasticity of the bar.

Solution: Area of cross-section A = 100 × 40 = 4000 mm2

P 60 × 1000

Now we know, s = =

A 4000

\ s = 15 N/mm2 (Ans.)

δL 1

Now we know, e = = = 0.0005 (Ans.)

L0 2000

σ 15

Now, E = = = 30 × 103 N/mm 2 (Ans.)

ε 0.0005

Example 5. A steel specimen of 10 mm diameter with a gauge length of 200

mm is tested to destruction. It has an extension of 0.50 mm under a load of 40

kN and the load at elastic limit is 55 kN. The maximum load is 70 kN. The total

extension at fracture is 28 mm and diameter at neck is 7 mm. Find (i) The stress

at elastic limit. (ii) Young’s modulus. (iii) Percentage elongation. (iv) Percentage

reduction in area. (v) Ultimate tensile stress.

Solution: Area of cross-section A = π × (5)2 = 78.53 mm2

P 55 × 1000

(i) Stress at elastic limit, s = =

A 78.53

\ s = 700.36 N/ mm2 (Ans.)

Simple Stress & Strain 6.11

δL 0.50

Now we know, e = = = 0.0025

L0 200

P 40 × 1000

E = A = 78.53 = 203744 N/mm (Ans.)

2

(ii)

ε 0.0025

Total extension 28

(iii) Percentage elongation = = = 14% (Ans.)

L0 200

Initial area – Final area

(iv) Percentage reduction in area =

Initial area

π(5) 2 − π(3.5) 2

= = 51% (Ans.)

π(5) 2

Maximum load

(v) Ultimate tensile stress =

Area

70 × 1000

= = 891.37 N/mm 2 (Ans.)

78.53

Example 6. A steel wire 1.5 m long and 5 mm in diameter is extended by

0.50 mm due to weight suspended from the wire. If the same weight is suspended

from the brass wire, 3 m long and 3 mm in diameter, it is elongated by 5.35 mm.

Determine the modulus of elasticity of brass if that of steel is 2 × 105 N/mm2

Solution: For the type of given loading, a change in the length of wire is given by,

PL

dl =

AE

Now for the steel wire,

P ×1500

0.50 = = 0.0003819 P

π(2.5) 2 × (2 × 105 )

\ Weight suspended P = 1309.24 N

Now for the brass wire,

1309.24 × 3000

5.35 =

π(1.5) 2 × EB

\ EB = 103861.7 N/mm2 (Ans.)

is rigidly fastened to the end of a square brass bar of 10 × 10 mm and 250 mm

long as shown in figure Ex. 7. An axial tensile force of 20 kN is applied at each

of extreme ends. Determine the elongation of assembly. Take Es = 200 GPa and

EB = 90 GPa.

6.12 Engineering Mechanics Statics

Fig. Ex. 7

Solution: Let dlb and dls be the elongations in brass and steel. Then total increase

in length of the assembly is,

PL PL

dl = δlb + δls = b b + s s

Ab Eb As Es

20 ×1000 × 250 20 ×1000 × 300

= +

(10 ×10) × (90 ×1000) π(12.5)2 × (200 ×1000)

dl = 0.555 + 0.0611 = 0.616 mm (Ans.)

Example 8. A member PQRS of uniform diameter 250 mm has been subjected

to point loads as shown in figure Ex. 8. Determine the net change in the length of

the bar. Take E = 200 × 109 N/m2.

Fig. Ex. 8

The free body diagram of each segment of the member are shown in figure

Ex. 8(a).

Segment PQ; dl1 =

49087.38× (200 × 109 )

Simple Stress & Strain 6.13

Segment QR; dl2 =

49087.38× (200 × 109 )

(180 × 1000) × (150)

Segment RS; dl3 =

49087.38× (200 × 109 )

Total contraction in length,

dl = dl1 + dl2 + dl3

= 7.48 × 10–9 mm (Ans.)

Example 9. A straight bar of 900 mm long is 40 mm in diameter for the first

500 mm length and 20 mm diameter for the remaining length. If the bar is subjected

to an axial pull of 20 kN find the extension of the bar. Take E = 2 × 105 N/mm2.

Solution: Here extension of the bar dl = dlb + dls

PL1 PL2

= +

A1E A2 E

20 ×1000 × 500 20 ×1000 × 400

= +

π(20) × (2 ×10 ) π(10) 2 × (2 ×105 )

2 5

Example 10. A bar made up of two square sections. A steel of 15 × 15 mm

square cross-section and 300 mm length and aluminium bar of 30 × 30 mm and

400 mm long. The bar is subjected to a compressive force P. If total decrease in

length of the bar is 0.15 mm, than determine the value of P. Take E for steel as

205 × 103 N/mm2 and for aluminium 75 × 103 N/mm2.

PLS PLA

Solution: Here extension of the bar dl = +

AS ES AA E A

300 400

0.15 = P +

15×15× 205×1000 30 × 30 × 75×1000

Solving, p = 12 kN (Ans.)

Example 11. A rectangular block of 20 mm wide and 10 mm deep and 100 mm

long is subjected to 40 kN tensile load. Measurement show that the elongation of

the block is 0.0700 mm and decrease in width is 0.00500 mm. Determine modulus

of elasticity and Poisson’s ratio.

Solution: Cross-sectional area A = 10 × 20 = 200 mm2

P 40 × 1000

Now we know, s = =

A 200

\ s = 200 N/ mm2

δL 0.0700

Longitudinal strain e = = = 0.0007

L0 100

6.14 Engineering Mechanics Statics

σ 200

Now, E = = = 285714 N/mm 2 (Ans.)

ε 0.0007

δw 0.00500

eLateral = = = 0.00025

w 20

Lateral strain

Poisson’s ratio =

Longitudinal strain

0.00025

= = 0.357 (Ans.)

0.0007

Example 12. A steel bar of 100 mm wide, 25 mm thick and 500 long is subjected

to an axial pull of 90 kN. Find the change in length, width and thickness of the

bar. Take E = 2 × 105 N/mm2 and Poisson’s ratio = 0.30.

Solution: Cross-sectional area A = 100 × 25 = 2500 mm2

P 90 × 1000

Now we know, s = =

A 2500

\ s = 36 N/ mm2

σ 36

Longitudinal strain e = = = 0.00018

E 2 × 105

Lateral strain = Poisson’s ratio × Longitudinal strain

= 0.30 × 0.00018 = 0.000054

δL

Now, e =

L0

\ dL = e × Lo

Change in length = 0.00018 × 500 = 0.09 mm (Ans.)

δw

eLateral =

w

\ dw = eLateral × w

Above equation shows that change in width = lateral strain × original width

\ Change in width 0.00054 × 100 = 0.054 mm (Ans.)

Now change in thickness = lateral strain × original thickness

= 0.00054 × 25 = 0.0135 (Ans.)

Example 13. A rod of length 150 mm and diameter 10 mm is subjected to an

axial pull of 10 kN. Determine the change in the dimension of the rod. Take E =

2 × 105 N/mm2 and Poisson’s ratio = 0.30.

Solution: Cross-sectional area A = π × r2 = π × 52 = 78.53mm2

PL 10 ×1000 ×150

Change in length of the rod dl = =

AE 78.53× 2 ×105

\ dl = 0.095 mm (Ans.)

Simple Stress & Strain 6.15

δL 0.095

Longitudinal strain e = = = 0.000633

L0 150

Lateral strain

Now, Poisson’s ratio =

Longitudinal strain

Lateral strain = Poisson’s ratio × Longitudinal strain

= 0.30 × 0.000633 = 0.000189

δd

Also, lateral strain eLateral =

d

dd = eLateral × d

dd = 0.000189 × 10 = 0.0018 mm (Ans.)

Example 14. An aluminium rod of 25 mm diameter and 150 mm long is

subjected to tensile load of 50 kN. The elongation of the rod is 0.1095 mm and

its diameter is reduced by 0.00607 mm. Determine Poisson’s ratio of the material.

δL 0.1095

Solution: Longitudinal strain e = = = 0.00073

L0 150

δd 0.00607

Lateral strain eLateral = = = 0.000242

d 25

Lateral strain

Now, Poisson’s ratio =

Longitudinal strain

0.000242

Poisson’s ratio = = 0.33 (Ans.)

0.00073

Example 15. A hard rubber bar is deformed by 0.5 mm as shown in figure

Ex. 15 by dash line due to force P. Determine the A A P B B

shear strain at point O.

Solution: The shear strain is represented by the

angle between AOA1. 150

mm

Shear strain

–1 AA′ 0.5 O C

∅ = tan = tan –1 = 0.19° (Ans.) Fig. Ex. 15

OA 150

fixed into a steel tube of internal diameter 50 mm and external diameter 80 mm.

If the composite bar of length L is subjected to 150 kN load, determine the stress

developed in the two materials. Take E for steel = 2 × 105 N/mm2 and E for copper

= 1.2 × 105 N/mm2

Solution: Area of cross-section of copper rod AC = π × (25)2 = 1963.49 mm2

Area of cross-section of steel tube AS = π × (402 – 252) = 3063 mm2

6.16 Engineering Mechanics Statics

150 kN load = Load on copper rod + Load on steel tube

150 × 1000 = PC + PS ...(Eq. 1)

From compatibility condition,

PC L PL

= S

AC EC AS ES

PC PS

5 =

1963.49 × 1.2 × 10 3063 × 2 × 105

PC = 0.3846 PS ...(Eq. 2)

Substituting in Eq. 1

150 × 1000 = 0.3846 PS + PS

PS = 108334.5 N

And, PC = 0.3846 × 108334.5 = 41665.46 N

Now, Stress in copper

41665.46

sC = = 21.22 N/mm 2 (Ans.)

1963.49

108334.5

Stress in steel sS = = 35.36 N/mm 2 (Ans.)

3063

Example 17. A composite tube consist of a steel tube 300 mm internal diameter

and 20 mm thickness and an outer brass tube 340 mm internal diameter and 20 mm

thickness. The composite tube of length L is subjected to an axial load of 800 kN.

Find the stress developed in two materials. Take E for steel = 2 × 105 N/mm2 and

E for brass = 1 × 105 N/mm2.

Solution: Area of cross-section of steel tube AS = π × (1702 – 1502) = 20106.19 mm2

Area of cross-section of brass tube AB = π × (1902 – 1702) = 22619.46 mm2

Now from equation of equilibrium,

800 kN load = Load on steel tube + Load on brass tube

800 × 1000 = PS + PB ...(Eq. 1)

From compatibility condition,

PB L PL

= S

AB EB AS ES

PB PS

=

22619.46 × 1 × 105

20106.19 × 2 × 105

PB = 0.5625 PS ...(Eq. 2)

Substituting in Eq. 1

800 × 1000 = 0.5625 PS + PS

Simple Stress & Strain 6.17

PS = 512000 N

And, PB = 0.5625 × 512000 = 288000 N

Now, Stress in brass

288000

sB = = 12.73 N/mm 2 (Ans.)

22619.46

512000

Stress in steel sS = = 25.46 N/mm 2 (Ans.)

20106.19

Example 18. Two aluminium rod and one copper rod together support a load of

125 kN as shown in figure Ex. 18. If area of each aluminium rod is 1000 mm2 and

that of copper is 1200 mm2. Determine stresses in each rod. Take E for aluminium

= 1 × 105 N/mm2 and E for copper = 1.2 × 105 N/mm2.

125 KN

A C A

150 mm

200 mm

Fig. Ex. 18

Area of cross-section of copper AC = 1200 mm2

Now from equation of equilibrium,

125 kN load = 2 (Load on aluminium rod) + Load on copper rod

125 × 1000 = 2PA + PC ...(Eq. 1)

From compatibility condition,

PA LA P L

= C C

AA E A AC EC

PA × 150 PC × 200

5 =

1000 × 1 × 10 1200 × 1.2 × 105

PA = 0.9259 PC ...(Eq. 2)

Substituting in Eq. 1

125 × 1000 = 2 × 0.9259 PC + PC

PC = 43831.16 N

6.18 Engineering Mechanics Statics

43831.16

Now, Stress in copper sC = = 36.52 N/mm 2 (Ans.)

1200

40583.27

Stress in aluminium sA = = 40.58 N/mm 2 (Ans.)

1000

Example 19. A rod is 1 m long at 15°C. Determine the expansion of the rod

when the temperature is raised to 90°. Take E = 1 × 105 N/mm2 and coefficient

of thermal expansion α = 0.000014 per °C. If the expansion is prevented find the

stress induced in the material.

Solution: Here rise in temperature from initial temperature is, T = 75°C.

Expansion of the rod = α T L

= 0.000014 × 75 × 1 × 1000 = 1.05 mm (Ans.)

Stress induced in the rod st = α T E

= 0.000014 × 75 × 1 × 105 = 105 N/ mm2 (Ans.)

Example 20. A steel rod of length 2 m and diameter 15 mm is at temperature

of 10°C. Determine the force exerted by the rod when prevented for expansion at

temperature 50°C. Take E = 2 × 105 N/mm2 and α = 0.000012 per °C.

Solution: Here rise in temperature from initial temperature is T = 40°C.

Expansion of the rod = α T L = 0.000012 × 40 × 2 × 1000 = 0.96 mm

Stress induced in the rod st A = α T E = 0.000012 × 40 × 2 × 105 = 96 N/ mm2

Force exerted by the rod = st A = 96 × p (7.5)2 = 16964.6 N (Ans.)

SUMMARY

• Stress is internal resistance setup by a body when it is deformed.

P

Mathematically σ = and its unit is N/mm2

A

Normal stress and Shear stress are types of stress.

•

The stress developed on a plane normal to it is called normal stress.

Tensile stress and compressive stress are types of normal stress.

The stress developed when a member is subjected to a force that is parallel

or tangent to the surface is called shear stress.

V

Mathematically τ =

A

• Strain is defined as the change in length per unit length.

δL

εLongitudinal =

L

δd δw δb

εLateral = = =

d w b

Simple Stress & Strain 6.19

• The ratio of the lateral strain to the longitudinal strain is called the

Poisson’s ratio.

• The ratio of the change in volume of the body to its original volume is

known as volumetric strain.

• The ratio of normal stress to normal strain is constant and this constant is

known as modulus of elasticity.

• The ratio of shearing stress to shearing strain is known as modulus of

rigidity.

• Elongation of the bar due to axial loading is given by,

PL

δL =

AE

• A stress is setup in the material for change in dimension due to temperature

change is prevented. This is called the temperature stress.

Temperature stress σt = α δt E

Temperature strain εt = α δt

PROBLEMS

1. A rectangular bar having a cross-sectional area of 100 mm2 has a tensile force of

20 kN applied to it. Determine the stress in the bar.

2. A circular wire has a tensile force of 30.0 N applied to it and this force produces

a stress of 2.06 MPa in the wire. Determine the diameter of the wire.

3. A square-sectioned support of side 24 mm is loaded with a compressive force of

20 kN. Determine the compressive stress in the support.

4. A metal bar which is part of a frame is 30 mm diameter and 250 mm long. It

has tensile force acting on it of 35 kN which tends to stretch it. The modulus of

elasticity E is 205 × 109 N/m2. Calculate the stress and strain in the bar and the

amount it stretches.

5. A bolt having a diameter of 10 mm is loaded so that the shear stress in it is

200 MPa. Determine the value of the shear force on the bolt.

6. A 2.5 m long and 15 mm diameter steel bar is stretched by 20 mm on application

of an axial load of 800 N. Calculate the stress, strain and Young’s modulus.

7. A rectangular metal bar has a width of 20 mm and can support a maximum

compressive stress of 25 MPa; (a) determine the minimum breadth of the bar

when loaded with a force of 5 kN. (b) If the bar is 1.5 m long and decreases in

length by 0.25 mm when the force is applied, determine the strain.

8. A mild steel specimen of cross-sectional area 200 mm2 and gauge length 100 mm

is subjected to a tensile test and the following data is obtained: within the limit

of proportionality, a load of 70 kN produced an extension of 0.150 mm, load at

yield point is 90 kN, maximum load on specimen is 125 kN, final cross-sectional

6.20 Engineering Mechanics Statics

area of waist at fracture is 79 mm2, and the gauge length had increased to

105 mm at fracture. Determine for the specimen: (a) Young’s modulus of elasticity,

(b) the yield stress, (c) the tensile strength, (d) the percentage elongation, and

(e) the percentage reduction in area.

9. A load of 40 kN is applied to a steel wire. If the unit stress in the wire must not

exceed 90 N/mm2 what is the minimum diameter of the wire is required? What

will be the extension of 3.80 metre length of wire? Take E = 2 × 105 N/mm2.

10. A rod of length 150 mm and diameter 10 mm is subjected to an axial force of

15 kN. The modulus of elasticity of the material is 2 × 105 N/mm2 and Poisson’s

ratio is 0.30. Calculate longitudinal and lateral strain.

11. A brass bar having cross-sectional area of 750 mm2 is subjected to axial force as

shown in figure prob. 11. Find the total elongation of the bar. Take E = 1 × 105 N/

mm2.

Fig. Prob. 11

12. A composite rod is 800 mm long, its two ends are 30 mm2 and 20 mm2 in area

and Length are 300 mm and 200 mm respectively. The middle portion of the rod

is 15 mm2 in area. If the rod is subjected to an axial tensile load of 20 kN, find its

total elongation. Take E = 200 GPa

13. Determine the total strain in a bar made up of 50 mm diameter solid for a length

of 200 mm and a hollow circular section of outer diameter 45 mm and inner

diameter of 25 mm for a length of 120 mm. Take E = 200 kN/mm2. The axial load

is 80 kN.

14. A tensile stress is to be applied along the axis of a cylindrical rod that has a

diameter of 20 mm. Determine the magnitude of the load required to produce

0.0045 mm change in diameter. Take E = 97 × 103 N/mm2 and poisons ratio is

0.34.

15. A hollow steel rod of outer diameter 20 mm, inner diameter 12 mm and length

2 m is subjected to compressive load of 40 kN. Determine, (i) change in

length of the rod (ii) lateral strain, and change in diameters of the rod. Take

E = 200 × 103 N/mm2 and poisons ratio = 0.30.

16. A reinforced concrete column is 200 × 200 mm in cross-section and carries a load

of 300 kN. The column is provided with 6 bars of 12 mm diameter. Find the stress

in the concrete and the bar. Take E for bar = 2 × 105 N/mm2 and E for concrete

= 1.4 × 104 N/mm2.

Objective Type Questions

1. Study of forces and the conditions of equilibrium of bodies subjected to the

action of forces is known as

(a) Statics (b) Dynamics (c) Kinematics (d) Kinetics

2. The action of one body on another body that changes or tends to change the

state of the body is known as

(a) Mass (b) Rigid body (c) Force (d) None of these

3. The intensity of the force is its

(a) Magnitude (b) Direction (c) Sense (d) Arrow head

4. Force can be characterized by

(a) Magnitude (b) Direction

(c) Point of application (d) All of these

5. The forces whose lines of action are passing through one point, are known as

(a) Concurrent force system (b) Non-concurrent force system

(c) Parallel force system (d) None of these

6. The forces whose lines of actions are passing through one common line of

action are known as

(a) Concurrent force system (b) Non-concurrent force system

(c) Collinear force system (d) Parallel force system

7. The forces whose lines of actions are parallel to each other and lie in the same

plane are known as

(a) Concurrent force system (b) Non-concurrent force system

(c) Collinear force system (d) Parallel force system

8. The single force that can replace the original system of forces without

changing its external effect is known as

(a) Resultant (b) Couple (c) Moment (d) None of these

9. The resultant of the two forces by parallelogram law be represented in

magnitude and direction by

(a) Diagonal of the parallelogram which does not pass through point of

intersection of two forces

(b) Diagonal of the parallelogram which passes through point of intersection

of two forces

(c) Longer side of the other two sides

(d) Shorter side of the other two sides

10. The resultant of two forces P1 and P2 acting at an angle θ is

2 2

(a) P1 + P2 + 2 P1 P2 cos q

2 2

(b) P1 - P2 - 2 P1 P2 cos q

OTQ.2 Engineering Mechanics Statics

(c) 1 (d)

11. The resultant is maximum and minimum respectively when the angles

between two forces are

(a) 90° and 0° (b) 180° and 90° (c) 0° and 180° (d) 90° and 180°

12. If two forces acting simultaneously at a point be represented in magnitude

and direction by two sides of triangle taken in order, their resultant may be

represented in magnitude and direction by the third side of triangle taken in

opposite order, this is

(a) Parallelogram law (b) Triangle law

(c) Polygon law (d) None of these

13. The resultant of two equal concurrent forces of magnitude P is

θ θ θ θ

(a) 2 P cos (b) 2 P sin (c) P cos (d) 3P cos

2 2 2 2

14. The resultant of two equal concurrent forces of magnitude P and angle

between them 90° is

p p 2

(a) (b) (c) 2P (d)

2 2 p

15. The resultant of more than two concurrent forces is

(a) (ΣV ) 2 (b) (ΣH )2 − (ΣV ) 2

2 2

(c) (ΣH )2 (d) (ΣH ) + (ΣV )

16. Moment of a force produce

(a) Rotation of a body about fixed point

(b) Translation of a body about fixed point

(c) Rotation and translation of a body about a fixed point

(d) None of these

17. Varignon’s theorem can be applied to determine

(a) Position of resultant (b) Location of centroid

(c) Magnitude of resultant (d) None of these

18. A couple is a

(a) Pair of parallel forces of different magnitude separated by distance and

acting in opposite direction.

(b) Pair of parallel forces of same magnitude separated by distance and

acting in opposite direction.

(c) Pair of parallel forces of different magnitude separated by distance and

acting in same direction.

(d) Pair of parallel forces of same magnitude separated by distance and

acting in same direction.

Objective Type Questions OTQ.3

The couple is unchanged if, I) it is shifted to any other position, II) it is

rotated through any angle , III) it is replaced by another pair of forces with

same rotational effect, of these statements

(a) I alone is correct (b) II alone is correct

(c) I and II are correct (d) I, II and III are correct

20. Moment of a couple is

(a) Independent of a point (b) Depend upon point

(c) Depend upon axis (d) None of these

21. If moment of force applied on a door is 16 N.m and force applied is 4 N then

distance of handle from pivot is

(a) 2 m (b) 6 m (c) 4 m (d) 8 m

22. If moment arm is zero, then moment produce will be

(a) Doubled (b) 1 (c) Zero (d) None of these

23. Moment depends upon

(a) Magnitude of force (b) Moment arm

(c) both (a) and (b) (d) none of these

24. If the body is at rest or in uniform velocity, it is said to be in

(a) Rest (b) Equilibrium

(c) Uniform motion (d) None of these

25. Number of forces acting at a point will be in equilibrium if

(a) Their sum in horizontal direction is zero S = 0

(b) Their sum in vertical direction is zero S = 0

(c) Both (a) and (b)

(d) None of these

26. Consider following statement

Two forces can be in equilibrium only if they are I) equal in magnitude

II) Opposite in direction III) Collinear in action. Of these statements

(a) I and II are correct (b) I and III are correct

(c) II and III are correct (d) All are correct

27. For equilibrium of co-planer non-concurrent force system, the following

conditions are to be satisfied

(a) SH = 0, SV = 0 (b) SH = 0, SM = 0

(c) SV = 0, SM = 0 (d) SH = 0, SV = 0, SM = 0

28. A sketch of the body isolated from its surrounding is known as

(a) Free body diagram (b) Equilibrium

(c) Force system diagram (d) None of these

OTQ.4 Engineering Mechanics Statics

29. The resultant of a system of forces acting on a body is zero, this state is

known as

(a) Co-planar forces (b) Equilibrium

(c) Free body diagram (d) None of these

30. “If a body is in equilibrium under the action of three co-planar and concurrent

forces, each of the forces is proportional to the sine of the angle between the

other two”, this is the statement of

(a) Triangle law of forces (b) Lami’s theorem

(c) Parallelogram law of forces (d) Polygon law of forces

31. If a body is acted upon by a number of co-planar non-concurrent forces, it

may

(a) Rotate about itself without moving

(b) Move in any one direction rotating about itself

(c) Be in equilibrium

(d) All of these

32. If three co-planar forces acting upon a rigid body keep it in equilibrium, then

they must

(a) Meet at a point (b) Be all parallel

(c) Both (a) and (b) (d) None of these

33. The concurrent force system is in equilibrium if their resultant is

(a) Zero (b) Positive (c) Negative (d) None of these

34. Lami’s theorem is applicable for

(a) Two concurrent forces in equilibrium

(b) Three concurrent forces in equilibrium

(c) More than three concurrent forces in equilibrium

(d) None of these

35. The normal reaction on a smooth roller from horizontal surface will act

(a) Horizontal to the plane of contact

(b) Perpendicular to the plane of contact

(c) Inclined to the plane of contact

(d) None of these

36. Simplest form of a perfect frame is

(a) Rectangle (b) Square (c) Triangle (d) Pentagon

37. Minimum number of members that form a simple truss are

(a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 5

38. Redundant truss is a type of

(a) Perfect truss (b) Imperfect truss

(c) Stable truss (d) None of the above

Objective Type Questions OTQ.5

(a) Compressive force (b) Tensile force

(c) Both (a) and (b) (d) None of the above

40. In analysis of truss by method of joints, the number of unknowns at a joint

should not be

(a) > 2 (b) > 3 (c) > 4 (d) None of these

41. In analysis of truss by method of sections, the number of unknowns at a

section should not be

(a) > 3 (b) > 4 (c) > 5 (d) None of these

42. Method of joints is more suitable when

(a) Forces in few of the members only is desired

(b) Forces in all the members are desired

(c) Reactions at supports are desired

(d) None of these

43. Method of sections is more suitable when

(a) Forces in few of the members only is desired

(b) Forces in all the members are desired

(c) Reactions at supports are desired

(d) None of these

44. The force system in method of joints involves

(a) Collinear forces (b) Concurrent forces

(c) Parallel forces (d) Non concurrent forces

45. The force system in method of joints involves

(a) Collinear forces (b) Concurrent forces

(c) Parallel forces (d) Non concurrent forces

46. Beam is a structural member subjected to

(a) Axial load (b) Transverse load

(c) Twisting moment (d) No load

47. In cantilever beam

(a) One end is fixed and other end is free

(b) Both ends are fixed

(c) Both ends are supported on roller

(d) None of these

48. In simply supported beam

(a) One end is fixed and other end is free

(b) Both ends are fixed

(c) One end is supported on roller and other end is hinged

(d) None of these

OTQ.6 Engineering Mechanics Statics

49. The bending moment of cantilever carrying a point load at free end is

(a) Parabola

(b) Triangle with maximum height at fixed end

(c) Triangle with maximum height at free end

(d) None of these

50. A sudden increase or decrease in shear force diagram between two points

indicate

(a) No loading

(b) Distributed load between two points

(c) Concentrated load between two points

(d) None of these

51. If the bending moment diagram is parabolic curve between two points then

it indicate

(a) No loading

(b) Uniformly distributed load between two points

(c) Concentrated load between two points

(d) None of these

52. Bending moment diagram for any part of a simply supported beam between

two concentrated load is

(a) Horizontal straight line (b) Vertical straight line

(c) Inclined line (d) Parabola

53. The point through which the whole weight of the body acts is known as

(a) Center of gravity (b) Center of mass

(c) Centroid (d) Moment of inertia

54. The centroid and centre of gravity coincide if

(a) The body has uniform density

(b) Centre of gravity and center of mass coincide

(c) g is uniform throughout the Earth

(d) None of these

55. Centre of gravity of a body is a

(a) Point in the body at which g is constant.

(b) Point in the body which changes with orientation of the body.

(c) Point in the body at which the entire weight is assumed to be concentrated.

(d) None of these.

56. The first moment of an area about the x-axis is

(a) ∫ x dA (b) ∫ y dA (c) ∫x

2

dA (d) ∫y

2

dA

Objective Type Questions OTQ.7

(a) Its first moment about that axis is zero

(b) Its centroid lies on that axis

(c) Both (a) and ((b)

(d) None of these

58. For an area having two axes of symmetry, the centroid lies on

(a) Horizontal axis (b) Vertical axis

(c) Intersection point of two axes (d) Not on any axes

59. If an area is symmetric about x axis, its

(a) x = 0 (b) y = 0

(c) Both (a) and (b) (d) None of these

60. If an area is symmetric about y axis, its

(a) x = 0 (b) y = 0

(c) Both (a) and (b) (d) None of these

61. The centroid of a semi-circle lies at a distance of __________ from its base

measured along the vertical radius.

(a) 4r/ 3π (b) 3r/ 8 (c) 3r/4π (d) 4r/ 2π

62. The unit of coordinates of centroid from reference axis is in

(a) kg (b) N.mm (d) gram (d) mm

63. Moment of inertia is denoted by

(a) I (b) C (c) M (d) K

64. The unit of moment of inertia is

(a) L (b) L2 (c) L3 (d) L4

65. Second moment are also termed as

(a) Center of gravity (b) Moment of force

(c) Moment of inertia (d) Couple

66. According to perpendicular axis theorem,

(a) Iz = Ix – Iy (b) Iz = Ix + Iy (c) Ix = Iz + Iy (d) Iy = Ix + Iz

67. The moment of inertia of a rectangle base ‘b’ and depth ‘d’ about the base is

bd 2 bd 8 bd 8 bd 8

(a) (b) (c) (d)

6 12 12 3

68. The moments of inertia of an area about x and y axes are Ix and Iy respectively.

Its polar moment of Inertia is

(a) Ix Iy (b) Ix/Iy (c) Ix + Iy (d) Ix – Iy

69. The moment of inertia of a circular section of diameter d is

π π π π 4

(a) (d )

4

(b) (d ) 4 (c) (d ) 4 (d) (d )

16 32 64 48

OTQ.8 Engineering Mechanics Statics

(a) Larger than centroidal axis values

(b) Smaller than centroidal axis values

(c) Can be larger or smaller than centroidal axis value

(d) Equal to centroidal axis values

71. Moment of inertia can also be calculated by

(a) Integration (b) Differentiation

(c) Moments (d) None of these

72. The moment of inertia of a triangle base ‘b’ and depth ‘d’ about the centroidal

axis is

bd 2 bd 8 bd 3 bd 8

(a) (b) (c) (d)

6 12 24 36

73. The moment of inertia of a triangle base ‘b’ and depth ‘d’ about the base is

bd 2 bd 8 db8 bd 8

(a) (b) (c) d (d)

6 12 24 36

74. The relation used by radius of gyration is _____

(a) I = Ak (b) I = A2k (c) I = Ak2 (d) I = A2k2

75. If X-X is the centrodial axis of an area ‘A’ and A-B is another axis at a

distance ‘d’ and parallel to X-X, then by parallel axis theorem

(a) IXX = IAB + Ad2 (b) IAB = IXX + Ad2

(c) IAB + IXX = Ad2 (d) None of these

76. Moment of inertia of any composite area about an axis passing through its

centroid is

(a) Minimum

(b) Maximum

(c) Depend upon dimensions of area

(d) None of these

77. The polar moment of inertia is measured about

(a) x axis (b) y axis (c) z axis (d) None of these

78. Moment of inertia of hollow circular section of outer diameter D and inner

diameter d is

π π π π

(a) ( D 4 − d 4 ) (b) ( D 4 − d 4 ) (c) ( D 4 – d 4 ) (d) (D4 – d 4 )

16 32 64 48

79. Friction force act in a direction ______ to the direction of motion of an

object.

(a) Same (b) Perpendicular ( c) Opposite (d) None of these

80. The maximum frictional force which comes into play when a body just

begins to slide on a surface is known as

Objective Type Questions OTQ.9

(c) Limiting friction (d) None of these

81. The body will move only when

(a) Force of friction = applied force

(b) Force of friction < applied force

(c) Force of friction > applied force

(d) All of the above

82. Which friction of the following is the highest?

(a) Static friction (b) Kinetic friction

(c) Rolling friction (d) None of these

83. Friction force is a

(a) Scalar quantity (b) Vector quantity

(c) Can be scalar or vector (d) None of these

84. To start a crate moving requires ___________ to keep it moving at a constant

speed on a horizontal rough surface.

(a) More force than (b) The same force

(c) Less force than (d) None of these

85. A body of weight W is placed on an inclined plane. The angle made by the

inclined plane with the horizontal, when the body is on the point of moving

down is called

(a) Angle of inclination (b) Angle of friction

(c) Angle of repose (d) None of these

86. The ratio of static friction to kinetic friction is

(a) Equal to one (b) Greater than one

(c) Less than one (d) None of these

87. Static friction is always

(a) Equal to kinetic friction (b) Less than kinetic friction

(c) Greater than kinetic friction (d) None of these

88. Coefficient of friction depends upon

(a) Nature of surface (b) Area of contact

(c) Both (a) and (b) (d) None of these

89. If the angle of friction is 25°, the coefficient of friction is

(a) 0.404 (b) 0.466 (c) 0.927 (d) None of these

90. The ratio of the limiting force of friction (F) to the normal reaction (N) is

known as

(a) Force of friction (b) Angle of friction

(c) Angle of repose (d) Coefficient of friction

91. The coefficient of friction (µ) is equal to

(a) tan φ (b) cos φ (c) sin φ (d) None of these

OTQ.10 Engineering Mechanics Statics

92. Stress is

(a) External force (b) Friction force

(c) Internal resistive force (d) None of these

93. The ratio of linear stress to linear strain is known as

(a) Poisson’s ratio (b) Bulk modulus

(c) Modulus of rigidity (d) Modulus of elasticity

94. The ratio of lateral strain to longitudinal strain is called

(a) Modulus of elasticity (b) Modulus of rigidity

(b) Poisson’s ratio (c) None of these

95. Which of the following is a dimensionless quantity?

(a) Poison’s ratio (b) Strain

(c) Both (a) and (b) (d) None of these

96. The total extension in a bar, consists of 3 bars of same material, of varying

sections is

(a) P/E(L1/A1+L2/A2+L3/A3) (b) P/E(L1A1+L2A2+L3A3)

(c) PE(L1/A1+L2/A2+L3/A3) (d) PE(L1/A1+L2/A2+L3/A3)

Where P = Load applied, E = young’s modulus for the bar, L1,2,3 = Length

of corresponding bars, A1,2,3 = Area of corresponding bars.

97. The change in length due to tensile or compressive force acting on a bar is

given by

PLA E AE PL

(a) (b) (c) (d)

E PLA PL AE

Where, P = force acting on a bar; L = length of the bar; E = modulus of

elasticity; A = cross section area

98. When compressive stress is applied axially on a circular rod its

I. diameter increases II. length decreases

III. volume decreases

Of these statements,

(a) Only I is correct (b) Only II is correct

(c) Both I and II are correct (d) None of these

99. Tensile Strain is

(a) Increase in length / original length

(b) Decrease in length / original length

(c) Change in volume / original volume

(d) None of these

100. Hooke’s Law is truly valid up to

(a) Elastic limit (b) Proportional limit

(c) Plastic limit (d) None of these

Review Problems

1. The resultant of two forces P and Q is 1400 N vertical. Determine the force

Q and the corresponding angle θ for the system of forces as shown in figure.

the three forces as shown in figure is vertically downward with a magnitude

of 6 kN.

3. Determine the support reactions for the beam loaded as shown in figure.

plane as shown in figure. Assuming smooth surfaces find the reactions

induced at the points of supports.

R.2 Engineering Mechanics Statics

in equilibrium by separate strings as shown in figure. Sphere B rests against

vertical wall. If masses of sphere A and B are 10 kg and 20 kg respectively,

determine the tension in the string and reactions at point of contact.

Review Problems R.3

another block of weight W2 = 570 N on top of it as shown in figure. Find the

force applied to lower block that will be necessary to cause the slipping to

impend. Assume coefficient of friction between blocks = 0.25 and between

block 1 and horizontal surface = 0.40.

5 m. Determine length of a bore of 25 mm diameter that can be made central

in the rod, if the total extension is not to exceed by 25% under the same

tensile load.

Take E = 2.05 × 105 N/mm2

Index

A Clockwise moment 1.13, 1.14, 1.15, 1.43,

Analysis of truss 3.1, 3.4 1.48, 1.55, 2.24, 3.13, 3.17, 3.22,

3.34, 3.44

Angle of friction 5.5, 5.28, 5.38

Coefficient of friction 5.4, 5.36

Angle of repose 5.5, 5.6, 5.38

Collinear forces 1.5, 1.7, 1.70

Anticlockwise moment 1.13, 1.14, 1.15,

1.44, 1.45, 1.46, 1.47, 1.48, 1.49, Composite system 6.9

1.50, 1.52, 1.55, 1.56, 1.57, 1.58, 3.6, Coplanar concurrent forces 1.5, 1.6

3.9, 3.13, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 3.16, 3.17, Coplanar non-concurrent forces 1.5,

3.17, 3.18, 3.22, 3.24, 3.26, 3.28, Coplanar parallel forces 1.6

3.30, 3.32, 3.34, 3.36, 3.38, 3.40,

Co-planer concurrent forces 1.35,

3.42, 3.44, 3.46, 5.20, 5.21, 5.23,

5.24, 5.33 Coulomb’s theory of dry friction

Applied forces 2.4, 6.3 Couple 1.1, 1.16, 1.17, 1.59, 1.65, 2.8, 3.21

Area M.I. of rectangle 4.22 4.23 D

Area M.I. of triangle 4.23, 4.24 Determination of centroid 4.1

Area moment of inertia 4.1, 4.19, 4.23, E

4.24, 4.26, 4.29, 4.31, 4.32 Equilibrium 0.1, 2.1, 2.3, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10,

Area moment of inertia 4.1, 4.19, 4.23, 2.14, 2.12, 2.19, 2.34, 2.5, 3.5, 3.13,

4.24, 4.26, 4.29, 4.31, 4.32 3.21, 3.22, 3.34, 3.44, 5.6, 5.7, 5.9,

5.20, 5.29

B

Equilibrium of forces 2.10

Bar of varying cross-section 6.6

Equilibrium under three force system 2.9

Beam 3.1, 3.19, 3.20, 3.21, 3.22, 3.34,

3.44, 3.46, 3.48 Equilibrium under two force system 2.8

Belt friction 5.34 Equivalent systems of forces 1.18

Bending moment 3.21, 3.22, 3.30 3.32, F

3.34, 3.42 3.44, 3.48 4.19 Factor of safety 6.9

Bending moment diagram 3.22, 3.25, 3.34, Force 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 1.1, 1.3, 1.4, 1.7, 1.8,

3.40, 3.42, 3.44, 3.48 1.9, 1.10, 1.13, 1.14, 1.15, 1.16, 1.17,

Block friction 5.9 1.18, 1.26, 1.35, 1.43, 1.55, 1.59, 1.70,

1.71, 2.3, 2.6, 2.8, 2.10, 2.34, 3.3, 3.4,

Bulk modulus 6.6

3.5, 3.13, 3.19, 3.21, 3.22, 3.34, 3.44,

C 3.48, 4.3, 4.18, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7,

Cantilever beam 3.20, 3.34, 3.38, 3.42, 5.9, 5.26, 5.34, 5.38, 6.3, 6.5, 6.9

3.48 Force–couple system 1.17

Center of gravity 4.1, 4.3, 4.5, 4.18, Force-couple system and equivalent

Center of mass 4.3, 4.18 system 1.59

Centroid 4.3, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.10, 4.14, Free body diagram 2.3, 2.6, 3.19, 3.22,

4.18, 4.19, 4.21, 4.22, 4.26 3.34, 3.44, 4.3, 5.3, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.9

Centroid of a triangular area 4.5 Friction 1.4, 2.5, 3.4, 5.1, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6,

Centroid of semicircular area 4.6 5.7, 5.20, 5.26, 5.34, 5.38,

Characteristics of the force 1.3, 1.70

I.2 Index

H R

Hooke’s law 6.6 Radius of gyration 4.22, 4.32

L Reactive forces 1.4, 2.4

Ladder friction 5.6, 5.20, 5.50 Resolution 1.9, 1.10, 1.26, 1.70

Lami’s theorem 2.9, 5.28 Resolution of forces 1.26

Lateral strain 6.5, 6.6 Resultant 0.4, 1.7, 1.14, 1.15, 1.16, 1.18,

Law of transmissibility 0.4 1.26, 1.35, 1.55, 1.70, 2.34, 4.3, 5.5

Limiting friction 5.4, 5.38 Resultant moment 1.14, 1.18

Longitudinal strain 6.5, 6.6, Resultant of collinear forces

M Resultant of concurrent forces 1.7

Mechanics 0.3 0.4, 0.5, 1.3, 2.3, Resultant of parallel force system 1.55,

Method of joints 3.4, 3.5 1.70

Method of sections 3.4, 3.5, 3.13 Rigid body 0.3, 1.18, 1.70, 2.3, 2.6, 4.3,

Modules of rigidity 6.6, S

Modulus of elasticity 6.6, 6.19, Shear force 3.21, 3.22, 3.30, 3.34, 3.44,

3.48, 6.4, 6.19

Moment 1.13, 1.14, 1.15, 1.17, 1.18, 1.43,

1.59, 2.3, 3.21, 3.22, 3.34, 3.44, 3.48, Shear force diagram 3.25, 3.30,

4.3, 4.19, 4.21, 4.22, 4.26, 4.32, Shear stress 6.3, 6.4, 6.18, 6.19

Moment & non-concurrent forces 1.43 Simply supported beam 3.20, 3.22, 3.48

Moment of a couple 1.17 Solved examples based on 1.18, 1.26,

N 1.35, 1.43, 1.55, 1.59, 2.10, 3.5,

3.13, 3.22, 3.34, 3.44, 4.8, 4.26, 5.9,

Newton’s law of gravitation 0.4

5.20, 5.26, 5.34, 6.9

Newton’s laws of motion 0.4

Space 0.3, 3.3,

Non-coplanar concurrent forces 1.6

Strain 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9

Non-coplanar non-concurrent forces 1.6

Stress 6.3, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 6.18

Non-coplanar parallel forces 1.6

Stress and strain 6.1, 6.8, 6.9, 6.19

Non-perpendicular resolution 1.10, 1.12

Stress-strain diagram 6.7

Normal stress 6.3, 6.6, 6.18

System of forces 1.3, 1.4, 1.7, 1.70, 2.3,

O 2.10

Overhang beam 3.44 T

P Temperature strain 6.8, 6.19

Parallel axis theorem 4.21, 4.26, 4.32 Temperature stress 6.8

Parallel forces 1.6, 1.15, 1.55, 2.8 Triangle law of forces 1.8

Parallelogram law of forces 1.7, 1.18 Truss 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.19

Parallelogram law of forces 1.7, 1.18 Types of beams 3.19

Particle 0.4, 2.3, 2.6, 3.4, 4.3 Types of loading 3.20

Perpendicular axis theorem 4.20 Types of truss 3.3

Perpendicular resolution 1.10, 1.12, 1.26 V

Poisson’s ratio 6.6 Varignon’s theorem 1.14, 1.15, 1.50

Polygon law of forces 1.9 Volumetric strain 6.6, 6.19

W

Wedge friction 5.7, 5.26